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Heritage, Volume 6, Issue 1 (January 2023) – 40 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Volcanic pozzolans from the Bay of Naples were detected in the masonry mortar-based materials of the Roman Temple of Nora in Sardinia (3rd c. AD). Their provenance was tracked by adopting a multi-analytical approach, which involved polarized light microscopy, SEM-EDS, QPA-XRPD and XRF investigations. These natural pozzolans, outcropping between the Phlegraean Fields and the Vesuvius, are conventionally associated with pulvis puteolana, the famous volcanic ash mentioned by Vitruvius and Pliny to confer strength and waterproofing capabilities to ancient concrete. The use of pulvis puteolana in the Roman Temple seems to be primarily targeted towards concrete structural reinforcement, while the waterproofing capabilities of the concrete were not strictly pursued. This opens new questions about the constructive reasons as to why this product was traded and used in antiquity. View this paper
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20 pages, 10751 KiB  
Article
Applying Geomatics Techniques for Documenting Heritage Buildings in Aswan Region, Egypt: A Case Study of the Temple of Abu Simbel
by AbdElhamid Elbshbeshi, Ahmed Gomaa, Abdelmonem Mohamed, Amal Othman, Ismael M. Ibraheem and Hosni Ghazala
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 742-761; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010040 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 10103
Abstract
It has recently become more popular to involve 3-D modeling and digital documentation in the conservation and restoration of heritage sites. The main objective of the current study is to develop a digital documentation process using laser scanning for Abu Simbel Temple, which [...] Read more.
It has recently become more popular to involve 3-D modeling and digital documentation in the conservation and restoration of heritage sites. The main objective of the current study is to develop a digital documentation process using laser scanning for Abu Simbel Temple, which is one of the most famous archaeological sites in Egypt. We focus on these techniques to replace traditional methods of building heritage documentation. To create the 3-D model with geographic coordinates and measure the rate of deformation, a precise geodetic network of five points was established around the temple. Then, 52 scans of the temple facade and its interior parts were taken using a Trimble TX6 laser scanner. This led to the creation of a 3-D digital model of the temple that includes geometric, structural, architectural, historical data, and non-engineering information (such as appearance, inscriptions, and material details). The 3-D point cloud model outputs exhibit a 6 mm spacing between the points with an error of 4 mm and a standard deviation of 5 mm. In addition, the temple’s virtual tour included 61 panoramic images. This virtual tour can help to increase heritage awareness, promote tourism, and aid in the future restoration of any parts vulnerable to damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geophysical Surveys for Heritage and Archaeology)
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18 pages, 9444 KiB  
Article
The Usefulness of the Johari Window for the Cultural Heritage Planning Process
by Dirk H. R. Spennemann
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 724-741; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010039 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4049
Abstract
The standard heritage planning process follows the trajectory of identification, nomination, evaluation, listing and protection. The epistemology of the nominations and valuations is only rarely, if ever, examined. The Johari window was developed by the psychologists Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham as a [...] Read more.
The standard heritage planning process follows the trajectory of identification, nomination, evaluation, listing and protection. The epistemology of the nominations and valuations is only rarely, if ever, examined. The Johari window was developed by the psychologists Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham as a tool to examine group dynamics, in particular an individual’s position in, and their relationship and interactions with others in a group. This paper examines the usefulness of the Johari window for the Cultural Heritage Planning Process. Based on the interrelationship of what oneself and others know about each other and are prepared to divulge, the Johari window allows to conceptualize overlapping levels of knowledge and ownership within five newly defined epistemological domains. It also serves as an analytical tool to systematically query the heritage universe of a community and thereby examine the composition and comprehensiveness of heritage registers as well as nominations that have been put forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage Management and Preservation Policies)
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19 pages, 2984 KiB  
Article
Theban Glass Traditions in the 1st Millennium BCE, Greece: New LA-ICP-MS Data and Their Archaeological Implications
by Artemios Oikonomou, Maria Kaparou, Vid S. Šelih, Johannes T. van Elteren, Nikolaos Zacharias, Simon Chenery and Julian Henderson
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 705-723; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010038 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1928
Abstract
Thebes, located in Boeotia in central Greece, is archaeologically and historically attested to have been an important centre ever since the Early Bronze Age. Regularly sustained glass working, testified by numerous finds in burial and settlement contexts, must have taken place since the [...] Read more.
Thebes, located in Boeotia in central Greece, is archaeologically and historically attested to have been an important centre ever since the Early Bronze Age. Regularly sustained glass working, testified by numerous finds in burial and settlement contexts, must have taken place since the Mycenaean times. In the current study, 35 samples of glass beads (30) and vessels (5), dating roughly from the 7th to 1st cent. BCE (Archaic to the Hellenistic/Early Roman era) are the subject of research. The aim was to assess some technological aspects of the assemblage, provide a chemical fingerprint for it and suggest a likely provenance, in an attempt to discuss issues of glass consumption and trade at a given era and culture. A combination of quasi-destructive techniques was applied, namely LA-ICP-MS and SEM-EDS for the identification of the major, minor and trace element composition. The results have provided evidence for different technological choices, reflected in the choice of raw materials and different origins are suggested for the subgroups identified in the course of the study. Full article
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24 pages, 41385 KiB  
Article
Woaded Blue: A Colorful Approach to the Dialectic between Written Historical Sources, Experimental Archaeology, Chromatographic Analyses, and Biochemical Research
by Dominique Cardon, Zvi C. Koren and Hisako Sumi
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 681-704; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010037 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3196
Abstract
Research into the sustainability of natural, potentially renewable, resources is one of the major issues of our time. It naturally includes the quest for sustainable sources of colorants for textiles, cosmetics, and food. In industrialized countries, natural dyeing with plants and a few [...] Read more.
