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Medicina, Volume 58, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 187 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The outcome of a human viral infection depends on both viral virulence as well as host susceptibility. The constant fight between viruses and hosts leads to their mutual evolution. Inborn errors of immunity, characterized by a genetic susceptibility to viruses, represent a great study model for the mechanisms involved in controlling viral infections. An overview of exemplary genetic causes of human susceptibility to viral infection and of viral immune evasion mechanisms is hereby presented. View this paper
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Article
Periodontal Pathogen Adhesion, Cytotoxicity, and Surface Free Energy of Different Materials for an Implant Prosthesis Screw Access Hole
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020329 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Oral implant restorations are an excellent treatment option for edentulous patients; however, periodontopathogenic bacteria have been found in the microgaps between implant−abutment junctions. Implant designs to limit the microgaps have been extensively studied. However, studies have shown microgaps continue [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Oral implant restorations are an excellent treatment option for edentulous patients; however, periodontopathogenic bacteria have been found in the microgaps between implant−abutment junctions. Implant designs to limit the microgaps have been extensively studied. However, studies have shown microgaps continue to exist, allowing for the leakage of bacteria into the implant system. Screw access hole materials are used to fill the access hole void. The use of materials with beneficial properties could provide bacterial leakage prevention. The aim of this study was to examine the surface free energy, cytotoxicity, and bacterial adhesion of selected screw access hole materials such as cotton, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape, paraffin wax−polyolefin thermoplastic (PF), paraffin wax (Wax), gutta-percha (GP), and caviton EX (CE). Materials and Methods: A sessile drop test was performed to observe the contact angle and calculate the surface free energy of each material in order to determine the level of hydrophobicity. Cytotoxicity was examined in a mouse gingival epithelial cell line for day 1 and day 3. Bacterial adhesion was tested with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Results: PTFE, PF, and wax presented low surface free energies of 19.34, 23.041, and 24.883 mN.m-1, respectively. No cytotoxicity was observed, except for GP and CE. Concurrently, the bacterial adhesion was also the lowest in PTFE and PF. Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, PTFE and PF showed an excellent biocompatibility with few bacterial adhesions. These materials could be potential screw access hole materials in clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osseointegration and Dental Implants: An Update)
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Systematic Review
Coping Strategies of Healthcare Professionals with Burnout Syndrome: A Systematic Review
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020327 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Background and Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of coping strategies used to reduce burnout syndrome in healthcare workers teams. Materials and Methods: We used PubMed and Web of Science, including scientific articles and other studies for additional citations. Only 7 of 906 publications [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of coping strategies used to reduce burnout syndrome in healthcare workers teams. Materials and Methods: We used PubMed and Web of Science, including scientific articles and other studies for additional citations. Only 7 of 906 publications have the appropriate inclusion criteria and were selected. A PRISMA 2020 flow diagram was used. Results: The most common coping strategies that the literature studies showed were efficient, in particular social and emotional support, physical activity, physical self-care, emotional and physical distancing from work. Coping mechanisms associated with less burnout were also physical well-being, clinical variety, setting boundaries, transcendental, passion for one’s work, realistic expectations, remembering patients and organizational activities. Furthermore, it was helpful to listen to the team’s needs and preferences about some types of training. Conclusion: We suppose that the appropriate coping strategies employed in the team could be useful also in the prevention of psychological suffering, especially in contexts where working conditions are stressful. Studies about coping strategies to face burnout syndrome in healthcare workers should be increased. Full article
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Review
HELLP Syndrome—Holistic Insight into Pathophysiology
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020326 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
HELLP syndrome, also known as the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets, represents a severe pregnancy complication typically associated with hypertension. It is associated with increased risks of adverse complications for both mother and fetus. HELLP occurs in 0.2–0.8% of [...] Read more.
HELLP syndrome, also known as the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets, represents a severe pregnancy complication typically associated with hypertension. It is associated with increased risks of adverse complications for both mother and fetus. HELLP occurs in 0.2–0.8% of pregnancies, and, in 70–80% of cases, it coexists with preeclampsia (PE). Both of these conditions show a familial tendency. A woman with a history of HELLP pregnancy is at high risk for developing this entity in subsequent pregnancies. We cannot nominate a single worldwide genetic cause for the increased risk of HELLP. Combinations of multiple gene variants, each with a moderate risk, with concurrent maternal and environmental factors are thought to be the etiological mechanisms. This review highlights the significant role of understanding the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of HELLP syndrome. A better knowledge of the disease’s course supports early detection, an accurate diagnosis, and proper management of this life-threatening condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Prenatal Medicine: Research and Care)
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Article
Analysis of the Common Femoral Artery and Vein: Anatomical Morphology, Vessel Relationship, and Factors Affecting Vessel Size
