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Energies, Volume 16, Issue 6 (March-2 2023) – 427 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The recast of the European Directive 2018/2001 defined renewable energy communities for renewable energy sharing. These innovative configurations are intended to provide many positive effects from energy, environmental, economic, and social points of view; different end user types are allowed to join them, including micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises. The potentialities offered in industrial areas still need to be emphasized and to this purpose this work aims at assessing the constitution of an industrial renewable energy community in Italy equipped with a photovoltaic plant. The energy sharing was proven to increase energy self-consumption and users’ self-sufficiency, reducing carbon dioxide emissions and operative costs to a greater extent than single end users’ configurations. View this paper
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38 pages, 13907 KiB  
Article
Viable Fully Integrated Energy Community Based on the Holistic LINK Approach
by Albana Ilo, Helmut Bruckner, Markus Olofsgard, Marketa Adamcova and Andrea Werner
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2935; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062935 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1562
Abstract
The EU policymakers have adopted legislation to support communities taking responsibility for the energy transition. However, their development and integration are still in their early stages: many studies are performed without considering the overlapped social, economic, political, electrical, and information technology tasks simultaneously. [...] Read more.
The EU policymakers have adopted legislation to support communities taking responsibility for the energy transition. However, their development and integration are still in their early stages: many studies are performed without considering the overlapped social, economic, political, electrical, and information technology tasks simultaneously. This paper is the first to look at energy communities in their entirety, from the roles of the actors to the organisation, regulation, technical solution, and the market, to the use and business cases. The waterfall methodology was used throughout the work. The results show that energy communities can be viable by becoming reliable players so DSOs can better integrate the acquired flexibility and other services into their processes without compromising power supply. Their technical integration requires a coordinated operation and control of the entire power grid, including transmission and distribution, and the end-users, as proposed by the LINK holistic solution. The suggested fractal-based market structure, with the national, regional and local markets harmonised with the grid, facilitates the direct participation of small customers and distributed resources to the energy market. The results of this work may help policymakers, regulators, and industry representatives define new energy policies and processes related to research and development programs for implementing fully integrated renewable energy communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids)
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17 pages, 4148 KiB  
Article
Fault Diagnosis of Nuclear Power Plant Based on Sparrow Search Algorithm Optimized CNN-LSTM Neural Network
by Chunyuan Zhang, Pengyu Chen, Fangling Jiang, Jinsen Xie and Tao Yu
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2934; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062934 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
Nuclear power is a type of clean and green energy; however, there is a risk of radioactive material leakage when accidents occur. When radioactive material leaks from nuclear power plants, it has a great impact on the environment and personnel safety. In order [...] Read more.
Nuclear power is a type of clean and green energy; however, there is a risk of radioactive material leakage when accidents occur. When radioactive material leaks from nuclear power plants, it has a great impact on the environment and personnel safety. In order to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants and support the operator’s decisions under accidental circumstances, this paper proposes a fault diagnosis method for nuclear power plants based on the sparrow search algorithm (SSA) optimized by the CNN-LSTM network. Firstly, the convolutional neural network (CNN) was used to extract features from the data before they were then combined with the long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network to process time series data and form a CNN-LSTM model. Some of the parameters in the LSTM neural network need to be manually tuned based on experience, and the settings of these parameters have a great impact on the overall model results. Therefore, this paper selected the sparrow search algorithm with a strong search capability and fast convergence to automatically search for the hand-tuned parameters in the CNN-LSTM model, and finally obtain the SSA-CNN-LSTM model. This model can classify the types of accidents that occur in nuclear power plants to reduce the nuclear safety hazards caused by human error. The experimental data are from a personal computer transient analyzer (PCTRAN). The results show that the classification accuracy of the SSA-CNN-LSTM model for the nuclear power plant fault classification problem is as high as 98.24%, which is 4.80% and 3.14% higher compared with the LSTM neural network and CNN-LSTM model, respectively. The superiority of the sparrow search algorithm for optimizing model parameters and the feasibility and accuracy of the SSA-CNN-LSTM model for nuclear power plant fault diagnosis were verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances and Novel Technologies in the Nuclear Industry)
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13 pages, 501 KiB  
Article
Reliability Enhancement of Fast Charging Station under Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Failures and Repairs
by Konara Mudiyanselage Sandun Y. Konara, Mohan Lal Kolhe, Nils Ulltveit-Moe and Indika A. M. Balapuwaduge
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2933; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062933 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
This work focuses on the enhancement of the charging reliability of both scheduled (SEVs) and opportunistic (UEVs) electric vehicle (EV) users in an EV fast charging station (FCS). The proposed charging coordination strategies allow UEVs to exploit unused charging resources to optimally utilize [...] Read more.
