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Special Issue "New Insights into Parvovirus Research"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Giorgio Gallinella

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: parvovirus B19; virus-cell interactions; viral infections; recombinant viruses; virological diagnosis; antiviral strategies.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Viruses in the parvoviridae family constitute a most diverse and intriguing field of research. While all share an ssDNA genome and a small (Parvo!) capsid, they can differ widely in structure, genome organization and expression, virus-cell interaction, and impact on the host. Exploring such diversity and unravelling the inherent complexity in these apparently simple viruses is an ongoing endeavour and commitment for the scientific community.

The translational implications of research on parvoviruses are relevant. Within the family, some viruses are important human and veterinary pathogens, in need of diagnostic methods and antiviral strategies; other viruses have long been studied and engineered as tools for oncolytic therapy, or as sophisticated gene delivery vectors, and can now display their wide and expanding applicative potential.

The aim of this Special Issue of Viruses is to compile the newest contributions in the field of parvovirus research, especially encouraging new insights and research on unresolved issues, as well as new approaches exploiting systemic (–omic) methodologies. Evolution, structural biology, viral replication, virus-host interaction, pathogenesis and immunity, gene therapy, and viral oncotherapy are only a selection of the topics that can be of relevance to the community involved in parvovirus research and of interest to a wider audience.

Dr. Giorgio Gallinella
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Parvoviridae
  • Parvovirus evolution
  • Parvovirus structure
  • Parvovirus-host interactions
  • Parvovirus pathogenesis and immunity
  • Parvovirus oncolytic therapy
  • Parvovirus vectors
  • Antiviral strategies

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle A New Prevalent Densovirus Discovered in Acari. Insight from Metagenomics in Viral Communities Associated with Two-Spotted Mite (Tetranychus urticae) Populations
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030233
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
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Abstract
Viral metagenomics and high throughput sequence mining have revealed unexpected diversity, and the potential presence, of parvoviruses in animals from all phyla. Among arthropods, this diversity highlights the poor knowledge that we have regarding the evolutionary history of densoviruses. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Viral metagenomics and high throughput sequence mining have revealed unexpected diversity, and the potential presence, of parvoviruses in animals from all phyla. Among arthropods, this diversity highlights the poor knowledge that we have regarding the evolutionary history of densoviruses. The aim of this study was to explore densovirus diversity in a small arthropod pest belonging to Acari, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, while using viral metagenomics based on virus-enrichment. Here, we present the viromes obtained from T. urticae laboratory populations made of contigs that are attributed to nine new potential viral species, including the complete sequence of a novel densovirus. The genome of this densovirus has an ambisens genomic organization and an unusually compact size with particularly small non-structural proteins and a predicted major capsid protein that lacks the typical PLA2 motif that is common to all ambidensoviruses described so far. In addition, we showed that this new densovirus had a wide prevalence across populations of mite species tested and a genomic diversity that likely correlates with the host phylogeny. In particular, we observed a low densovirus genomic diversity between the laboratory and natural populations, which suggests that virus within-species evolution is probably slower than initially thought. Lastly, we showed that this novel densovirus can be inoculated to the host plant following feeding by infected mites, and circulate through the plant vascular system. These findings offer new insights into densovirus prevalence, evolution, and ecology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Parvovirus Research)
Figures

