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Food Integrity Climate in Food Businesses: Conceptualization, Development, and Validation of a Self-Assessment Tool

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Department of Food Technology, Safety and Health, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Food Quality and Design Group, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 17/Bode 30, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Work, Organization and Society, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Henri Dunantlaan 2, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Federico Marini
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061302
Received: 20 May 2021 / Revised: 2 June 2021 / Accepted: 3 June 2021 / Published: 6 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Current scientific research and industry guidelines focus on food safety, aiming to reduce unintentional food contaminations through technological and managerial measures. Due to the deceptive nature of food fraud, the fight to prevent intentional food adulteration and counterfeiting threats requires an approach that goes beyond the common food safety-based strategies and falls into the sphere of food integrity. With food integrity being an emerging discipline, a definition was proposed and the concept of food integrity climate was introduced. A food integrity climate (FIC) self-assessment tool in the form of a questionnaire, with twenty indicators and a five-point Likert rating scale was developed, expert-validated, and tested in practice in a large-scale meat distribution company. The questionnaire was designed to measure the performance level of food integrity in food businesses along the supply chain through managers’ and operators’ perceptions. Minor but interesting differences were found in the food integrity climate perceived between managers and operators as well as among the company’s affiliates. The tool helps food businesses to get a deeper insight on the human dimension behind food integrity through the assessment of five climate components in relation to four food integrity elements, identifying strengths and weaknesses regarding a company’s food integrity climate. View Full-Text
Keywords: food integrity; food integrity climate; food safety climate; self-assessment tool food integrity; food integrity climate; food safety climate; self-assessment tool
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alrobaish, W.S.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Vlerick, P. Food Integrity Climate in Food Businesses: Conceptualization, Development, and Validation of a Self-Assessment Tool. Foods 2021, 10, 1302. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061302

AMA Style

Alrobaish WS, Jacxsens L, Luning PA, Vlerick P. Food Integrity Climate in Food Businesses: Conceptualization, Development, and Validation of a Self-Assessment Tool. Foods. 2021; 10(6):1302. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061302

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alrobaish, Waeel S., Liesbeth Jacxsens, Pieternel A. Luning, and Peter Vlerick. 2021. "Food Integrity Climate in Food Businesses: Conceptualization, Development, and Validation of a Self-Assessment Tool" Foods 10, no. 6: 1302. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061302

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