This work focuses on the enhancement of the charging reliability of both scheduled (SEVs) and opportunistic (UEVs) electric vehicle (EV) users in an EV fast charging station (FCS). The proposed charging coordination strategies allow UEVs to exploit unused charging resources to optimally utilize the limited charging resources of FCS. However, the optimum utilization of limited charging resources of an FCS while assuring a reliable charging process for plugged-in EVs under random failures of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) is a real challenge for the FCS controller. When the FCS admits UEVs in addition to SEVs, assuring a satisfactory quality of service to both EV user categories is also dispensable. Therefore, we analyze the performance of reservation of off-board mobile chargers (MOBCs) to enhance the charging reliability of EV users while achieving high charging resource utilization. This work proposes resource allocation and charging coordination strategies for an FCS where MOBCs are used to enhance the charging reliability of both SEVs and UEVs. Moreover, the proposed dynamic charging resource coordination strategies are analyzed with a continuous time Markov-chain (CTMC). The presented results from the CTMC model demonstrate that the proposed strategies outperform the EV charging process of the FCS in terms of high resource utilization and reliability while guaranteeing a satisfactory quality of service to EV users. Full article
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13 pages, 1287 KiB  
Article
Biomass Combustion Modeling Using OpenFOAM: Development of a Simple Computational Model and Study of the Combustion Performance of Lippia origanoides Bagasse
by Gabriel Fernando García Sánchez, Jorge Luis Chacón Velasco, David Alfredo Fuentes Díaz, Yesid Javier Rueda-Ordóñez, David Patiño, Juan Jesús Rico and Jairo René Martínez Morales
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2932; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062932 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1677
Abstract
Combustion is the most commonly used technology to produce energy from biomass; nevertheless, there are still thermal efficiency problems in current biomass combustion furnaces and a lack of knowledge about the properties of residual biomasses that could be used as fuels. Aiming to [...] Read more.
Combustion is the most commonly used technology to produce energy from biomass; nevertheless, there are still thermal efficiency problems in current biomass combustion furnaces and a lack of knowledge about the properties of residual biomasses that could be used as fuels. Aiming to contribute to knowledge of the potential of residual biomass for energy generation, this work reports on the implementation of a 2D computational model to study the combustion performance of several solid biomass fuels, and its application in the analysis of Lippia origanoides bagasse combustion. The model uses an Eulerian–Lagrangian approach; in the continuous phase, governing equations are solved, and in the dispersed phase, particles are tracked and the mass, momentum, species and energy transfer between the phases are calculated. The model was validated against experimental data from a combustor fueled by three biomasses: wood pellets, olive stone and almond shell. The results show deviations of less than 13%, with few exceptions, which indicates a good degree of agreement with experimental measurements compared with those reported by other studies on the subject. Furthermore, it was found that the stems of Lippia origanoides bagasse show similar performance to that of other biomass used as solid fuel, while the leaves present lower performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A4: Bio-Energy)
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26 pages, 5323 KiB  
Article
Decarbonizing the Energy System of Non-Interconnected Islands: The Case of Mayotte
by Anna Flessa, Dimitris Fragkiadakis, Eleftheria Zisarou and Panagiotis Fragkos
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2931; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062931 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Islands face unique challenges on their journey towards achieving carbon neutrality by the mid-century, due to the lack of energy interconnections, limited domestic energy resources, extensive fossil fuel dependence, and high load variance requiring new technologies to balance demand and supply. At the [...] Read more.
Islands face unique challenges on their journey towards achieving carbon neutrality by the mid-century, due to the lack of energy interconnections, limited domestic energy resources, extensive fossil fuel dependence, and high load variance requiring new technologies to balance demand and supply. At the same time, these challenges can be turned into a great opportunity for economic growth and the creation of jobs with non-interconnected islands having the potential to become transition frontrunners by adopting sustainable technologies and implementing innovative solutions. This paper uses an advanced energy–economy system modeling tool (IntE3-ISL) accompanied by plausible decarbonization scenarios to assess the medium- and long-term impacts of energy transition on the energy system, emissions, economy, and society of the island of Mayotte. The model-based analysis adequately captures the specificities of Mayotte and examines the complexity, challenges, and opportunities to decarbonize the island’s non-interconnected energy system. The energy transition necessitates the adoption of ambitious climate policy measures and the extensive deployment of low- and zero-carbon technologies both in the demand and supply sides of the energy system, accounting for the unique characteristics of each individual sector, while sectoral integration is also important. To reduce emissions from hard-to-abate sectors, such as transportation and industry, the measures and technologies can include the installation and use of highly efficient equipment, the electrification of end uses (such as the widespread adoption of electric vehicles), the large roll-out of renewable energy sources, as well as the production and use of green hydrogen and synthetic fuels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flexibility Integration and Decarbonisation Pathways)
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26 pages, 2328 KiB  
Review
A Review on Economic Input-Output Analysis in the Environmental Assessment of Electricity Generation
by C. Oliveira Henriques and S. Sousa
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2930; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062930 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2059
Abstract
This paper aims to review one of the least used, but no less important, approaches in the assessment of the environmental implications of electricity generation: the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). This methodology is a top-down approach intertwined with the environmental satellite [...] Read more.
This paper aims to review one of the least used, but no less important, approaches in the assessment of the environmental implications of electricity generation: the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). This methodology is a top-down approach intertwined with the environmental satellite accounts provided by the national statistical office. Through the use of economic input-output (IO) tables and industrial sector-level environmental and energy data, the EIO-LCA analysis allows for broad impact coverage of all sectors directly and indirectly involved with electricity generation. In this study, a brief overview of this methodology and the corresponding assumptions is presented, as well as an updated review of the different applications of the EIO-LCA approach in electricity generation, suggesting a possible classification of the many studies developed in this context. The different ways of overcoming the problem of disaggregation in the electricity sector are also addressed, namely by considering different IO table formats (i.e., symmetric or rectangular tables). This is a particularly relevant feature of our review, as the way in which electricity generation is modeled can result in different calculations of the costs and benefits of environmental policies. In this context, this paper further contributes to the literature by explaining and providing examples of distinct approaches to modeling the electricity sector in IO models on a detailed level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economics and Finance of Energy and Climate Change)
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14 pages, 4213 KiB  
Article
An Increase in the Energy Efficiency of a New Design of Pumps for Nuclear Power Plants
by Ivan Pavlenko, Olaf Ciszak, Vladyslav Kondus, Oleksandr Ratushnyi, Oleksandr Ivchenko, Eduard Kolisnichenko, Oleksandr Kulikov and Vitalii Ivanov
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2929; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062929 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
The reliability of pumping units at nuclear power plants (NPPs) is critical in terms of their energy efficiency and safety. Remarkably, WWER-1000 reactors at Ukrainian NPPs are equipped with outdated pumping units that have already served their full-service life. This fact leads to [...] Read more.
