Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases in Veterinary Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 July 2024 | Viewed by 23455

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. PerNaturam GmbH, 56290 Gödenroth, Germany
2. Avian and Rabbit Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Menofia Governorate 32897, Egypt
3. Prophy-Institute for Applied Prophylaxis, 59159 Bönen, Germany
Interests: natural products: extraction, biological activities; avian diseases: epidemiology and molecular epidemiology; development and evaluation of vaccines (molecular-based, inactivated, and live attenuated)
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Department Chemie, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstraße 4, 85747 Garching, Germany
Interests: natural products: isolation, structures, biosynthesis, biological action; bacteria: metabolism, target identification, biotechnology, exploitation; plants: metabolism, terpenoids, biotechnology, exploitation; methods: metabolic profiling, pathway profiling, stable isotopes, target identification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Animal production relies heavily on intestinal health and functioning to maximize nutrient uptake and growth, which in turn is associated with animal performance. The tractable strategies targeting the regulation of intestinal microbiota can control several diseases that are closely related to inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Additionally, secret killers in animal such as dysbiosis, leaky gut, heat stress, mycotoxins, endotoxins, and dietary factors (oxidized diet) cause chronic stress that is usually associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in animal. Both oxidative stress and inflammation are multistage processes, and it is possible that the immune system is somehow involved, which impairs animal performance.

In this Special Issue of Veterinary Sciences, we would like to invite authors to submit original manuscripts with the proposed topics. Submissions of original research, reviews of the current scientific literature, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and short reports is welcomed. We believe that this Special Issue on “Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals” will highlight the most recent advances in in vitro and in vivo applications of nutraceuticals such as phytogenic substances, prebiotics, and probiotics to mitigate the secret killers in animal. Additionally, we expect that this Special Issue will explore the mechanism of action as well as the challenges and prospects of nutraceutical applications.  

Prof. Dr. Awad Shehata
Prof. Dr. Guillermo Tellez-Isaias
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Eisenreich
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • alternative antimicrobials 
  • antioxidants 
  • anti-inflammatory 
  • antiviral 
  • dysbiosis 
  • extraction 
  • heat stress 
  • inflammation 
  • leaky gut 
  • medicinal plants 
  • mycotoxins/endotoxins 
  • oxidative stress 
  • phytogenic substances 
  • prebiotics 
  • probiotics

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 199 KiB  
Editorial
Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals
by Guillermo Tellez-Isaias, Wolfgang Eisenreich and Awad A. Shehata
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080435 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
In the past few years, the concept of “gut health” has established itself as a norm in the scientific literature and animal production [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals)

Research

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11 pages, 1155 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Assessment of Postbiotic and Probiotic Commercial Dietary Supplements Recommended for Counteracting Intestinal Dysbiosis in Dogs
by Benedetta Belà, Maria Magdalena Coman, Maria Cristina Verdenelli, Alessandro Gramenzi, Giulia Pignataro, Dennis Fiorini and Stefania Silvi
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11010019 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Many environmental aspects influence the preservation of a beneficial microbiome in dogs, and gut dysbiosis occurs when imbalances in the intestinal ecosystem cause functional changes in the microbial populations. The authors evaluated the effects of two specific commercial dietary supplements: a combination of [...] Read more.
