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Fluids, Volume 6, Issue 4 (April 2021) – 35 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The stability of surface water waves impacts the design of harbor structures, experimental facilities, and tells us about the evolution of tsunamis and rogue waves. Recently, instabilities with respect to high-frequency disturbances of periodic surface water waves have been studied computationally in great detail. Working towards understanding these instabilities from an analytical perspective, we investigate these instabilities in the context of a simplified surface water wave model. This model, designed by Hur and Pandey, mimics many aspects of the full surface water wave problem, making it an ideal playground to develop the perturbation methods that will be used to investigate the full problem. Our methods show excellent agreement with the computational results. View this paper.
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17 pages, 1030 KiB  
Article
Characterising Momentum Flux Events in High Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layers
by Rahul Deshpande and Ivan Marusic
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040168 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2771
Abstract
The momentum flux in a canonical turbulent boundary layer is known to have a time-series signature that is characterised by a highly intermittent variation, which includes very short periods of intense flux activity. Here, we study the variation in these flux signal characteristics [...] Read more.
The momentum flux in a canonical turbulent boundary layer is known to have a time-series signature that is characterised by a highly intermittent variation, which includes very short periods of intense flux activity. Here, we study the variation in these flux signal characteristics across almost a decade of flow Reynolds number (Reτ) by analysing datasets acquired using miniature cross-wire probes with matched spatial resolution. The analysis is facilitated by conditionally sampling the signal based on the quadrant (Qi; i = 1–4) and magnitude of the flux, revealing fractional cumulative contribution from Q4 to increase at a much faster rate than from Q2 with Reτ. An episodic description of the flux signal is subsequently undertaken, which associates this rapid increase in Q4 contributions with the emergence of extreme and rare flux events with Reτ. The same dataset is also used to test Townsend’s hypothesis on the active and inactive components of the momentum flux, which are obtained for the first time by implementing a spectral linear stochastic estimation-based decomposition methodology. While the active component is found to be the dominant contributor to the mean momentum flux consistent with Townsend’s hypothesis, the inactive component is found to be small but non-zero, owing to the non-linear interactions associated with the modulation phenomenon. Finally, an episodic description of the active and inactive momentum flux signal is undertaken to highlight the starkly different time series characteristics of the two flux components. The inactive flux signal is found to comprise individual statistically significant events associated with all four quadrants, leading to a small net contribution to the total flux. Full article
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20 pages, 3748 KiB  
Article
Fluid–Structure Interaction Simulation of a Coriolis Mass Flowmeter Using a Lattice Boltzmann Method
by Marc Haussmann, Peter Reinshaus, Stephan Simonis, Hermann Nirschl and Mathias J. Krause
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040167 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3809
Abstract
In this paper, we use a fluid–structure interaction (FSI) approach to simulate a Coriolis mass flowmeter (CMF). The fluid dynamics is calculated by the open-source framework OpenLB, based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). For the structural dynamics we employ the open-source software [...] Read more.
In this paper, we use a fluid–structure interaction (FSI) approach to simulate a Coriolis mass flowmeter (CMF). The fluid dynamics is calculated by the open-source framework OpenLB, based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). For the structural dynamics we employ the open-source software Elmer, an implementation of the finite element method (FEM). A staggered coupling approach between the two software packages is presented. The finite element mesh is created by the mesh generator Gmsh to ensure a complete open source workflow. The Eigenmodes of the CMF, which are calculated by modal analysis, are compared with measurement data. Using the estimated excitation frequency, a fully coupled, partitioned, FSI simulation is applied to simulate the phase shift of the investigated CMF design. The calculated phase shift values are in good agreement to the measurement data and verify the suitability of the model to numerically describe the working principle of a CMF. Full article
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26 pages, 21386 KiB  
Article
Fluidic-Oscillator-Based Pulsed Jet Actuators for Flow Separation Control
by Stephan Löffler, Carola Ebert and Julien Weiss
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040166 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3638
Abstract
The control of flow separation on aerodynamic surfaces remains a fundamental goal for future air transportation. On airplane wings and control surfaces, the effects of flow separation include decreased lift, increased drag, and enhanced flow unsteadiness and noise, all of which are detrimental [...] Read more.