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020325 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Background and Objectives: We aimed to analyze the morphology of the common femoral artery (CFA) and common femoral vein (CFV) and the anatomical relationship between the two blood vessels, and to investigate the factors that influence the size of these blood vessels. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: We aimed to analyze the morphology of the common femoral artery (CFA) and common femoral vein (CFV) and the anatomical relationship between the two blood vessels, and to investigate the factors that influence the size of these blood vessels. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 584 patients who underwent abdominal and pelvic computed tomography from 1 February to 28 February 2021. We measured the vessels at three regions on both lower extremities (inguinal ligament, distal vessel bifurcation, midpoint) and analyzed and classified the degree of overlap between the CFA and CFV into three types, as well as the factors affecting vessel size. Results: After comparing the femoral vessels according to location, it was confirmed that the CFA and CFV were larger distally than proximally on both sides (p < 0.001). The degree of overlap increased distally (p < 0.001) but was less at the middle (p < 0.001) and distal (p = 0.011) regions on the right side. It was found that the size of CFA and CFV were related to age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) and that malignancy also affects the CFA size. Conclusions: The morphology of the CFA and CFV was conical and increased distally. The degree of overlap between the two blood vessels also increased distally but was less on the right than on the left. Age, sex, and BMI are significant factors affecting the sizes of the CFA and CFV, and malignancy is associated with the CFA size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
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Article
Status of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Preventive Care in Korea: A Retrospective Cohort Study on the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020324 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Background and Objectives: It is crucial to prevent osteoporosis in patients receiving long-term glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and associated factors of preventive care for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) in Korea. Materials and Methods: Using the Korean National Health [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: It is crucial to prevent osteoporosis in patients receiving long-term glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and associated factors of preventive care for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) in Korea. Materials and Methods: Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, we identified 37,133 individuals aged ≥ 20 years who commenced long-term (≥90 days) oral GC between 2011 and 2012. High-quality GIOP preventive care was defined as either a bone mineral density (BMD) test, calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation, or prescription osteoporosis medications within 6 months of GC initiation. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for associated factors for high-quality GIOP preventive care. Results: The mean age was 49.8 years, and 18,476 (49.8%) patients were female. The frequency of high-quality GIOP preventive care was only 3.68% (BMD test, 1.46%; osteoporosis medications, 1.65%; calcium/vitamin D, 1.63%). Increasing age (OR = 2.53, p < 0.001; 40–49 years, OR = 3.99, p < 0.001; 50–59 years, OR = 5.17, p < 0.001; 60–69 years, OR = 8.07, p < 0.001; ≥70 years, respectively), systemic autoimmune disease (OR = 3.08, p < 0.001), rural residence (OR = 1.19, p = 0.046), concomitant hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.58, p = 0.007), and malignancy (OR = 1.59, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of receiving high-quality GIOP preventive care. Male sex (OR = 0.26, p < 0.001) and GC prescription in primary care clinics and nursing hospitals (OR = 0.66, p < 0.001) were associated with a lower rate of high-quality GIOP preventive care. Conclusions: Most Korean patients treated with GC did not receive appropriate preventive care for GIOP in real-world practice. More efforts are needed by clinicians to prevent, screen, and treat GIOP. Full article
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Article
Leukocytosis and C-Reactive Protein May Predict Development of Secondary Cerebral Vasospasm in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020323 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Secondary cerebral vasospasm (CV) with subsequent delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) remains an unpredictable pathology. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the association between inflammatory parameters, white blood cell (WBC) count, and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Secondary cerebral vasospasm (CV) with subsequent delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) remains an unpredictable pathology. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the association between inflammatory parameters, white blood cell (WBC) count, and C-reactive protein plasma levels (CRP) and the occurrence of secondary CV in patients with aSAH. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 201 Intensive Care Unit patients in Riga East University Hospital with aSAH were retrospectively reviewed in a 24-month period. WBC count and CRP values were observed at admission to the hospital and on the third day. According to the inclusion criteria, 117 (48 males) participants were enrolled for further analysis, with average age of 56 ± 15 years (mean ± SD). In total, secondary CV was diagnosed in 21.4% of cases, and DCI in 22.4% of cases. The patients were classified into three groups: SAH-CV group (n = 25), SAH-DCI group (n = 12), and SAH or control group (n = 80), for comparative analysis. Results: We found that SAH-CV patients demonstrated notably higher inflammatory parameters compared to controls: WBC 13.2 ± 3.3 × 109/L vs. 11.2 ± 3.7 × 109/L; p = 0.01 and CRP median 9.3 mg/L vs. 1.9 mg/L; p < 0.001, respectively. We found that the odds of developing CV increased by 5% for each CRP increase of 1 mg/L at admission (OR, 1.05; CI, 1.014–1.087; p = 0.006). Concomitantly, the odds increased by 16% for every rise in WBC count of 1 × 109/L (OR, 1.16; CI, 1.02–1.32; p = 0.02). WBC count was associated with the occurrence of CV with 96% sensitivity and 40% specificity, with a cut off level of 10.015 × 109/L and AUC 0.683; p = 0.006. CRP displayed 54% sensitivity and 90% specificity with a cut off value of 8.9 mg/L and AUC 0.751; p < 0.001. Moreover, higher values of inflammatory parameters at admission correlated with a longer stay in ICU (r = 0.3, p = 0.002 for WBC count and r = 0.305, p = 0.002 for CRP values), and poor outcome (death) was significantly associated with higher CRP values at admission and on the third day (16.1. vs. 2.2. and 57.4. vs. 11.1, p < 0.001, respectively). Higher mortality was detected in SAH-CV patients (32%) compared to controls (6.3%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Inflammatory parameters such as WBC count and CRP values at admission might be helpful to predict the development of secondary CV. Full article
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Article
Attitudes and Associated Demographic Factors Contributing towards the Abuse of Illicit Drugs: A Cross-Sectional Study from Health Care Students in Saudi Arabia
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020322 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Background and objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the attitudes, views, and factors that influence drug abuse among pharmacy and nursing students at a Saudi Arabian university. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, was conducted among pharmacy and [...] Read more.