Many environmental aspects influence the preservation of a beneficial microbiome in dogs, and gut dysbiosis occurs when imbalances in the intestinal ecosystem cause functional changes in the microbial populations. The authors evaluated the effects of two specific commercial dietary supplements: a combination of a postbiotic and prebiotics (Microbiotal cane®) and a probiotic product (NBF 1®) recommended for counteracting intestinal dysbiosis in dogs, on the gut canine microbiota composition and its metabolic activities (production of short-chain fatty acids). The investigation was performed using an in vitro fermentation system inoculated with dog fecal samples. Microbiotal cane® promoted a more immediate increase in Lactobacillus spp. after the first 6 h of fermentation, whereas NBF 1® promoted the increase at the end of the process only. The two supplements supported an increase in the Bifidobacterium spp. counts only after 24 h. The in vitro abilities of Microbiotal cane® and NBF 1® to increase selectively beneficial bacterial groups producing acetic, propionic, and butyric acids suggest a possible positive effect on the canine gut microbiota, even if further in vivo studies are needed to confirm the beneficial effects on the intestinal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals)
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20 pages, 3399 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Immunomodulatory Effects of Bovine Colostrum: Insights into IL-6/IL-10 Axis-Mediated Inflammatory Control
by Ramunė Grigalevičiūtė, Paulius Matusevičius, Rita Plančiūnienė, Rolandas Stankevičius, Eivina Radzevičiūtė-Valčiukė, Austėja Balevičiūtė, Augustinas Želvys, Auksė Zinkevičienė, Vilma Zigmantaitė, Audrius Kučinskas and Povilas Kavaliauskas
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(8), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10080519 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Bovine colostrum (COL), the first milk secreted by lactating cows postpartum, is a rich source of bioactive compounds that exert a significant role in the survival, growth, and immune development of neonatal calves. This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of COL on cytokine [...] Read more.
Bovine colostrum (COL), the first milk secreted by lactating cows postpartum, is a rich source of bioactive compounds that exert a significant role in the survival, growth, and immune development of neonatal calves. This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of COL on cytokine production in vitro using a Caco-2/THP-1 macrophage co-culture model stimulated with Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). COL pretreatment significantly reduced IL-6 (241.3 pg/mL) production induced by PMA (p < 0.05), while increasing IL-10 production (45.3 pg/mL), in comparison to PMA control (441.1 and 12.5 pg/mL, respectively). Further investigations revealed that the IL-6 suppressive effect of colostrum was heat-sensitive and associated with components of higher molecular mass (100 kDa). Moreover, colostrum primarily influenced THP-1 macrophages rather than Caco-2 epithelial cells. The effects of colostrum on IL-6 production were associated with reduced NF-κB activation in THP-1 macrophages. In calf-FMT transplanted C57BL/6 murine model, colostrum decreased intestinal permeability, reduced immune cell infiltration and intestinal score, and suppressed IL-6 (142.0 pg/mL) production during S. typhimurium infection, in comparison to control animals (215.2 pg/mL). These results suggest the immunomodulatory activity of bovine colostrum and its potential applications in inflammatory disorders. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and validate the findings in bovine models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals)
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18 pages, 324 KiB  
Article
Role of Dietary Inclusion of Phytobiotics and Mineral Adsorbent Combination on Dairy Cows′ Milk Production, Nutrient Digestibility, Nitrogen Utilization, and Biochemical Parameters
by Nikolai P. Buryakov, Larisa V. Sycheva, Vladimir I. Trukhachev, Anastasiya S. Zaikina, Maria A. Buryakova, Ilia N. Nikonov, Alexander S. Petrov, Andrey V. Kravchenko, Mohamed M. Fathala, Ivan K. Medvedev and Dmitrii E. Aleshin
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(3), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10030238 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2410
Abstract
Our research purpose was to study the effect of the inclusion of a combination of phytobiotics in the form of dry Fucus vesiculosus grits (FG) and a mineral adsorbent from the heat-treated mineral shungite (TMS) on milk productivity, nutrient digestibility, and biochemical parameters [...] Read more.