The control of flow separation on aerodynamic surfaces remains a fundamental goal for future air transportation. On airplane wings and control surfaces, the effects of flow separation include decreased lift, increased drag, and enhanced flow unsteadiness and noise, all of which are detrimental to flight performance, fuel consumption, and environmental emissions. Many types of actuators have been designed in the past to counter the negative effects of flow separation, from passive vortex generators to active methods like synthetic jets, plasma actuators, or sweeping jets. At the Chair of Aerodynamics at TU Berlin, significant success has been achieved through the use of pulsed jet actuators (PJA) which operate by ejecting a given amount of fluid at a specified frequency through a slit-shape slot on the test surface, thereby increasing entrainment and momentum in a separating boundary layer and thus delaying flow separation. Earlier PJAs were implemented using fast-switching solenoid valves to regulate the jet amplitude and frequency. In recent years, the mechanical valves have been replaced by fluidic oscillators (FO) in an attempt to generate the desired control authority without any moving parts, thus paving the way for future industrial applications. In the present article, we present in-depth flow and design analysis which affect the operation of such FO-based PJAs. We start by reviewing current knowledge on the mechanism of flow separation control with PJAs before embarking on a detailed analysis of single-stage FO-based PJAs. In particular, we show that there is a fundamental regime where the oscillation frequency is mainly driven by the feedback loop length. Additionally, there are higher-order regimes where the oscillation frequency is significantly increased. The parameters that influence the oscillation in the different regimes are discussed and a strategy to incorporate this new knowledge into the design of future actuators is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluidic Oscillators-Devices and Applications)
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9 pages, 1839 KiB  
Article
A Computational Analysis of the Influence of a Pressure Wire in Evaluating Coronary Stenosis
by Jie Yi, Fang-Bao Tian, Anne Simmons and Tracie Barber
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040165 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is one of the world’s leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) was proposed in the 1990s to more accurately evaluate the functional severity of intermediate coronary stenosis, and it is currently the gold standard in cardiac catheterization [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease is one of the world’s leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) was proposed in the 1990s to more accurately evaluate the functional severity of intermediate coronary stenosis, and it is currently the gold standard in cardiac catheterization laboratories where coronary pressure and flow are routinely obtained. The clinical measurement of FFR relies on a pressure wire for the recording of pressures; however, in computational fluid dynamics studies, an FFR is frequently predicted using a wire-absent model. We aim to investigate the influence of the physical presence of a 0.014-inch (≈0.36 mm) pressure wire in the calculation of virtual FFR. Ideal and patient-specific models were simulated with the absence and presence of a pressure wire. The computed FFR reduced from 0.96 to 0.93 after inserting a wire in a 3-mm non-stenosed (pipe) ideal model. In mild stenotic cases, the difference in FFR between the wire-absent and wire-included models was slight. The overestimation in severe case was large but is of less clinical significance because, in practice, this tight lesion does not require sophisticated measurement to be considered critical. However, an absence of the pressure wire in simulations could contribute to an over-evaluation for an intermediate coronary stenosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Biofluid Mechanics)
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16 pages, 33199 KiB  
Article
Isolation Properties of Low-Profile Magnetorheological Fluid Mounts
by Mehdi Ahmadian and Brian M. Southern
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040164 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
This study evaluates the stiffness and damping characteristics of low-profile magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts (MRFM) to provide a better understanding of the vibration improvements offered by such mounts, as compared with conventional elastomeric mounts. It also aims at assessing how much of the [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the stiffness and damping characteristics of low-profile magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts (MRFM) to provide a better understanding of the vibration improvements offered by such mounts, as compared with conventional elastomeric mounts. It also aims at assessing how much of the mount’s performance is due to the MR fluid and how much is due to the elastomer and steel insert that is used in MRFM. The study includes the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of a unique class of MRFM that is suitable for the isolation of sensitive machinery and sensors. The MR fluid is compressed (squeezed) in response to dynamic force applied to the mount. The test results are compared with conventional elastomeric (rubber) mounts of the same configuration as MRFM, to highlight the changes in stiffness and damping characteristics for frequencies ranging from 1 to 35 Hz. With no current supplied, the MRFM has a slightly higher stiffness and nearly the same damping as a conventional rubber mount. The slight increase in MRFM stiffness is attributed to the MR fluid’s compressive stiffness, which is higher than the rubber. When current is supplied to the MRFM, the stiffness and damping increase significantly at lower frequencies and taper off to nearly the same level as the rubber mount at higher frequencies. Both the stiffness and damping are directly proportional to the supplied current. At the maximum current of 2 A, the MRFM has 200% higher stiffness and 700% higher damping than the rubber mount. The significantly higher damping and stiffness and the tapering off to nearly the same level as the rubber mount is quite interesting and intriguing. It indicates that MRFM delivers high damping and stiffness when needed, while significantly tapering them off when high damping and stiffness are not desirable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluids in Magnetic/Electric Fields)
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13 pages, 3624 KiB  
Article
Frequency Power Spectra of Global Quantities in Unsteady Magnetoconvection
by Sandip Das and Krishna Kumar
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040163 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1623
Abstract
We present the results of direct numerical simulations of power spectral densities for kinetic energy, convective entropy, and heat flux for unsteady Rayleigh–Bénard magnetoconvection in the frequency space. For larger values of frequency, the power spectral densities for all the global quantities vary [...] Read more.
We present the results of direct numerical simulations of power spectral densities for kinetic energy, convective entropy, and heat flux for unsteady Rayleigh–Bénard magnetoconvection in the frequency space. For larger values of frequency, the power spectral densities for all the global quantities vary with frequency (f) as f2. The scaling exponent is independent of Rayleigh number, Chandrasekhar’s number, and thermal Prandtl number. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluids in Magnetic/Electric Fields)
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11 pages, 1042 KiB  
Review
Euler’s Equation of Continuity: Additional Terms of High Order of Smallness—An Overview
by Vladislav M. Ovsyannikov
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040162 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 7296
Abstract
Professor N.E. Zhukovsky was a famous Russian mechanic and engineer. In 1876 he defended his master’s thesis at Moscow University. At a careful reading of N.E. Zhukovsky’s master’s thesis in 1997, V.A. Bubnov—a professor at the Moscow City Pedagogical University—discovered terms of the [...] Read more.