Research into the sustainability of natural, potentially renewable, resources is one of the major issues of our time. It naturally includes the quest for sustainable sources of colorants for textiles, cosmetics, and food. In industrialized countries, natural dyeing with plants and a few species of coccid insects was practiced on a large scale for centuries before synthetic colorants were developed. Therefore, historical documents on the growing of dye plants and dyeing processes offer a relevant basis from which to start reconsidering the potential of natural colorants in our time. However, written sources need to be completed by experimental archaeologists to allow a scientific understanding of the biochemical reactions at work in the historical processes described. The results of such interdisciplinary research can then inspire contemporary programs to revive the production of natural dyes. The long history of dyeing blue with woad, Isatis tinctoria L., is revisited here as an illustration of the fruitful complementarity of sources and approaches. This article presents a step-by-step re-assessment of the production chain of woad as described in historical texts, from the growing of the plant to its use as a source of indigo in the woad and indigo vats. The experimental reconstitution of the processing of woad leaves into couched woad allowed us to follow the evolution of the composition and proportions of indigoid colorants in the leaves by HPLC analyses. Additionally, HPLC analyses allowed a comparison of the respective indigoid contents of couched woad and sukumo, the form of indigo dye resulting from another couching process, traditionally used in Japan for dyers’ knotweed, Persicaria tinctoria (Ait.) H. Gross. The reconstitution of the 18th century woad and indigo vat process allowed investigations into the bacterial flora associated with the use of couched woad in vat liquors, which were found to contain different indigo-reducing bacteria, including two distinct strains of a new indigo-reducing species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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9 pages, 2107 KiB  
Article
Thermochromicity in Wool Dyed with 6-Bromoindigo Depends on the Presence and Identity of a Solvent
by Keith Ramig, Timone Eskaros, Tazrian Islam, Olga Lavinda, Sasan Karimi, Lou Massa and Christopher Cooksey
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 672-680; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010036 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
The thermochromic effect of wool dyed with 6-bromoindigo was found to depend on both heat and a solvent. The dyed fabric must be immersed in a solvent while heating for a color change from purple to blue to occur. Ethanol was the most [...] Read more.
The thermochromic effect of wool dyed with 6-bromoindigo was found to depend on both heat and a solvent. The dyed fabric must be immersed in a solvent while heating for a color change from purple to blue to occur. Ethanol was the most effective solvent in causing the color change. Water was effective as well. 1-Butanol caused a slight color change, while toluene was completely ineffective. These results are interpreted as interaction of the solvent with both the wool surface and adsorbed dye molecular aggregates, causing changes in the size of large red aggregates to smaller blue ones. The mildest conditions for the color change, immersion in water at 60 °C, are so easily obtained that it is possible that ancient dyers knew of this as a finishing process for their dyeing, or knew to avoid post-dyeing heat treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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10 pages, 5678 KiB  
Article
Once upon a Glass—Cycles, Recycles and Reuses of a Never-Ending Material
by Tania Chinni, Alberta Silvestri, Sara Fiorentino and Mariangela Vandini
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 662-671; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010035 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
Glass can be considered a locus of meaning, a material which has been the repository of traditional knowledge and technological expertise for at least three millennia. The history of glass speaks of know-how, technological transitions, and contaminations of recipes for its manufacture, which [...] Read more.
Glass can be considered a locus of meaning, a material which has been the repository of traditional knowledge and technological expertise for at least three millennia. The history of glass speaks of know-how, technological transitions, and contaminations of recipes for its manufacture, which have changed across the world over the centuries. As the amount of recovered glass from archaeological contexts is much lower compared to ceramic and metal finds, research has often considered glass as a rare material. Furthermore, glass production, in ancient times as in the present day, requires the use of selected raw materials and noticeable amounts of fuel, making reuse and recycling practices necessary to foster sustainability, from both an economical and an environmental perspective. Latin authors, such as Juvenal and Martial, reported buyers of broken glass in Imperial Rome, presumably destined for recycling. Archaeometry has also provided data that allow, today, to clarify different aspects related to production cycles, uses and reuses of a material that, starting from the Roman age, became as common as modern plastics. From beakers and goblets reused with different purposes to mosaic tesserae detached for making new mosaics or to be refused and employed as “pigments” for colouring glass, this paper aims to provide an overview of reuse and recycling practices of ancient glass through a discussion of selected case studies from Roman to Middle Ages, showing how the cycle of this material can be framed as an actual example of sustainable circular economy in the past. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Italian Research Applied to Cultural Heritage)
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15 pages, 2361 KiB  
Article
Human, All Too Human: Differentiating Non-Human from Human Bones in Protohistoric Cremation Contexts from Northern Italy
by Omar Larentis
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 647-661; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010034 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1674
Abstract
Differentiating cremated non-human bones from human ones in archaeological contexts is a challenging task. This analysis aims at proposing a rather solid criterion based on an osteoarchaeological sample. In this work, the main issues of taxonomic identification of cremated remains are analysed and [...] Read more.
Differentiating cremated non-human bones from human ones in archaeological contexts is a challenging task. This analysis aims at proposing a rather solid criterion based on an osteoarchaeological sample. In this work, the main issues of taxonomic identification of cremated remains are analysed and a research methodology tested on an Italian protohistoric sample is proposed. The 314 subjects composing the sample come from 298 tombs of the Golasecca Civilization (1st millennium BC in north-eastern Italy). On a morphological basis, 246 bone fragments were selected from which as many thin sections were obtained for a histomorphological evaluation. From the analyses, we identified the presence of animals in burials, whereas a mere morphometric analysis was not able to recognize them. Furthermore, the taxonomic identification has allowed us to propose new hypotheses on the funerary rite of Golasecca linked to the zooarchaeological remains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zooarchaeology)
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19 pages, 1636 KiB  
Review
Novel Approaches to Enhancing Sustainable Adhesive System Solutions in Contemporary Book Binding: An Overview
by Suzana Pasanec Preprotić, Marina Vukoje, Gorana Petković and Mirela Rožić
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 628-646; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010033 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
This paper contributes to eco-efficient and sustainable book binding production. Higher book binding manufacturing efficiency—with less waste and reduce energy consumption—has been achieved with higher inputs of natural biodegradable sources into graphic arts materials through the eco-labeled paper grades and the use of [...] Read more.
