Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020080

Authors: Allatchi Hassan Hassan Barkai Mahmoud El El Hajem Tom Lacassagne Jean-Yves Champagne

The vacuum airlift column process was patented in 2007 and is under development. The experimental study of its hydrodynamics is one of the axes explored to optimize its design and operation. The object of the study presented in this

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020079

Authors: Rabbani Abderrahmane Sassi

We present a comparative study of the onset and propagation dynamics of the fingering phenomenon in uniform porous media with a radial configuration. With the help of the Finite Element Method (FEM)-based 2D simulations and image processing techniques, we investigate finger morphology, growth rate, interfacial length, finger length and the number of fingers which are affected due to inertial forces and convective acceleration in a two-phase porous media flow. We considered a modified Darcy&rsquo;s law with inertial force coupled with convective acceleration and investigate their impact on interfacial instability with different velocity-viscosity combinations. Interestingly, the consequences of inertial corrections become significant with changes in viscosity at high Reynolds numbers. Due to the intrinsic bifurcation nature of inertial forces in the radial flow geometry, finger morphology is changed mostly at high viscosity ratios. We find that the effects of inertia and convective acceleration are markedly significant at relatively high Reynolds numbers while the interfacial length and the number of fingers&mdash;which are important parameters for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)&mdash;are most affected by the neglecting of these forces. Moreover, at high Reynolds numbers, the rate of growth of fingering instabilities and the fractal number tend to deviate from that for Darcy&rsquo;s law.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020078

Authors: Sk. Rahman Omer San

In this paper, we investigate the performance of a relaxation filtering approach for the Euler turbulence using a central seven-point stencil reconstruction scheme. High-resolution numerical experiments are performed for both multi-mode and single-mode inviscid Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) problems in two-dimensional canonical settings. In our numerical assessments, we focus on the computational performance considering both time evolution of the flow field and its spectral resolution up to three decades of inertial range. Our assessments also include an implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) approach that is based on a fifth-order weighted essential non-oscillatory (WENO) with built-in numerical dissipation due to its upwind-based reconstruction architecture. We show that the relaxation filtering approach equipped with a central seven-point stencil, sixth-order accurate discrete filter yields accurate results efficiently, since there is no additional cost associated with the computation of the smoothness indicators and interface Riemann solvers. Our a-posteriori spectral analysis also demonstrates that its resolution capacity is sufficiently high to capture the details of the flow behavior induced by the instability. Furthermore, its resolution capability can be effectively controlled by the filter shape and strength.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020077

Authors: Tagawa Song

The stability of an electrically conducting fluid flow in a cylinder driven by a multi-pole rotating magnetic field is numerically studied. A time-averaged Lorentz force term including the electric potential is derived on the condition that the skin effect can be neglected and then it is incorporated into the Navier-Stokes equation as a body force term. The axisymmetric velocity profile of the basic flow for the case of an infinitely long cylinder depends on the number of pole-pairs and the Hartmann number. A set of linearized disturbance equations to obtain a neutral state was successfully solved using the highly simplified marker and cell (HSMAC) method together with a Newton&ndash;Raphson method. For various cases of the basic flow, depending on both the number of pole-pairs and the Hartmann number, the corresponding critical rotational Reynolds numbers for the onset of secondary flow were obtained instead of using the conventional magnetic Taylor number. The linear stability analyses reveal that the critical Reynolds number takes its minimum at a certain value of the Hartmann number. On the other hand, the velocity profile for cases of a finite length cylinder having a no-slip condition at the flat walls generates the B&ouml;dewadt boundary layers and such flows need to be computed including the non-linear terms of the Navier-Stokes equation.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020076

Authors: Basirat Goshtasbi Ahmadi

Hydraulic fracturing (HF) treatment is performed to enhance the productivity in the fractured reservoirs. During this process, the interaction between HF and natural fracture (NF) plays a critical role by making it possible to predict fracture geometry and reservoir production. In this paper, interaction modes between HF and NF are simulated using the discrete element method (DEM) and effective parameters on the interaction mechanisms are investigated. The numerical results also are compared with different analytical methods and experimental results. The results showed that HF generally tends to cross the NF at an angle of more than 45&deg; and a moderate differential stress (greater than 5 MPa), and the opening mode is dominated at an angle of fewer than 45&deg;. Two effects of changing in the interaction mode and NF opening were also found by changing the strength parameters of NF. Interaction mode was changed by increasing the friction coefficient, while by increasing the cohesion of NF it was less opened under a constant injection pressure.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020075

Authors: Leiv Storesletten D. Andrew S. Rees

The onset of convection in an inclined porous layer which is heated internally by a uniform distribution of heat sources is considered. We investigate the combined effects of inclination, anisotropy and internal heat generation on the linear instability of the basic parallel flow. When the Rayleigh number is sufficiently large, instability occurs and a convective motion is set up. It turns out that the preferred motion at convection onset depends quite strongly on the anisotropy ratio, &xi; , and the inclination angle. When &xi; &lt; 1 the preferred motion is in the form of longitudinal rolls for all inclinations. When &xi; &gt; 1 transverse rolls are preferred for small inclinations but, at high inclinations, longitudinal rolls are preferred. At intermediate inclinations the preferred roll orientation varies smoothly between these two extremes.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020074

Authors: Hua Xia Nicolas Francois Jean-Baptiste Gorce Horst Punzmann Michael Shats

In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally that by generating two orthogonal standing waves at the liquid surface, one can control the motion of floating microparticles. The mechanism of the vortex generation is somewhat similar to a classical Stokes drift in linear progression waves. By adjusting the relative phase between the waves, it is possible to generate a vortex lattice, seen as a stationary horizontal flow consisting of counter-rotating vortices. Two orthogonal waves which are phase-shifted by &pi; / 2 create locally rotating waves. Such waves induce nested circular drift orbits of the surface fluid particles. Such a configuration allows for the trapping of particles within a cell of the size about half the wavelength of the standing waves. By changing the relative phase, it is possible to either create or to destroy the vortex crystal. This method creates an opportunity to confine surface particles within cells, or to greatly increase mixing of the surface matter over the wave field surface.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020073

