E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Topical Collection "Sustainable Built Environment"

Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Manuel Duarte Pinheiro

CEris—Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability, Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources, Tecnico, Lisbon University, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sustainable built environment; sustainable construction; environment impact; environment management; life cycle assessment; energy life cycle; sustainable management; sustainable tourism

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The construction, operation, refurbishment, and end-of-life of the built environment are responsible for a full set of environmental impacts (land use, biodiversity damages, energy consumption, carbon emission, material and water consumption), as well as social and economic impacts.

Considering that the built environment has a large impact, it could also be an opportunity to lower negative impacts and provide an important contribution to sustainable development; namely, better approaches and assessments, materials, buildings, infrastructure and urban areas.

This Special Issue on “Sustainable Built Environment” is a response to the growing demand for a sustainable built environment and the urgent need for publishing current thinking, research, and case studies on the matter.

This Special Issue focuses on papers that identify and analyze better approaches to the sustainable built environment, tools, assessment models (environment, social and economic), solutions and case studies (urban area, infrastructure, buildings, and materials), best practices analyses, and their limitations.

Contributors from academia, designers, software producers, and managers that allow a broad perspective and wide-ranging approaches and discussions on the sustainable built environment are welcomed. Papers submitted to this Special Issue are of interest to all those involved in activities across the sustainable built environment and related sectors.

Prof. Dr. Manuel Duarte Pinheiro
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable Built Environment
  • Sustainable Buildings
  • Sustainable Urban Areas
  • Green Buildings
  • Near Zero Energy Buildings
  • Sustainable Building Materials
  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • Life Cycle Costs
  • Social Life Cycle Assessment
  • Sustainable Assessment System

Published Papers (31 papers)