This paper contributes to eco-efficient and sustainable book binding production. Higher book binding manufacturing efficiency—with less waste and reduce energy consumption—has been achieved with higher inputs of natural biodegradable sources into graphic arts materials through the eco-labeled paper grades and the use of eco-advanced adhesive system solutions. Nowadays, scientific sources on non-toxic polymers and resins, combined with current scientific knowledge and production development, are closely related to sustainability. Hence, advanced and improved adhesive system solution technologies should fulfill the needs of suppliers and customers who are involved in the International Framework for ISO/TC130 workflows. These strategic partnerships provide possibilities in the context of “closed-loop recycling models”, which spark and advance the discussions of stakeholders. It is very important that the novel engineered biodegradable adhesive system solutions provide productivity-increasing and cost-effective solution performances by saving money and improving the performed binding activities. Without doubt, the task of the scientific community is to continue to provide responsive and comprehensive approaches to fulfilling stakeholders’ specific needs through standardized quality assurance, with the emphasis on book-binders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Materials in Heritage Science)
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28 pages, 8277 KiB  
Article
Critical Analysis of the Materials Used by the Venetian Artist Guido Cadorin (1892–1976) during the Mid-20th Century, Using a Multi-Analytical Approach
by Erik Guillermo Morales Toledo, Teodora Raicu, Laura Falchi, Elisabetta Barisoni, Matteo Piccolo and Francesca Caterina Izzo
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 600-627; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010032 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
The present study sought to expand on and confirm the already available information on the painting materials used by the Venetian artist Guido Cadorin (1892–1976). A multi-analytical approach was employed in the study of six tempera grassa easel paintings and one casein tempera [...] Read more.
The present study sought to expand on and confirm the already available information on the painting materials used by the Venetian artist Guido Cadorin (1892–1976). A multi-analytical approach was employed in the study of six tempera grassa easel paintings and one casein tempera on a panel signed by the artist and belonging to the International Gallery of Modern Art Ca’ Pesaro in Venice, Italy, which dated from 1921 to 1951. The aim of the research was to identify the painting materials, observe the evolution of the color palette through time and assess the state of conservation. Non-invasive imaging and/or spectroscopic techniques were employed, such as hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy (HSI) and Raman spectroscopy. Microsamples were also collected from the edges and detached areas of the canvases that were studied through three non-destructive techniques, namely optical microscopy (OM), energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) and attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and one destructive technique, namely gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results allowed the inference of the color palette used to render the artist’s paints, composition of the preparation layer, and characterization of the binding media and varnish layers. Moreover, the state of conservation of the artworks was determined. Thus, the outcome of this research enriches the painter’s profile and might aid the International Gallery of Modern Art Ca’ Pesaro in Venice, Italy in the planning of future conservation treatments in accordance with the guidelines of good practices in art conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials and Heritage)
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13 pages, 2029 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of Electrochemical Dechlorination of Wrought Iron Specimens from the Marine Environment
by Eleni Siova, Vasilike Argyropoulos and George Batis
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 587-599; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010031 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 980
Abstract
The research shows the benefits provided by the use of electrochemical treatment, with the application of impressed current combining the use of a porous medium for the dechlorination of large iron structures removed and/or located in the marine environment. Considering the previous work [...] Read more.
The research shows the benefits provided by the use of electrochemical treatment, with the application of impressed current combining the use of a porous medium for the dechlorination of large iron structures removed and/or located in the marine environment. Considering the previous work for the dechlorination of the paddle wheel of the shipwreck “Patris”, located in the Aegean Sea, this study aims to determine the optimum parameters of the amount of current density, the time and the use of the porous medium to stimulate the chloride ion diffusion into an alkaline solution. Specimens of wrought iron coming from the shipwreck were electrochemically treated and the efficiency of the method was verified by the determination of the chloride concentration removal using a chloride ion selective electrode. Samples of corrosion products before and after treatment were analyzed for chloride content using SEM-EDX analysis. The results found that changing the porous medium every 24 h with replenished alkaline solution and using a stainless steel mesh is the best approach for the dechlorination of the specimens. This electrochemical method, is economical and fast, and can be applied to the conservation of large iron structures in situ, coming from and/or located near a marine environment with less waste than the traditional dehlorination methods. Full article
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20 pages, 11227 KiB  
Article
Volcanic Pozzolan from the Phlegraean Fields in the Structural Mortars of the Roman Temple of Nora (Sardinia)
by Simone Dilaria, Caterina Previato, Jacopo Bonetto, Michele Secco, Arturo Zara, Raffaella De Luca and Domenico Miriello
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 567-586; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010030 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
In this paper, we discuss the presence of volcanic pozzolans in the structural mortars of the Roman Temple of Nora in Sardinia (3rd c. AD), represented by pyroclastic rocks (pumices and tuffs) employed as coarse and fine aggregates. The provenance of these materials [...] Read more.