Authors: Brkić Praks

The original and improved versions of the Hardy Cross iterative method with related modifications are today widely used for the calculation of fluid flow through conduits in loop-like distribution networks of pipes with known node fluid consumptions. Fluid in these networks is usually natural gas for distribution in municipalities, water in waterworks or hot water in district heating systems, air in ventilation systems in buildings and mines, etc. Since the resistances in these networks depend on flow, the problem is not linear like in electrical circuits, and an iterative procedure must be used. In both versions of the Hardy Cross method, in the original and in the improved one, the initial result of calculations in the iteration procedure is not flow, but rather a correction of flow. Unfortunately, these corrections should be added to or subtracted from flow calculated in the previous iteration according to complicated algebraic rules. Unlike the Hardy Cross method, which requires complicated formulas for flow corrections, the new Node-loop method does not need these corrections, as flow is computed directly. This is the main advantage of the new Node-loop method, as the number of iterations is the same as in the modified Hardy Cross method. Consequently, a complex algebraic scheme for the sign of the flow correction is avoided, while the final results remain accurate.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020072

Authors: Osborne

I address the problem of breather turbulence in ocean waves from the point of view of the exact spectral solutions of the nonlinear Schr&ouml;dinger (NLS) equation using two tools of mathematical physics: (1) the inverse scattering transform (IST) for periodic/quasiperiodic boundary conditions (also referred to as finite gap theory (FGT) in the Russian literature) and (2) quasiperiodic Fourier series, both of which enhance the physical and mathematical understanding of complicated nonlinear phenomena in water waves. The basic approach I refer to is nonlinear Fourier analysis (NLFA). The formulation describes wave motion with spectral components consisting of sine waves, Stokes waves and breather packets that nonlinearly interact pair-wise with one another. This contrasts to the simpler picture of standard Fourier analysis in which one linearly superposes sine waves. Breather trains are coherent wave packets that &ldquo;breath&rdquo; up and down during their lifetime &ldquo;cycle&rdquo; as they propagate, a phenomenon related to Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) recurrence. The central wave of a breather, when the packet is at its maximum height of the FPU cycle, is often treated as a kind of rogue wave. Breather turbulence occurs when the number of breathers in a measured time series is large, typically several hundred per hour. Because of the prevalence of rogue waves in breather turbulence, I call this exceptional type of sea state a breather sea or rogue sea. Here I provide theoretical tools for a physical and dynamical understanding of the recent results of Osborne et al. (Ocean Dynamics, 2019, 69, pp. 187&ndash;219) in which dense breather turbulence was found in experimental surface wave data in Currituck Sound, North Carolina. Quasiperiodic Fourier series are important in the study of ocean waves because they provide a simpler theoretical interpretation and faster numerical implementation of the NLFA, with respect to the IST, particularly with regard to determination of the breather spectrum and their associated phases that are here treated in the so-called nonlinear random phase approximation. The actual material developed here focuses on results necessary for the analysis and interpretation of shipboard/offshore platform radar scans and for airborne lidar and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020071

Authors: Onoabhagbe Gomari Russell Ugwu Ubogu

Production from gas condensate reservoir poses the major challenge of condensate banking or blockage. This occurs near the wellbore, around which a decline in pressure is initially observed. A good sign of condensate banking is a rise in the gas&ndash;oil ratio (GOR) during production and/or a decline in the condensate yield of the well, which leads to considerable reductions in well deliverability and well rate for gas condensate reservoirs. Therefore, determining the well deliverability of a gas condensate reservoir and methods to optimize productivity is paramount in the industry.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020070

Authors: Anna Kokorina Alexey Slunyaev

The issue of rogue wave lifetimes is addressed in this study, which helps to detail the general picture of this dangerous oceanic phenomenon. The direct numerical simulations of irregular wave ensembles are performed to obtain the complete accurate data on the rogue wave occurrence and evolution. Purely collinear wave systems, moderately crested, and short-crested sea states have been simulated by means of the high-order spectral method for the potential Euler equations. As rogue waves are transient and poorly reflect the physical effects, we join instant abnormally high waves in close locations and close time moments to new objects, rogue events, which helps to retrieve the abnormal occurrences more stably and more consistently from the physical point of view. The rogue event lifetime probability distributions are calculated based on the simulated wave data. They show the distinctive difference between rough sea states with small directional bandwidth on one part, and small-amplitude sea states and short-crested states on the other part. The former support long-living rogue wave patterns (the corresponding probability distributions have heavy tails), though the latter possess exponential probability distributions of rogue event lifetimes and generally produce much shorter rogue wave events.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020069

Authors: Catherine Krafft Alexander S. Volokitin Gaëtan Gauthier

The random density fluctuations observed in the solar wind plasma crucially influence on the Langmuir wave turbulence generated by energetic electron beams ejected during solar bursts. Those are powerful phenomena consisting of a chain of successive processes leading ultimately to strong electromagnetic emissions. The small-scale processes governing the interactions between the waves, the beams and the inhomogeneous plasmas need to be studied to explain such macroscopic phenomena. Moreover, the complexity induced by the plasma irregularities requires to find new approaches and modelling. Therefore theoretical and numerical tools were built to describe the Langmuir wave turbulence and the beam&rsquo;s dynamics in inhomogeneous plasmas, in the form of a self-consistent Hamiltonian model including a fluid description for the plasma and a kinetic approach for the beam. On this basis, numerical simulations were performed in order to shed light on the impact of the density fluctuations on the beam dynamics, the electromagnetic wave radiation, the generation of Langmuir wave turbulence, the waves&rsquo; coupling and decay phenomena involving Langmuir and low frequency waves, the acceleration of beam electrons, their diffusion mechanisms, the modulation of the Langmuir waveforms and the statistical properties of the radiated fields&rsquo; distributions. The paper presents the main results obtained in the form of a review.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020068