Our research purpose was to study the effect of the inclusion of a combination of phytobiotics in the form of dry Fucus vesiculosus grits (FG) and a mineral adsorbent from the heat-treated mineral shungite (TMS) on milk productivity, nutrient digestibility, and biochemical parameters of the Suksun dairy cows. A total of 80 dry-hardy cows of the Suksun breed were divided into four groups (20 heads each), balanced primarily by breed, age, body weight, body condition score, and indicators of milk yield for the previous lactation. The selected cows were with an average live body weight of 512.0 ± 1.28 kg, BCS 3.0–3.5, and parities of 6250 kg milk. The control group (CON) were fed the basic ration only; the second (TMS), third (FG), and fourth (TMS + FG) groups were fed the basic ration provided by 50 g of the mineral adsorbent from heat-treated shungite, 100 g of Fucus grits (Fucus vesiculosus), 50 g of the mineral adsorbent from heat-treated shungite, and 100 g of dry grits from Fucus vesiculosus, respectively. The total protein content in milk was significantly higher in the group receiving Fucus vesiculosus by 0.05% and the group receiving a combination of mineral adsorbent and Fucus vesiculosus by 0.03%. The percentage of milk fat content recorded the highest significant value in (TMS) group when compared to the control and represented (4.37 vs. 3.95). The group of cows that received (TMS + FG) revealed a significant difference in the digestibility of both ether extract and crude fiber when compared to the control group and represented (54.74 vs. 51.71 and 60.68 vs. 55.15%), respectively. The cows supplemented with a mineral adsorbent or a combination of mineral adsorbent and Fucus vesiculosus revealed a significant difference in the digestibility of ether extract and crude fiber in the group receiving TMS + FG by 3.0% (p < 0.05) and 5.5% (p < 0.05), respectively. The intake of nitrogen with the diet increased in (FG) and (TMS + FG) groups by 11.3 g (p < 0.05) and 13.4 g (p < 0.05) of nitrogen. There was an increase (p < 0.05) in the concentration of rumen ammonia in the control group compared to the other groups. The glucose content of those cows that received FG and TMS + FG combination increased (p < 0.05) by 0.76 mmol/L and 0.90 mmol/l in relation to the control group. The globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, and the level of triglycerides revealed a significant difference between the different experimental groups. In brief, the inclusion of a combination of phytobiotics in the form of dry Fucus vesiculosus grits and a mineral adsorbent from the heat-treated mineral shungite in Suksun dairy cows’ diets improved milk composition, digestibility of nutrients, utilization of nitrogen, and did not cause deleterious effects on blood biochemical indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals)
18 pages, 354 KiB  
Article
The Role of Supplementing a Complex Phytobiotic Feed Additive Containing (Castanea sativa mill) Extract in Combination with Calcium Butyrate, Zinc–Methionine and Essential Oils on Growth Indicators, Blood Profile and Carcass Quality of Broiler Chickens
by Nikolai P. Buryakov, Artem Yu. Zagarin, Mohamed M. Fathala and Dmitrii E. Aleshin
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(3), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10030212 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2660
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of application and effectiveness of the use of vegetable feed additives from complex phytobiotic feed additives (CPFA) in the diets of broiler chickens, as well as their effects on growth indicators, carcass characters [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of application and effectiveness of the use of vegetable feed additives from complex phytobiotic feed additives (CPFA) in the diets of broiler chickens, as well as their effects on growth indicators, carcass characters and blood profile. A total of 258 Ross 308 chicks were divided into six dietary regimens, including: a basal diet without additives as a first control group (CON); the second group received a basal diet supplemented with 200 g/t in the starter phase and 100 g/t in the grower and finisher phase; the third group—400 g/t and 200 g/t; the fourth group—600 g/t and 300 g/t; the fifth group—800 g/t and 400 g/t; and the sixth group—1000 g/t and 500 g/t of a complex phytobiotic supplement based on tannins, respectively. The CPFA contains the following: tannins 36.8–55.2%, eugenol 0.4–0.6%, cinnamon aldehyde 0.8–1.2%, zinc–methionine 1.6–2.4%, calcium butyrate 8–12%, silicon dioxide 1.2–1.8% and dextrose up to 100%. The maximum introduction of phytobiotics (1000 g/t) at 7 days of age leads to a decrease in the live weight of broilers which reduced by 8.27% (p < 0.05) compared to the minimum level of phytobiotics (200 g/t). From 15–21 days, the live weight was significant between the supplemented and control groups and