In this paper, we discuss the presence of volcanic pozzolans in the structural mortars of the Roman Temple of Nora in Sardinia (3rd c. AD), represented by pyroclastic rocks (pumices and tuffs) employed as coarse and fine aggregates. The provenance of these materials from the Phlegraean Fields was highlighted through a multi-analytical approach, involving Polarized Light Microscopy on thin sections (PLM), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Quantitative Phase Analysis by X-ray Powder Diffraction (QPA-XRPD), and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) investigations. These volcanic pozzolans, outcropping in the Bay of Naples between Pozzuoli and the Vesuvius, are traditionally associated with the pulvis puteolana, the famous pozzolanic ash prescribed by Vitruvius and Pliny in order to confer strength and waterproofing capabilities to ancient concretes. This is the first evidence of the trade of this volcanic material from the Neapolitan area to Sardinia, starting at least by the Middle Imperial Age. The use of the pulvis puteolana in the Roman Temple of Nora seems primarily targeted to strengthen above-ground masonries, while waterproofing capabilities were not strictly pursued. This opens new questions about the construction reasons for which the demand and commercialization for this product was intended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Italian Research Applied to Cultural Heritage)
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19 pages, 3373 KiB  
Article
Conceptualizing a Methodology for Cultural Heritage Futures: Using Futurist Hindsight to Make ‘Known Unknowns’ Knowable
by Dirk H. R. Spennemann
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 548-566; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010029 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
In a broad conceptual framing, cultural heritage is the result of humankind’s interactions with their environment and one another, both in its tangible and intangible expressions. Cultural heritage management is by nature a retrospective discipline, as the assessment and evaluation of cultural significance [...] Read more.
In a broad conceptual framing, cultural heritage is the result of humankind’s interactions with their environment and one another, both in its tangible and intangible expressions. Cultural heritage management is by nature a retrospective discipline, as the assessment and evaluation of cultural significance of heritage assets requires the passage of time. Practitioners often struggle with the evaluation and management of very modern and contemporary heritage items. There is a need to examine whether current approaches and practices are fit for purpose. Current cultural heritage theory abounds with the concept of heritage stewardship with the embedded futurist stance that we should hand on our heritage in good shape to the next generation, yet all approaches are retrospective and rooted in the values of the present. This paper examines to what extent stewardship, as well as two other futurist concepts, the precautionary principle and strategic foresight, are suitable tools for heritage management. Based on that review, this paper then conceptualizes and proposes an assessment model that positions the valuer into a strategic foresight-derived, modelled future ‘reality’ at a 15 to 30-year horizon, which then allows the valuer to apply standard heritage hindsight assessment methodology to contemporary heritage items. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage Management and Preservation Policies)
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24 pages, 11112 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Identification of Mixtures of Pigments Using the paletteR Package in R—The Case of Six Paintings by Andreina Rosa (1924–2019) from the International Gallery of Modern Art Ca’ Pesaro, Venice
by Teodora Raicu, Fabiana Zollo, Laura Falchi, Elisabetta Barisoni, Matteo Piccolo and Francesca Caterina Izzo
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 524-547; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010028 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
Frequently, the study of modern and contemporary paintings requires the taking of micro-samples to gain an in-depth understanding of the employed materials and techniques. However, since this procedure is characterized by its invasive nature, it must be carried out only if strictly necessary. [...] Read more.
Frequently, the study of modern and contemporary paintings requires the taking of micro-samples to gain an in-depth understanding of the employed materials and techniques. However, since this procedure is characterized by its invasive nature, it must be carried out only if strictly necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the potentiality of K-means clustering to the corrected images of paintings to identify mixtures of pigments. This could assist in obtaining relevant preliminary information, facilitate the research process, and guide the sampling collection. Additionally, this method would be less expensive than the traditional multi-analytical approach as it would only require a modified digital camera, lenses, a color target and three computational resources for the processing of data (Imatest Master, Adobe Express—online, and R), out of which the latter two are freely available. The six paintings that have been selected for this study belong to the International Gallery of Modern Art Ca’ Pesaro in Venice (Italy) and have been depicted by Andreina Rosa (1924–2019), a Venetian artist. The artworks were thoroughly investigated mainly through non-invasive analytical techniques (FORS, RAMAN, ER-FTIR, EDXRF). Using cluster analysis, simulating mixtures, and calculating the color differences, it was possible to infer the existence of color mixtures of two/three detected primary colors from the examined images, which could be validated by the analytical results. Hence, it was concluded that samples taken from mixtures might suffice, since primary colors would be concomitantly analyzed. Full article
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19 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Transition from Natural to Early Synthetic Dyes in the Romanian Traditional Shirts Decoration
by Irina Petroviciu, Iulia Claudia Teodorescu, Silvana Vasilca and Florin Albu
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 505-523; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010027 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2048
Abstract
The traditional shirt (“ie”) is the most well-known element of Romanian anonymous textile art. Apart from aesthetic and utilitarian roles, it has strong symbolic significance, mainly through the colours used for decoration. Very recently, the traditional shirt with decoration over the [...] Read more.
The traditional shirt (“ie”) is the most well-known element of Romanian anonymous textile art. Apart from aesthetic and utilitarian roles, it has strong symbolic significance, mainly through the colours used for decoration. Very recently, the traditional shirt with decoration over the shoulder (“ia cu altiță”) was introduced as a Romanian identity element as part of UNESCO heritage. Depending on the ethnographic area, the traditional shirt with decoration over the shoulder has acquired special expressive particularities over time. Particularly relevant is that from Valea Hârtibaciului, an area of Transylvania in the very centre of Romania. Although sober in appearance with large fields of white plain weave, it is discreetly decorated with elaborated embroidery on the sleeve bracelets, over the shoulders and neck. Even the colour range and decoration motifs remain unchanged in time, evolution in the materials used and a subtle transition from natural hues to more strident alternatives were observed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. For the present study, samples were taken from representative objects in the collections of the ASTRA Museum, Sibiu and Ethnographical Museum, Brasov, documented as belonging to the area of Valea Hârtibaciului and dated in the museum archives as from the late 19th and early 20th century. The textile materials and the dyes used in the shirts’ embroidery were monitored. Fibre identification was made by optical microscopy and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). Dye analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with UV-Vis (diode array) detection, while some of the samples were also analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (LC-DAD-MS). Dyes were extracted from the fibres by acid hydrolysis. Identification was based on data collected on standards, dyes and dyed fibres. For the early synthetic dyes, a dedicated library of references was built, which includes information relative to the most relevant representatives used between 1850 and 1900, the ‘Helmut Schweppe list’. According to the study, in the last decades of the 19th century, natural dye sources such as dyer’s broom, madder, Mexican cochineal and indigoid dyes were gradually replaced by early synthetic dyes: fuchsine (1856), methyl violet (1861), synthetic alizarin (1871), brilliant green (1879), azo flavine 3R (1880), rhodamine B (1887) and others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyes in History and Archaeology 41)
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13 pages, 3211 KiB  
Article
The Susceptibility to Salt Fog Degradation of Stone Cladding Materials: A Laboratory Case Study on Two Limestones from Portugal
by Vera Pires, Luis G. Rosa, Pedro M. Amaral and Joaquim A. R. Simão
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 492-504; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010026 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
The evaluation of stone cladding material suitability can be a challenge due to the way that stone physical and mechanical properties, and characteristics such as mineralogy, might influence stone performance as a cladding element in a ventilated facade application. Salts can affect natural [...] Read more.