Authors: Alberto Alberello Alessandro Iafrati

Wave breaking is the most characteristic feature of the ocean surface. Physical investigations (in the field and at laboratory scale) and numerical simulations have studied the driving mechanisms that lead to wave breaking and its effects on hydrodynamic loads on marine structures. Despite computational advances, accurate numerical simulations of the complex breaking process remain challenging. Validation of numerical codes is routinely performed against experimental observations of the surface elevation. However, it is still uncertain whether simulations can accurately reproduce the velocity field under breaking waves due to the lack of ad-hoc measurements. In the present work, the velocity field recorded with a Particle Image Velocimetry method during experiments conducted in a unidirectional wave tank is directly compared to the results of a corresponding numerical simulation performed with a Navier&ndash;Stokes (NS) solver. It is found that simulations underpredict the velocity close to the wave crest compared to measurements. Higher resolutions seem necessary in order to capture the most relevant details of the flow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020067

Authors: Alexander V. Babanin Miguel Onorato Luigi Cavaleri

We suggest that there exists a natural bandwidth of wave trains, including trains of wind-generated waves with a continuous spectrum, determined by their steepness. Based on laboratory experiments with monochromatic waves, we show that, if no side-band perturbations are imposed, the ratio between the wave steepness and bandwidth is restricted to certain limits. These limits are consistent with field observations of narrow-banded wind-wave spectra if a characteristic width of the spectral peak and average steepness are used. The role of the wind in such modulation is also discussed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020066

Authors: Sónia Costa Paulo F. Teixeira José A. Covas Loic Hilliou

Piezoelectric sensors have made their way into polymer processing and rheometry applications, in particular when small pressure changes with very fast dynamics are to be measured. However, no validation of their use for steady shear rheometry is available in the literature. Here, a rheological slit die was designed and constructed to allow for the direct comparison of pressure data measured with conventional and piezoelectric transducers. The calibration of piezoelectric sensors is presented together with a methodology to correct the data from the inherent signal drift, which is shown to be temperature and pressure independent. Flow curves are measured for polymers showing different levels of viscoelasticity. Piezoelectric slit rheometry is validated and its advantage for the rheology of thermodegradable materials with viscosity below 100 Pa&middot;s is highlighted.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020065

Authors: Manuel Félix Alberto Romero Cecilio Carrera-Sanchez Antonio Guerrero

The correlation between interfacial properties and emulsion microstructure is a topic of special interest that has many industrial applications. This study deals with the comparison between the rheological properties of oil-water interfaces with adsorbed proteins from legumes (chickpea or faba bean) and the properties of the emulsions using them as the only emulsifier, both at microscopic (droplet size distribution) and macroscopic level (linear viscoelasticity). Two different pH values (2.5 and 7.5) were studied as a function of storage time. Interfaces were characterized by means of dilatational and interfacial shear rheology measurements. Subsequently, the microstructure of the final emulsions obtained was evaluated thorough droplet size distribution (DSD), light scattering and rheological measurements. Results obtained evidenced that pH value has a strong influence on interfacial properties and emulsion microstructure. The best interfacial results were obtained for the lower pH value using chickpea protein, which also corresponded to smaller droplet sizes, higher viscoelastic moduli, and higher emulsion stability. Thus, results put forward the relevance of the interfacial tension values, the adsorption kinetics, the viscoelastic properties of the interfacial film, and the electrostatic interactions among droplets, which depend on pH and the type of protein, on the microstructure, rheological properties, and stability of legume protein-stabilized emulsions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020064

Authors: Marta Puzdrowska Tomasz Heese

Turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and its distribution and volume remain&mdash;with the exception of flow velocity&mdash;the most important cause of the low efficiency of fish passes. Thus, it is important to define the reasons and mechanisms that explain the distribution of characteristic features of this parameter, as presented in the paper. This publication presents the spatial distribution of TKE for two models of bolt-type fishways. The paper shows details related to characteristic features of TKE distribution and intensity scale in a bolt fishway. The presented research results for the bolt fishway were obtained from laboratory tests using a physical model. Measurements were taken of three temporary components of flow velocity in the indicated measurement sections. It was established that differences in the TKE volume and distribution are a consequence of the state of the stream that leaves the slot&rsquo;s section or the orifice&rsquo;s section. This state is defined by the determination of the stream&rsquo;s potential. A low potential results in high TKE values in the area of the main flow. Thus, considering various structural features of fish passes, one can assert that the potential remains a characteristic feature attributable to a particular type of facility.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020063

Authors: Zuo Weijermars

A simple, semi-analytical heat extraction model is presented for hydraulically fractured dry reservoirs containing two subparallel horizontal wells, connected by a horizontal fracture channel, using injected brine as the working fluid. Heat equations are used to quantify the heat conduction between fracture walls and circulating brine. The brine temperature profiles are calculated for different combinations of fracture widths, working fluid circulation rates, and initial fracture wall temperatures. The longevity of the geothermal heat extraction process is assessed for a range of working fluid injection rates. Importantly, dry geothermal reservoirs will not recharge heat by the geothermal flux on the time scale of any commercial heat extraction project. A production plan is proposed, with periodic brine circulation maintained in a diurnal schedule with 8 h active production alternating with 16 h of pump switched off. A quasi-steady state is achieved after both the brine temperature and rock temperature converge to a limit state allowing fracture-wall reheating by conduction from the rock interior in the diurnal production schedule. The results of this study could serve as a fast tool for assisting the planning phase of geothermal reservoir design as well as for operational monitoring and management.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020062

Authors: Gaetano Zimbardo Silvia Perri

The problem of studying anomalous superdiffusive transport by means of fractional transport equations is considered. We concentrate on the case when an advection flow is present (since this corresponds to many actual plasma configurations), as well as on the case when a boundary is also present. We propose that the presence of a boundary can be taken into account by adopting the Caputo fractional derivatives for the side of the boundary (here, the left side), while the Riemann-Liouville derivative is used for the unbounded side (here, the right side). These derivatives are used to write the fractional diffusion&ndash;advection equation. We look for solutions in the steady-state case, as such solutions are of practical interest for comparison with observations both in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. It is shown that the solutions in the completely asymmetric cases have the form of Mittag-Leffler functions in the case of the left fractional contribution, and the form of an exponential decay in the case of the right fractional contribution. Possible applications to space plasmas are discussed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020061