Professor N.E. Zhukovsky was a famous Russian mechanic and engineer. In 1876 he defended his master’s thesis at Moscow University. At a careful reading of N.E. Zhukovsky’s master’s thesis in 1997, V.A. Bubnov—a professor at the Moscow City Pedagogical University—discovered terms of the second order of smallness in the continuity equation for an incompressible fluid. Zhukovsky calculated them, but did not use the amount of substance in the balance. Ten years later, the author found high-order terms in Euler’s derivation of the 1752 continuity equation for an incompressible fluid. The physical meaning of the additional terms became clear after the derivation in 2006 of the continuity equation with terms of high order of smallness for a compressible gas. The higher order terms of the smallness of the continuity equation penetrate into the inhomogeneous part of the wave equation and lead to the generation of self-oscillations, vibrations, sound, and the initial stage of turbulent pulsations. The stochastic approach ensured success in modeling turbulent flows. The use of high-order terms of smallness of the Euler continuity equation makes it possible to transfer the description of some part of the motions from the stochastic part of the equation to the deterministic part. The article contains a review of works with the derivation of the inhomogeneous wave equation. These works use additional terms of a high order of smallness in the continuity equation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stochastic Equations in Fluid Dynamics)
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29 pages, 1855 KiB  
Article
Towards Uncertainty Quantification of LES and URANS for the Buoyancy-Driven Mixing Process between Two Miscible Fluids—Differentially Heated Cavity of Aspect Ratio 4
by Philipp J. Wenig, Ruiyun Ji, Stephan Kelm and Markus Klein
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040161 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2240
Abstract
Numerical simulations are subject to uncertainties due to the imprecise knowledge of physical properties, model parameters, as well as initial and boundary conditions. The assessment of these uncertainties is required for some applications. In the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), the reliable [...] Read more.
Numerical simulations are subject to uncertainties due to the imprecise knowledge of physical properties, model parameters, as well as initial and boundary conditions. The assessment of these uncertainties is required for some applications. In the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), the reliable prediction of hydrogen distribution and pressure build-up in nuclear reactor containment after a severe reactor accident is a representative application where the assessment of these uncertainties is of essential importance. The inital and boundary conditions that significantly influence the present buoyancy-driven flow are subject to uncertainties. Therefore, the aim is to investigate the propagation of uncertainties in input parameters to the results variables. As a basis for the examination of a representative reactor test containment, the investigations are initially carried out using the Differentially Heated Cavity (DHC) of aspect ratio 4 with Ra=2×109 as a test case from the literature. This allows for gradual method development for guidelines to quantify the uncertainty of natural convection flows in large-scale industrial applications. A dual approach is applied, in which Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used as reference for the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) computations. A methodology for the uncertainty quantification in engineering applications with a preceding mesh convergence study and sensitivity analysis is presented. By taking the LES as a reference, the results indicate that URANS is able to predict the underlying mixing process at Ra=2×109 and the variability of the result variables due to parameter uncertainties. Full article
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24 pages, 14279 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of Heat Transfer and Speed Air Flow on Performance of an Auto-Ventilated Disc Brake
by R. A. García-León, N. Afanador-García and J. A. Gómez-Camperos
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040160 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6388
Abstract
In the braking system, the heat dissipation generated by the friction between the disc and pad should be evacuated as quickly as possible. In this work, five common different automotive disc brakes were studied through mathematical theories of heat transfer and numerical methods [...] Read more.
In the braking system, the heat dissipation generated by the friction between the disc and pad should be evacuated as quickly as possible. In this work, five common different automotive disc brakes were studied through mathematical theories of heat transfer and numerical methods using the ANSYS software. In addition, a direct comparison between experimental, theoretical, and simulation values found in the open literature was performed to propose a disc brake with an improved geometry in terms of dissipation of heat transfer. The numerical results were considered to propose two possible solutions of disc brake geometries using N-38 ventilation blades used in aeronautic engineering. An improvement in temperature dissipation was achieved by approximately 23.8% compared to the five geometries analyzed with a simple type N-38 ventilation blade. The heat dissipation in the brakes strongly depends on the geometry of the disc, the geometry of the blades, the material from which it is manufactured, the material of the pad, the weight of the vehicle, and the operating conditions, as can be verified with mathematical calculations and experiments. The results obtained demonstrate that the discs can be used effectively in extreme working conditions (80 km/h and 33°C), without affecting the safety of the occupants and the braking system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Industrial Systems)
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20 pages, 7279 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Study of Swirling Diffusion Flame Provided by a Coaxial Burner: Effect of Inlet Velocity Ratio
by Sawssen Chakchak, Ammar Hidouri, Hajar Zaidaoui, Mouldi Chrigui and Toufik Boushaki
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040159 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3766
Abstract
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation of a methane-air diffusion flame stabilized over a swirler coaxial burner. The burner configuration consists of two tubes with a swirler placed in the annular part. The passage of the oxidant is ensured by the [...] Read more.
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation of a methane-air diffusion flame stabilized over a swirler coaxial burner. The burner configuration consists of two tubes with a swirler placed in the annular part. The passage of the oxidant is ensured by the annular tube; however, the fuel is injected by the central jet through eight holes across the oxidizer flow. The experiments were conducted in a combustion chamber of 25 kW power and 48 × 48 × 100 cm3 dimensions. Numerical flow fields were compared with stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (stereo-PIV) fields for non-reacting and reacting cases. The turbulence was captured using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach, associated with the eddy dissipation combustion model (EDM) to resolve the turbulence/chemistry interaction. The simulations were performed using the Fluent CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) code. Comparison of the computed results and the experimental data showed that the RANS results were capable of predicting the swirling flow. The effect of the inlet velocity ratio on dynamic flow behavior, temperature distribution, species mass fraction and the pollutant emission were numerically studied. The results showed that the radial injection of fuel induces a partial premixing between reactants, which affects the flame behavior, in particular the flame stabilization. The increase in the velocity ratio (Rv) improves the turbulence and subsequently ameliorates the mixing. CO emissions caused by the temperature variation are also decreased due to the improvement of the inlet velocity ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Flow and Its Impact on Combustion)
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18 pages, 8731 KiB  
Essay
Teaching and Learning Floating and Sinking: Didactic Transformation in a Density-Based Approach
by Anastasios Zoupidis, Anna Spyrtou, Dimitrios Pnevmatikos and Petros Kariotoglou
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040158 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4205
Abstract
This essay synthesizes more than a decade of research, most of which has been published, on the teaching and learning of floating and sinking (FS) phenomena. The research is comprised of the iterative design, development, implementation and evaluation of a Teaching-Learning sequence (TLS) [...] Read more.