The evaluation of stone cladding material suitability can be a challenge due to the way that stone physical and mechanical properties, and characteristics such as mineralogy, might influence stone performance as a cladding element in a ventilated facade application. Salts can affect natural stone performance, and one of the experimental methods available to study and predict it is through accelerated aging tests such as salt fog chamber cycles. Aging test results should include the analysis of critical stone physical–mechanical properties to fully understand decay effects. The aim of this study was to reduce the lack of knowledge regarding the implications of salt fog on certain fundamental characteristics of stone cladding requirements, such as elastic properties and flexural strength, because these are particularly important properties for ventilated facade systems. A systematic methodology based on artificial salt fog cycles in a climatic chamber, microscopic analysis, weight measurement, flexural strength, and dynamic elastic modulus was performed on two limestones from Portugal: Moleanos (MO) and Semi-Rijo (SR). This study aims to contribute to improved selection stone methods linked to more sustainable stone facades, and the experimental methodology can be further applied to other stone types, particularly the ones most selected for stone cladding applications near coastal areas. In this work, results of salt fog decay cycles are presented and discussed considering their direct contribution for a better stone-cladding dimensioning process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decay and Conservation Studies of Building Mortars and Stones)
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9 pages, 36951 KiB  
Article
Prediction Model for the Evolution of the Deterioration of Bricks in Heritage Buildings in Venice Caused by Climate Change
by Enrique Hernández-Montes, Luisa Hdz-Gil, Chiara Coletti, Simone Dilaria, Luigi Germinario and Claudio Mazzoli
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 483-491; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010025 - 05 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1364
Abstract
This work presents a methodology for obtaining a quantitative expression of the superficial deterioration of bricks affected by climatic conditions. The method combines in situ measurements with laboratory data. Input data on material recession were obtained from photogrammetric observations, the material properties were [...] Read more.
This work presents a methodology for obtaining a quantitative expression of the superficial deterioration of bricks affected by climatic conditions. The method combines in situ measurements with laboratory data. Input data on material recession were obtained from photogrammetric observations, the material properties were derived from laboratory tests or the relevant literature, and climate data were provided from regional environmental monitoring service. The climatic parameters considered in this study are: relative humidity, number of freeze-thaw cycles (i.e., mean number of days per year with temperatures below zero), and peak sun hours per day. The methodology proposed estimates the deterioration rate of brick façades under variable climate conditions over time. As a conclusion of this research, a new tool for the structural evaluation of brick walls is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Italian Research Applied to Cultural Heritage)
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17 pages, 8178 KiB  
Article
Investigations at the Heereskraftfahrpark (HKP) 562 Forced-Labor Camp in Vilnius, Lithuania
by Philip Reeder, Harry Jol, Richard Freund, Alastair McClymont, Paul Bauman and Ramūnas Šmigelskas
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 466-482; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010024 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1821
Abstract
This research, examining the site of the HKP Forced-Labor Camp in Vilnius, Lithuania, located and better defined the characteristics and remaining features of the 1944 camp. There were four over-arching objectives for this research. First, to find the entrance into the principal hiding [...] Read more.
This research, examining the site of the HKP Forced-Labor Camp in Vilnius, Lithuania, located and better defined the characteristics and remaining features of the 1944 camp. There were four over-arching objectives for this research. First, to find the entrance into the principal hiding place where Jews interned in the camp took refuge just before the camp’s liquidation by the Nazis and their local collaborators. Next, find the location of the burial trench(es) where Jewish prisoners who were found in hiding were murdered and initially buried. Next, to find the mass-burial site where Jewish survivors reburied the remains from the trench(es). Lastly, to locate any other evidence related to the murder of Jews at the HKP 562 site. Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) found the principal hiding place in the basement of Building 2. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) discovered the two trenches where camp inhabitants who were shot on-site during liquidation were first buried. ERT also found the location of the mass grave that holds the reburied remains from the trenches. Bullet-scarred walls near the burial trenches indicate where the Jews were shot on-site. This research solved one of the thousands of unknowns about the Holocaust, using geoscience to uncover forgotten and hidden history. The materials and methodologies used in this research can be applied in uncovering this history at thousands of other Holocaust and genocide sites worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological and Geoarchaeological Heritage and Its Dissemination)
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31 pages, 1382 KiB  
Review
Insects Associated with Ancient Human Remains: How Archaeoentomology Can Provide Additional Information in Archaeological Studies
by Paola Annarosa Magni, Abigail Dianne Harvey and Edda Emanuela Guareschi
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 435-465; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010023 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3017
Abstract
Archaeoentomology is the study of insects and other arthropods recovered from an archaeological site; they can be found in association with ancient human and animal remains, food, artefacts or they can be related to the environment and its changes throughout the time. Within [...] Read more.