The reliability of pumping units at nuclear power plants (NPPs) is critical in terms of their energy efficiency and safety. Remarkably, WWER-1000 reactors at Ukrainian NPPs are equipped with outdated pumping units that have already served their full-service life. This fact leads to an urgent need to develop a new, more efficient pump. In the article, a promising pump, ACNA 600-35, was developed. It was designed to increase the energy efficiency of pumps TX 800/70/8-K-2E, applied at the holding pool and the industrial circuit of the nuclear reactor. Since these pumps should be imported from the monopoly suppliers, this affects both the energy efficiency of pumping equipment and the energy independence of Eastern Europe. The proposed pump ACNA 600-35 is characterized by an increased efficiency of up to 0.12–0.13 compared with the TX 800/70/8-K-2E pump. In general, the life cycle cost of the proposed pump is 15–20% lower than for the analog TX 800/70/8-K-2E. The design of the developed pump ACNA 600-35 and the related pumping unit based on its production at industrial facilities allows for further development of the industrial and fuel-energy complex, increasing the state’s energy independence and employment. According to expert estimates, the average economic effect from supplying the developed pump can reach 10 mln USD/year. Full article
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20 pages, 1252 KiB  
Article
A Partial Discharge Localization Method Based on the Improved Artificial Fish Swarms Algorithm
by Hao Qiang, Qun Wang, Hui Niu, Zhaoqi Wang and Jianfeng Zheng
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2928; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062928 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Accurate localization of partial discharge in GIS equipment remains a key focus of daily maintenance for substations, which can be achieved through advanced detection and location techniques, as well as regular maintenance and testing of the equipment. However, there is currently an issue [...] Read more.
Accurate localization of partial discharge in GIS equipment remains a key focus of daily maintenance for substations, which can be achieved through advanced detection and location techniques, as well as regular maintenance and testing of the equipment. However, there is currently an issue with low accuracy in the localization algorithm. Aiming at the problems of low precision and local optimization of the swarm intelligence algorithm in partial discharge localization system of GIS equipment, this paper proposes a 3D localization algorithm based on a time difference of arrival (TDOA) model of the improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (IAFSA). By introducing the investigation behaviour of the artificial bee colony(ABC) algorithm into the artificial fish swarms algorithm (AFSA), this algorithm is more efficient to jump out of the local extremum, enhance the optimization performance, improve the global search ability and overcome the premature convergence. Furthermore, more precise positioning can be achieved with dynamic parameters. The results of the testing function show that IAFSA is significantly superior to AFSA and particle swarm optimization (PSO) in terms of positioning accuracy and stability. When applied to partial discharge localization experiments, the maximum relative positioning error is less than 2.5%. This validates that the proposed method in this paper can achieve high-precision partial discharge localization, has good engineering application value, and provides strong support for the safe operation of GIS equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic EMC and Reliability of Power Networks)
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21 pages, 4302 KiB  
Review
Graphene Utilization for Efficient Energy Storage and Potential Applications: Challenges and Future Implementations
by Umair Yaqub Qazi and Rahat Javaid
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2927; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062927 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Allotropes of carbon are responsible for discovering the three significant carbon-based compounds, fullerene, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Over the last few decades, groundbreaking graphene with the finest two-dimensional atomic structure has emerged as the driving force behind new research and development because of [...] Read more.
Allotropes of carbon are responsible for discovering the three significant carbon-based compounds, fullerene, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Over the last few decades, groundbreaking graphene with the finest two-dimensional atomic structure has emerged as the driving force behind new research and development because of its remarkable mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical functionalities with high surface area. Synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has resulted in numerous applications that previously had not been possible, incorporating sensing and adsorbent properties. Our study covers the most prevalent synthetic methods for making these graphene derivatives and how these methods impact the material’s main features. In particular, it emphasizes the application to water purification, CO2 capture, biomedical, potential energy storage, and conversion applications. Finally, we look at the future of sustainable utilization, its applications, and the challenges which must be solved for efficient application of graphene at large scales. Graphene-based derivative implementations, obstacles, and prospects for further research and development are also examined in this review paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in CO2-Free Energy Technologies)
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15 pages, 6526 KiB  
Article
Research on Data-Driven Optimal Scheduling of Power System
by Jianxun Luo, Wei Zhang, Hui Wang, Wenmiao Wei and Jinpeng He
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2926; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062926 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
The uncertainty of output makes it difficult to effectively solve the economic security dispatching problem of the power grid when a high proportion of renewable energy generating units are integrated into the power grid. Based on the proximal policy optimization (PPO) algorithm, a [...] Read more.