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Open AccessCommunication Telbivudine Reduces Parvovirus B19-Induced Apoptosis in Circulating Angiogenic Cells
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030227
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
Aims: Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection directly induces apoptosis and modulates CXCR4 expression of infected marrow-derived circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). This leads to dysfunctional endogenous vascular repair. Treatment for B19V-associated disease is restricted to symptomatic treatment. Telbivudine, a thymidine analogue, established in antiviral [...] Read more.
Aims: Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection directly induces apoptosis and modulates CXCR4 expression of infected marrow-derived circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). This leads to dysfunctional endogenous vascular repair. Treatment for B19V-associated disease is restricted to symptomatic treatment. Telbivudine, a thymidine analogue, established in antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B, modulates pathways that might influence induction of apoptosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis of whether telbivudine influences B19V-induced apoptosis of CAC. Methods and Results: Pretreatment of two CAC-lines, early outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (eo-EPC) and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) with telbivudine before in vitro infection with B19V significantly reduced active caspase-3 protein expression (−39% and −40%, both p < 0.005). Expression of Baculoviral Inhibitor of apoptosis Repeat-Containing protein 3 (BIRC3) was significantly downregulated by in vitro B19V infection in ECFC measured by qRT-PCR. BIRC3 downregulation was abrogated with telbivudine pretreatment (p < 0.001). This was confirmed by single gene PCR (p = 0.017) and Western blot analysis. In contrast, the missing effect of B19V on angiogenic gene expression postulates a post-transcriptional modulation of CXCR4. Conclusions: We for the first time show a treatment approach to reduce B19V-induced apoptosis. Telbivudine reverses B19V-induced dysregulation of BIRC3, thus, intervening in the apoptosis pathway and protecting susceptible cells from cell death. This approach could lead to an effective B19V treatment to reduce B19V-related disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Parvovirus Research)
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Open AccessCommunication Methylation Status of the Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2)
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010038
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
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Abstract
To analyze the methylation status of wild-type adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2), bisulfite PCR sequencing (BPS) of the packaged viral genome and its integrated form was performed and 262 of the total 266 CG dinucleotides (CpG) were mapped. In virion-packaged DNA, the ratio [...] Read more.
To analyze the methylation status of wild-type adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2), bisulfite PCR sequencing (BPS) of the packaged viral genome and its integrated form was performed and 262 of the total 266 CG dinucleotides (CpG) were mapped. In virion-packaged DNA, the ratio of the methylated cytosines ranged between 0–1.7%. In contrast, the chromosomally integrated AAV2 genome was hypermethylated with an average of 76% methylation per CpG site. The methylation level showed local minimums around the four known AAV2 promoters. To study the effect of methylation on viral rescue and replication, the replication initiation capability of CpG methylated and non-CpG methylated AAV DNA was compared. The in vitro hypermethylation of the viral genome does not inhibit its rescue and replication from a plasmid transfected into cells. This insensitivity of the viral replicative machinery to methylation may permit the rescue of the integrated heavily methylated AAV genome from the host’s chromosomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Parvovirus Research)
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Open AccessArticle A Comprehensive RNA-seq Analysis of Human Bocavirus 1 Transcripts in Infected Human Airway Epithelium
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010033
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) infects well-differentiated (polarized) human airway epithelium (HAE) cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI). In the present study, we applied next-generation RNA sequencing to investigate the genome-wide transcription profile of HBoV1, including viral mRNA and small RNA transcripts, in HBoV1-infected [...] Read more.
Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) infects well-differentiated (polarized) human airway epithelium (HAE) cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI). In the present study, we applied next-generation RNA sequencing to investigate the genome-wide transcription profile of HBoV1, including viral mRNA and small RNA transcripts, in HBoV1-infected HAE cells. We identified novel transcription start and termination sites and confirmed the previously identified splicing events. Importantly, an additional proximal polyadenylation site (pA)p2 and a new distal polyadenylation site (pA)dREH lying on the right-hand hairpin (REH) of the HBoV1 genome were identified in processing viral pre-mRNA. Of note, all viral nonstructural proteins-encoding mRNA transcripts use both the proximal polyadenylation sites [(pA)p1 and (pA)p2] and distal polyadenylation sites [(pA)d1 and (pA)dREH] for termination. However, capsid proteins-encoding transcripts only use the distal polyadenylation sites. While the (pA)p1 and (pA)p2 sites were utilized at roughly equal efficiency for proximal polyadenylation of HBoV1 mRNA transcripts, the (pA)d1 site was more preferred for distal polyadenylation. Additionally, small RNA-seq analysis confirmed there is only one viral noncoding RNA (BocaSR) transcribed from nt 5199–5340 of the HBoV1 genome. Thus, our study provides a systematic and unbiased transcription profile, including both mRNA and small RNA transcripts, of HBoV1 in HBoV1-infected HAE-ALI cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Parvovirus Research)
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Open AccessArticle Human Bocavirus Infection Markers in Peripheral Blood and Stool Samples of Children with Acute Gastroenteritis
Viruses 2018, 10(11), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110639
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) 1–4 belong to the Parvoviridae family, and they infect the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts in children. We investigated the prevalence of HBoV1–4 DNAs in the blood and stool samples, and of HBoV1–4 IgG and IgM in the plasma samples, of [...] Read more.
Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) 1–4 belong to the Parvoviridae family, and they infect the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts in children. We investigated the prevalence of HBoV1–4 DNAs in the blood and stool samples, and of HBoV1–4 IgG and IgM in the plasma samples, of children presenting with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In addition, we identified HBoV co-infections with the five most frequent gastrointestinal pathogens. A total of 83 paired blood and stool samples were collected from children aged five years or less. Infection markers of HBoV1, 2, or 3 (viral DNA in blood and/or stool and/or antibodies) were detected in 61 out of 83 (73.5%) patients. HBoV1, 2, or 3 DNA as a monoinfection was revealed in 18.1%, 2.4%, and 1.2%, respectively, and 21.7% in total. In 56.1% of the HBoV DNA-positive patients, the presence in stool of another virus—most frequently norovirus or rotavirus—was observed. In conclusion, this study, for the first time, illustrates the prevalence and genetic diversity of HBoVs in Latvian children with gastroenteritis, and shows a widespread distribution of these viruses in the community. HBoV1 and 2 are commonly found as single infectious agents in children with AGE, suggesting that the viruses can be as pathogenic by themselves as other enteric agents are. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Parvovirus Research)
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