Archaeoentomology is the study of insects and other arthropods recovered from an archaeological site; they can be found in association with ancient human and animal remains, food, artefacts or they can be related to the environment and its changes throughout the time. Within archaeoentomology, the branch of “funerary archeoentomology” considers insects and other arthropods especially in association with human remains in funerary and burial contexts. The presence and the location of certain insect species closely associated with or nearby the remains, can be valuable in gathering information about the ecological situation at the time of burial and the changes that occurred in the environment up until the discovery of the body. Funerary archaeoentomology investigations have been carried out globally, primarily in countries like Italy, Peru, the United Kingdom and France. Similarly to forensic entomology contexts, the abundance and diversity of insects are affected by the type of burial, the macro and micro-environment of and surrounding the burial, the items associated with the cadaver, the post-mortem practices, and the time that has elapsed from the body deposition to the discovery and the excavation. While funerary archaeoentomology and forensic entomology remain two well-distinguished disciplines, the sampling practice, the insect identification process, and the analyses of the burial ecology in funerary archaeoentomology studies follow the best practices and the general guidelines of forensic entomology. In both disciplines, the correct identification of the insects is key to providing correct information. Various methods have proven effective for insect identification, i.e., morphological, molecular and chemical analysis. This review aims to collect the current knowledge in funerary archaeoentomology, discuss the strengths and weaknesses of insect identification methods in an archaeological context, and describe the groups of the most relevant insects and other arthropods found in association with ancient human remains worldwide. Furthermore, recommendations will be provided to advance the practices of archaeoentomology examinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zooarchaeology)
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18 pages, 18824 KiB  
Article
The Significance of the Mystery Play of Elche for the Local Community
by María Teresa Botella-Quirant, Rosa Pilar Esteve-Faubel and José María Esteve-Faubel
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 417-434; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010022 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1629
Abstract
This study explores the distinctive collective attitudes among the local community associated with the Mystery Play of Elche, which was designated a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO on 18 May 2001. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive methodology [...] Read more.
This study explores the distinctive collective attitudes among the local community associated with the Mystery Play of Elche, which was designated a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO on 18 May 2001. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive methodology was adopted via in-depth interviews to identify how the local community perceives and experiences this medieval liturgical drama. The results confirm that the fundamental aspects maintaining the relationship between the Mystery Play and the local population involve several factors, such as the type of transmission and how the performance is experienced by different audiences within the community, bearing in mind that it is a dynamic social phenomenon. Full article
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20 pages, 1527 KiB  
Article
Archaeological Classification of Age of Sail Shipwrecks Based on Genever’s Material Culture
by Charlotte Jarvis
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 397-416; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010021 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2003
Abstract
This article analyses archaeological evidence for jenever (spelled genever in English) in the Dutch Republic during the Age of Sail (1550–1850). Although excessive alcohol consumption among mariners is a stereotype, there has been surprisingly little critical scholarly work on the subject. Genever was [...] Read more.
This article analyses archaeological evidence for jenever (spelled genever in English) in the Dutch Republic during the Age of Sail (1550–1850). Although excessive alcohol consumption among mariners is a stereotype, there has been surprisingly little critical scholarly work on the subject. Genever was used on ships for medicinal purposes during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but no thorough analysis of alcohol consumption broadly in a Dutch (VOC, WIC, Admiralty) maritime context has been done to date. Since the Dutch stored genever in a distinctive bottle, the archaeological record is helpful to examine Dutch ship’s genever consumption. This article theorises that material evidence of genever for personal consumption and as a commodity for export can be used to aid in identifying a shipwreck’s nationality, and that hypothesis is tested through analysis of a sample of European wrecks excavated along the global shipping routes of Dutch commercial and naval sailing vessels. There is a strong correlation between the presence of both case bottles (kelderflessen) and, later in the period, stoneware bottles (jeneverkruiken) with Dutch shipwrecks or maritime archaeology sites and this is strongly suggested to consider for archaeologists faced with a shipwreck of unknown origin. Full article
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23 pages, 9109 KiB  
Article
Architectural, Constructional and Structural Analysis of a Historic School Building in the Municipality of Agia, Greece
by Vasiliki Pachta, Ioannis Malachtaris and Vasiliki Terzi
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 374-396; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010020 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Historic school buildings, erected during the end of the 19th–beginning of the 20th century, represent a specific constructional type that should be encountered as part of the common European built heritage. They present various similarities, especially in the regions of S. Europe, even [...] Read more.
Historic school buildings, erected during the end of the 19th–beginning of the 20th century, represent a specific constructional type that should be encountered as part of the common European built heritage. They present various similarities, especially in the regions of S. Europe, even though they were mainly built with local materials following the traditional constructional principles of each area. Due to their constant function as educational units, there is an increased interest on their structural and energy integration, without, however, following the principles of restoration of historic structures. To this extent, the acknowledgement of the tangible and intangible values they encompass is crucial, as well as their enlistment in order to be treated as heritage assets. In this study, an effort has been made to testify the characteristics (historic, architectural, constructional) of the historic school buildings located in the Municipality of Agia, region of Thessaly, central Greece. A case study was selected, concerning the old elementary school of Megalovrysso, where a detailed investigation was implemented, including onsite inspection, architectural overview, determination of constructional materials and types, investigation of the preservation state, as well as structural analysis through the three-dimensional finite element model. All research data were comparatively evaluated in order to determine the principles governing the construction of the studied school buildings and establish the significance of this unrecognized part of European built heritage that should be further assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Historical Buildings)
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9 pages, 823 KiB  
Communication
Better Understanding of Geoheritage Challenges within the Scope of Economic Geology: Toward a New Research Agenda
by Dmitry A. Ruban, Vladimir A. Ermolaev and Antonius J. (Tom) van Loon
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 365-373; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010019 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Recognizing geoheritage, i.e., the entity of unique geological features with heritage value, as a geological resource for society is a relatively novel idea. It is argued that non-industrial exploitation of this resource brings benefits through tourism, eco-/geosystem services, and research and education. Experience-related [...] Read more.