Authors: Kostas Belibassakis Julien Touboul

A novel coupled-mode model is developed for the wave&ndash;current&ndash;seabed interaction problem, with application in wave scattering by non-homogeneous, sheared currents over general bottom topography. The formulation is based on a velocity representation defined by a series of local vertical modes containing the propagating and evanescent modes, able to accurately treat the continuity condition and the bottom boundary condition on sloping parts of the seabed. Using the above representation in Euler equations, a coupled system of differential equations on the horizontal plane is derived, with respect to the unknown horizontal velocity modal amplitudes. In the case of small-amplitude waves, a linearized version of the above coupled-mode system is obtained, and the dispersion characteristics are studied for various interesting cases of wave&ndash;seabed&ndash;current interaction. Keeping only the propagating mode in the vertical expansion of the wave potential, the present system is reduced to a one-equation, non-linear model, generalizing Boussinesq models. The analytical structure of the present coupled-mode system facilitates extensions to treat non-linear effects and further applications concerning wave scattering by inhomogeneous currents in coastal regions with general 3D bottom topography.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020060

Authors: Ernest W. C. Lo Leon J. Menezes Ryo Torii

Background: Calculation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) using computed tomography (CT)-based 3D anatomical models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become a common method to non-invasively assess the functional severity of atherosclerotic narrowing in coronary arteries. We examined the impact of various inflow boundary conditions on computation of FFR to shed light on the requirements for inflow boundary conditions to ensure model representation. Methods: Three-dimensional anatomical models of coronary arteries for four patients with mild to severe stenosis were reconstructed from CT images. FFR and its commonly-used alternatives were derived using the models and CFD. A combination of four types of inflow boundary conditions (BC) was employed: pulsatile, steady, patient-specific and population average. Results: The maximum difference of FFR between pulsatile and steady inflow conditions was 0.02 (2.4%), approximately at a level similar to a reported uncertainty level of clinical FFR measurement (3&ndash;4%). The flow with steady BC appeared to represent well the diastolic phase of pulsatile flow, where FFR is measured. Though the difference between patient-specific and population average BCs affected the flow more, the maximum discrepancy of FFR was 0.07 (8.3%), despite the patient-specific inflow of one patient being nearly twice as the population average. Conclusions: In the patients investigated, the type of inflow boundary condition, especially flow pulsatility, does not have a significant impact on computed FFRs in narrowed coronary arteries.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4020059

Authors: Andrew N. Cookson Denis J. Doorly Spencer J. Sherwin

Helical geometries have been used in recent years to form cardiovascular prostheses such as stents and shunts. The helical geometry has been found to induce swirling flow, promoting in-plane mixing. This is hypothesised to reduce the formation of thrombosis and neo-intimal hyperplasia, in turn improving device patency and reducing re-implantation rates. In this paper we investigate whether joining together two helical geometries, of differing helical radii, in a repeating sequence, can produce significant gains in mixing effectiveness, by embodying a &lsquo;streamline crossing&rsquo; flow environment. Since the computational cost of calculating particle trajectories over extended domains is high, in this work we devised a procedure for efficiently exploring the large parameter space of possible geometry combinations. Velocity fields for the single geometries were first obtained using the spectral/hp element method. These were then discontinuously concatenated, in series, for the particle tracking based mixing analysis of the combined geometry. Full computations of the most promising combined geometries were then performed. Mixing efficiency was evaluated quantitatively using Poincar&eacute; sections, particle residence time data, and information entropy. Excellent agreement was found between the idealised (concatenated flow field) and the full simulations of mixing performance, revealing that a strict discontinuity between velocity fields is not required for mixing enhancement, via streamline crossing, to occur. Optimal mixing was found to occur for the combination R = 0.2 D and R = 0.5 D , producing a 70 % increase in mixing, compared with standard single helical designs. The findings of this work point to the benefits of swirl disruption and suggest concatenation as an efficient means to determine optimal configurations of repeating geometries for future designs of vascular prostheses.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010058

Authors: John D. Carter Morgan Rozman

Recently, the Whitham and capillary Whitham equations were shown to accurately model the evolution of surface waves on shallow water. In order to gain a deeper understanding of these equations, we compute periodic, traveling-wave solutions for both and study their stability. We present plots of a representative sampling of solutions for a range of wavelengths, wave speeds, wave heights, and surface tension values. Finally, we discuss the role these parameters play in the stability of these solutions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010057

Authors: Antonio Degasperis Sara Lombardo Matteo Sommacal

The formation of rogue oceanic waves may be the result of different causes. Various factors (winds, currents, dispersive focussing, depth, nonlinear focussing and instability) make this subject intriguing, and yet its understanding is quite relevant to practical issues. Here, we deal only with the nonlinear character of this dynamics, which has been recognised as the main ingredient to rogue wave formation. In this perspective, the formation of rogue waves requires a non-vanishing and unstable background such as a nonlinear regular wave train with attractive self-interaction. The simplest, best known model of such dynamics is the universal nonlinear Schr&ouml;dinger equation. This has proven to serve as a good approximation in various contexts and over a broad range of experimental settings. This model aims to give the slow evolution of the envelope of one monochromatic wave due to nonlinearity. Here, we naturally consider the same problem for the envelopes of two weakly resonant monochromatic waves. As for the nonlinear Schr&ouml;dinger equation, which is integrable, we adopt an integrable model to describe the interaction of two waves. This is the system of two coupled nonlinear Schr&ouml;dinger equations (Manakov model) with self- and cross-interactions that may be both defocussing and focussing. We first discuss the linear stability properties of the background by computing the spectrum for all values of the parameters such as coupling constants and amplitudes. In particular, we relate the instability bands to properties of the spectrum and compute the gain function (or growth rate). We also relate to the stability spectrum the value of the spectral variable, which corresponds to a rogue wave solution. In contrast with the nonlinear Schr&ouml;dinger equation, different types of single rogue wave exist that correspond to different values of the spectral variable even in the same spectrum. For these critical values, which are completely classified, we give the corresponding explicit expression of the rogue wave solution that follows from the well known Darboux&ndash;Dressing transformation method. Although not all systems of two coupled nonlinear Schr&ouml;dinger equations that have been derived in water wave dynamics are integrable, our investigation contributes to the understanding of new effects due to wave coupling, at least for model equations that, even if not integrable, are close enough to the model considered here. For instance, our findings lead to investigate rogue waves generated by instabilities due to self- and cross-interactions of defocusing type. An illustrative selection of two coupled rogue waves solutions is displayed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010056