2018

Jump to: 2017

Open AccessArticle Performance-Based Evaluation of Courtyard Design in China’s Cold-Winter Hot-Summer Climate Regions
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3950; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113950
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
PDF Full-text (6387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A courtyard is a traditional and popular construction feature found in China’s urban buildings. This case study evaluates the performance of the traditional courtyard design of the Jiangnan Museum, located in Jiangsu Province. In the evaluation, the spatial layout of courtyards is adjusted,
[...] Read more.
A courtyard is a traditional and popular construction feature found in China’s urban buildings. This case study evaluates the performance of the traditional courtyard design of the Jiangnan Museum, located in Jiangsu Province. In the evaluation, the spatial layout of courtyards is adjusted, the aspect ratio is changed, and an ecological buffer space is created. To model and evaluate the performance of the courtyard design, this study applied the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series (PHOENICS), for wind environment simulation, and the EnergyPlus-based software, DesignBuilder, for energy simulation. Results show that a good combination of courtyard layout and aspect ratio can improve the use of natural ventilation by increasing free cooling during hot summers and reducing cold wind in winters. The results also show that ecological buffer areas of a courtyard can reduce cooling loads in summer by approximately 19.6% and heating loads in winter by approximately 22.3%. The study provides insights into the optimal design of a courtyard to maximize its benefit in regulating the microclimate during both winter and summer. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Using Location Quotients to Determine Public–Natural Space Spatial Patterns: A Zurich Model
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3462; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103462
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
PDF Full-text (4902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The layout relationship between the public space system and the natural system of cities determines the trend of urban spatial forms. From the perspective of the integration of landscape architecture and urban design discipline, this paper generalizes three restriction/dependence relationship modes between urban
[...] Read more.
The layout relationship between the public space system and the natural system of cities determines the trend of urban spatial forms. From the perspective of the integration of landscape architecture and urban design discipline, this paper generalizes three restriction/dependence relationship modes between urban public space and natural landscape layout: (1) overlapping mode, (2) separation mode, and (3) the mode of edge combination. Using Zurich, Switzerland, as a case study, this paper quantitatively explores the layout relationship between public space and natural landscape using the location quotient method. The research findings reveal an obvious layer distribution trend of Zurich urban public space and natural factors: the public space and mountain layout have a clear separation relationship. The regressive equation is PQ = −0.188lnMQ + 0.660, forming the mutually supplementary mechanism of the advantageous resources of public activities. The Zurich model shows that when a proper relationship is established among the natural system and the urban public space, human activities, and the public activity centers of the city, the new system provides significant ecological and social benefits. This finding provides an exemplary reference for urban construction in other countries. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Industrial or Traditional Bamboo Construction? Comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Bamboo-Based Buildings
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3096; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093096
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
PDF Full-text (2387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The past five decades have witnessed an unprecedented growth in population. This has led to an ever-growing housing demand. It has been proposed that the use of bio-based materials, and specifically bamboo, can help alleviate the housing demand in a sustainable manner. The
[...] Read more.
The past five decades have witnessed an unprecedented growth in population. This has led to an ever-growing housing demand. It has been proposed that the use of bio-based materials, and specifically bamboo, can help alleviate the housing demand in a sustainable manner. The present paper aims to assess the environmental impact caused by using four different construction materials (bamboo, brick, concrete hollow block, and engineered bamboo) in buildings. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to measure the environmental impact of the different construction materials in the construction of single and multi-storey buildings. The LCA considered the extraction, production, transport, and use of the construction materials. The IPCC2013 evaluation method from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC2013 was used for the calculations of CO2 emissions. The assessment was geographically located in Colombia, South America, and estimates the transport distances of the construction materials. The results show that transportation and reinforcing materials significantly contribute to the environmental impact, whereas the engineered bamboo construction system has the lowest environmental impact. The adoption of bamboo-based construction systems has a significant potential to support the regenerative development of regions where they could be used and might lead to long-lasting improvements to economies, environments, and livelihoods. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle How Do Community Planning Features Affect the Place Relationship of Residents? An Investigation of Place Attachment, Social Interaction, and Community Participation
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2726; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082726
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
PDF Full-text (7612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Outdoor environment can have significant connections with place relationships. This study tried to explore the connection in detail. First, the relationship was examined through an integrated view of environmental planning, followed by reviewing impacts of essential elements from the outdoor environment on place
[...] Read more.
Outdoor environment can have significant connections with place relationships. This study tried to explore the connection in detail. First, the relationship was examined through an integrated view of environmental planning, followed by reviewing impacts of essential elements from the outdoor environment on place relationships. Residents of three public housing communities in Taiwan were surveyed. Each community had a different layout: alley, cluster, and large courtyard. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that outdoor community planning features can be grouped into four factors: outdoor space quality, circulation planning, outdoor recreational facilities, and community layout. Canonical correlation analyses indicate different combinations of these factors were connected to diverse combinations of place relationship dimensions. More importantly, higher levels of satisfaction toward outdoor space quality as well as community layout were associated with greater place attachment and less community participation. Higher levels of satisfaction with circulation planning were connected to greater place attachment and community participation, and less social interaction. Multiple regression analyses found the associations between the community planning features and place relationship dimensions differed among the alley, cluster, and large courtyard. These findings can help planners and architects design public housing and similar communities that better enhance the emotional and social experiences of the inhabitants. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Visual Analysis of the Height Ratio between Building and Background Vegetation. Two Rural Cases of Study: Spain and Sweden
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2593; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082593
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 21 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
PDF Full-text (30862 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The perception of apparent sizes of buildings in a rural environment depends on the height ratio between the building and its surrounding vegetation, and it is this parameter which is currently used to assess the built landscapes. The impact of a contrasting height
[...] Read more.
The perception of apparent sizes of buildings in a rural environment depends on the height ratio between the building and its surrounding vegetation, and it is this parameter which is currently used to assess the built landscapes. The impact of a contrasting height is less strong if the building does not exceed the horizon line. For buildings overshooting the skyline, the building’s level of sharpness and number of lines in contrast to the sky determines the impact of the scales, and vegetation in the background helps to reduce impact. The specific objectives of the present study were: (1) finding height–ratio thresholds between building and background vegetation, which may improve the integration of rural buildings in sky-sensitive locations, and; (2) comparing the results in two rural contexts with very different climatic conditions: Spain and Sweden. A survey of eighteen scenarios (nine Spanish and nine Swedish), all digitally modified with different relative height ratios between vegetation and buildings, was performed. The survey was evaluated by the public from both countries. Regardless of the country of origin, integration of the building was good or very good when the vegetation in background did not exceed one half of the height of the construction. These results may be translated to technical criteria for planning assessment. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Flagships of the Dutch Welfare State in Transformation: A Transformation Framework for Balancing Sustainability and Cultural Values in Energy-Efficient Renovation of Postwar Walk-Up Apartment Buildings