Background and objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the attitudes, views, and factors that influence drug abuse among pharmacy and nursing students at a Saudi Arabian university. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, was conducted among pharmacy and nursing students who are currently enrolled in the respective courses at the study site. The data were collected over 4 months from August to November 2019 using structured self-administered paper-based questionnaires. Results: Among the participants, pharmacy students accounted for 184 (58.2%) while 132 (41.8%) of the students were from nursing. More than a third of the students 129, (40.8%) smoked cigarettes. The majority of pharmacy (80.4%) and nursing students (67.4%) reported having undertaken a drug misuse course in college. Among the participants, 132 (41.7%) stated that an offer from friends, followed by joy seeking 129 (40.8%), parents’ divorce 126 (39.8%), having access to drugs 125 (39.5%), family issues 110 (34.8%), 66 (20.8%) having a family member who is addicted, and 101 (31.9%) reported curiosity to be the factors regarding the use of abusive drugs. Transient euphoria (75.9%) followed by depression 197 (62.3%) was the most prevalent physical or psychological change that occurred following drug use. The family size and father’s education have significantly affected the attitudes scores of the students (F = 5.188; p = 0.0001). Conclusion: In this study, joy-seeking, access to drugs, and family issues were found to be the major factors listed as reasons for drug abuse, with some of them being controllable or reversible. Educating about the adverse outcomes of abused drugs is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatry)
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Article
The Role of Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging in the Diagnosis of Tendon Injuries of the Ankle and Foot
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020321 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Background and objectives: Our aim is to determine the diagnostic performance and utility of Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging (DWI) against the routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of patients with tendon injuries of the ankle and foot. Materials and Method: After [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Our aim is to determine the diagnostic performance and utility of Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging (DWI) against the routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of patients with tendon injuries of the ankle and foot. Materials and Method: After institutional review board approval and informed consent taken from all the patients, ankle and foot MR imaging and DWI-Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) mapping were performed on the 81 injured tendons of 50 patients. All tendon injuries were named as Rupture (R), Partial tear (PT), and Tenosynovitis (T). Diagnostic interpretation was based on the MRI-DWI and ADC mapping, verified by either open surgery, diagnostic arthroscopy, or conservative procedures-splint application. Statistical analysis of this research was assessed by Fischer’s exact test, variance analysis test between dependent groups, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve, and Pearson chi square statistics. Results: MRI depicted all tendon injuries with 70% sensitivity and 100% specificity, and showed a significant statistical relationship to surgical and arthroscopic references with high agreement (p < 0.05, k: 0.609). DWI had 100% sensitivity and 83–90% specificity for the visualization of tendon injuries with certain agreement and a significant statistical relationship to the gold standard (p < 0.05, k: 0.890–0.899). For all those injured tendons, DWI had 100% sensitivity for the diagnosis of R, and 92–97% sensitivity corresponding to PT and T over routine ankle MR imaging. The specificity of DWI to MRI ranged from 75 to 44% for all the injured tendons. DWI had significant statistical superiority over MRI for the visualization of R, PT, and T of all tendons included in this research (p < 0.05). Conclusions: DWI is a good imaging modality for the visualization of ankles with tendon injuries, possibly further improving the sensitivity of the classical ankle and foot MRI, and supplying more beneficial and diagnostic information than routine MR imaging on the basis of R, PT, and T of tendons at the ankle and foot. Full article
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Article
Beta-Blocker-Related Atrioventricular Conduction Disorders—A Single Tertiary Referral Center Experience
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020320 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Drug-related bradyarrhythmia is a well-documented major adverse event among beta-blocker users and a potential cause for hospitalization or additional interventions. Whether beta-blocker use is associated with specific bradyarrhythmia presentations, and how this relates to other predisposing factors, is not [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Drug-related bradyarrhythmia is a well-documented major adverse event among beta-blocker users and a potential cause for hospitalization or additional interventions. Whether beta-blocker use is associated with specific bradyarrhythmia presentations, and how this relates to other predisposing factors, is not well known. We aim to evaluate the association between beta-blocker use and the type of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disorder in patients with symptomatic bradycardia. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 596 patients with a primary diagnosis of symptomatic bradyarrhythmia admitted to a single tertiary referral center. Of the cases analyzed, 253 patients were on beta-blocker treatment at presentation and 343 had no bradycardic treatment. We analyzed demographics, clinical and paraclinical parameters in relation to the identified AV conduction disorder. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to explore factors associated with beta-blocker use. Results: Of the 596 patients (mean age 73.9 ± 8.8 years, 49.2% male), 261 (43.8%) had a third-degree AV block, 92 (15.4%) had a second-degree AV block, 128 (21.5%) had slow atrial fibrillation, 93 (15.6%) had sick sinus syndrome and 21 (3.5%) had sinus bradycardia/sinus pauses. Beta-blocker use was associated with the female gender (p < 0.001), emergency admission (p < 0.001), dilated cardiomyopathy (p = 0.003), the lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.02), mitral stenosis (p = 0.009), chronic kidney disease (p = 0.02), higher potassium levels (p = 0.04) and QRS duration > 120 ms (p = 0.02). Slow atrial fibrillation (OR = 4.2, p < 0.001), sick sinus syndrome (OR = 2.8, p = 0.001) and sinus bradycardia/pauses (OR = 32.9, p < 0.001) were more likely to be associated with beta-blocker use compared to the most common presentation (third-degree AV block), after adjusting for other patient characteristics. Conclusions: Beta-blocker use is more likely to be associated with slow atrial fibrillation, sick sinus syndrome and sinus bradycardia/pauses, compared to a second- or third-degree AV block, after adjusting for other patient factors such as gender, admission type, ECG, comorbidities, cardiac function and lab testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
Review
Ferroptosis Involvement in Glioblastoma Treatment
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020319 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest brain tumors. Current standard therapy includes tumor resection surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Due to the tumors invasive nature, recurrences are almost a certainty, giving the patients after diagnosis only a 12–15 months average [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest brain tumors. Current standard therapy includes tumor resection surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Due to the tumors invasive nature, recurrences are almost a certainty, giving the patients after diagnosis only a 12–15 months average survival time. Therefore, there is a dire need of finding new therapies that could potentially improve patient outcomes. Ferroptosis is a newly described form of cell death with several implications in cancer, among which GBM. Agents that target different molecules involved in ferroptosis and that stimulate this process have been described as potentially adjuvant anti-cancer treatment options. In GBM, ferroptosis stimulation inhibits tumor growth, improves patient survival, and increases the efficacy of radiation and chemotherapy. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding ferroptosis modulation in GBM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Glioblastoma Multimodal Treatment in the Molecular Era)
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Case Report
Tinnitus Associated with Mild Osteomyelitis of the Temporal Bone Reversed after Conservative Antibiotic Treatment: A Case Series
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020318 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The symptomatology and diagnostic tools for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone have not been well documented. Diagnosis of early stage (i.e., mild form) osteomyelitis of the temporal bone may be delayed due to the limitations of traditional computed tomography’s (CT) imaging resolution. With [...] Read more.
The symptomatology and diagnostic tools for osteomyelitis of the temporal bone have not been well documented. Diagnosis of early stage (i.e., mild form) osteomyelitis of the temporal bone may be delayed due to the limitations of traditional computed tomography’s (CT) imaging resolution. With the advancement of high-resolution CT (HRCT) images, clinicians can now observe images that could not be observed with traditional CT imaging. In this neuro-image report, we present three patients with refractory/untreatable tinnitus. In their HRCT images, mild osteomyelitis of the temporal bone was revealed by mucosa thickening with bony sequestration of air cells, mild opacification of the air cells, and soft tissue density in the middle ear cavity, mild opacification, and bony sequestration attributed to mucosa thickening of the mastoid air cells (along with the cortical bone). All of the clinical presentations and findings in the pure tone audiometry of the reported patients improved after adequate antibiotic treatment. The current report highlights the potential benefit of HRCT to diagnose this in such patients. In addition, immediate and conservative antibiotic treatment is recommended for managing these patients shortly after the detection of mild osteomyelitis of the temporal bone. This treatment could reduce the risk of progression to the severe form. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
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Case Report
Successful Resection of Retrobulbar Carcinosarcoma without Recurrence: A Case Report
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020317 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 360
Abstract
Carcinosarcomas are biphasic tumors comprising carcinoma and sarcoma components that occur in many tissues but are rarely found in the orbit. A 70-year-old male presented to the ophthalmic clinic with progressive proptosis, having decreased vision in the left eye for 8 months. On [...] Read more.