Recognizing geoheritage, i.e., the entity of unique geological features with heritage value, as a geological resource for society is a relatively novel idea. It is argued that non-industrial exploitation of this resource brings benefits through tourism, eco-/geosystem services, and research and education. Experience-related peculiarities of the contemporary economy can be brought in correspondence with the geoheritage value. This new resource deserves extensive investigation and exploration, just like mineral and energy resources. The scope of economic geology should, consequently, embrace also geoheritage as an economically important geological resource. This requires joint efforts of both economic geologists and experts in geoheritage and nature conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geoheritage and Geo-Conservation)
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14 pages, 2351 KiB  
Article
Cultural Identity: A Case Study in The Celebration of the San Antonio De Padua (Lajas, Perú)
by Miguel Angel Ruiz Palacios, Lourdes Guevara Villalobos, Cristiana Pereira Teixeira de Oliveira and Elena María Pérez González
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 351-364; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010018 - 30 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2719
Abstract
This study presented the first analytical experience of cultural changes in the Lajas population by analyzing their social perceptions and cultural manifestations. Moreover, an increase in the number of visitors and tourism generated new interactions that often have unknown impacts on a particular [...] Read more.
This study presented the first analytical experience of cultural changes in the Lajas population by analyzing their social perceptions and cultural manifestations. Moreover, an increase in the number of visitors and tourism generated new interactions that often have unknown impacts on a particular community and its people. A qualitative methodology consisting of observations and semi-structured interviews was employed to evaluate the evolution of customs during the celebration of Lajas population religious functions between 2003 and 2018. The study results revealed that in the town of Lajas, while the population recognized ways in which their customs have changed in recent decades, they were unable to determine whether or not such changes affected their cultural identity and the preservation of their cultural heritage. Further, on analyzing the obtained data and comparing it with the proposed theoretical framework, we observed a gap between social participation and public administration management, the transformation of the existing model to a centralized management control model, and the creation of an official identity. Hence, such observations are necessary to lay the foundation for future studies to avoid negative impacts and generate sustainable management strategies that would justify the effort in conserving cultural identity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainability in Heritage and Urban Planning)
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18 pages, 5112 KiB  
Article
Zooarchaeology of the Late Bronze Age Fortified Settlements in Lithuania
by Viktorija Micelicaitė, Giedrė Piličiauskienė, Vytenis Podėnas, Karolis Minkevičius and Aldona Damušytė
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 333-350; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010017 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
The economic model of the Lithuanian Late Bronze Age (1100–500 cal BC) has long been based on zooarchaeological collections from unstratified, multi-period settlements, which have provided an unreliable understanding of animal husbandry and the role of fishing and hunting. The opportunity to re-evaluate [...] Read more.
The economic model of the Lithuanian Late Bronze Age (1100–500 cal BC) has long been based on zooarchaeological collections from unstratified, multi-period settlements, which have provided an unreliable understanding of animal husbandry and the role of fishing and hunting. The opportunity to re-evaluate the previously proposed dietary and subsistence patterns arose after zooarcheological assemblages of Garniai 1 and Mineikiškės fortified settlements, dating only to the Late Bronze Age, were collected in 2016–2017 and 2020–2021. The new analysis revealed that the communities in these sites were mainly engaged in animal husbandry of small ungulates such as pigs, sheep/goats, which differed from western Lithuania and the rest of the Eastern Baltic. Moreover, it has been observed that hunting and fishing significantly declined after the Early Bronze Age (1700–1100 cal BC). Lastly, unusual traits for the Baltic region were identified including exceptionally highly fragmented bones and the consumption of molluscs, which could be attributed to the exploration of additional food sources in times of deprivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zooarchaeology)
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14 pages, 6111 KiB  
Article
Rediscovering the Intangible Heritage of Past Performative Spaces: Interaction between Acoustics, Performance, and Architecture
by Angela Bellia and Antonella Bevilacqua
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 319-332; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010016 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The relationship between the shape and social use of Greek and Roman theatres has always been overshadowed by the technical and acoustic analyses of these performance spaces. Relevant ruins illustrate the relationship between performance typology, acoustics, and construction development of ancient theatres, which [...] Read more.
The relationship between the shape and social use of Greek and Roman theatres has always been overshadowed by the technical and acoustic analyses of these performance spaces. Relevant ruins illustrate the relationship between performance typology, acoustics, and construction development of ancient theatres, which were mainly determined by the requirements of artistic venues. The music in tragedies and comedies, the dances, and the public speeches performed in the same places helped to shape the constructions according to the requirements of the events. In addition to the need to satisfy social and political interactions, the functions of musical performances and public speeches in theatres were maintained across generations so that they organically coexisted in both Greek and Roman times. This paper presents new insights into the relationships between sound and architecture, focusing on the case study of the Greek–Roman theatre of Katane and its evolution through the centuries. Architectural features have been described in terms of the social functions of the theatre rather than as mere results of geometric rules. A brief comparison with the neighboring odeion of Katane and other Greek–Roman theatres has been made regarding destination use. Full article
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19 pages, 5912 KiB  
Article
Agrarian Archaeology: A Research and Social Transformation Tool
by Margarita Fernández Mier, Jesús Fernández Fernández and Pablo López Gómez
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 300-318; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010015 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to approach the concept of agrarian archaeology, an epistemological framework that allows the investigation of agrarian landscapes favouring new historical narratives far from traditional paradigms and, at the same time, the proposal of innovative forms of cultural [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to approach the concept of agrarian archaeology, an epistemological framework that allows the investigation of agrarian landscapes favouring new historical narratives far from traditional paradigms and, at the same time, the proposal of innovative forms of cultural heritage management in rural areas. The working methodology and some examples of both empirical work (archaeology) and research-action approaches to cultural heritage are presented. As a result, agrarian archaeology opens up a perspective of experimental research, which permits the problematization of conceptual languages, questions historical narratives and causes the rethinking of personal practices, in addition to promoting an open science close to citizens. Cultural heritage here is to be understood as a social process of meaningful construction, a space of debate and transformation for social innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Archaeological and Geoarchaeological Heritage and Its Dissemination)
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16 pages, 3056 KiB  
Project Report
The Recognition of Cultural Value as an Element for the Preservation of the 20th-Century Heritage: Application of the ICOMOS Multidisciplinary Approach to the ex S.M.O.M. of Pozzuoli
by Veronica Vitiello, Roberto Castelluccio and Silvia Trampetti
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 284-299; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010014 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
The actions for the preservation of cultural heritage must work on the identity and specificity of the places, paying the utmost attention to the context relationships. The analysis of these elements is fundamental to the recognition of the intrinsic “value” of the building, [...] Read more.