Authors: Yury A. Stepanyants

We consider the dynamics of internal envelope solitons in a two-layer rotating fluid with a linearly varying bottom. It is shown that the most probable frequency of a carrier wave which constitutes the solitary wave is the frequency where the growth rate of modulation instability is maximal. An envelope solitary wave of this frequency can be described by the conventional nonlinear Schr&ouml;dinger equation. A soliton solution to this equation is presented for the time-like version of the nonlinear Schr&ouml;dinger equation. When such an envelope soliton enters a coastal zone where the bottom gradually linearly increases, then it experiences an adiabatical transformation. This leads to an increase in soliton amplitude, velocity, and period of a carrier wave, whereas its duration decreases. It is shown that the soliton becomes taller and narrower. At some distance it looks like a breather, a narrow non-stationary solitary wave. The dependences of the soliton parameters on the distance when it moves towards the shoaling are found from the conservation laws and analysed graphically. Estimates for the real ocean are presented.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010055

Authors: Mohammad Farazmand Themistoklis Sapsis

We study the horizontal dispersion of passive tracer particles on the free surface of gravity waves in deep water. For random linear waves with the JONSWAP spectrum, the Lagrangian particle trajectories are computed using an exact nonlinear model known as the John&ndash;Sclavounos equation. We show that the single-particle dispersion exhibits an unusual super-diffusive behavior. In particular, for large times t, the variance of the tracer &lang; | X ( t ) | 2 &rang; increases as a quadratic function of time, i.e., &lang; | X ( t ) | 2 &rang; &sim; t 2 . This dispersion is markedly faster than Taylor&rsquo;s single-particle dispersion theory which predicts that the variance of passive tracers grows linearly with time for large t. Our results imply that the wave motion significantly enhances the dispersion of fluid particles. We show that this super-diffusive behavior is a result of the long-term correlation of the Lagrangian velocities of fluid parcels on the free surface.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010054

Authors: Elena Tobisch Efim Pelinovsky

Our present study is devoted to the constructive study of the modulational instability for the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-family of equations u t + s u p u x + u x x x (here s = &plusmn; 1 and p &gt; 0 is an arbitrary integer). For deducing the conditions of the instability, we first computed the nonlinear corrections to the frequency of the Stokes wave and then explored the coefficients of the corresponding modified nonlinear Schr&ouml;dinger equations, thus deducing explicit expressions for the instability growth rate, maximum of the increment and the boundaries of the instability interval. A brief discussion of the results, open questions and further research directions completes the paper.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010053

Authors: Oumar Abdoulaye Fadoul Philippe Coussot

The Saffman&ndash;Taylor instability for yield stress fluids appears in various situations where two solid surfaces initially separated by such a material (paint, puree, concrete, yoghurt, glue, etc.) are moved away from each other. The theoretical treatment of this instability predicts fingering with a finite wavelength at vanishing velocity, and deposited materials behind the front advance, but the validity of this theory has been only partially tested so far. Here, after reviewing the basic results in that field, we propose a new series of experiments in traction to test the ability of this basic theory to predict data. We carried out tests with different initial volumes, distances and yield stresses of materials. It appears that the validity of the proposed instability criterion cannot really be tested under such experimental conditions, but at least we show that it effectively predicts the instability when it is observed. Furthermore, in agreement with the theoretical prediction for the finger size, a master curve is obtained when plotting the finger number as a function of the yield stress times the sample volume divided by the square initial thickness, in wide ranges of these parameters. This in particular shows that this traction test could be used for the estimation of the material yield stress.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010052

Authors: José Carlos de Dios Yann Le Gallo Juan Andrés Marín

Carbon sequestration in deep saline aquifers was recently developed at the industrial scale. CO2 injection experiences in carbonates are quite limited, most of them coming from projects carried out in porous mediums in the USA and Canada. Hontom&iacute;n (Spain) is the actual on-shore injection pilot in Europe, being a naturally fractured carbonate reservoir where innovative CO2 injection strategies are being performed within the ENOS Project. CO2 migration through the fracture network existing on site produces hydrodynamic, mechanical and geochemical effectsdifferent from those caused by the injection in mediums with a high matrix permeability. The interpretation of these effects is required to design safe and efficient injection strategies in these formations. For this, it is necessary to determine the evolution of pressure, temperature and flow rate during the injection, as well as the period of pressure recovery during the fall-off phase. The first results from the not-continuous injections (8&ndash;24 h) conducted at Hontom&iacute;n reveal the injection of liquid CO2 (density value of 0.828 t/m3) and the fluid transmissivity through the fractures. Taking into account the evolution of the pressure and flow rate showed variations of up to 23% and 30% respectively, which means that the relevant changes of injectivity took place. The results were modeled with a compositional dual media model which accounts for both temperature effects and multiphase flow hysteresis because alternative brine and CO2 injections were conducted. Advanced modeling shows the lateral extension of CO2 and the temperature disturbance away from the well.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010051

Authors: Ziad Hamidouche Yann Dufresne Jean-Lou Pierson Rim Brahem Ghislain Lartigue Vincent Moureau

The present work investigates the performance of a mesoscopic Lagrangian approach for the prediction of gas-particle flows under the influence of different physical and numerical parameters. To this end, Geldart D particles with 1 mm diameter and density of 2500 kg/m 3 are simulated in a pseudo-2D fluidized bed using a Discrete Element Method (DEM)/Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) solver called YALES2. Time-averaged quantities are computed and compared with experimental results reported in the literature. A mesh sensitivity analysis showed that better predictions regarding the particulate phase are achieved when the mesh is finer. This is due to a better description of the local and instantaneous gas-particle interactions, leading to an accurate prediction of the particle dynamics. Slip and no slip wall conditions regarding the gas phase were tested and their effect was found negligible for the simulated regimes. Additional simulations showed that increasing either the particle-particle or the particle-wall friction coefficients tends to reduce bed expansion and to initiate bubble formation. A set of friction coefficients was retained for which the predictions were in good agreement with the experiments. Simulations for other Reynolds number and bed weight conditions are then carried out and satisfactory results were obtained.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010050