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2562; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072562
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
PDF Full-text (4777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing energy efficiency of the housing stock is one of the largest challenges in the built environment today. In line with the international Paris-Climate-Change-Conference 2015, Dutch municipalities and housing associations have embraced the ambition to achieve carbon neutrality for their social housing stock
[...] Read more.
Increasing energy efficiency of the housing stock is one of the largest challenges in the built environment today. In line with the international Paris-Climate-Change-Conference 2015, Dutch municipalities and housing associations have embraced the ambition to achieve carbon neutrality for their social housing stock by 2050. However, most deep renovation designs for increasing the energy efficiency of dwellings focus on the relatively easy portion of the housing stock: postwar row housing. Furthermore, such design solutions are mostly produced without much care for architectural quality and cultural heritage, nor for testing for consumer preferences. Yet, such aspects are of major importance in tenement housing, particularly regarding the architectural quality of the huge numbers of walk-up apartment buildings from the inter- and postwar periods owned by housing associations in the larger cities. Renovation of buildings of this typology is more complex because of, among others, technical, social, and heritage factors. To support decisions in this complex context, a General Transformation Framework and a Roadmap has been developed for generating design solutions for deep renovation of representative parts of postwar walk-up apartment buildings with the aim to increase energy efficiency; retain its architectural legibility and cultural heritage value; and allow for the presentation of (end) users, with various options for adaptation to assess their preferences. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Using Empathic Design as a Tool for Urban Sustainability in Low-Resource Settings
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2493; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072493
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
PDF Full-text (3783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Architectural design plays a crucial role in sustainable city development. In fast-growing cities in developing countries, it can be a challenge to reach sustainable results. In this paper, we propose the use of Empathic Design, borrowed from the human-centered design field, as one
[...] Read more.
Architectural design plays a crucial role in sustainable city development. In fast-growing cities in developing countries, it can be a challenge to reach sustainable results. In this paper, we propose the use of Empathic Design, borrowed from the human-centered design field, as one means to support the work of architects and other stakeholders in these settings. To investigate aspects in which this method could be helpful, we have synthesized two existing sustainability models and applied them to three examples of affordable housing from different low-resource settings. After analysis of the examples, we propose a model with an equal balance between the four different dimensions of sustainability—environmental, economic, social, and cultural—where the aspects that need inhabitant engagement are highlighted. We argue that, to be able to hold the balance between the diverse dimensions of sustainability, the architect needs to understand in-depth the living conditions of people for whom he or she is designing. This calls for a fine-tuned participatory approach when designing in low-resource settings. It may not always be easy to reach this level of participation, but we propose that it can be achieved when the architecture is created through empathic involvement. The use of Empathic Design methods throughout the design process thus supports the endeavor towards sustainable results. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle From Zero Emission Buildings (ZEB) to Zero Emission Neighbourhoods (ZEN): A Mapping Review of Algorithm-Based LCA
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072405
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The building industry is responsible for approximately 40% of energy consumption and 36% of greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union (EU). The most efficient way of reducing a building’s environmental impact is addressing it in the design stage. Here, design freedom is
[...] Read more.
The building industry is responsible for approximately 40% of energy consumption and 36% of greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union (EU). The most efficient way of reducing a building’s environmental impact is addressing it in the design stage. Here, design freedom is the greatest, but uncertainty is high and there is a nearly limitless number of design options. Based on experiences with zero emission buildings (ZEB) and zero emission neighbourhoods (ZEN), a mapping review has been conducted to analyse how parametric life cycle assessment (LCA) and algorithms have been used to address neighbourhoods, buildings, and construction materials. Results have identified a general gap of knowledge regarding the use of parametric LCA models for decision-support purposes, demonstrated by the substantial focus on analytical methods compared to procedural methods. Implications for the evolution from ZEB to ZEN are twofold: (i) an integrated approach with multiple tools and methods is required, and (ii) further development of algorithms in the tool are needed to address complexity, sensitivity, and uncertainty. This study is expected to foster the development of algorithmic approaches to improve the ZEB tool as a decision-support tool. Further research should address the key questions of when and how. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Quantitative Study on the Evolution Trend and Driving Factors of Typical Rural Spatial Morphology in Southern Jiangsu Province, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2392; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072392
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to rapid changes in urban and rural economic development, the Chinese landscape has been gradually transforming toward urbanization. Most Chinese rural villages face declining problems such as population loss, land use transformation, fragmentation and abandonment, resulting in big changes in the rural
[...] Read more.
Due to rapid changes in urban and rural economic development, the Chinese landscape has been gradually transforming toward urbanization. Most Chinese rural villages face declining problems such as population loss, land use transformation, fragmentation and abandonment, resulting in big changes in the rural spatial morphology. To understand these urbanization challenges, this study established a multi-factor methodology and applied it to a case study of three selected typical villages in southern Jiangsu Province. From this analysis, the quantification of the rural spatial morphology and environmental status, from 2005 to 2016, was determined. The eight driving factors established considered the rural geological location, landform, and social economic status. To analyze the driving factors, a quantitative analysis using ArcGIS, Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI), and Analytic Network Process (ANP) decision-making methods were used. The results revealed mechanisms between the changes to spatial morphology of rural villages in southern Jiangsu Province and their key driving factors. This study provides data support and a theoretical framework to guide future development and policy of rural villages of different types, which supports the sustainable development of Chinese rural villages. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle What Gets Measured, Gets Done: Development of a Circular Economy Measurement Scale for Building Industry
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2340; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072340
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 July 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The construction industry is among the sectors that need closer attention due to their environmental impact. The Circular Economy (CE) model promotes the transition to more sustainable production models, which are based on careful management of resources and the reduction of negative externalities
[...] Read more.
The construction industry is among the sectors that need closer attention due to their environmental impact. The Circular Economy (CE) model promotes the transition to more sustainable production models, which are based on careful management of resources and the reduction of negative externalities generated by such businesses. Its application in this industry can foster significant improvements in sustainability. However, the measurement of the degree of implementation of CE is difficult, owing to an absence of psychometrically sound measures. In this paper, the development of the CE scale for the building industry was described, treated as an instrument that allows for a direct measurement of the importance of CE for companies. The processes used to generate items by applying the e-Delphi research technique were explained in the article, and the developed scale was tested and validated through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The final construction is composed of seven different weighted dimensions: four related to Resource Management: 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle), Efficient Management of Energy, Water, and Materials; two dimensions regarding environmental impact: Emissions and Wastes generated; and, one providing indicators of transition to the CE. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Implementation of Observed Sky-View Factor in a Mesoscale Model for Sensitivity Studies of the Urban Meteorology