The uncertainty of output makes it difficult to effectively solve the economic security dispatching problem of the power grid when a high proportion of renewable energy generating units are integrated into the power grid. Based on the proximal policy optimization (PPO) algorithm, a safe and economical grid scheduling method is designed. First, constraints on the safe and economical operation of renewable energy power systems are defined. Then, the quintuple of Markov decision process is defined under the framework of deep reinforcement learning, and the dispatching optimization problem is transformed into Markov decision process. To solve the problem of low sample data utilization in online reinforcement learning strategies, a PPO optimization algorithm based on the Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence penalty factor and importance sampling technique is proposed, which transforms on-policy into off-policy and improves sample utilization. Finally, the simulation analysis of the example shows that in a power system with a high proportion of renewable energy generating units connected to the grid, the proposed scheduling strategy can meet the load demand under different load trends. In the dispatch cycle with different renewable energy generation rates, renewable energy can be absorbed to the maximum extent to ensure the safe and economic operation of the grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data-Driven Large-Scale Power System Operations)
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31 pages, 4881 KiB  
Review
Comprehensive Review of Recent Advancements in Battery Technology, Propulsion, Power Interfaces, and Vehicle Network Systems for Intelligent Autonomous and Connected Electric Vehicles
by Ghulam E Mustafa Abro, Saiful Azrin B. M. Zulkifli, Kundan Kumar, Najib El Ouanjli, Vijanth Sagayan Asirvadam and Mahmoud A. Mossa
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2925; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062925 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5043
Abstract
Numerous recent innovations have been achieved with the goal of enhancing electric vehicles and the parts that go into them, particularly in the areas of managing energy, battery design and optimization, and autonomous driving. This promotes a more effective and sustainable eco-system and [...] Read more.
Numerous recent innovations have been achieved with the goal of enhancing electric vehicles and the parts that go into them, particularly in the areas of managing energy, battery design and optimization, and autonomous driving. This promotes a more effective and sustainable eco-system and helps to build the next generation of electric car technology. This study offers insights into the most recent research and advancements in electric vehicles (EVs), as well as new, innovative, and promising technologies based on scientific data and facts associated with e-mobility from a technological standpoint, which may be achievable by 2030. Appropriate modeling and design strategies, including digital twins with connected Internet of Things (IoT), are discussed in this study. Vehicles with autonomous features have the potential to increase safety on roads, increase driving economy, and provide drivers more time to focus on other duties thanks to the Internet of Things idea. The enabling technology that entails a car moving out of a parking spot, traveling along a long highway, and then parking at the destination is also covered in this article. The development of autonomous vehicles depends on the data obtained for deployment in actual road conditions. There are also research gaps and proposals for autonomous, intelligent vehicles. One of the many social concerns that are described is the cause of an accident with an autonomous car. A smart device that can spot strange driving behavior and prevent accidents is briefly discussed. In addition, all EV-related fields are covered, including the likely technical challenges and knowledge gaps in each one, from in-depth battery material sciences through power electronics and powertrain engineering to market assessments and environmental assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Power Engineering and Renewable Energy Technologies)
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39 pages, 4557 KiB  
Review
Comprehensive Review Based on the Impact of Integrating Electric Vehicle and Renewable Energy Sources to the Grid
by Pampa Sinha, Kaushik Paul, Sanchari Deb and Sulabh Sachan
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2924; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062924 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3107
Abstract
Global warming, pollution, and the depletion of fossil fuels have compelled human beings to explore alternate sources of energy and cleaner modes of transport. In recent years, renewable energy sources (RES) have been massively introduced to the grid. Furthermore, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are [...] Read more.
Global warming, pollution, and the depletion of fossil fuels have compelled human beings to explore alternate sources of energy and cleaner modes of transport. In recent years, renewable energy sources (RES) have been massively introduced to the grid. Furthermore, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are becoming popular as a cleaner mode of transport. However, the introduction of RESs and EVs to the grid has imposed additional challenges on the grid operators because of their random nature. This review aims to focus on the integration of RES and EVs to the grid, thereby presenting the global status of RESs and EVs, the impact of integrating RESs and EVs to the grid, the challenges of integrating RES and EV to the grid, optimization techniques for EV and RES integration to the grid, and mitigation techniques. A total of 153 research papers are meticulously reviewed, and the findings are put forward in this review. Thus, this review will put forward the latest developments in the area of EV and RES integration into the grid and will enlighten the researchers with the unsolved questions in the area that need investigation. Full article
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15 pages, 2125 KiB  
Article
The Concept and Understanding of Synchronous Stability in Power Electronic-Based Power Systems
by Yayao Zhang, Miao Han and Meng Zhan
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2923; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062923 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Synchronous stability in power systems is of essential importance for system safety and operation. For the phase-locked loop (PLL)-based synchronous stability in power electronic-based power systems, which has recently stimulated interest in researchers in the field of electrical power engineering, but is still [...] Read more.
Synchronous stability in power systems is of essential importance for system safety and operation. For the phase-locked loop (PLL)-based synchronous stability in power electronic-based power systems, which has recently stimulated interest in researchers in the field of electrical power engineering, but is still controversial, this paper divides the topic into two aspects, including the PLL device stability and the system stability. It is found that the PLL device is always stable and the error between the PLL output angle θpll and the terminal voltage angle θt is always finite. Therefore, the synchronization of power electronic-based power systems should be understood as the output synchronization between the electrical rotation vectors (θt or θpll) from each item of grid-tied equipment, rather than the synchronization of the PLL device itself. In addition, it is found that θpll plays an active role in the system synchronization dynamics not only in electromagnetic timescales but also electromechanical timescales and it could be selected as a dominant observable. In this paper, the concept of synchronous stability is well clarified. These findings are well supported by theoretical analyses and MATLAB/Simulink simulations, and thus could provide insights on the synchronous stability mechanism. Full article
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16 pages, 6898 KiB  
Article
Optimal Wireless Power Transfer Circuit without a Capacitor on the Secondary Side
by Sabriansyah Rizqika Akbar, Eko Setiawan, Takuya Hirata and Ichijo Hodaka
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2922; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062922 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
This study proposes an approach to obtain maximum power via wireless power transfer using a single primary-side capacitor. It is shown that higher power is achieved when compared to the common wireless power transfer circuit under resonance with dual (primary- and secondary-side) capacitors. [...] Read more.