This essay synthesizes more than a decade of research, most of which has been published, on the teaching and learning of floating and sinking (FS) phenomena. The research is comprised of the iterative design, development, implementation and evaluation of a Teaching-Learning sequence (TLS) for the teaching and learning of density within FS phenomena. It was initiated within the frame of the European Community supported “Materials Science” project. Due to the many, different aspects of the project, each publication has focused on a particular part of the study (e.g., effectiveness and the iteration process). The didactic transformation for the teaching of FS phenomena is presented and discussed here. In doing so, it is essential to mention: (a) the students’ ideas as the main cause of the scientific knowledge transformation, (b) the scientific/reference knowledge, and (c) the knowledge to be taught and its limitations. Thus, we intend to describe and justify the didactic transformation process and briefly synthesize the published (from previous papers) and unpublished results to show its effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teaching and Learning of Fluid Mechanics, Volume II)
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14 pages, 1108 KiB  
Article
Precise Method to Estimate the Herschel-Bulkley Parameters from Pipe Rheometer Measurements
by Elie Magnon and Eric Cayeux
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040157 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6892
Abstract
Accurate characterization of the rheological behavior of non-Newtonian fluids is critical in a wide range of industries as it governs process efficiency, safety, and end-product quality. When the rheological behavior of fluid may vary substantially over a relatively short period of time, it [...] Read more.
Accurate characterization of the rheological behavior of non-Newtonian fluids is critical in a wide range of industries as it governs process efficiency, safety, and end-product quality. When the rheological behavior of fluid may vary substantially over a relatively short period of time, it is desirable to measure its viscous properties on a more continuous basis than relying on spot measurements made with a viscometer on a few samples. An attractive solution for inline rheological measurements is to measure pressure gradients while circulating fluid at different bulk velocities in a circular pipe. Yet, extracting the rheological model parameters may be challenging as measurement uncertainty may influence the precision of the model fitting. In this paper, we present a method to calibrate the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model to a series of differential pressure measurements made at variable bulk velocities using a combination of physics-based equations and nonlinear optimization. Experimental validation of the method is conducted on non-Newtonian shear-thinning fluid based on aqueous solutions of polymers and the results are compared to those obtained with a scientific rheometer. It is found that using a physics-based method to estimate the parameters contributes to reducing prediction errors, especially at low flow rates. With the tested polymeric fluid, the proportion difference between the estimated Herschel-Bulkley parameters and those obtained using the scientific rheometer are −24% for the yield stress, 0.26% for the consistency index, and 0.30% for the flow behavior index. Finally, the computation requires limited resources, and the algorithm can be implemented on low-power devices such as an embedded single-board computer or a mobile device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Fluids and Flows: Algorithms and Applications)
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17 pages, 8875 KiB  
Article
Oscillating Magnetohydrodynamic Stokes Flow between Porous Plates with Spatiotemporally Periodic Reabsorption
by Anastasios Raptis, Christos Manopoulos, Michalis Xenos and Sokrates Tsangaris
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040156 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
The study addresses the oscillating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Stokes flow between two parallel plates with periodic reabsorption both spatially and temporally. Two cases are distinguished by applying either (1) transverse or (2) parallel external magnetic field. Analytical solutions of velocity and pressure are derived [...] Read more.
The study addresses the oscillating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Stokes flow between two parallel plates with periodic reabsorption both spatially and temporally. Two cases are distinguished by applying either (1) transverse or (2) parallel external magnetic field. Analytical solutions of velocity and pressure are derived for both cases and the effect of Womersley and Hartmann number, and the absorption coefficient is examined. The study generalizes existing literature on analytic MHD Stokes flow solutions accounting for periodic boundary conditions both in time and space. The non-oscillating non-MHD Stokes flow in a porous channel (available in the literature) is proven to be a limit of the analytic solution introduced here. The MHD effects are noticeable in flows oscillating with low or moderate frequency but are barely detectable in high-frequency flows even in the presence of strong magnetic fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluids in Magnetic/Electric Fields)
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12 pages, 3070 KiB  
Article
Jet Dynamics Associated with Drop Impact on Micropillared Substrate
by Brooklyn Asai, Anayet Ullah Siddique and Hua Tan
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040155 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2363
Abstract
The jetting phenomenon associated with droplet impact upon a hydrophilic micropillared substrate was analyzed in detail using a high-speed camera. Viscosities of the fluids were varied using differing concentrations of glycerol in deionized water. This paper aims to connect similarities between this form [...] Read more.