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2183; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072183
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
PDF Full-text (2783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sky view factor (SVF) is an important radiometric parameter for assessing the canopy energy budget of urban areas. There are several methods to determine the SVF observationally. The most common is taking a photo with a digital camera equipped with a fish-eye
[...] Read more.
The sky view factor (SVF) is an important radiometric parameter for assessing the canopy energy budget of urban areas. There are several methods to determine the SVF observationally. The most common is taking a photo with a digital camera equipped with a fish-eye lens and then converting ratio of sky area to canopy area into SVF. However, most urban canopy models use this variable as derived from idealized canopy geometry. To evaluate the effect of inputting observed SVFs in numerical models, we evaluated a mesoscale model’s performance in reproducing surface wind and surface temperature when subjected to different ways of SVF prescription. The studied area was the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) in Brazil. Observed SVFs were obtained for 37 sites scattered all over the MASP. Three simulations, A, B, and C, with different SVF and aspect-ratio prescriptions, were performed to analyze the effect of SVF on the urban canopy parameterization: Simulation A (standard) used the original formulation of the Town Energy Budget (TEB) model, computing the SVFs from the aspect-ratios; Simulation B used the observed SVFs, but keeps aspect-ratios as original; and Simulation C used the aspect-ratios computed from observed SVFs. The results show that in general inputting observed SVFs improves the model capability of reproducing temperature at surface level. The comparison of model outputs with data of regular meteorological stations shows that the inclusion of observed values of SVFs enhances model performance, reducing the RMSE index by up to 3 C. In this case, the model is able to better reproduce the expected effects in the wind field, and consequently the temperature advection, of the urban boundary layer to a large urban area. The result of Simulation C shows that the surface wind and temperature intensity for all urban types is higher than those of Simulation A, because of the lower values of the aspect ratio. The urban type with high density of tall buildings increase up to 1 ms-1 in the wind speed, and approximately 1 C in temperature, showing the importance of a better representation of the urban structure and the SVF database improvement. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Assessing the Climate Change Impacts of Biogenic Carbon in Buildings: A Critical Review of Two Main Dynamic Approaches
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 2020; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10062020
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1838 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wood is increasingly perceived as a renewable, sustainable building material. The carbon it contains, biogenic carbon, comes from biological processes; it is characterized by a rapid turnover in the global carbon cycle. Increasing the use of harvested wood products (HWP) from sustainable forest
[...] Read more.
Wood is increasingly perceived as a renewable, sustainable building material. The carbon it contains, biogenic carbon, comes from biological processes; it is characterized by a rapid turnover in the global carbon cycle. Increasing the use of harvested wood products (HWP) from sustainable forest management could provide highly needed mitigation efforts and carbon removals. However, the combined climate change benefits of sequestering biogenic carbon, storing it in harvested wood products and substituting more emission-intensive materials are hard to quantify. Although different methodological choices and assumptions can lead to opposite conclusions, there is no consensus on the assessment of biogenic carbon in life cycle assessment (LCA). Since LCA is increasingly relied upon for decision and policy making, incorrect biogenic carbon assessment could lead to inefficient or counterproductive strategies, as well as missed opportunities. This article presents a critical review of biogenic carbon impact assessment methods, it compares two main approaches to include time considerations in LCA, and suggests one that seems better suited to assess the impacts of biogenic carbon in buildings. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparing Characteristics of Environmental Behaviors and Spatial Types in Open and Gated Housing Blocks: A Case Study of Changchun, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061835
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
PDF Full-text (5432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Physical characteristics of residential areas affect many aspects of living sustainability, including the environmental behavior of residents. Based on the policy issued in China in 2016, the guideline of transforming existing gated housing blocks into open mode is being gradually implemented in some
[...] Read more.
Physical characteristics of residential areas affect many aspects of living sustainability, including the environmental behavior of residents. Based on the policy issued in China in 2016, the guideline of transforming existing gated housing blocks into open mode is being gradually implemented in some cities. However, the transforming of boundary walls and internal roads has changed the living environment such as the open space that residents have been accustomed to and has affected environmental behaviors correspondingly. From perspectives of spatial types and environmental behaviors, this research compared an open housing block (which is reconstructed from gated one) with a comparable original gated housing block. The Behavior Mapping Method was used to capture environmental behaviors in two housing blocks; factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to extract spatial characteristics and classify spatial types; and finally differences between the open housing block and the gated housing block were shown by comparing the distribution of environmental behaviors in each space type. The results indicate that the presence or absence of the enclosing walls affects the division of space types and environmental behaviors in housing blocks. For gated housing blocks, spaces with strong privacy attract various types of activities, which are overwhelming in categories and the number of people, while in the open housing blocks, this situation is not as obvious as in the former. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Occupant-Oriented Calculation Method of Building Interior Cooling Load Design
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1821; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061821
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
PDF Full-text (9767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given continued improvement in the thermal performance of building envelopes, interior disturbances caused by occupant behavior now have the greatest impact on building loads and energy consumption. The accurate calculation of interior load during design stage was emphasized in this paper, and a
[...] Read more.
Given continued improvement in the thermal performance of building envelopes, interior disturbances caused by occupant behavior now have the greatest impact on building loads and energy consumption. The accurate calculation of interior load during design stage was emphasized in this paper, and a new method was proposed. Indoor occupants were considered as the core of interior disturbances, and the relationship with other interior disturbances was explored. The interior heat release was arbitrarily combined with the representative cooling load to be utilized in building cooling load calculation. Field surveys were conducted in three typical university buildings: an office building, a teaching building, and a library, located in a university in Tianjin, China. The oversized chillers supplying cooling for the buildings resulted from the over-estimating of the indoor occupant number and the power density of electric appliances. Through quantitative analysis, it was observed that the maximum representative interior loads were 196.43, 329.94, and 402.58 W/person, respectively, for the case buildings, at least 50% less than the empirical design data. Compared to the measured cooling load during the testing period, the accuracy of the modified cooling load was greater than 90%. This research is intended to serve as a reference for calculating and optimizing the design loads of cooling systems. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Feasibility Assessment of the Use of Recycled Aggregates for Asphalt Mixtures
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061737
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
PDF Full-text (5722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of recycled aggregates, manufactured from several by-products, to replace virgin aggregates in the production of pavement asphalt mixtures needs to be encouraged. Nevertheless, there are some concerns and uncertainties about the actual environmental, economic and mechanical performance resulting from the incorporation
[...] Read more.