This study proposes an approach to obtain maximum power via wireless power transfer using a single primary-side capacitor. It is shown that higher power is achieved when compared to the common wireless power transfer circuit under resonance with dual (primary- and secondary-side) capacitors. This approach is divided into three phases. By choosing the capacitor and frequency as freely assignable variables, we symbolically obtain a formula that allows us to determine the optimized capacitance and frequency for maximum power. To verify our method, we used a numerical analysis and compared it with an electronic circuit simulation. The symbolic formula is able to maintain maximum power despite changes in load or in the coupling coefficients. Full article
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16 pages, 4500 KiB  
Article
A Novel Protection Strategy for Single Pole-to-Ground Fault in Multi-Terminal DC Distribution Network
by Ruixiong Yang, Ke Fang, Jianfu Chen, Yong Chen, Min Liu and Qingxu Meng
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2921; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062921 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
The single pole-to-ground (SPG) fault is one of critical failures which will have a serious impact on the stable operation of the multi-terminal DC distribution network based on the modular multilevel converter (MMC). It is very significant to analyze fault characteristics for detecting [...] Read more.
The single pole-to-ground (SPG) fault is one of critical failures which will have a serious impact on the stable operation of the multi-terminal DC distribution network based on the modular multilevel converter (MMC). It is very significant to analyze fault characteristics for detecting faults and protection design. This paper established the DC SPG fault model, which showed that in the presence of a reactor, the short-circuit current was reduced from 2.3 kA to 1 kA at 6 ms after the fault. Then, a novel SPG fault protection strategy was proposed, which detected the current derivative in connection transformer grounding branch. When the value increases past the threshold of current derivative, small resistance was switched on to increase fault current. Thus, the reliability of differential protection was enhanced. Compared with the traditional protection method, the proposed method does not need communication, and improved the speed of protection. Finally, the simulation model was established in PSCAD/EMTDC. The model included three converter stations: T1, T2 and T3. Among them, T1 outputs power, and T2 and T3 receive power. The results of RTDS showed that the DC circuit breaker operated within 3 ms, the three-port circuit breaker worked within 50 ms, which proves that the proposed strategy was effective. At this time, the system switched from the T1–T2–T3 three-terminal networking operation mode to the T1–T2 two-terminal hand-in-hand operation mode. Since the T3 terminal no longer received power, the transmission power of the T1 terminal decreased, and the received power of the T2 terminal remained unchanged. Full article
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4 pages, 198 KiB  
Editorial
Energy Security and the Transition toward Green Energy Production
by Philipp Bagus and José Antonio Peña-Ramos
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2920; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062920 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
The topic of this Special Issue, “Energy Security and the Transition toward Green Energy Production”, acquired an uncomfortable timeliness while it was still in progress [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Security and the Transition toward Green Energy Production)
20 pages, 8115 KiB  
Article
Load Forecasting Based on Genetic Algorithm–Artificial Neural Network-Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems: A Case Study in Iraq
by Ahmed Mazin Majid AL-Qaysi, Altug Bozkurt and Yavuz Ates
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2919; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062919 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
This study focuses on the important issue of predicting electricity load for efficient energy management. To achieve this goal, different statistical methods were compared, and results over time were analyzed using various ratios and layers for training and testing. This study uses an [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the important issue of predicting electricity load for efficient energy management. To achieve this goal, different statistical methods were compared, and results over time were analyzed using various ratios and layers for training and testing. This study uses an artificial neural network (ANN) model with advanced prediction techniques such as genetic algorithms (GA) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS). This article stands out with a comprehensive compilation of many features and methodologies previously presented in other studies. This study uses a long-term pattern in the prediction process and achieves the lowest relative error values by using hourly divided annual data for testing and training. Data samples were applied to different algorithms, and we examined their effects on load predictions to understand the relationship between various factors and electrical load. This study shows that the ANN–GA model has good accuracy and low error rates for load predictions compared to other models, resulting in the best performance for our system. Full article
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21 pages, 9100 KiB  
Article
Research on Temperature Rise of Type IV Composite Hydrogen Storage Cylinders in Hydrogen Fast-Filling Process
by Jiepu Li, Junhao Liu, Baodi Zhao, Dongyu Wang, Shufen Guo, Jitian Song and Xiang Li
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2918; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062918 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
The internal pressure and temperature of type IV on-board hydrogen storage cylinders constantly change during the hydrogen fast-filling process. In this work, a 2D axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is established to study the temperature rise of hydrogen storage cylinders during the [...] Read more.
The internal pressure and temperature of type IV on-board hydrogen storage cylinders constantly change during the hydrogen fast-filling process. In this work, a 2D axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is established to study the temperature rise of hydrogen storage cylinders during the fast-filling process. The hydrogen filling rate, ambient temperature, volume, and hydrogen inlet temperature were investigated to evaluate their effects on temperature rise inside the cylinders. The effects of the inlet pressure rise and pre-cooling patterns on the temperature rise of large-volume type IV hydrogen storage cylinders are analyzed, and the optimal filling strategy is determined. The research results show that a greater filling rate causes a higher hydrogen temperature rise at the end. The ambient temperature increases linearly with the maximum hydrogen temperature and decreases linearly with the state of charge (SOC). As the volume increases, the temperature rise of the cylinder increases. Reducing the inlet hydrogen temperature helps control the temperature rise, and the hydrogen inlet pre-cooling temperature required for large-volume cylinders is lower. If the filling time remains unchanged, a high pressure rise rate should be avoided, and a linear pressure rise pattern is optimal. Reducing the initial cooling energy is key to optimizing the filling strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A5: Hydrogen Energy)
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5 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Solar PV and Wind Power as the Core of the Energy Transition: Joint Integration and Hybridization with Energy Storage Systems
by Raquel Villena-Ruiz, Andrés Honrubia-Escribano and Emilio Gómez-Lázaro
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2917; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062917 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
The availability and accessibility of renewable energy in locations worldwide make it play a leading role in the decarbonization process of the energy sector [...] Full article
23 pages, 2772 KiB  
Review
Non-Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Hydrocarbon Gases to Syngas and Hydrogen: A Systematic Review
by Iren A. Makaryan, Eugene A. Salgansky, Vladimir S. Arutyunov and Igor V. Sedov
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2916; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062916 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3660
Abstract
The review contains a comparative analysis of studies on the production of hydrogen and syngas based on the processes of partial oxidation of natural gas and other types of gas feedstock. The results presented in the literature show the high potential of non-catalytic [...] Read more.