Authors: Davide Galassi Guido Ciraolo Patrick Tamain Hugo Bufferand Philippe Ghendrih Nicolas Nace Eric Serre

Turbulence in the edge plasma of a tokamak is a key actor in the determination of the confinement properties. The divertor configuration seems to be beneficial for confinement, suggesting an effect on turbulence of the particular magnetic geometry introduced by the X-point. Simulations with the 3D fluid turbulence code TOKAM3X are performed here to evaluate the impact of a diverted configuration on turbulence in the edge plasma, in an isothermal framework. The presence of the X-point is found, locally, to affect both the shape of turbulent structures and the amplitude of fluctuations, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental observations. In particular, a quiescent region is found in the divertor scrape-off layer (SOL), close to the separatrix. Globally, a mild transport barrier spontaneously forms in the closed flux surfaces region near the separatrix, differently from simulations in limiter configuration. The effect of turbulence-driven Reynolds stress on the formation of the barrier is found to be weak by dedicated simulations, while turbulence damping around the X-point seems to globally reduce turbulent transport on the whole flux surface. The magnetic shear is thus pointed out as a possible element that contributes to the formation of edge transport barriers.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010049

Authors: Kewei Song Shuai Wu Toshio Tagawa Weina Shi Shuyun Zhao

The thermomagnetic convection of paramagnetic gaseous oxygen in an enclosure under a magnetic field was numerically studied to simulate the thermomagnetic convection in a space environment with no gravity. The magnetic field in the enclosure was non-uniform and was generated by a permanent magnet which had a high magnetic energy product. The magnet was placed at different locations along one of the adiabatic walls with magnetic poles perpendicular to the hot and cold walls of the enclosure. The heat transfer performance, flow field, and temperature field were studied with each location of the magnet. The results show that the thermomagnetic convection in the enclosure was obviously affected by the location of the magnet. There was an optimum magnet location in terms of the best heat transfer performance in the enclosure. The optimum magnet location changed slightly and moved toward the hot wall as the magnetic flux density increased. The value of the Nusselt number, defined as the ratio of convection to conduction, reached up to 2.54 in the studied range of parameters. By optimizing the magnet location, the convection was enhanced by up to 77% at the optimum magnet location.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010048

Authors: Giacomo Gallino Lailai Zhu François Gallaire

We perform simulations to study the hydrodynamics of a conical-shaped swimming micro-robot that ejects catalytically produced bubbles from its inside. We underline the nontrivial dependency of the swimming velocity on the bubble deformability and on the geometry of the swimmer. We identify three distinct phases during the bubble evolution: immediately after nucleation the bubble is spherical and its inflation barely affects the swimming speed; then the bubble starts to deform due to the confinement gradient generating a force that propels the swimmer; while in the last phase, the bubble exits the cone, resulting in an increase in the swimmer velocity. Our results shed light on the fundamental hydrodynamics of the propulsion of catalytic conical swimmers and may help to improve the efficiency of these micro-machines.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010047

Authors: Alexander Dyachenko

The waves on a free surface of 2D deep water can be split into two groups: the waves moving to the right, and the waves moving to the left. A specific feature of the four-wave interactions of water waves allows to describe the evolution of the two groups as a system of two equations. The fundamental consequence of this decomposition is the conservation of the &ldquo;number of waves&rdquo; in each particular group. The envelope approximation for the waves in each group of counter streaming waves is obtained.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010046

Authors: Hideaki Miura

Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence under influences of the Hall and the gyro-viscous terms was studied by means of direct numerical simulations of freely decaying, homogeneous and approximately isotropic turbulence. Numerical results were compared among MHD, Hall MHD, and extended MHD models focusing on differences of Hall and extended MHD turbulence from MHD turbulence at a fully relaxed state. Magnetic and kinetic energies, energy spectra, energy transfer, vorticity and current structures were studied. The Hall and gyro-viscous terms change the energy transfer in the equations of motions to be forward-transfer-dominant while the magnetic energy transfer remains backward-transfer-dominant. The gyro-viscosity works as a kind of hyper-diffusivity, attenuating the kinetic energy spectrum sharply at a high wave-number region. However, this term also induces high-vorticity events more frequently than MHD turbulence, making the turbulent field more intermittent. Vortices and currents were found to be transformed from sheet to tubular structures under the influences of the Hall and/or the gyro-viscous terms. These observations highlight features of fluid-dynamic aspect of turbulence in sub-ion-scales where turbulence is governed by the ion skin depth and ion Larmor radius.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010045

Authors: J. Paulo García-Sandoval Fernando Bautista Jorge E. Puig Octavio Manero

In this work, we examine the shear-banding flow in polymer-like micellar solutions with the generalized Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) model. The couplings between flow, structural parameters, and diffusion naturally arise in this model, derived from the extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT) formalism. Full tensorial expressions derived from the constitutive equations of the model, in addition to the conservation equations, apply for the case of simple shear flow, in which gradients of the parameter representing the structure of the system and concentration vary in the velocity gradient direction. The model predicts shear-banding, concentration gradients, and jumps in the normal stresses across the interface in shear-banding flows.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010044