represented 396.21, 384.81 and 384.16 vs. 316.91 g for the CPFA 4, CPFA 5, CPFA 1 and control group, respectively. Furthermore, the same trend was recorded in the average daily gain during the periods between 15–21 and 22–28 days of the experiment. Feeding CPFA had a positive effect on the carcass indicators, except for the feeding of CPFA 3 in the amount of 600 g/t in the starter phase and 300 g/t in the grower and finish phases, which recorded the lowest weight in relation to the CPFA 1 and 2 groups and represented 1309.58 vs. 1460.06 and 1456.52 g, respectively, and the difference was significant. The inclusion of CPFA in poultry diets contributed to an increase in lung mass in the experimental groups relative to the control group, except for the CPFA 5 group which represented the lowest weight of lung mass (6.51 g) and the differences were significant between the CPFA 2 and CPFA 3 and the control groups. The highest concentration of leukocytes was observed during the experiment period in the group of poultry receiving phytobiotics (CPFA 3), which significantly exceeded the control group by 2.37 × 109/L. A significant decrease in the level of cholesterol was recorded in the CPFA groups when compared to the control group and represented 2.83 vs. 3.55 mmol/L, respectively. Consequently, the introduction of vegetable feed additives from complex phytobiotic feed additives (CPFA) in the diets of Ross 308 chicks had a positive effect on the growth production, the carcass yield, the mass of the pectoral muscles and the mass of the lungs. Moreover, it did not cause a harmful effect on the biochemical parameters of the blood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals)
16 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Impact of Supplementing Phytobiotics as a Substitute for Antibiotics in Broiler Chicken Feed on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Biochemical Parameters
by Anastasiya S. Zaikina, Nikolai P. Buryakov, Maria A. Buryakova, Artem Yu. Zagarin, Artem A. Razhev and Dmitrii E. Aleshin
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120672 - 3 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2406
Abstract
To determine the level of application and the effectiveness of the use of plant feed additives from sweet chestnut wood extract (Castanea Sativa Mill) in the diet of Cobb-500 cross broiler chickens, four groups were formed via the balanced groups method. [...] Read more.
To determine the level of application and the effectiveness of the use of plant feed additives from sweet chestnut wood extract (Castanea Sativa Mill) in the diet of Cobb-500 cross broiler chickens, four groups were formed via the balanced groups method. The chickens in the experimental groups were supplemented with sweet chestnut wood extract in the main diet rather than a feed antibiotic at an amount of 500 g per ton of compound starter feed and 250 g per ton of grower and finisher in the second experimental group; 650 g per ton of compound starter feed and 325 g per ton of grower and finisher in the third experimental group; and 800 g per ton of compound starter feed and 400 g per ton of grower and finisher in the fourth experimental group. Supplementation with phytobiotics led to an increase in the digestibility of the dry matter in the second and third groups compared to the first experimental group. Furthermore, broiler chickens supplemented with a medium dose of phytobiotics revealed a significant difference in both crude protein and fiber when compared to the second experimental group (91.95% and 12.11% vs. 88.98% and 10.07%, respectively). The preslaughter weight of the birds in the phytobiotics supplemented groups was higher than in those fed with the lowest dosage of phytobiotic by 5.47%, and the difference was significant. There were no significant differences in terms of the blood biochemical parameters between the groups. In summary, the inclusion of plant feed additives from sweet chestnut wood extract as a substitute for an antibacterial drug in the diet of broiler chickens did not deteriorate the blood biochemical parameters and improved the intensity of the nutrient digestion process. As a result, it enhanced the quality indicators of the broiler carcass during the entire growth period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals)

Review

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15 pages, 624 KiB  
Review
Use of Monoglycerides and Diglycerides to Mitigate Poultry Production Losses: A Review
by Stacie R. Appleton, Anne Ballou and Kevin L. Watkins
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11030101 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2018
Abstract
Consumer preference dictates not only what food is consumed but also how that food is produced. Ingredients in livestock feed that are not antibiotics, not genetically modified, and not of animal origin but that are nutrient-like tend to be more acceptable to consumers, [...] Read more.