The review contains a comparative analysis of studies on the production of hydrogen and syngas based on the processes of partial oxidation of natural gas and other types of gas feedstock. The results presented in the literature show the high potential of non-catalytic autothermal processes of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons for the development of gas chemistry and energetics. The partial oxidation of hydrocarbons makes it possible to overcome such serious shortcomings of traditional syngas production technologies as technological complexity and high energy and capital intensity. The features of non-catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbon gases, the obtained experimental results and the results of kinetic modeling of various options for the implementation of the process, which confirm the adequacy of the kinetic mechanisms used for the analysis, are considered in detail. Examples of industrial implementation of processes based on partial oxidation and proposed alternative options for its organization are considered. Designs of reactors used to ensure stable conversion of rich mixtures of hydrocarbons with an oxidizer are presented. The possibility of obtaining other chemical products by partial oxidation of hydrocarbons is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Hydrogen Energy Reviews)
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37 pages, 7954 KiB  
Article
A Machine Learning Approach for Generating and Evaluating Forecasts on the Environmental Impact of the Buildings Sector
by Spyros Giannelos, Alexandre Moreira, Dimitrios Papadaskalopoulos, Stefan Borozan, Danny Pudjianto, Ioannis Konstantelos, Mingyang Sun and Goran Strbac
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2915; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062915 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
The building sector has traditionally accounted for about 40% of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, as compared to other end-use sectors. Due to this fact, as part of the global effort towards decarbonization, significant resources have been placed on the [...] Read more.
The building sector has traditionally accounted for about 40% of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, as compared to other end-use sectors. Due to this fact, as part of the global effort towards decarbonization, significant resources have been placed on the development of technologies, such as active buildings, in an attempt to achieve reductions in the respective CO2 emissions. Given the uncertainty around the future level of the corresponding CO2 emissions, this work presents an approach based on machine learning to generate forecasts until the year 2050. Several algorithms, such as linear regression, ARIMA, and shallow and deep neural networks, can be used with this approach. In this context, forecasts are produced for different regions across the world, including Brazil, India, China, South Africa, the United States, Great Britain, the world average, and the European Union. Finally, an extensive sensitivity analysis on hyperparameter values as well as the application of a wide variety of metrics are used for evaluating the algorithmic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F5: Artificial Intelligence and Smart Energy)
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21 pages, 2030 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Mathematical Models for the Flow and Heat Transfer of Microencapsulated Phase Change Slurry (MEPCS)
by Huyu Li, Guojun Yu, Huijin Xu, Xue Han and Huihao Liu
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2914; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062914 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
Microencapsulated phase change slurry (MEPCS), prepared by mixing microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs) with water or other carrier fluids, is widely used in different applications such as for thermal regulation or heat storage systems. The transient thermal-hydraulic behavior accompanying the phase change process [...] Read more.
Microencapsulated phase change slurry (MEPCS), prepared by mixing microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs) with water or other carrier fluids, is widely used in different applications such as for thermal regulation or heat storage systems. The transient thermal-hydraulic behavior accompanying the phase change process of the MEEPCS has a significant impact on the system performance. However, the heat and mass transfer during the phase change of the MEPCS is a complex multiscale process, due to the complex phase change of small particles and the complex coupling between the particles and carrier fluids. The numerical methods have been proved to be efficient and powerful means to investigate such complex phase change problems. However, the mathematical model is the critical factor determining the accuracy of the numerical methods, and is still under development. This review summarized the mathematical models proposed for the thermal-hydraulic processes of the MEPCS, compared the adaptabilities of different models, and provided suggestions for the selection of models. Full article
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25 pages, 10544 KiB  
Article
Frequency Stabilization in an Interconnected Micro-Grid Using Smell Agent Optimization Algorithm-Tuned Classical Controllers Considering Electric Vehicles and Wind Turbines
by Shreya Vishnoi, Srete Nikolovski, More Raju, Mukesh Kumar Kirar, Ankur Singh Rana and Pawan Kumar
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2913; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062913 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
In micro-grids (MGs), renewable energy resources (RESs) supply a major portion of the consumer demand. The intermittent nature of these RESs and the stochastic characteristics of the loads cause a frequency stabilization issue in MGs. Owing to this, in the present manuscript, the [...] Read more.