Carcinosarcomas are biphasic tumors comprising carcinoma and sarcoma components that occur in many tissues but are rarely found in the orbit. A 70-year-old male presented to the ophthalmic clinic with progressive proptosis, having decreased vision in the left eye for 8 months. On examination, severe exophthalmos and lagophthalmos with limited extraocular movement were noted. Orbital computed tomography scans revealed a large, well-defined, heterogeneously enhanced mass in the left retrobulbar orbital cavity. The tumor was completely resected, and the pathological examination revealed a carcinosarcoma. The prognosis was excellent without local recurrence at 48 months postoperatively. Thus, when considering treatment for effective management of such tumors, tumor resection followed by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is highly recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology)
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Article
Muscle Quality of Knee Extensors Based on Several Types of Force in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Varying Degrees of Disability
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020316 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) tends to affect muscle performance, mainly in the lower extremities. The degree of disability is associated with the loss of strength and muscle mass, to varying extents. Muscle quality (MQ) expresses the amount of force produced [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) tends to affect muscle performance, mainly in the lower extremities. The degree of disability is associated with the loss of strength and muscle mass, to varying extents. Muscle quality (MQ) expresses the amount of force produced relative to the activated muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to compare the MQ of the knee extensors in the main manifestations of strength (isometric, dynamic strength, and power) among patients with differing degrees of neurological disability and evolutionary forms of the disease. We also establish reference values for MQ in MS patients (pwMS). Materials and Methods: In total, 250 pwMS were evaluated according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The maximum dynamic and isometric forces and muscle power manifested a load of 60% of the maximum dynamics of the knee extensors. The lean mass of the thigh and hip was determined by densitometry, and the MQ was calculated for the three types of force evaluated. Results: The pwMS with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) presented isometric MQ values that were 15.8% better than those of pwMS with primary progressive MS (PPMS) and 13.8% better than those of pwMS with secondary progressive MS (SPMS). For pwMS with SPMS, the dynamic MQ was 16.7% worse than that of patients with RRMS, while the power MQ was 29.5% worse. By degree of disability (<4 >7.5 EDSS score), patients with better MQ had mild EDSS scores, and patients with severe EDSS scores had 24.8%, 25.9%, and 40.3% worse isometric, dynamic, and power MQ scores, respectively, than those with RRMS. Based on these results, reference values for MQ in pwMS were established. Conclusions: The pwMS with different types of MS do not show differences in lean mass or strength but do show differences in MQ. In pwMS with different EDSS grades, there are no differences in lean mass, but there are differences in strength based on MQ, especially power MQ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Physiology, Muscle Function and Rehabilitation)
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Article
Understanding the Role of Surface Modification of Randomized Trabecular Titanium Structures in Bone Tissue Regeneration: An Experimental Study
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020315 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Three-dimensional (3D) metallic trabecular structures made by additive manufacturing (AM) technologies promote new bone formation and osteointegration. Surface modifications by chemical treatments can improve the osteoconductive properties of metallic structures. An in vivo study in sheep was conducted to assess [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Three-dimensional (3D) metallic trabecular structures made by additive manufacturing (AM) technologies promote new bone formation and osteointegration. Surface modifications by chemical treatments can improve the osteoconductive properties of metallic structures. An in vivo study in sheep was conducted to assess the bone response to randomized trabecular titanium structures that underwent a surface modification by chemical treatment compared to the bone response to the untreated specimens. Material and Methods: Sixteen specimens with a randomized trabecular titanium structure were implanted in the spongious bone of the distal femur and proximal tibia and the cortical bone of the tibial diaphysis of two sheep. Of them, eight implants had undergone a chemical treatment (treated) and were compared to eight implants with the same structure but native surfaces (native). The sheep were sacrificed at 6 weeks. Surface features of the lattice structures (native and treated) were analyzed using a 3D non-contact profilometer. Compression tests of 18 lattice cubes were performed to investigate the mechanical properties of the two structures. Excellent biocompatibility for the trabecular structures was demonstrated in vitro using a cell mouse fibroblast culture. Histomorphometric analysis was performed to evaluate bone implant contact and bone ingrowth. Results: A compression test of lattice cubic specimens revealed a comparable maximum compressive strength value between the two tested groups (5099 N for native surfaces; 5558 N for treated surfaces; p > 0.05). Compared to native surfaces, a homogenous formation of micropores was observed on the surface of most trabeculae that increased the surface roughness of the treated specimens (4.3 versus 3.2 µm). The cellular viability of cells seeded on three-dimensional structure surfaces increased over time compared to that on plastic surfaces. The histomorphometric data revealed a similar behavior and response in spongious and cortical bone formation. The percentage of the implant surface in direct contact with the regenerated bone matrix (BIC) was not significantly different between the two groups either in the spongious bone (BIC: 27% for treated specimens versus 30% for native samples) or in the cortical bone (BIC: 75% for treated specimens versus 77% for native samples). Conclusions: The results of this study reveal rapid osseointegration and excellent biocompatibility for the trabecular structure regardless of surface treatment using AM technologies. The application of implant surfaces can be optimized to achieve a strong press-fit and stability, overcoming the demand for additional chemical surface treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osseointegration and Dental Implants: An Update)
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Article
Gender Related Differences in the Clinical Presentation of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy—An Analysis from the SILICOFCM Database
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020314 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 699