The jetting phenomenon associated with droplet impact upon a hydrophilic micropillared substrate was analyzed in detail using a high-speed camera. Viscosities of the fluids were varied using differing concentrations of glycerol in deionized water. This paper aims to connect similarities between this form of capillary jetting and another well-known jetting phenomenon from the bubble bursting. Both experience a cavity collapse when opposing fluid fronts collide which causes a singularity at the liquid surface, thus leading to the occurrence of jetting. Following processes used to define scaling laws for bubble bursting, a similar approach was taken to derive scaling laws for the dimensionless jet height, jet radius, base height, and radius of the jet base with respect to dimensionless time for the jetting phenomenon associated with the droplet impact. The development of a top droplet before the breakup of the jet also allows the examination of a scaling law for the necking diameter. We find that with the proper scaling factors, the evolution of the jet profile can collapse into a master profile for different fluids and impact velocities. The time dependence of the necking diameter before the jet breakup follows the power law with an exponent of ~2/3. Contrastingly, for other jet parameters such as the radius and height, the power law relationship with time dependence was not found to have a clear pattern that emerged from these studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics of Droplets and Bubbles)
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26 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of a Bingham Fluid in a Vertical Channel: Mixed Convection
by Alessandra Borrelli, Giulia Giantesio and Maria Cristina Patria
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040154 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2753
Abstract
In this paper, we describe our study of the mixed convection of a Boussinesquian Bingham fluid in a vertical channel in the absence and presence of an external uniform magnetic field normal to the walls. The velocity, the induced magnetic field, and the [...] Read more.
In this paper, we describe our study of the mixed convection of a Boussinesquian Bingham fluid in a vertical channel in the absence and presence of an external uniform magnetic field normal to the walls. The velocity, the induced magnetic field, and the temperature are analytically obtained. A detailed analysis is conducted to determine the plug regions in relation to the values of the Bingham number, the buoyancy parameter, and the Hartmann number. In particular, the velocity decreases as the Bingham number increases. Detailed considerations are drawn for the occurrence of the reverse flow phenomenon. Moreover, a selected set of diagrams illustrating the influence of various parameters involved in the problem is presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluids in Magnetic/Electric Fields)
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16 pages, 359 KiB  
Article
On Solving the Nonlinear Falkner–Skan Boundary-Value Problem: A Review
by Asai Asaithambi
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040153 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2844
Abstract
This article is a review of ongoing research on analytical, numerical, and mixed methods for the solution of the third-order nonlinear Falkner–Skan boundary-value problem, which models the non-dimensional velocity distribution in the laminar boundary layer. Full article
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13 pages, 869 KiB  
Article
A Model of Synovial Fluid with a Hyaluronic Acid Source: A Numerical Challenge
by S. Canberk Ozan, Gérard Labrosse and A. Kerem Uguz
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040152 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
Initially motivated by the analysis of the flow dynamics of the synovial fluid, taken as non-Newtonian, this paper also reports on a numerical challenge which occurred unexpectedly while solving the momentum equation of the model. The configuration consists of two infinitely long horizontal [...] Read more.
Initially motivated by the analysis of the flow dynamics of the synovial fluid, taken as non-Newtonian, this paper also reports on a numerical challenge which occurred unexpectedly while solving the momentum equation of the model. The configuration consists of two infinitely long horizontal parallel flat plates where the top plate is sheared at constant speed and the bottom plate is fixed. The synovial fluid shows a shear-thinning rheology, and furthermore it thickens with the hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration, i.e., it is also chemically-thickening. Accordingly, a modified Cross model is employed to express the shear rate and concentration-dependent viscosity, whose parameter values are determined from experimental data. Another significance of the study is the investigation of the effect of an external stimulus on the flow dynamics via a HA source term. The resulting flow exhibits peculiar features resulting from extremely large and small, but positive, numerical quantities, such as the viscosity and the shear rates. This requires constructing a parametrized zero-machine level solver, up to 300 accurate digits or so, for capturing the correct length scales of the flow physics. As a conclusion, the physical model, although simple, but original, leads to interesting results whose numerical determination turns out to be successful only once the real cause of the numerical trap is identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow and Heat Transfer in Non-linear Fluids)
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13 pages, 641 KiB  
Review
Wave-Energy Dissipation: Seaweeds and Marine Plants Are Ecosystem Engineers
by Mark Denny
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040151 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3847
Abstract
Ocean waves deliver an immense amount of energy to coasts around the planet, powering high-velocity flows that interact with nearshore marine plants and animals. Although some of these interactions are beneficial, it is often advantageous for subtidal and intertidal ecological communities if wave-induced [...] Read more.
Ocean waves deliver an immense amount of energy to coasts around the planet, powering high-velocity flows that interact with nearshore marine plants and animals. Although some of these interactions are beneficial, it is often advantageous for subtidal and intertidal ecological communities if wave-induced water velocities can be reduced by safely dissipating wave energy. This function is often fulfilled by seaweeds and marine plants, which thereby act as ecosystem engineers, modifying the environment to the benefit of the community. Recent advances in hydro-mechanical theory help to explain the mechanisms by which vegetation dissipates wave energy, highlighting the role that organisms’ tendency to bend in flow—their structural flexibility—plays in their ability to engineer wave-induced flows. Here, I review these theories and their application to salt marsh plants, seagrasses, mangroves, and seaweeds, focusing on the ways that marine vegetation serves a foundational role in community function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Fluid Dynamics)
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15 pages, 5118 KiB  
Article
Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer without Phase Change in Microfluidic Heat Exchanger
by Maksim P. Vasilev and Rufat Sh. Abiev
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040150 - 9 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3847
Abstract
This work presents an experimental study of the possibility of intensifying in microfluidic heat exchangers (MFHE) by creating a two-phase segmented flow (gas–liquid). Measurements of convective heat transfer were carried out using an MFHE, consisting of six channels 1 × 1 mm. Experimental [...] Read more.