In micro-grids (MGs), renewable energy resources (RESs) supply a major portion of the consumer demand. The intermittent nature of these RESs and the stochastic characteristics of the loads cause a frequency stabilization issue in MGs. Owing to this, in the present manuscript, the authors try to uncover the frequency stabilization/regulation issue (FRI) in a two-area MG system comprising wind turbines (WTs), an aqua-electrolyzer, a fuel cell, a bio-gas plant, a bio-diesel plant, diesel generation (DG), ship DG, electric vehicles and their energy storage devices, flywheels, and batteries in each control area. With these sources, the assessment of the FRI is carried out using different classical controllers, namely, the integral (I), proportional plus I (PI), and PI plus derivative (PID) controllers. The gain values of these I, PI, and PID controllers are tuned using the recently proposed smell agent optimization (SAO) algorithm. The simulation studies reveal the outstanding performance of the later controller compared with the former ones in view of the minimum settling period and peak amplitude deviations (overshoots and undershoots). The SAO algorithm shows superior convergence behavior when tested against particle swarm optimization and the firefly algorithm. The SAO-PID controller effectively performs in continuously changing and increased demand situations. The SAO-PID controller designed in nominal conditions was found to be insensitive to wide deviations in load demands and WT time constants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grids: Operation, Planning, and Management II)
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22 pages, 5605 KiB  
Article
Energy Management System (EMS) Based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) for an Isolated DC Microgrid
by Jonathan Andrés Basantes, Daniela Estefanía Paredes, Jacqueline Rosario Llanos, Diego Edmundo Ortiz and Claudio Danilo Burgos
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2912; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062912 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2694
Abstract
Microgrids have become an alternative for integrating distributed generation to supply energy to isolated communities, so their control and optimal management are important. This research designs and simulates the three levels of control of a DC microgrid operating in isolated mode and proposes [...] Read more.
Microgrids have become an alternative for integrating distributed generation to supply energy to isolated communities, so their control and optimal management are important. This research designs and simulates the three levels of control of a DC microgrid operating in isolated mode and proposes an Energy Management System (EMS) based on Model Predictive Control (MPC), with real-time measurement feedback for optimal energy dispatch, which ensures power flow distribution and operation at minimum cost while extending the lifespan of the BESS. The EMS can react to disturbances produced in the lower control levels. The microgrid’s performance is analyzed and compared in two scenarios without EMS, and with EMS against changes in irradiation and changes in electricity demand. The fulfillment of the power balance is evaluated by analyzing the power delivered by each generation unit, the operating cost, and the state of charge of the battery (SOC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids)
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17 pages, 1218 KiB  
Article
A New Distributed Robust Power Control for Two-Layer Cooperative Communication Networks in Smart Grids with Reduced Utility Costs
by Chang Xiong, Yixin Su, Danhong Zhang, Lan Chen, Huajie Zhang and Qi Li
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2911; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062911 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1272
Abstract
The packet loss during transmission of load control commands can lead to regulation errors in the smart grid and increase the cost of utility agencies due to the purchase of additional automatic generation control (AGC) services. In this paper, a two-layer cooperative communication [...] Read more.
The packet loss during transmission of load control commands can lead to regulation errors in the smart grid and increase the cost of utility agencies due to the purchase of additional automatic generation control (AGC) services. In this paper, a two-layer cooperative communication network between the utility company and relays is presented. The utility company rents the relay to assist with the downlink transmission to improve the reliability of communication and reduce the data transmission cost due to packet loss. Furthermore, the uncertainty of channel gain is considered, and a two-tier game model is established. A distributed robust power control algorithm based on the continuous convex approximation method is proposed to obtain the optimal relay power allocation and price. Through the simulation analysis of the proposed scheme and the two comparison schemes, the cost of the utility company was reduced by 6% and 21%, and the standard deviation of income value between the relays was reduced by 40% and 48%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Smart Grids with High Integrations of New Technologies)
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13 pages, 2476 KiB  
Article
Preferential Concentration of Particles in Forced Turbulent Flows: Effects of Gravity
by Guodong Gai, Olivier Thomine, Abdellah Hadjadj, Sergey Kudriakov and Anthony Wachs
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2910; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062910 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1126
Abstract
The impact of gravity on the particle preferential concentration is investigated by direct numerical simulations in an Eulerian–Lagrangian framework for a large range of Stokes numbers Stη=0.014. For particles with small Stokes numbers such as [...] Read more.
The impact of gravity on the particle preferential concentration is investigated by direct numerical simulations in an Eulerian–Lagrangian framework for a large range of Stokes numbers Stη=0.014. For particles with small Stokes numbers such as Stη=0.01, the gravity has minor effects on the particle spatial distribution in the turbulence. With increasing Stη, stripped structures of the high number density of particles appear and expand along the gravity direction. Different evaluation methods of particle preferential concentration are discussed such as the spatial distribution, the box index, and the probability density function. The number density of particles in the accumulating regions reduced under the influence of gravity. The reduction becomes prominent for the particle cloud at Stokes number Stη1, especially in the clusters of high particle number density. For large Stokes number Stη, the slip velocity significantly increases due to the particle gravity. Due to the gravity, the particle concentration reduces globally, particularly in the low vorticity regions. For the Stokes number range explored in this paper, gravity has a considerable impact on the particle-turbulence interaction. Full article
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20 pages, 20493 KiB  
Article
Formation Timing and Features of Stylolites and Controlling Factors for the Second-Period Stylolites in the Carboniferous KT-I Formation of NT Oilfield
by Changhai Li, Lun Zhao, Weiqiang Li, Wenqi Zhao, Meng Sun, Yu Zhang and Tianyu Zheng
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2909; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062909 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The formation timing of stylolites, which is of great importance for analyzing the controls of stylolites, has nearly never been examined. In this paper, based on the data of cores, imaging logging, conventional logging, and mercury injection, the characteristics of stylolites formed in [...] Read more.