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease that affects approximately 1 in 500 people. Due to an incomplete disease penetrance associated with numerous factors, HCM is not manifested in all carriers of genetic mutation. Although about [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease that affects approximately 1 in 500 people. Due to an incomplete disease penetrance associated with numerous factors, HCM is not manifested in all carriers of genetic mutation. Although about two-thirds of patients are male, it seems that female gender is associated with more severe disease phenotype and worse prognosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gender related differences in HCM presentation. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a part of the international multidisciplinary SILICOFCM project. Clinical information, laboratory analyses, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and genetic testing data were collected for 362 HCM patients from four clinical centers (Florence, Newcastle, Novi Sad, and Regensburg). There were 33% female patients, and 67% male patients. Results: Female patients were older than males (64.5 vs. 53.5 years, p < 0.0005). The male predominance was present across all age groups until the age of 70, when gender distribution became comparable. Females had higher number of symptomatic individuals then males (69% vs. 52%, p = 0.003), most frequently complaining of dyspnea (50% vs. 30%), followed by chest pain (30% vs. 17%), fatigue (26% vs. 13%), palpitations (22% vs. 13%), and syncope (13% vs. 8%). The most common rhythm disorder was atrial fibrillation which was present in a similar number of females and males (19% vs. 13%, p = 0.218). Levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide were comparable between the genders (571 vs. 794 ng/L, p = 0.244). Echocardiography showed similar thickness of interventricular septum (18 vs. 16 mm, p = 0.121) and posterolateral wall (13 vs. 12 mm, p = 0.656), however, females had a lower number of systolic anterior motion (8% vs. 16%, p = 0.020) and other mitral valve abnormalities. Conclusions: Female patients are underrepresented but seem to have a more pronounced clinical presentation of HCM. Therefore, establishing gender specific diagnostic criteria for HCM should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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Article
The Impact of Preoperative Risk Factors on Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis: A Single-Center Prospective Study in Japan
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020313 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis is a critical problem. However, preoperative risk factors for PD-related peritonitis have not been established. Thus, we aimed to determine the preoperative risk factors for PD-related peritonitis. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis is a critical problem. However, preoperative risk factors for PD-related peritonitis have not been established. Thus, we aimed to determine the preoperative risk factors for PD-related peritonitis. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center prospective observational study. All peritonitis episodes during the study period were recorded, and preoperative and intraoperative clinical parameters were compared between patients with and without peritonitis to examine risk factors for PD-related peritonitis. Furthermore, subcutaneous and abdominal fat volumes were evaluated using computed tomography. Results: Among a total of 118 patients, 24 patients developed peritonitis. The proportion of male patients (83% vs. 61%, p = 0.04), body mass index (25 vs. 22 kg/m2, p = 0.04), and subcutaneous fat area (120 vs. 102 cm2, p = 0.01) were significantly higher and the proportion of patients living with family members (75% vs. 94%, p = 0.02) was significantly lower in the peritonitis group than in the non-peritonitis group. There were no significant differences in age, operation method, surgeon experience, previous abdominal surgery, medical history of diabetic nephropathy, serum albumin level, and renal function between the two groups. Conclusions: Male patients with high subcutaneous fat who are living alone might be at higher risk of PD-related peritonitis. These characteristics might be useful in risk assessment and patient education before PD induction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nephrology)
Case Report
Successful Management of Osimertinib-Induced Heart Failure
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020312 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 456
Abstract
Cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction is currently of great concern as one of the pivotal therapeutic targets of onco-cardiology. Only a few studies have reported the occurrence of heart failure following the administration of osimertinib, a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor [...] Read more.
Cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction is currently of great concern as one of the pivotal therapeutic targets of onco-cardiology. Only a few studies have reported the occurrence of heart failure following the administration of osimertinib, a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor for EGFR mutation-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer. We report on a 74-year-old woman with osimertinib-induced advanced heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, which was treated by the temporal termination of osimertinib and neurohormonal blocker therapy, as well as heart rate modulation therapy using ivabradine. Despite osimertinib-induced heart failure being relatively rare, aggressive neurohormonal blocker therapy using ivabradine if applicable, as well as the temporal termination of osimertinib, might be a promising therapeutic strategy. Full article
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Review
A Comprehensive Review of the Technological Solutions to Analyse the Effects of Pandemic Outbreak on Human Lives
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020311 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 641
Abstract
A coronavirus outbreak caused by a novel virus known as SARS-CoV-2 originated towards the latter half of 2019. COVID-19’s abrupt emergence and unchecked global expansion highlight the inability of the current healthcare services to respond to public health emergencies promptly. This paper reviews [...] Read more.
A coronavirus outbreak caused by a novel virus known as SARS-CoV-2 originated towards the latter half of 2019. COVID-19’s abrupt emergence and unchecked global expansion highlight the inability of the current healthcare services to respond to public health emergencies promptly. This paper reviews the different aspects of human life comprehensively affected by COVID-19. It then discusses various tools and technologies from the leading domains and their integration into people’s lives to overcome issues resulting from pandemics. This paper further focuses on providing a detailed review of existing and probable Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), and Blockchain-based solutions. The COVID-19 pandemic brings several challenges from the viewpoint of the nation’s healthcare, security, privacy, and economy. AI offers different predictive services and intelligent strategies for detecting coronavirus signs, promoting drug development, remote healthcare, classifying fake news detection, and security attacks. The incorporation of AI in the COVID-19 outbreak brings robust and reliable solutions to enhance the healthcare systems, increases user’s life expectancy, and boosts the nation’s economy. Furthermore, AR/VR helps in distance learning, factory automation, and setting up an environment of work from home. Blockchain helps in protecting consumer’s privacy, and securing the medical supply chain operations. IoT is helpful in remote patient monitoring, distant sanitising via drones, managing social distancing (using IoT cameras), and many more in combating the pandemic. This study covers an up-to-date analysis on the use of blockchain technology, AI, AR/VR, and IoT for combating COVID-19 pandemic considering various applications. These technologies provide new emerging initiatives and use cases to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we discuss challenges and potential research paths that will promote further research into future pandemic outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease)
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Case Report
Combined Ileoileal and Ileocolic Intussusception Secondary to Inflammatory Fibroid Polyp in an Adult: A Case Report
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020310 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Intestinal intussusception is relatively rare in adults and accounts for approximately 5% of intestinal obstruction. Intussusception is classified into subtypes according to the location, including ileoileal, ileocolic, ileo-ileocolic, colo-colic, jejuno-ileal, or jejuno-jejunal; the ileocolic type being the most common. However, intussusception of a [...] Read more.