This work presents an experimental study of the possibility of intensifying in microfluidic heat exchangers (MFHE) by creating a two-phase segmented flow (gas–liquid). Measurements of convective heat transfer were carried out using an MFHE, consisting of six channels 1 × 1 mm. Experimental studies have shown that segmented flow makes it possible to increase the Nusselt number of a laminar flow in MFHE up to 1.67 and reduce thermal resistance up to 1.7 times compared to single-phase flow. At the same time, it was found that the intensification of heat exchange by a two-phase flow is observed only for the range of the volume fraction of gas from 10 to 30%. In addition, the calculation of the thermal performance criterion, including both thermal and hydraulic parameters (friction factor), also confirmed the promise of using the Taylor segmented flow as a method for single-phase heat transfer intensifying in microchannels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flow and Heat Transfer Intensification in Chemical Engineering)
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21 pages, 2330 KiB  
Article
Optimal Pressure Boundary Control of Steady Multiscale Fluid-Structure Interaction Shell Model Derived from Koiter Equations
by Andrea Chierici, Leonardo Chirco and Sandro Manservisi
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040149 - 8 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1863
Abstract
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems are of great interest, due to their applicability in science and engineering. However, the coupling between large fluid domains and small moving solid walls presents numerous numerical difficulties and, in some configurations, where the thickness of the solid wall [...] Read more.
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems are of great interest, due to their applicability in science and engineering. However, the coupling between large fluid domains and small moving solid walls presents numerous numerical difficulties and, in some configurations, where the thickness of the solid wall can be neglected, one can consider membrane models, which are derived from the Koiter shell equations with a reduction of the computational cost of the algorithm. With this assumption, the FSI simulation is reduced to the fluid equations on a moving mesh together with a Robin boundary condition that is imposed on the moving solid surface. In this manuscript, we are interested in the study of inverse FSI problems that aim to achieve an objective by changing some design parameters, such as forces, boundary conditions, or geometrical domain shapes. We study the inverse FSI membrane model by using an optimal control approach that is based on Lagrange multipliers and adjoint variables. In particular, we propose a pressure boundary optimal control with the purpose to control the solid deformation by changing the pressure on a fluid boundary. We report the results of some numerical tests for two-dimensional domains to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of our method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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20 pages, 3515 KiB  
Article
A Multiple-Grid Lattice Boltzmann Method for Natural Convection under Low and High Prandtl Numbers
by Seyed Amin Nabavizadeh, Himel Barua, Mohsen Eshraghi and Sergio D. Felicelli
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040148 - 8 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2278
Abstract
A multi-distribution lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK) model with a multiple-grid lattice Boltzmann (MGLB) model is proposed to efficiently simulate natural convection over a wide range of Prandtl numbers. In this method, different grid sizes and time steps for heat transfer and fluid flow [...] Read more.
A multi-distribution lattice Boltzmann Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK) model with a multiple-grid lattice Boltzmann (MGLB) model is proposed to efficiently simulate natural convection over a wide range of Prandtl numbers. In this method, different grid sizes and time steps for heat transfer and fluid flow equations are chosen. The model is validated against natural convection in a square cavity, since extensive benchmark solutions are available for that problem. The proposed method can resolve the computational difficulty in simulating problems with very different time scales, in particular, when using extremely low or high Prandtl numbers. The technique can also enhance computational speed and stability while keeping the simplicity of the BGK method. Compared with the conventional lattice Boltzmann method, the simulation time can be reduced up to one-tenth of the time while maintaining the accuracy in an acceptable range. The proposed model can be extended to other lattice Boltzmann collision models and three-dimensional cases, making it a great candidate for large-scale simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Convection in Fluid and Porous Media)
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22 pages, 1142 KiB  
Review
Coaxial Circular Jets—A Review
by René van Hout, Sudharson Murugan, Abhijit Mitra and Beni Cukurel
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040147 - 8 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4608
Abstract
This review article focuses on the near-field flow characteristics of coaxial circular jets that, despite their common usage in combustion processes, are still not well understood. In particular, changes in outer to inner jet velocity ratios, ru, absolute jet exit velocities [...] Read more.
This review article focuses on the near-field flow characteristics of coaxial circular jets that, despite their common usage in combustion processes, are still not well understood. In particular, changes in outer to inner jet velocity ratios, ru, absolute jet exit velocities and the nozzle dimensions and geometry have a profound effect on the near-field flow that is characterized by shear as well as wake instabilities. This review starts by presenting the set of equations governing the flow field and, in particular, the importance of the Reynolds stress distributions on the static pressure distribution is emphasized. Next, the literature that has led to the current stage of knowledge on coaxial jet flows is presented. Based on this literature review, several regions in the near-field (based on ru) are identified in which the inner mixing layer is either governed by shear or wake instabilities. The latter become dominant when ru1. For coaxial jets issued into a quiescent surrounding, shear instabilities of the annular (outer) jet are always present and ultimately govern the flow field in the far-field. We briefly discuss the effect of nozzle geometry by comparing the flow field in studies that used a blockage disk to those that employed thick inner nozzle lip thickness. Similarities and differences are discussed. While impinging coaxial jets have not been investigated much, we argue in this review that the rich flow dynamics in the near-field of the coaxial jet might be put to an advantage in fine-tuning coaxial jets impinging onto surfaces for specific heat and mass transfer applications. Several open questions are discussed at the end of this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Impinging Jets)
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13 pages, 2175 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Propagation and Run-Up of Long Waves in U-Shaped Bays
by Sri R. Pudjaprasetya, Vania M. Risriani and Iryanto
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040146 - 8 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
Wave propagation and run-up in U-shaped channel bays are studied here in the framework of the quasi-1D Saint-Venant equations. Our approach is numerical, using the momentum conserving staggered-grid (MCS) scheme, as a consistent approximation of the Saint-Venant equations. We carried out simulations regarding [...] Read more.