The formation timing of stylolites, which is of great importance for analyzing the controls of stylolites, has nearly never been examined. In this paper, based on the data of cores, imaging logging, conventional logging, and mercury injection, the characteristics of stylolites formed in different stages of tectonic movement were investigated, and the controlling factors of oil-stained stylolites, formed in the second period of tectonic movement, were analyzed in particular. Furthermore, the influence of different controlling factors on the development of stylolites was compared, by using grey correlation analysis. The results show that there are three periods of stylolites in the study area, and all three periods developed both low-angle stylolites and high-angle stylolites. The prominent characteristics of both the low-angle and high-angle stylolites of the second period, are being oil-stained. The higher the structural location, the greater the buried depth, the lower the dolomite content, the higher the calcite content, the higher the clay content, the smaller the rock density, the greater the porosity, the smaller the rock grain size, the easier it is to develop both the low-angle stylolites and the high-angle stylolites. The influence of different controlling factors on the development of low-angle stylolites is given by depth, porosity, curvature, rock density, rock grain size, clay content, dolomite content, and calcite content, in this order. The importance of the influences on the development of high-angle stylolites proceeds as follows: curvature, calcite content, depth, rock particle size, clay content, rock density, dolomite content, and porosity. Tectonism is the most important influencing factor on the development of stylolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reservoir Formation Damage Analysis)
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19 pages, 11596 KiB  
Article
EU: The Effect of Energy Factors on Economic Growth
by Ayaz Aliev, Madina Magomadova, Anna Budkina, Mustafa Harputlu and Alagez Yusifova
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2908; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062908 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
In this article, we investigate the effect of different energy variables on economic growth of several oil-importing EU member states. Three periods from 2000 to 2020 were investigated. Three different types of regression models were constructed via the gretl software. Namely, the OLS, [...] Read more.
In this article, we investigate the effect of different energy variables on economic growth of several oil-importing EU member states. Three periods from 2000 to 2020 were investigated. Three different types of regression models were constructed via the gretl software. Namely, the OLS, FE, and SE approaches to panel data analysis were investigated. The FE approach was chosen as the final one. The results suggest the importance of the consumption of both oil and renewable energy on economic growth. Crises of certain periods also had a noteworthy effect as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Economic Technologies and Policies in the Energy Sector)
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16 pages, 6006 KiB  
Article
A Platform for Outdoor Real-Time Characterization of Photovoltaic Technologies
by Sammy J. Martínez-Deusa, Carlos A. Gómez-García and Jaime Velasco-Medina
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2907; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062907 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
In recent years, thin-film and organic photovoltaic (OPV) technologies have been increasingly used as alternatives to conventional technologies due to their low weight, portability, and ease of installation. Outdoor characterization studies allow knowing the real performances of these photovoltaic (PV) technologies in different [...] Read more.
In recent years, thin-film and organic photovoltaic (OPV) technologies have been increasingly used as alternatives to conventional technologies due to their low weight, portability, and ease of installation. Outdoor characterization studies allow knowing the real performances of these photovoltaic (PV) technologies in different environmental conditions. Therefore, to address the above, this article presents the hardware–software design and implementation of an integrated and scalable platform for performing the outdoor real-time characterization of modern PV/OPV technologies located at different altitudes. The platform allows knowing the outdoor performance of PV/OPV technologies in real environmental conditions by acquiring data from different monitoring stations located at different altitudes. The proposed platform allows characterizing solar panels and mini-modules and acquiring relevant information to analyze power generation capacity and efficiency. Furthermore, other devices for new PV technologies characterization can be easily added, achieving a scale-up of the platform. A preliminary study of the outdoor performance of emerging PV/OPV technologies was carried out at three different altitudes in a tropical climate region. From the results, the copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) technology presents the best outdoor performance with an average PCE of 9.64%; the OPV technology has the best behavior at high temperatures with a voltage loss rate of 0.0206 V/°C; and the cadmium telluride (CdTe) technology is the most affected by temperature, with a voltage loss rate of 0.0803 V/°C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A2: Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems)
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23 pages, 6526 KiB  
Article
The Study of a Magnetostrictive-Based Shading Detection Method and Device for the Photovoltaic System
by Xiaolei Fu and Yizhi Tian
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2906; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062906 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
When the photovoltaic (PV) system suffers shading problems caused by different degrees and areas, the shaded PV cells will consume electricity and generate heat, the corresponding bypass diode operating at a certain current will conduct, and a special magnetic field will be generated [...] Read more.
When the photovoltaic (PV) system suffers shading problems caused by different degrees and areas, the shaded PV cells will consume electricity and generate heat, the corresponding bypass diode operating at a certain current will conduct, and a special magnetic field will be generated in space. In this study, a magnetostrictive-based shading detection method and device for the PV system are developed from theoretical, simulation, and physical experimental aspects. This study aims to detect the special magnetic field using magnetostrictive material with a certain response pattern under the magnetic field to detect and locate the shading problem of each module in the PV system. Theoretically, the analysis is carried out from the on–off situation of the bypass diodes of PV modules under different shading conditions and the response mechanism of magnetostrictive materials under the action of the magnetic field. During simulation, the finite element magnetic field simulations are performed for the diode and the series magnetic field coil, and the structural parameters of the magnetic field coil are designed based on the simulation results. After establishing the validation idea of the detection method in this study, the experimental platform is built and the experimental steps are designed. Finally, the feasibility of the method proposed in this study is verified, the detection range of the method is calculated, and the minimum spacing of adjacent magnetic field coils is determined by experimental validation. This study provides a novel magnetostrictive-based detection method, as well as a theoretical and experimental basis, for identifying and localizing PV system shading problems, and discusses the feasibility of shading detection at the system level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Solar Technologies)
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