Intestinal intussusception is relatively rare in adults and accounts for approximately 5% of intestinal obstruction. Intussusception is classified into subtypes according to the location, including ileoileal, ileocolic, ileo-ileocolic, colo-colic, jejuno-ileal, or jejuno-jejunal; the ileocolic type being the most common. However, intussusception of a combination of different subtypes has rarely been reported in the available literature. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate tool to evaluate intestinal intussusception. The pathological lead point in the intestine typically results in adult intussusception. Surgical intervention is usually adopted in cases of adult intussusception due to a high incidence of underlying bowel malignancy. An inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is one of the uncommon benign neoplasms of the gastrointestinal (GI) system, which can result in intestinal intussusception. Herein, we present a case of a 50-year-old female with combined ileoileal and ileocolic intussusception, which was initially diagnosed by abdominal CT. Therefore, laparoscopic right hemicolectomy surgery was performed, confirming the final diagnosis as ileoileal and ileocolic intussusception secondary to IFP. Full article
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Review
Ofeleein i mi Vlaptin—Volume II: Immunity Following Infection or mRNA Vaccination, Drug Therapies and Non-Pharmacological Management at Post-Two Years SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020309 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 990
Abstract
The persistence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has triggered research into limiting transmission, morbidity and mortality, thus warranting a comprehensive approach to guide balanced healthcare policies with respect to people’s physical and mental health. The mainstay priority during COVID-19 is to [...] Read more.
The persistence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has triggered research into limiting transmission, morbidity and mortality, thus warranting a comprehensive approach to guide balanced healthcare policies with respect to people’s physical and mental health. The mainstay priority during COVID-19 is to achieve widespread immunity, which could be established through natural contact or vaccination. Deep knowledge of the immune response combined with recent specific data indicates the potential inferiority of induced immunity against infection. Moreover, the prevention of transmission has been founded on general non-pharmacological measures of protection, albeit debate exists considering their efficacy and, among other issues, their socio-psychological burden. The second line of defense is engaged after infection and is supported by a plethora of studied agents, such as antibiotics, steroids and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, antiviral medications and other biological agents that have been proposed, though variability in terms of benefits and adverse events has not allowed distinct solutions, albeit certain treatments might have a role in prevention and/or treatment of the disease. This narrative review summarizes the existing literature on the advantages and weaknesses of current COVID-19 management measures, thus underlining the necessity of acting based on the classical principle of “ofeleein i mi vlaptin”, that is, to help or not to harm. Full article
Tutorial
Focal Dome Osteotomy for the Treatment of Diaphyseal Malunion of the Lower Extremity
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020308 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 343
Abstract
The treatment of malunion of the lower extremity diaphysis is challenging. Diaphyseal osteotomies require extra care to promote bone healing. This may be enhanced through osteotomies, which do not produce bone gaps and allow for compression. The focal dome osteotomy allows for rotation [...] Read more.
The treatment of malunion of the lower extremity diaphysis is challenging. Diaphyseal osteotomies require extra care to promote bone healing. This may be enhanced through osteotomies, which do not produce bone gaps and allow for compression. The focal dome osteotomy allows for rotation around an axis to correct angular deformity. The production of a successful arcuate or focal dome osteotomy requires a suitable soft tissue host. The deformity analysis is not complex but essential to assess the feasibility of correction and is required for perfect execution of the osteotomy. This tutorial explains the technique for focal dome osteotomy to correct angular deformities of the lower extremities, specifically in the diaphysis. Surgical correction for malunion, infected malunion, and infected mal-nonunion case examples are discussed. With meticulous planning and surgical technique, the focal dome osteotomy is a viable option for correcting diaphyseal malunions with compression techniques that allow a stable construct for early weight-bearing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malunion of Fractures of the Lower Extremity)
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Case Report
Enterococcus durans Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Lead Infection and Review of Enterococcus durans Endocarditis Cases
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020307 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Introduction: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections present a growing problem in medicine due to a significant increase in the number of implanted devices and the age of the recipient population. Enterococcus spp. are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, lactic acid bacteria; they are relatively [...] Read more.
Introduction: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections present a growing problem in medicine due to a significant increase in the number of implanted devices and the age of the recipient population. Enterococcus spp. are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, lactic acid bacteria; they are relatively common pathogens in humans, but uncommon as the cause of CIED lead infections. Only eight cases of Enterococcus durans endocarditis have been reported in the literature thus far; however, there are no reported cases of Enterococcus durans CIED lead infection. Case presentation: A 58-year-old gentleman with a previously implanted St. Jude Medical single-chamber implantable cardioverter–defibrillator (ICD) due to tachy/brady arrhythmias presented with nonspecific constitutional symptoms (i.e., low-grade fevers, chills, fatigue), and was found to have innumerable bilateral pulmonary nodules via computed tomography angiography of the chest. Many of these pulmonary nodules were cavitated and highly concerning for septic pulmonary emboli and infarcts. Within 24 h from presentation, blood cultures in all four culture bottles grew ampicillin- and vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus durans. Transthoracic echocardiogram confirmed vegetations on the ICD lead in the right ventricle. The patient underwent laser extraction of the ICD lead with generator removal and recovered completely after a 6-week intravenous antibiotic course. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of CIED lead infection caused by Enterococcus durans. In this case, management with antibiotics along with ICD lead extraction led to complete recovery. Clinicians should be aware of this rare but potentially devastating infection in patients with native and artificial valves, but also in those with CIEDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
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Article
Temporal Changes in Incidence Rates of the Most Common Gynecological Cancers in the Female Population in Central Serbia