Wave propagation and run-up in U-shaped channel bays are studied here in the framework of the quasi-1D Saint-Venant equations. Our approach is numerical, using the momentum conserving staggered-grid (MCS) scheme, as a consistent approximation of the Saint-Venant equations. We carried out simulations regarding wave focusing and run-ups in U-shaped bays. We obtained good agreement with the existing analytical results on several aspects: the moving shoreline, wave shoaling, and run-up heights. Our findings also confirm that the run-up height is significantly higher in the parabolic bay than on a plane beach. This assessment shows the merit of the MCS scheme in describing wave focusing and run-up in U-shaped bays. Moreover, the MCS scheme is also efficient because it is based on the quasi-1D Saint-Venant equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Theory and Applications of Ocean Surface Waves)
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48 pages, 8203 KiB  
Review
An Overview of the Lagrangian Dispersion Modeling of Heavy Particles in Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence and Considerations on Related LES Simulations
by Daniel G. F. Huilier
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040145 - 8 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3787
Abstract
Particle tracking is a competitive technique widely used in two-phase flows and best suited to simulate the dispersion of heavy particles in the atmosphere. Most Lagrangian models in the statistical approach to turbulence are based either on the eddy interaction model (EIM) and [...] Read more.
Particle tracking is a competitive technique widely used in two-phase flows and best suited to simulate the dispersion of heavy particles in the atmosphere. Most Lagrangian models in the statistical approach to turbulence are based either on the eddy interaction model (EIM) and the Monte-Carlo method or on random walk models (RWMs) making use of Markov chains and a Langevin equation. In the present work, both discontinuous and continuous random walk techniques are used to model the dispersion of heavy spherical particles in homogeneous isotropic stationary turbulence (HIST). Their efficiency to predict particle long time dispersion, mean-square velocity and Lagrangian integral time scales are discussed. Computation results with zero and no-zero mean drift velocity are reported; they are intended to quantify the inertia, gravity, crossing-trajectory and continuity effects controlling the dispersion. The calculations concern dense monodisperse spheres in air, the particle Stokes number ranging from 0.007 to 4. Due to the weaknesses of such models, a more sophisticated matrix method will also be explored, able to simulate the true fluid turbulence experienced by the particle for long time dispersion studies. Computer evolution and performance since allowed to develop, instead of Reynold-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-based studies, large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulence coupled to Generalized Langevin Models. A short review on the progress of the Lagrangian simulations based on large eddy simulation (LES) will therefore be provided too, highlighting preferential concentration. The theoretical framework for the fluid time correlation functions along the heavy particle path is that suggested by Wang and Stock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Methods and Physical Aspects of Multiphase Flow)
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18 pages, 9700 KiB  
Article
Vortex Dynamics Study and Flow Visualization on Aircraft Model with Different Canard Configurations
by Setyawan Bekti Wibowo, Budi Basuki, Sutrisno, Tri Agung Rohmat, Soeadgihardo Siswantoro, Febryanto Nugroho, Petricius Ginting and Zainuri Anwar
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040144 - 7 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4163
Abstract
Canard configuration on fighter planes is essential for regulating flow and the occurrence of vortex interactions on the main wing, one of which is to delay stall. Stall delays are useful when the aircraft is making maneuvering or short-landing. This study observed the [...] Read more.
Canard configuration on fighter planes is essential for regulating flow and the occurrence of vortex interactions on the main wing, one of which is to delay stall. Stall delays are useful when the aircraft is making maneuvering or short-landing. This study observed the effect of canard configuration on various fighter aircraft models. Fighter models represented the different canard configurations, such as Sukhoi SU-30 MKI, Chengdu J-10, and Eurofighter Typhoon. Water tunnels and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have made it easier to visualize the flow and aerodynamic forces. The results showed that at a low angle of attack (AoA) < 30°, the Chengdu J-10 and Eurofighter models had the highest lift force coefficient (Cl). When at high AoA, Cl’s highest value occurred on the Sukhoi SU-30 model with a value of 1.45 at AoA 50°. Meanwhile, the highest AoA that still had a high Cl value occurred on the Sukhoi SU-30 and Chengdu J-10 aircraft models, namely at AoA 55° with Cl values more than 1.1. The canard position in the upper of the wing would increase the Cl at low AoA, while the parallel canard position could delay the stall. Full article
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4 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Advances in Fluid Mechanics: Feature Papers
by Mehrdad Massoudi
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040143 - 7 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2770
Abstract
This Special Issue is a collection of top-quality papers from some of the Editorial Board Members of Fluids, Guest Editors, and leading researchers discussing new knowledge or new cutting-edge developments on all aspects of fluid mechanics [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fluid Mechanics: Feature Papers)
18 pages, 307 KiB  
Article
Conceptual Limitations of the Probability Density Function Method for Modeling Turbulent Premixed Combustion and Closed-Form Description of Chemical Reactions’ Effects
by Vladimir L. Zimont
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040142 - 6 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
In this paper, we critically analyzed possibilities of probability density function (PDF) methods for the closed-form description of combustion chemical effects in turbulent premixed flames. We came to the conclusion that the concept of a closed-form description of chemical effects in the classical [...] Read more.