The actions for the preservation of cultural heritage must work on the identity and specificity of the places, paying the utmost attention to the context relationships. The analysis of these elements is fundamental to the recognition of the intrinsic “value” of the building, of the cultural, architectural, and landscape type and of the “value relations” that the building holds with the surrounding context of the social and economic but, above all, cultural and identity type. The methodological approaches defined by the ICOMOS Document of Madrid–New Delhi recognize the identification of the cultural value as a fundamental passage for the promotion of the 20th-century heritage. The contribution analyzes the design process developed by applying the ICOMOS methodology for the preservation of the cultural value of a building complex in Pozzuoli dating back to the early 1900s. The evolutionary history of the different volumes and the configuration of the “modern ruins” give rise to prospective relationships with the local reality that today assume a stronger identity value than that connected to the original project. The different construction techniques used and the state of conservation of the buildings lead to the identifying of different elements of value and, consequently, to the elaborating different design choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection of Cultural Heritage from Natural and Manmade Hazards)
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26 pages, 10029 KiB  
Article
Zooarchaeological Evidence from Medieval Ojców Castle, Lesser Poland
by Joanna Religa-Sobczyk, Krzysztof Wertz, Lembi Lõugas, Michał Wojenka, Anna Lemanik and Piotr Wojtal
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 258-283; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010013 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Archaeological research at Ojców castle has yielded important information about life in that medieval castle. The results of zooarchaeological analyses presented in this paper complement the archaeological research, adding to our knowledge of the diet of the castle inhabitants from the time of [...] Read more.
Archaeological research at Ojców castle has yielded important information about life in that medieval castle. The results of zooarchaeological analyses presented in this paper complement the archaeological research, adding to our knowledge of the diet of the castle inhabitants from the time of establishment of the castle until the final residents. Zooarchaeological research is also complemented by data from older settlement phases on the castle hill, directly related to the Lusatian culture in the early Iron Age. The great variability of remains from mammals, birds, and fish and the taphonomic features of bones found in the different chronological strata of the castle’s courtyard reflect the diverse economic activities that took place in particular times and spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zooarchaeology)
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22 pages, 1535 KiB  
Article
Climate Change Effects on Carbonation Process: A Scenario-Based Study
by Gabriella Bretti and Maurizio Ceseri
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 236-257; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010012 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2420
Abstract
Using a mathematical model of concrete carbonation that describes the variation in porosity as a consequence of the involved chemical reactions, we both validated and calibrated the related numerical algorithm of degradation. Once calibrated, a simulation algorithm was used as a forecasting tool [...] Read more.
Using a mathematical model of concrete carbonation that describes the variation in porosity as a consequence of the involved chemical reactions, we both validated and calibrated the related numerical algorithm of degradation. Once calibrated, a simulation algorithm was used as a forecasting tool for predicting the effects on the porosity of concrete exposed to increasing levels of CO2 emissions, as well as to rising temperatures. Taking into account future projections of environmental modifications deriving from climate changes, some scenarios were produced numerically by the mathematical algorithm that showed the effects of different pollution levels and global warming on the porosity of Portland cement in a time window of years. Finally, a theoretical study on the effects of pollution levels on the carbonation constant determining the advancement in the carbonation front was carried out for the analyzed scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effective Models in Heritage Science)
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24 pages, 3084 KiB  
Article
Analysing Objects to Tailor Environmental Preventive Conservation
by David Thickett, Nicola Emmerson, Rene Larsen, Marianne Odlyha and David Watkinson
Heritage 2023, 6(1), 212-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage6010011 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
This work explores the potential of analyzing individual objects to improve their preventive conservation. Previously, environmental recommendations have been based on an average or worst response of material groups. Cultural heritage objects are extremely variable and within a group such as archaeological iron [...] Read more.
This work explores the potential of analyzing individual objects to improve their preventive conservation. Previously, environmental recommendations have been based on an average or worst response of material groups. Cultural heritage objects are extremely variable and within a group such as archaeological iron a very wide range of responses are shown. Characterizing a single object’s response allows its environment to be tailored to its requirements and can enable significant resource and carbon footprint savings. Three main approaches are considered with a material explored in detail including preventive conservation ramifications. Composition analysis is investigated through the stability of limestones. The critical concentrations of soluble salts causing surface deterioration in one environment has been explored. A more rapid method of analyzing clays in acid insoluble fractions from drillings and undertaking that analysis non-invasively has been developed. Measuring deterioration rates is explored through oxygen consumption analyses of archaeological iron. The distributions of previously published data are explored and the changes in rates examined. A scheme for parchment based on shrinkage temperatures and observations is presented for the first time and its use illustrated with a newly acquired letter. The type of work required to produce these schemes is explored with leather. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interpreting Environmental Data in Heritage Science)
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