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020306 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Background and Objectives: There were 1,335,503 newly diagnosed cases of the most common gynecological cancers in women (cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer) worldwide in 2020. The main objective of this paper was to assess temporal changes in incidence rates of the most common [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: There were 1,335,503 newly diagnosed cases of the most common gynecological cancers in women (cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer) worldwide in 2020. The main objective of this paper was to assess temporal changes in incidence rates of the most common gynecological cancers and to determine the age group with the greatest increase in incidence in the Serbian female population in the period 2003–2018. Material and Methods: Trends and annual percentage change (APC) of the incidence rate with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by Joinpoint regression analysis. The trend was considered to be significantly increasing (positive change) or decreasing (negative change) when the p-value was below 0.05 (p < 0.05). Results: The total number of newly registered cancer cases from 2003 to 2018 was 35,799. There was a significant increase of age standardized rate (ASR) for all cancer incidences in women from 2012 to 2018 with APC 6.9% (95% CI from 0.9 to 13.3, p = 0.028) and for uterine cancer during the 2014–2018 period with APC of 16.8% (95% CI: from 4.0 to 31.1, p = 0.014), as well as for ovarian cancer incidence in the 2012–2018 period with APC of 12.1% (95% CI: from 6.7 to 17.8, p < 0.001). A non-significant decrease of ASRs of incidence for cervical cancer was determined from 2003 to 2015 with APC of −0.22% (95% CI: from −3.4 to 3.1, p = 0.887) and a non-significant increase of ASRs incidence from 2015 to 2018 with APC of 14.21% (95% CI: from −13.3 to 50.5, p = 0.311). The most common gynecological cancers were present in all age groups and only ovarian cancer was registered in the youngest age group (0–4 years). Cervical cancer showed a typical increase after the age of 30, with peak incidence in women aged 40–44 and 65–69 years. The increased incidence trend regarding age for cervical cancer (y = 1.3966x + 0.3765, R2 = 0.3395), uterine cancer (y = 1.7963x − 5.4688, R2 = 0.5063) and ovarian cancer (y = 1.0791x − 0.8245, R2 = 0.5317) is statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on our presented results, a significant increase of incidence trend for the most common gynecological cancers in the Serbian female population from 2012 to 2018 was determined. There has been a significant increase in the incidence of uterine cancer from 2014 up to 2018, as well as for ovarian cancer from 2012 up to 2018, while cervical cancer showed a non-significant decrease of incidence trend from 2003 until 2015 and then a non-significant increase. In women below 20 years of age, ovarian cancer was significantly more prevalent, while cervical cancer was significantly more prevalent in the age groups 20–39 and 40–59 years. In the age group of 60–79, uterine cancer had a significantly higher incidence than the other two cancers. Measures of primary prevention, such as vaccination of children against Human Papilloma Virus and screening measures of secondary prevention, for the female population aged 25 to 64 years of age are needed, as well as educating females about healthy lifestyles via media and social networks to help prevent the most common gynecological cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
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Article
COVID-19 and Postural Control—A Stabilographic Study Using Rambling-Trembling Decomposition Method
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020305 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Some respiratory viruses demonstrate neurotropic capacities. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently taken over the globe, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on postural [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Some respiratory viruses demonstrate neurotropic capacities. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently taken over the globe, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on postural control in subjects who have recently recovered from the infection. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three convalescents who underwent COVID-19 within the preceding 2–4 weeks, and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. The ground reaction forces were registered with the use of a force platform during quiet standing. The analysis of the resultant center of foot pressure (COP) decomposed into rambling (RAMB) and trembling (TREMB) and sample entropy was conducted. Results: Range of TREMB was significantly increased in subjects who experienced anosmia/hyposmia during COVID-19 when the measurement was performed with closed eyes (p = 0.03). In addition, subjects who reported dyspnea during COVID-19 demonstrated significant increase of length and velocity of COP (p < 0.001), RAMB (p < 0.001), and TREMB (p < 0.001), indicating substantial changes in postural control. Conclusions: Subjects who had experienced olfactory dysfunction or respiratory distress during COVID-19 demonstrate symptoms of balance deficits after COVID-19 recovery, and the analysis using rambling-trembling decomposition method might point at less efficient peripheral control. Monitoring for neurological sequelae of COVID-19 should be considered. Full article
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Article
Cross-Sectional Study to Evaluate Knowledge on Hand Hygiene in a Pandemic Context with SARS-CoV-2
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020304 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The basis of any infection control program is hand hygiene (HH). The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge of HH among medical students. Materials and Methods: Students were randomly selected from two Romanian universities and a [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The basis of any infection control program is hand hygiene (HH). The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge of HH among medical students. Materials and Methods: Students were randomly selected from two Romanian universities and a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted between January and May 2021. The answers regarding demographic data and knowledge concerning the methods, the time and the antiseptics used for HH were collected. The selection of the study group was made according to selection criteria in accordance with ethical issues. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed, and a chi-square test was used for data comparison, with a cut-off point of 0.05 for statistical significance. Results: The results indicated that the attitude of the students towards the practice of HH improved significantly. Most students believe that simple HH can control infections. Significant differences were found by the year of study in terms of the hand surfaces included and recommended duration (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, the study shows that most respondents have sufficient knowledge on HH, meaning that a higher compliance is required to control infections. The indicated reasons of non-compliance with HH are emergencies and other priorities. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Daily Change in PaO2/FiO2 Ratio as a Predictor of Abnormal Chest X-rays in Intensive Care Unit Patients Post Mechanical Ventilation Weaning: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020303 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The routine daily chest X-ray (CXR) strategy is no longer recommended in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, it is difficult for intensivists to collectively accept the on-demand CXR strategy because of the ambiguous clinical criteria for conducting CXRs. This [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The routine daily chest X-ray (CXR) strategy is no longer recommended in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, it is difficult for intensivists to collectively accept the on-demand CXR strategy because of the ambiguous clinical criteria for conducting CXRs. This study evaluated the predictive value of the change in PaO2/FiO2 (PF ratio) for abnormal CXR findings in ICU patients after mechanical ventilation (MV). Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2016 and March 2021 on ICU patients with MV who had at least 48 h of MV, and stayed at least 72 h in the ICU post-MV. Routine daily CXRs and daily changes in the PF ratios were investigated during the three days post-MV. Results: The 186 patients included in the study had a median age of 77 years (interquartile range: 65–82), and 116 (62.4%) were men. One hundred and eight (58.1%) patients had abnormal CXR findings, defined as one or more abnormal CXRs among the daily CXRs during the three days post-extubation. The reintubation rate was higher in the abnormal CXR group (p = 0.01). Of the 558 CXRs (normal = 418, abnormal = 140) and PF ratios, the daily change in PF ratio had a significant predictive accuracy for abnormal CXR findings (AUROC = 0.741, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The change in PF ratio (the Youden index point: ≤−23) had a sensitivity of 65.7%, and a specificity of 79.9%. Based on these results, the daily change in the PF ratio could be utilized as a predictive indicator of abnormal CXRs in ICU patients after MV treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pulmonary)
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Article
Comparison of Core Muscle Asymmetry Using Spine Balance 3D in Patients with Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: A STROBE-Compliant Cross-Sectional Study