The use of recycled aggregates, manufactured from several by-products, to replace virgin aggregates in the production of pavement asphalt mixtures needs to be encouraged. Nevertheless, there are some concerns and uncertainties about the actual environmental, economic and mechanical performance resulting from the incorporation of recycled aggregates in asphalt mixtures. Therefore, this paper has the goal of discussing important features to help decision makers to select recycled aggregates as raw materials for asphalt mixtures. Based on the literature review carried out and the own previous experience of the authors, the article’s main findings reveal that incorporating some of the most common recycled aggregates into asphalt mixtures is feasible, even in a life-cycle analysis perspective. Although some specific technical operations are sometimes necessary when using recycled aggregates in asphalt mixtures, some benefits in terms of environmental impacts, energy use and costs are likely to be achieved, as well as in what concerns the mechanical performance of the asphalt mixtures. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Built Form and Community Building in Residential Neighbourhoods: A Case Study of Physical Distance in Subiaco, Western Australia
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1703; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061703
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
PDF Full-text (30927 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With physical and social aspects being inseparable within urban environments, design for sustainability needs to include the link between the distance and sense of community. However, only a few studies examine residential suburbs and specifically focus on the physical and social interactions occurring
[...] Read more.
With physical and social aspects being inseparable within urban environments, design for sustainability needs to include the link between the distance and sense of community. However, only a few studies examine residential suburbs and specifically focus on the physical and social interactions occurring within the streets and adjacent to them spaces, such as verges, sidewalks and front yards. Using a case study method, including observation and a perception-based survey in the inner-city suburb of Subiaco in Perth, Western Australia, this investigation opens up a new understanding of physical distance and social interaction. It develops a novel typology of physical distances and social closeness within a residential neighbourhood which allows better conceptualising the sense of community for achieving integrated sustainability. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Energy Performance of a Light Wood-Timber Structured House in the Severely Cold Region of China
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051501
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
PDF Full-text (10594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to determine the energy performance of a timber structured house built in Harbin, a severely cold region of China. The research team conducted a field test on the house that lasted three months (15 January–15 April 2008).
[...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to determine the energy performance of a timber structured house built in Harbin, a severely cold region of China. The research team conducted a field test on the house that lasted three months (15 January–15 April 2008). The test included the winter heating energy consumption, average indoor temperature and relative humidity, building heat storage capacity, heat transfer coefficient of the wall, total air volume of air-conditioning system, etc. The test results showed that the total heating was calculated to be 73,240.59 MJ in winter. Thermal imaging tests were carried out on the house and found no obvious thermal defects such as thermal bridges. In conclusion, the timber structured house has a good level of building energy conservation and would provide a good exemplary for green building design and construction in similar severely cold regions in the world. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Walled Buildings, Sustainability, and Housing Prices: An Artificial Neural Network Approach
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041298
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Various researchers have explored the adverse effects of walled buildings on human health. However, few of them have examined the relationship between walled buildings and private housing estates in Hong Kong. This study endeavors to fill the research gap by exploring the connections
[...] Read more.
Various researchers have explored the adverse effects of walled buildings on human health. However, few of them have examined the relationship between walled buildings and private housing estates in Hong Kong. This study endeavors to fill the research gap by exploring the connections among walled-building effects, housing features, macroeconomic factors, and housing prices in private housing estates. Specifically, it reveals the relationship between walled buildings and housing prices. Eight privately owned housing estates are selected with a total of 11,365 observations. Results are analyzed to study the factors that affect the housing price. Firstly, unit root tests are carried out to evaluate if the time series variables follow the unit root process. Secondly, the relationship between walled buildings and housing price is examined by conducting an artificial neural network. We assumed that the housing price reduces due to walled-building effects, given that previous literature showed that heat island effect, and blockage of natural light and views, are common in walled-building districts. Moreover, we assume that housing price can also be affected by macroeconomic factors and housing features, and these effects vary among private housing estates. We also study these impacts by using the two models. Recommendations and possible solutions are suggested at the end of the research paper. Full article
Open AccessArticle Urban Sustainability through Public Architecture
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041249
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the sustainability of contemporary cities has gained emphasis, interest in architecture has increased, due to its social and public responsibility. Since sustainability is linked to public values, research on sustainable public spaces is an important way to secure sustainability in cities. Based
[...] Read more.
As the sustainability of contemporary cities has gained emphasis, interest in architecture has increased, due to its social and public responsibility. Since sustainability is linked to public values, research on sustainable public spaces is an important way to secure sustainability in cities. Based on this, we analyzed the sustainability of European cities by examining the design methods of public architecture according to the region. The aim of the study is to derive architectural methodology corresponding to local characteristics, and to suggest issues to consider in public architecture design to promote urban sustainability based on this. First, regarding the environmental aspect, it can be observed that there is an effort to secure sustainability. Second, in terms of social sustainability, historical value remains as a trace of architectural place, so that it continues in people’s memory. In addition, public architecture provides public places where citizens can gather and enjoy programs, while the architectural methods showed differences influenced by cultural conditions. Third, in economic sustainability, it was shown that energy saving was achieved through cost reduction through recycling of materials, facilities, or environmental factors. In conclusion, the issues to be considered in public architectural design are the voiding of urban space through architectural devices in the construction method. In other words, the intention is to form “ground” that attempts to be part of the city, and thereby create better places. Since skin and material have a deep relationship with the environment, they should have the durability and an outer skin that are suitable for the regional environment. Finally, sustainability is to be utilized through the influx of programs that meet local and environmental characteristics. Design research into public architecture that is oriented towards urban sustainability will be a task to be carried out by the present generation for the millennial generation. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Power Quality and Rooftop-Photovoltaic Households: An Examination of Measured Data at Point of Customer Connection
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041224
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (25826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photovoltaics (PVs) have been widely reported as causing power quality problems for electricity distribution networks. Much of this literature gives the impression that networks, particularly low voltage networks, were effectively and proficiently managed and operated before the rise of PVs and that this
[...] Read more.
Photovoltaics (PVs) have been widely reported as causing power quality problems for electricity distribution networks. Much of this literature gives the impression that networks, particularly low voltage networks, were effectively and proficiently managed and operated before the rise of PVs and that this new technology is causing problems that did not previously exist and would not currently exist if there were no rooftop PV systems. The purpose of this paper is to examine measured data of power quality at the customer service point of four random households in four different distribution networks in Australia. This is the first report of power quality examination from the perspective of the end-user (solar households). The results show that the low voltage distribution networks reported in this study do not have networks that meet required power quality standards—and this cannot be attributed to the rooftop PV systems reported here. The paper proposes that power quality failures in these low voltage networks could be attributed to poor historical management, missed opportunities to embrace PVs as a means of better network management, lack of acknowledgement of the emergence of the prosumer and lack of total quality management and systems thinking. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Viability of Green Roofs as a Flood Mitigation Element in the Central Region of Chile