Authors: S. Sina Hosseini Boosari

Multiphase flow of oil, gas, and water occurs in a reservoir&rsquo;s underground formation and also within the associated downstream pipeline and structures. Computer simulations of such phenomena are essential in order to achieve the behavior of parameters including but not limited to evolution of phase fractions, temperature, velocity, pressure, and flow regimes. However, within the oil and gas industry, due to the highly complex nature of such phenomena seen in unconventional assets, an accurate and fast calculation of the aforementioned parameters has not been successful using numerical simulation techniques, i.e., computational fluid dynamic (CFD). In this study, a fast-track data-driven method based on artificial intelligence (AI) is designed, applied, and investigated in one of the most well-known multiphase flow problems. This problem is a two-dimensional dam-break that consists of a rectangular tank with the fluid column at the left side of the tank behind the gate. Initially, the gate is opened, which leads to the collapse of the column of fluid and generates a complex flow structure, including water and captured bubbles. The necessary data were obtained from the experience and partially used in our fast-track data-driven model. We built our models using Levenberg Marquardt algorithm in a feed-forward back propagation technique. We combined our model with stochastic optimization in a way that it decreased the absolute error accumulated in following time-steps compared to numerical computation. First, we observed that our models predicted the dynamic behavior of multiphase flow at each time-step with higher speed, and hence lowered the run time when compared to the CFD numerical simulation. To be exact, the computations of our models were more than one hundred times faster than the CFD model, an order of 8 h to minutes using our models. Second, the accuracy of our predictions was within the limit of 10% in cascading condition compared to the numerical simulation. This was acceptable considering its application in underground formations with highly complex fluid flow phenomena. Our models help all engineering aspects of the oil and gas industry from drilling and well design to the future prediction of an efficient production.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010043

Authors: Andrei N. Lipatnikov Shinnosuke Nishiki Tatsuya Hasegawa

In this study, closure relations for total and turbulent convection fluxes of flame surface density and scalar dissipation rate were developed (i) by placing the focus of consideration on the flow velocity conditioned to the instantaneous flame within the mean flame brush and (ii) by considering the limiting behavior of this velocity at the leading and trailing edges of the flame brush. The model was tested against direct numerical simulation (DNS) data obtained from three statistically stationary, one-dimensional, planar, premixed turbulent flames associated with the flamelet regime of turbulent burning. While turbulent fluxes of flame surface density and scalar dissipation rate, obtained in the DNSs, showed the countergradient behavior, the model predicted the total fluxes reasonably well without using any tuning parameter. The model predictions were also compared with results computed using an alternative closure relation for the flame-conditioned velocity.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010042

Authors: Paolo Buratti Brunello Tirozzi Franco Alladio Paolo Micozzi

A simple steady-state model for a 3-species mixture (ions, electrons, and neutrals) in a screw-pinch plasma configuration is developed. The model is applied to the central plasma column of the PROTO-SPHERA experiment. Degree of ionization, azimuthal current density, and azimuthal ion velocity are calculated. Full ionization is found at plasma temperatures above 1.5 eV, with neutrals confined in an outer shell where radial plasma flow develops and drives both azimuthal current and azimuthal flow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010041

Authors: Aikaterini A. Mouza Olga D. Skordia Ioannis D. Tzouganatos Spiros V. Paras

In the published paper [...]

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010040

Authors: Dajun Liu Takafumi Nishino

A series of three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier&ndash;Stokes (RANS) simulations are conducted to investigate the formation of stall cells over a pitching NACA 0012 aerofoil. Periodic boundary conditions are applied to the spanwise ends of the computational domain. Several different pitching ranges and frequencies are adopted. The influence of the pitching range and frequency on the lift coefficient (CL) hysteresis loop and the development of leading-edge vortex (LEV) agrees with earlier studies in the literature. Depending on pitching range and frequency, the flow structures on the suction side of the aerofoil can be categorized into three types: (i) strong oscillatory stall cells resembling what are often observed on a static aerofoil; (ii) weak stall cells which are smaller in size and less oscillatory; and (iii) no stall cells at all (i.e., flow remains two-dimensional) or only very weak oval-shaped structures that have little impact on CL. A clear difference in CL during the flow reattachment stage is observed between the cases with strong stall cells and with weak stall cells. For the cases with strong stall cells, arch-shaped flow structures are observed above the aerofoil. They resemble the &Pi;-shaped vortices often observed over a pitching finite aspect ratio wing.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010039

Authors: Roger Grimshaw

The linear stability theory of wind-wave generation is revisited with an emphasis on the generation of wave groups. The outcome is the fundamental requirement that the group move with a real-valued group velocity. This implies that both the wave frequency and the wavenumber should be complex-valued, and in turn this then leads to a growth rate in the reference frame moving with the group velocity which is in general different from the temporal growth rate. In the weakly nonlinear regime, the amplitude envelope of the wave group is governed by a forced nonlinear Schr&ouml;dinger equation. The effect of the wind forcing term is to enhance modulation instability both in terms of the wave growth and in terms of the domain of instability in the modulation wavenumber space. Also, the soliton solution for the wave envelope grows in amplitude at twice the linear growth rate.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010038

Authors: Zlatko Rek

A two-phase bubbly flow is often found in the process industry. For the efficient operation of such devices, it is important to know the details of the flow. The paper presents a numerical simulation of the rising bubble in a stagnant liquid column. The interFOAM solver from the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) toolbox OpenFOAM was used to obtain the necessary data. The constant and dynamic computational grids were used in the numerical simulation. The results of the calculation were compared with the measured values. As expected, by using the dynamic mesh, the bubble trajectory was closer to the experimental results due to the more detailed description of the gas&ndash;liquid interface.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010037

Authors: Junji Huang Jorge-Valentino Bretzke Lian Duan

In this study, the ability of standard one- or two-equation turbulence models to predict mean and turbulence profiles, the Reynolds stress, and the turbulent heat flux in hypersonic cold-wall boundary-layer applications is investigated. The turbulence models under investigation include the one-equation model of Spalart&ndash;Allmaras, the baseline k - &omega; model by Menter, as well as the shear-stress transport k - &omega; model by Menter. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations with the different turbulence models are conducted for a flat-plate, zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer with a nominal free-stream Mach number of 8 and wall-to-recovery temperature ratio of 0.48 , and the RANS results are compared with those of direct numerical simulations (DNS) under similar conditions. The study shows that the selected eddy-viscosity turbulence models, in combination with a constant Prandtl number model for turbulent heat flux, give good predictions of the skin friction, wall heat flux, and boundary-layer mean profiles. The Boussinesq assumption leads to essentially correct predictions of the Reynolds shear stress, but gives wrong predictions of the Reynolds normal stresses. The constant Prandtl number model gives an adequate prediction of the normal turbulent heat flux, while it fails to predict transverse turbulent heat fluxes. The discrepancy in model predictions among the three eddy-viscosity models under investigation is small.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010036