Consumer preference dictates not only what food is consumed but also how that food is produced. Ingredients in livestock feed that are not antibiotics, not genetically modified, and not of animal origin but that are nutrient-like tend to be more acceptable to consumers, retailers, and producers. Mono- and diglycerides (MDG) fit these criteria, are commonly used in food, and are generally recognized as safe. But beyond being emulsifiers and a source of energy, MDG are also known to have antimicrobial, immune, and microbiome modulation and angiogenic activity. MDG in broiler diets have been shown to impact a variety of immune-related functions such as the regulation of circulating antibodies, as well as decreased gene expression or protein concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ. In addition, MDG can affect metabolic function and intestinal integrity. Results of this review show that MDG can serve as antimicrobial and growth-supporting alternatives for reducing poultry production losses, improving resource utilization and meeting consumer demand for sustainably produced and safe animal protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals)
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22 pages, 451 KiB  
Review
The Use of Fruit and Vegetable by-Products as Enhancers of Health Status of Piglets after Weaning: The Role of Bioactive Compounds from Apple and Carrot Industrial Wastes
by Gina Cecilia Pistol, Ana-Maria Pertea and Ionelia Taranu
Vet. Sci. 2024, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci11010015 - 28 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2265
Abstract
At weaning, piglets are exposed to a large variety of stressors, from environmental/behavioral factors to nutritional stress. Weaning transition affects the gastrointestinal tract especially, resulting in specific disturbances at the level of intestinal morphology, barrier function and integrity, mucosal immunity and gut microbiota. [...] Read more.
At weaning, piglets are exposed to a large variety of stressors, from environmental/behavioral factors to nutritional stress. Weaning transition affects the gastrointestinal tract especially, resulting in specific disturbances at the level of intestinal morphology, barrier function and integrity, mucosal immunity and gut microbiota. All these alterations are associated with intestinal inflammation, oxidative stress and perturbation of intracellular signaling pathways. The nutritional management of the weaning period aims to achieve the reinforcement of intestinal integrity and functioning to positively modulate the intestinal immunity and that of the gut microbiota and to enhance the health status of piglets. That is why the current research is focused on the raw materials rich in phytochemicals which could positively modulate animal health. The composition analysis of fruit, vegetable and their by-products showed that identified phytochemicals could act as bioactive compounds, which can be used as modulators of weaning-induced disturbances in piglets. This review describes nutritional studies which investigated the effects of bioactive compounds derived from fruit (apple) and vegetables (carrot) or their by-products on the intestinal architecture and function, inflammatory processes and oxidative stress at the intestinal level. Data on the associated signaling pathways and on the microbiota modulation by bioactive compounds from these by-products are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals)
29 pages, 2262 KiB  
Review
Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidative Phytogenic Substances against Secret Killers in Poultry: Current Status and Prospects
by Shereen Basiouni, Guillermo Tellez-Isaias, Juan D. Latorre, Brittany D. Graham, Victor M. Petrone-Garcia, Hesham R. El-Seedi, Sakine Yalçın, Amr Abd El-Wahab, Christian Visscher, Helen L. May-Simera, Claudia Huber, Wolfgang Eisenreich and Awad A. Shehata
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010055 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4705
Abstract
Chronic stress is recognized as a secret killer in poultry. It is associated with systemic inflammation due to cytokine release, dysbiosis, and the so-called leaky gut syndrome, which mainly results from oxidative stress reactions that damage the barrier function of the cells lining [...] Read more.
Chronic stress is recognized as a secret killer in poultry. It is associated with systemic inflammation due to cytokine release, dysbiosis, and the so-called leaky gut syndrome, which mainly results from oxidative stress reactions that damage the barrier function of the cells lining the gut wall. Poultry, especially the genetically selected broiler breeds, frequently suffer from these chronic stress symptoms when exposed to multiple stressors in their growing environments. Since oxidative stress reactions and inflammatory damages are multi-stage and long-term processes, overshooting immune reactions and their down-stream effects also negatively affect the animal’s microbiota, and finally impair its performance and commercial value. Means to counteract oxidative stress in poultry and other animals are, therefore, highly welcome. Many phytogenic substances, including flavonoids and phenolic compounds, are known to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In this review, firstly, the main stressors in poultry, such as heat stress, mycotoxins, dysbiosis and diets that contain oxidized lipids that trigger oxidative stress and inflammation, are discussed, along with the key transcription factors involved in the related signal transduction pathways. Secondly, the most promising phytogenic substances and their current applications to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in poultry are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals)
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