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041130
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (59073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Population increase and urban development over the last 20 years in Chile have outgrown most rainwater drainage and evacuation systems. Many cities located in the central region suffer from frequent floods in some of their sectors during winter rainfall events. In addition, the
[...] Read more.
Population increase and urban development over the last 20 years in Chile have outgrown most rainwater drainage and evacuation systems. Many cities located in the central region suffer from frequent floods in some of their sectors during winter rainfall events. In addition, the lack of green spaces in these cities leads to biodiversity loss, increasing temperatures, greater energy demands, etc. Green roofs offer a solution that can mitigate climate change by reducing the runoff in cities with extensive, highly impermeable areas. This work analyses the installation of green roofs as a potential solution to the sectorial floods suffered by many cities in central Chile. The methodology includes the identification of conflictive sectors in the city of Curicó, hydrological modelling with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) software, the consideration of different distributions and types of green roof surfaces, and computational simulations to determine the feasibility of green roofs for preventing floods. The results show that, for moderate rainfall events, all studied sectors could avoid flooding if at least 50% of the surrounding area had green roofs (irrespective of the type of green roof). In contrast, in the presence of strong rainfall events, only some semi-extensive and extensive green roofs covering 60% to 95% of the surrounding area, respectively, could prevent flooding. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Geographically Weighted Regression Models in Estimating Median Home Prices in Towns of Massachusetts Based on an Urban Sustainability Framework
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041026
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
PDF Full-text (37815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Housing is a key component of urban sustainability. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of key spatial determinants of median home price in towns in Massachusetts that impact sustainable growth. Our analysis investigates the presence or absence of spatial
[...] Read more.
Housing is a key component of urban sustainability. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of key spatial determinants of median home price in towns in Massachusetts that impact sustainable growth. Our analysis investigates the presence or absence of spatial non-stationarity in the relationship between sustainable growth, measured in terms of the relationship between home values and various parameters including the amount of unprotected forest land, residential land, unemployment, education, vehicle ownership, accessibility to commuter rail stations, school district performance, and senior population. We use the standard geographically weighted regression (GWR) and Mixed GWR models to analyze the effects of spatial non-stationarity. Mixed GWR performed better than GWR in terms of Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) values. Our findings highlight the nature and spatial extent of the non-stationary vs. stationary qualities of key environmental and social determinants of median home price. Understanding the key determinants of housing values, such as valuation of green spaces, public school performance metrics, and proximity to public transport, enable towns to use different strategies of sustainable urban planning, while understanding urban housing determinants—such as unemployment and senior population—can help modify urban sustainable housing policies. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Natural Stabilized Earth Panels versus Conventional Façade Systems. Economic and Environmental Impact Assessment
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041020
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
PDF Full-text (3641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
More effective construction technologies are needed nowadays in order to reduce construction energy consumption during the life-cycle of buildings. Besides which, it is necessary to consider the economic feasibility and associated costs within the framework of these alternative technologies so as to favouring
[...] Read more.
More effective construction technologies are needed nowadays in order to reduce construction energy consumption during the life-cycle of buildings. Besides which, it is necessary to consider the economic feasibility and associated costs within the framework of these alternative technologies so as to favouring their practical implementation in the construction sector. In this sense, this paper presents an economic and environmental comparison of a new non-bearing façade construction solution based on the extruded unfired stabilized clay panels as opposed to three traditional solutions with similar physical, thermal, and aesthetic characteristics in terms of the exterior cladding. The proposed panels are a sandwich type configuration with an intermediate insulating material and two exterior pieces manufactured by extrusion with raw earth stabilized with alginate and animal wool fibers. In this paper, details of the constructive technology of the system are provided. From the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the solution is a valid alternative from the environmental point of view, considerably reducing the Global Warming Potential and the Cumulative Energy Demand. And although the environmental improvement of the system can be considered the primary objective of this investigation, on the other hand, once executed, it will also be a competitive constructive technology from the perspective of the system’s final costs. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessment of Importance and Characteristics of Biophilic Design Patterns in a Children’s Library
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040987
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (23459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper stresses the results of a consciousness survey on the characteristics of biophilic design elements and patterns applied within a children’s library. Biophilic design is a sustainable design strategy that intends to bring about positive change in users by integrating and linking
[...] Read more.
This paper stresses the results of a consciousness survey on the characteristics of biophilic design elements and patterns applied within a children’s library. Biophilic design is a sustainable design strategy that intends to bring about positive change in users by integrating and linking people and nature. The aim of this study is to suggest a space design method for children’s libraries, applying several natural elements based on biophilic design patterns. To investigate space design characteristics based on the biophilic design of children’s libraries, we summarized the elements that have been included in patterns of biophilic design in previous studies, and analyzed the characteristics of biophilic design patterns in children’s libraries through case studies. Also, we conducted a questionnaire survey from 261 caregivers of children’s libraries. The conclusions are as follows. First, children’s libraries need to offer an experience of nature, considering a natural ecosystem. Second, children’s libraries need natural shelter space designs and open space designs based on natural elements. Third, children’s libraries need multi-functional space designs that enable reading, rest, gathering, play, performance, and facilitate children of various ages interacting with each other. Fourth, children’s libraries need space designs that can induce interest and experiences by various forms of sensory information created by natural elements. This research intends to find out the priority application method of biophilic design patterns and elements of a children‘s library through a survey of caregivers’ consciousness, and contribute greatly to the potential possibilities of the application of biophilic designs to indoor spaces. Full article
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Passive Envelop Energy Efficient Measures for Office Buildings in Different Climate Regions of China Based on Modified Sensitivity Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040907
Received: 4 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the growing desire for new buildings and better indoor comfort, the amount of energy consumption of office buildings in China is increasing rapidly, which will lead to the great challenge for energy supply and sustainable development. Building passive envelop energy efficient measures
[...] Read more.
With the growing desire for new buildings and better indoor comfort, the amount of energy consumption of office buildings in China is increasing rapidly, which will lead to the great challenge for energy supply and sustainable development. Building passive envelop energy efficient measures (PEEEMs), mainly including exterior wall insulation, roof insulation, different glazing types, and shading system, were widely applied. However, the specific energy efficient performance of PEEEMs was various in different climate conditions that have not been evaluated clearly yet. The priority order of PEEEMs was not recommended in relative standards. The economic benefits cannot be considered synchronously with PEEEMs optimization. This paper modified the sensitivity analysis to fit the building energy efficiency evaluation. By combining the modified method with a simulation tool, the energy efficiency and economic effects of PEEEMs of office buildings in various climate regions can be considered at the same time. Four case buildings in Shenyang, Tianjin, Ningbo, and Shenzhen were proved to reach the energy-saving potentials of 9.44%, 7.75%, 20.87%, and 13.27% respectively, with the payback period of no more than 1.5 years. Finally, the recommended application priority rankings and the recommended ranges of thermal performance properties of PEEEMs in the four typical climate regions were presented. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Measurement of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Health Risk Assessment of Cooking-Generated Particles in the Kitchen and Living Rooms of Apartment Houses