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020302 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Joint immobilization after shoulder surgery can cause an imbalance in the periscapular muscles and affect the kinetic chain throughout the body. There is a difference in core muscle stability because of the asymmetry of the lower extremity muscles. However, [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Joint immobilization after shoulder surgery can cause an imbalance in the periscapular muscles and affect the kinetic chain throughout the body. There is a difference in core muscle stability because of the asymmetry of the lower extremity muscles. However, the difference due to the asymmetry of the upper-extremity muscles has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of joint immobilization on the symmetry of the core muscles involved in proximal stability for distal mobility. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients who underwent arthroscopic shoulder surgery participated in this study. Core muscle asymmetry (CMA) was measured using a body tilt device. The evaluation variables were analyzed according to the surgical site based on the direction of the core muscle ratio and core muscle state ratio. Results: No differences in CMA were found based on the surgical site (p > 0.05). As a result of the additional subanalysis, significant differences in sex and postoperative day were established (p < 0.05). CMA was low during the intensive postoperative rehabilitation period. However, sex-related differences were greater in males than in females. Conclusions: The clinical results suggest that core muscle training is necessary to reduce CMA during rehabilitation after the immobilization period has elapsed. Full article
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Systematic Review
The Usefulness of Serological Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Rotator Cuff Disease—A Systematic Review
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020301 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 812
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Rotator cuff disease (RCD) is a prominent musculoskeletal pain condition that spans a variety of pathologies. The etiology and precise diagnostic criteria of this condition remain unclear. The current practice of investigating the biochemical status of RCD is by [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Rotator cuff disease (RCD) is a prominent musculoskeletal pain condition that spans a variety of pathologies. The etiology and precise diagnostic criteria of this condition remain unclear. The current practice of investigating the biochemical status of RCD is by conducting biopsy studies but their invasiveness is a major limitation. Recent biochemical studies on RCD demonstrate the potential application of serological tests for evaluating the disease which may benefit future clinical applications and research. This systematic review is to summarize the results of available studies on serological biochemical investigations in patients with RCD. Methods: An electronic search on databases PubMed and Virtual Health Library was conducted from inception to 1 September 2021. The inclusion criteria were case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies with serological biochemical investigations on humans with RCD. Methodological quality was assessed using the Study Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional studies from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Results: A total of 6008 records were found in the databases; of these, 163 full-text studies were checked for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Nine eligible studies involving 984 subjects with RCD emerged from this systematic review. The quality of the studies found ranged from poor to moderate. In summarizing all the studies, several fatty acids, nonprotein nitrogen, interleukin-1 β, interleukin-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor were found to be significantly higher in blood samples of patients with RCD than with control group patients, while Omega-3 Intex, vitamin B12, vitamin D, phosphorus, interleukin-10, and angiogenin were observed to be significantly lower. Conclusions: This is the first systematic review to summarize current serological studies in patients with RCD. Results of the studies reflect several systemic physiological changes in patients with RCD, which may prove helpful to better understand the complex pathology of RCD. In addition, the results also indicate the possibility of using serological tests in order to evaluate RCD; however, further longitudinal studies are required. Full article
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Review
Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia spp.) Cladodes as a Functional Ingredient for Hyperglycemia Management: A Brief Narrative Review
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020300 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 771
Abstract
The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing along with its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a pathophysiological perspective, T2DM arises as a consequence of insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, which together induce chronic hyperglycemia. The pharmacological treatment of T2DM [...] Read more.
The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing along with its comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a pathophysiological perspective, T2DM arises as a consequence of insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, which together induce chronic hyperglycemia. The pharmacological treatment of T2DM specifically focuses on its management, rather than remission, with a lack of pharmacological agents to prevent the onset of the disease. Considering the role of unhealthy dietary patterns on the development of T2DM, identifying novel food ingredients and bioactive substances may provide new avenues by which to address the T2DM epidemic. In this brief review, we have summarized the latest findings on the consumption of the prickly pear (PP; Opuntia spp.) cladode as a potential nutritional tool for the management of hyperglycemia. The consumption of prickly pear cladodes was reported to exert hypoglycemic effects, making it a potential cost-effective nutritional intervention for the management of T2DM. Several studies have demonstrated that the consumption of prickly pear cladodes and the related products reduced post-prandial glucose levels. The cladodes’ high fiber content may be implicated in improving glycemic control, by affecting glucose absorption and effectively slowing its release into the blood circulation. Given these potential hypoglycemic effects, prickly pear cladodes may represent a potential functional food ingredient to improve glycemic control and counter the negative metabolic effects of the modern Western diet. Nonetheless, in consideration of the lack of evidence on the chronic effects of the prickly pear cladode, future research aimed at evaluating its long-term effects on glycemic control is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance)
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Review
Atherosclerosis Development and Progression: The Role of Atherogenic Small, Dense LDL
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020299 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 536
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is responsible for large cardiovascular mortality in many countries globally. It has been shown over the last decades that the reduction of atherosclerotic progression is a critical factor for preventing future cardiovascular events. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have been successfully targeted, and their [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis is responsible for large cardiovascular mortality in many countries globally. It has been shown over the last decades that the reduction of atherosclerotic progression is a critical factor for preventing future cardiovascular events. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have been successfully targeted, and their reduction is one of the key preventing measures in patients with atherosclerotic disease. LDL particles are pivotal for the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques; yet, they are quite heterogeneous, and smaller, denser LDL species are the most atherogenic. These particles have greater arterial entry and retention, higher susceptibility to oxidation, as well as reduced affinity for the LDL receptor. Increased proportion of small, dense LDL particles is an integral part of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype, the most common form of dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance. Recent data suggest that both genetic and epigenetic factors might induce expression of this specific lipid pattern. In addition, a typical finding of increased small, dense LDL particles was confirmed in different categories of patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. Small, dense LDL is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which emphasizes the clinical importance of both the quality and the quantity of LDL. An effective management of atherosclerotic disease should take into account the presence of small, dense LDL in order to prevent cardiovascular complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology)
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