In this paper, we critically analyzed possibilities of probability density function (PDF) methods for the closed-form description of combustion chemical effects in turbulent premixed flames. We came to the conclusion that the concept of a closed-form description of chemical effects in the classical modeling strategy in the PDF method based on the use of reaction-independent mixing models is not applicable to turbulent flames. The reason for this is the strong dependence of mixing on the combustion reactions due to the thin-reaction-zone nature of turbulent combustion confirmed in recent optical studies and direct numerical simulations. In this case, the chemical effect is caused by coupled reaction–diffusion processes that take place in thin zones of instantaneous combustion. We considered possible alternative modeling strategies in the PDF method that would allow the chemical effects to be described in a closed form and came to the conclusion that this is possible only in a hypothetical case where instantaneous combustion occurs in reaction zones identical to the reaction zone of the undisturbed laminar flame. For turbulent combustion in the laminar flamelet regime, we use an inverse modeling strategy where the model PDF directly contains the characteristics of the laminar flame. For turbulent combustion in the distributed preheat zone regime, we offer an original joint direct/inverse modeling strategy. For turbulent combustion in the thickened flamelet regime, we combine the joint direct/inverse and inverse modeling strategies correspondingly for simulation of the thickened flamelet structure and for the determination of the global characteristics of the turbulent flame. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Flow and Its Impact on Combustion)
21 pages, 10484 KiB  
Article
Effects of Mesh Generation on Modelling Aluminium Anode Baking Furnaces
by Jose Libreros and Maria Trujillo
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040140 - 4 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
Anode baking is critical in carbon anode production for aluminium extraction. Operational and geometrical parameters have a direct impact on the performance of anode baking furnaces (ABF), and hence on the resulting anode quality. Gas flow patterns, velocity field, pressure drop, shear stress [...] Read more.
Anode baking is critical in carbon anode production for aluminium extraction. Operational and geometrical parameters have a direct impact on the performance of anode baking furnaces (ABF), and hence on the resulting anode quality. Gas flow patterns, velocity field, pressure drop, shear stress and turbulent dissipation rate are the main operational parameters to be optimised, considering a specific geometry that is discretised as a mesh. Therefore, this paper aims to establish the need to generate an appropriate mesh to perform accurate numerical simulations of three-dimensional turbulent flow in a single section of an ABF. Two geometries are considered for generating three meshes, using COMSOL and cfMesh, with different refinement zones. The three meshes are used for creating nine incompressible isothermal turbulent flow models, with varying operational parameters. Velocity field, convergence and turbulent viscosity ratio in the outlet of fuel inlet pipes are the quantification criteria. Quantification criteria have shown that a better physical representation is obtained by refining in the whole combustion zone. COMSOL Multiphysics’ built-in mesh generator allows quadrilateral, tetrahedron and hexahedron shapes. Adaptive cell sizes and shapes have a place within modelling, since refining a mesh in appropriate zones brings the Peclet number down when the incompressible isothermal turbulent flow is simulated. Full article
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13 pages, 2358 KiB  
Article
The Lifetimes of Evaporating Sessile Droplets of Water Can Be Strongly Influenced by Thermal Effects
by Feargus G. H. Schofield, David Pritchard, Stephen K. Wilson and Khellil Sefiane
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040141 - 3 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2605
Abstract
The effect of the thermal properties of the system on the lifetime of an evaporating sessile droplet of water is analysed using a fully coupled model which involves determining the temperature of the droplet, the substrate and the atmosphere. The evolutions, and hence [...] Read more.
The effect of the thermal properties of the system on the lifetime of an evaporating sessile droplet of water is analysed using a fully coupled model which involves determining the temperature of the droplet, the substrate and the atmosphere. The evolutions, and hence the lifetimes, of droplets of water evaporating in both of the extreme modes are calculated. In particular, it is shown how the lifetimes of droplets of water can be strongly influenced by thermal effects. Droplets with larger initial contact angles or on less conductive substrates generally have longer lifetimes than those with smaller initial contact angles or on more conductive substrates, and the physical mechanism by which the thermal properties of the system influence the evaporation can be understood in terms of the thermal anchoring between the droplet and the lower surface of the substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics of Droplets and Bubbles)
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19 pages, 8002 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Continuum-Particle Approach for Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Red Blood Cells in Fluid Flows
by Lahcen Akerkouch and Trung Bao Le
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040139 - 2 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3584
Abstract
Transport of cells in fluid flow plays a critical role in many physiological processes of the human body. Recent developments of in vitro techniques have enabled the understanding of cellular dynamics in laboratory conditions. However, it is challenging to obtain precise characteristics of [...] Read more.
Transport of cells in fluid flow plays a critical role in many physiological processes of the human body. Recent developments of in vitro techniques have enabled the understanding of cellular dynamics in laboratory conditions. However, it is challenging to obtain precise characteristics of cellular dynamics using experimental method alone, especially under in vivo conditions. This challenge motivates new developments of computational methods to provide complementary data that experimental techniques are not able to provide. Since there exists a large disparity in spatial and temporal scales in this problem, which requires a large number of cells to be simulated, it is highly desirable to develop an efficient numerical method for the interaction of cells and fluid flows. In this work, a new Fluid-Structure Interaction formulation is proposed based on the use of hybrid continuum-particle approach, which can resolve local dynamics of cells while providing large-scale flow patterns in the vascular vessel. Here, the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) model for the cellular membrane is used in conjunction with the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) for the fluid plasma. Our results show that the new formulation is highly efficient in computing the deformation of cells within fluid flow while satisfying the incompressibility constraints of the fluid. We demonstrate that it is possible to couple the DPD with the IBM to simulate the complex dynamics of Red Blood Cells (RBC) such as parachuting. Our key observation is that the proposed coupling enables the simulation of RBC dynamics in realistic arterioles while ensuring the incompressibility constraint for fluid plasma. Therefore, the proposed method allows an accurate estimation of fluid shear stresses on the surface of simulated RBC. Our results suggest that this hybrid methodology can be extended for a variety of cells in physiological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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