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030843
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to measure the concentration of cooking-generated particles and to assess the health risk of the occupants. Numerous particulates are released from the kitchen when people are cooking, and diffused to other spaces in house, which would adverse
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to measure the concentration of cooking-generated particles and to assess the health risk of the occupants. Numerous particulates are released from the kitchen when people are cooking, and diffused to other spaces in house, which would adverse the health of occupants. Sufficient ventilation is needed to decrease the PM2.5 concentration. To analyze the PM2.5 concentration, field measurements were performed on a cooking condition. A case study was performed based on the ventilation type including natural and mechanical ventilation. Three cases were designed: single-sided natural ventilation, cross-ventilation, and mechanical ventilation. The PM2.5 concentration was measured for 30 min, with a cooking time of 16 min. According to the analysis, the PM2.5 concentration increased 3.8 times more than the 24 h standard (50 µg/m3). The PM2.5 concentration in the living room was slightly greater than that in the kitchen. The particulate matter also rapidly diffused to other spaces. Moreover, the health risk increased by up to 30.8% more than in the base scenario. Therefore, additional ventilation strategies are needed to alleviate the diffusion of cooking particles. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Numerical Analysis of the Behavior of an IPM Bridge According to Super-Structure and Sub-Structure Properties
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030833
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
PDF Full-text (8005 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A bridge with an integrated and pile-bent abutment with a mechanically stabilized earth-wall (IPM) was developed by separating earth pressure from the abutment to overcome the problems typically faced by integral abutment bridges. Also, the IPM bridge removes expansion joints and bearing by
[...] Read more.
A bridge with an integrated and pile-bent abutment with a mechanically stabilized earth-wall (IPM) was developed by separating earth pressure from the abutment to overcome the problems typically faced by integral abutment bridges. Also, the IPM bridge removes expansion joints and bearing by integrating the super-structure and the abutment and does not need many piles because it separates the earth pressure from backfills. Therefore, it is superior in cost, durability, and maintainability to traditional bridges and is sustainable due to using less material. A numerical analysis was conducted to ascertain the behavior of the IPM bridge according to its super-structural and sub-structural characteristics. Based on the analysis results, the behaviors of the IPM bridge are as follows: The bending moments ( M y ) of the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) girder and the steel-plate girder of the bridge were influenced by the presence of the time-dependent loads. The contraction behavior in the PSC girder is largely due to the time-dependent loads, whereas the expansion behavior in the steel-plate girder is large due to its greater thermal expansion coefficient and temperature range compared with those of the PSC girder. In general, the suggested bridge length limit for PSC girders in both the integral abutment bridge and the IPM bridge is larger than that in a steel bridge. This needs to be reviewed again with consideration of the long-term and seasonal behaviors. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of LEED for Neighbourhood Development and Envision Rating Frameworks for Their Implementation in Poorer Countries
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020492
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The unstoppable world population growth is increasing the concentration of people in urban settlements and the number of megacities, especially in developing countries where urbanization exacerbates social and economic inequalities. Green rating systems have been launched during the last decades to facilitate the
[...] Read more.
The unstoppable world population growth is increasing the concentration of people in urban settlements and the number of megacities, especially in developing countries where urbanization exacerbates social and economic inequalities. Green rating systems have been launched during the last decades to facilitate the assessment of sustainable development in terms of building and infrastructure, including the evaluation of sustainable urban development through the study of communities. This article assesses two of the most renowned sustainable rating systems through the prism of economy, environment and society and the international actions undertaken toward the promotion of sustainable development worldwide, in order to determine their effectiveness to assess urban development in poorer nations. Hence, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighbourhood Development (LEED ND) and Envision, both from the United States, were chosen as representatives of building and infrastructure fields, respectively, so that the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the New Urban Agenda (Habitat III) were the benchmarks selected to define the sustainability aspects required to evaluate their potential application in less developed countries. The absence of metrics in the New Urban Agenda led to relate its commitments to the SDGs, which revealed that the prerequisites and credits included in LEED ND and Envision mainly focused on managerial and environmental aspects and disregarded the economic and social dimensions. Consequently, the premises under which LEED ND and Envision were developed must be updated and complemented with the two latest guidelines recently adopted by the United Nations in the field of urban and sustainable development. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Investigation of Pedestrian Comfort with Wind Chill during Winter
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010274
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
PDF Full-text (3037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two types of methods are used to evaluate pedestrian comfort: pedestrian wind comfort and outdoor thermal comfort. To accurately ascertain the outdoor wind environment, wind speed is the only parameter considered. However, pedestrians may still feel discomfort when the perceived temperature is low,
[...] Read more.
Two types of methods are used to evaluate pedestrian comfort: pedestrian wind comfort and outdoor thermal comfort. To accurately ascertain the outdoor wind environment, wind speed is the only parameter considered. However, pedestrians may still feel discomfort when the perceived temperature is low, even though the wind comfort criterion has been satisfactorily fulfilled. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to investigate pedestrian comfort when the perceived temperature is low, especially in winter conditions. To achieve this, a pedestrian survey was conducted, and 588 respondents completed a questionnaire. The results show that pedestrians feel discomfort when the WCET (Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature) is low, with almost 40 percent of respondents answering that they feel discomfort in these conditions. In conclusion, the threshold wind speed of the winter season could be determined to be lower than that of the existing comfort criteria by applying the WCET. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessing the Effects of Urban Morphology Parameters on Microclimate in Singapore to Control the Urban Heat Island Effect
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010206
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (12548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is important to alleviate the “heat island effect” in urban areas, especially tropical cities. Microclimate is normally affected by the urban morphology parameters. The objective of this work is to investigate the correlation between air temperature variations and urban morphology parameters in
[...] Read more.
It is important to alleviate the “heat island effect” in urban areas, especially tropical cities. Microclimate is normally affected by the urban morphology parameters. The objective of this work is to investigate the correlation between air temperature variations and urban morphology parameters in tropical cities. Field measurement was carried out to record the air temperature at 27 points within an 8 km2 urban area continuously in Singapore for one year. Geographical information system was applied to extract the urban morphology parameters. Generally, the maximum and minimum air temperature spatial differences in the study area ranged from 3.2 to 6.5 °C, indicating the significant effects of urban morphology on the air temperatures. Based on the fitting results of created multilinear regression models, parametric study has been performed to investigate the specific effects of urban morphology parameters on air temperatures. This work has proposed a much more precise regression model to predict the air temperature with various urban morphology parameters. In addition, meaningful value of reference has been offered for urban planners and landscape designers to effectively control the air temperature in tropical cities such as Singapore. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

