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Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) during Storage, as Evaluated by Headspace Gas Chromatography–Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Principal Component Analysis

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Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Health Risk Factors for Seafood, Collaborative Innovation Center of Seafood Deep Processing, College of Food and Pharmacy, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China
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International Center of Excellence in Seafood Science and Innovation, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
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Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (DAFE), Pisa University, Via del Borghetto, 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
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College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
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Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Lingnan Specialty Food Science and Technology, College of Light Industry and Food, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China
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Academy of Contemporary Agricultural Engineering Innovations, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China
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Longyou Aquaculture Development Center, Agricultural and Rural Bureau of Longyou County, Quzhou 324000, China
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School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Federico Marini and Alessandra Biancolillo
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2917; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122917
Received: 22 October 2021 / Revised: 18 November 2021 / Accepted: 22 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
The large yellow croaker is one of the most economically important fish in Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province, and is well known for its high protein and fat contents, fresh and tender meat, and soft taste. However, the mechanisms involved in its flavor changes during storage have yet to be revealed, although lipid oxidation has been considered to be one important process in determining such changes. Thus, to explore the changes in the flavor of large yellow croaker fish meat during different storage periods, the main physical and chemical characteristics of the fish meat, including the acid value, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, conjugated diene value, and identities of the various flavor substances, were investigated and analyzed by multivariable methods, including headspace gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) and principal component analysis (PCA). It was found that after 60 d storage, the types and contents of the aldehyde and ketone aroma components increased significantly, while after 120 d, the contents of ketones (2-butanone), alcohols (1-propanethiol), and aldehydes (n-nonanal) decreased significantly. More specifically, aldehyde components dominated over ketones and lipids, while the n-nonanal content showed a downward trend during storage, and the 3-methylbutanol (trimer), 3-methylbutanol (dimer, D), 3-pentanone (D), and 3-pentanone (monomer) contents increased, whereas these compounds were identified as the key components affecting the fish meat flavor. Furthermore, after 120 d storage, the number of different flavor components reached its highest value, thereby confirming that the storage time influences the flavor of large yellow croaker fish. In this context, it should be noted that many of these compounds form through the Maillard reaction to accelerate the deterioration of fish meat. It was also found that after storage for 120 d, the physical indices of large yellow croaker meat showed significant changes, and its physicochemical properties varied. These results therefore demonstrate that a combination of GC-IMS and PCA can be used to identify the differences in flavor components present in fish meat during storage. Our study provides useful knowledge for understanding the different flavors associated with fish meat products during and following storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea); electronic nose; gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry; peroxidation value; volatile organic compounds large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea); electronic nose; gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry; peroxidation value; volatile organic compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, T.; Benjakul, S.; Sanmartin, C.; Ying, X.; Ma, L.; Xiao, G.; Yu, J.; Liu, G.; Deng, S. Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) during Storage, as Evaluated by Headspace Gas Chromatography–Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Principal Component Analysis. Foods 2021, 10, 2917. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122917

AMA Style

Zhao T, Benjakul S, Sanmartin C, Ying X, Ma L, Xiao G, Yu J, Liu G, Deng S. Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) during Storage, as Evaluated by Headspace Gas Chromatography–Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Principal Component Analysis. Foods. 2021; 10(12):2917. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122917

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Tengfei, Soottawat Benjakul, Chiara Sanmartin, Xiaoguo Ying, Lukai Ma, Gengsheng Xiao, Jin Yu, Guoqin Liu, and Shanggui Deng. 2021. "Changes of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea) during Storage, as Evaluated by Headspace Gas Chromatography–Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Principal Component Analysis" Foods 10, no. 12: 2917. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122917

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