2017

Jump to: 2018

Open AccessArticle Passive Optimization Design Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Rural Buildings of the Hot Summer and Warm Winter Zone of China
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122288
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of green building is an important way to solve the environmental problems of China’s construction industry. Energy conservation and energy utilization are important for the green building evaluation criteria (GBEC). The objective of this study is to evaluate the quantitative relationship
[...] Read more.
The development of green building is an important way to solve the environmental problems of China’s construction industry. Energy conservation and energy utilization are important for the green building evaluation criteria (GBEC). The objective of this study is to evaluate the quantitative relationship between building shape parameter, envelope parameters, shading system, courtyard and the energy consumption (EC) as well as the impact on indoor thermal comfort of rural residential buildings in the hot summer and warm winter zone (HWWZ). Taking Quanzhou (Fujian Province of China) as an example, based on the field investigation, EnergyPlus is used to build the building performance model. In addition, the classical particle swarm optimization algorithm in GenOpt software is used to optimize the various factors affecting the EC. Single-objective optimization has provided guidance to the multi-dimensional optimization and regression analysis is used to find the effects of a single input variable on an output variable. Results shows that the energy saving rate of an optimized rural residence is about 26–30% corresponding to the existing rural residence. Moreover, the payback period is about 20 years. A simple case study is used to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed optimization analysis. The optimization can be used to guide the design of new rural construction in the area and the energy saving transformation of the existing rural houses, which can help to achieve the purpose of energy saving and comfort. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top