Authors: Łukasz Pleskacz Elzbieta Fornalik-Wajs

Thermomagnetic convection is still a phenomenon which generates interest among researchers. The authors decided to focus their attention on the magnetic field influence on forced convection and analyze the extended Graetz&ndash;Brinkman problem. A numerical model based on a commonly available solver implemented with user-defined functions was used. The results exhibited the variety of possible flow structures depending on the dimensionless parameters, namely Prandtl and Reynolds numbers. Three flow structure classes were distinguished, and they provide a platform for further research.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010035

Authors: Christopher Locke Laurent Seuront Hidekatsu Yamazaki

This paper discusses a turbulent intermittency model introduced in 1990, the B-model. It was found that the original manuscript which introduced the B-model contained a couple arithmetic errors in the equations. This work goes over corrections to the original equations, and explains where problems arose in the derivations. These corrections cause the results to differ from those in the original manuscript, and these differences are discussed. A generalization of this B-model is then introduced to explore the range of behaviors this style of model provides. To distinguish between the different intermittency models discussed in this paper requires structure function power exponents of order greater than 12. As a source of comparison, data from a flume experiment is introduced, and, with the corrections introduced, this data seems to imply that an intermittency coefficient between 0.17 and 0.2 gives good agreement. Higher quality future measurements of high order moments could help with distinguishing the different intermittency models.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010034

Authors: Moses Karakouzian Mehrdad Karami Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian Sajjad Ahmad

Transient flows result in unbalanced forces and high pressure in pipelines. Under these conditions, the combined effects of flow-induced forces along with sudden pipe displacements can create cracks in the pipeline, especially at the junctions. This situation consequently results in water leakage and reduced operational efficiency of the pipeline. In this study, displacements and stresses in a buried pressurized water transmission pipe installed by pipe jacking method are investigated using numerical modeling and considering interactions between fluid, pipe, and soil. The analyses were performed consecutively under no-flow, steady flow, and transient flow conditions, in order to investigate the effects of flow conditions on displacements and stresses in the system. Analyses of the results show that displacements and stresses in the jointed concrete pipes are significant under transient flow conditions. Moreover, because of pressure transient effects, maximum tensile stresses exceed the tensile strength of concrete at the junctions, leading to cracks and consequent water leakage.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010033

Authors: Marco Martins Afonso Philippe Meliga Eric Serre

With the aim of providing a first step in the quest for a reduction of the aerodynamic drag on the rear-end of a car, we study the phenomena of separation and reattachment of an incompressible flow by focusing on a specific aerodynamic geometry, namely a backward-slanted step at 25 ∘ of inclination. The ensuing recirculation bubble provides the basis for an analytical and numerical investigation of streamwise-streak generation, lift-up effect, and turbulent-wake and Kelvin&ndash;Helmholtz instabilities. A linear stability analysis is performed, and an optimal control problem with a steady volumic forcing is tackled by means of a variational formulation, adjoint methods, penalization schemes, and an orthogonalization algorithm. Dealing with the transient growth of spanwise-periodic perturbations, and inspired by the need of physically-realizable disturbances, we finally provide a procedure attaining a kinetic-energy maximal gain on the order of 10 6 , with respect to the power introduced by the external forcing.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010032

Authors: Vladimir Shelukhin Mikhail Epov

The study is motivated by monitoring the space orientation of a hydrolic fracture used in oil production. Streaming potential arises due to the leakage of ionic fracking fluid under the rock elastic forces which make the fracture disclosure disappear after pumping stops. The vector of electric field correlates with the fracture space orientation since the fluid leakage is directed normally to the fracture surfaces. We develop a mathematical model for the numerical evaluation of the streaming potential magnitude. To this end, we perform an asymptotic analysis taking advantage of scale separation between the fracture disclosure and its length. The contrast between the virgin rock fluid and the fluid invading from the fracture is proved to be crucial in a build up of a net charge at the invasion front. Calculations reveal that an increase of the viscosity and resistivity contrast parameters results in an increase of the streaming potential magnitude. Such a conclusion agrees with laboratory experiments.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010031

Authors: Rixin Yu Andrei N. Lipatnikov

Propagation of either an infinitely thin interface or a reaction wave of a nonzero thickness in forced, constant-density, statistically stationary, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is simulated by solving unsteady 3D Navier&ndash;Stokes equations and either a level set (G) or a reaction-diffusion equation, respectively, with all other things being equal. In the case of the interface, the fully developed bulk consumption velocity normalized using the laminar-wave speed SL depends linearly on the normalized rms velocity u&prime;/SL. In the case of the reaction wave of a nonzero thickness, dependencies of the normalized bulk consumption velocity on u&prime;/SL show bending, with the effect being increased by a ratio of the laminar-wave thickness to the turbulence length scale. The obtained bending effect is controlled by a decrease in the rate of an increase &delta;AF in the reaction-zone-surface area with increasing u&prime;/SL. In its turn, the bending of the &delta;AF(u&prime;/SL)-curves stems from inefficiency of small-scale turbulent eddies in wrinkling the reaction-zone surface, because such small-scale wrinkles characterized by a high local curvature are smoothed out by molecular transport within the reaction wave.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010030

Authors: Lorenzo Fusi Angiolo Farina Fabio Rosso Kumbakonam Rajagopal

In this paper, we study the pressure-driven thin film flow of an inhomogeneous incompressible fluid in which its viscosity depends on the density. The constitutive response of this class of fluids can be derived using a thermodynamical framework put into place to describe the dissipative response of materials where the materials&rsquo; stored energy depends on the gradient of the density (Mechanics of Materials, 2006, 38, pp. 233&ndash;242). Assuming a small aspect ratio for the channel, we use the lubrication approximation and focus on the leading order problem. We show the mathematical problem reduce to a nonlinear first order partial differential equation (PDE) for the density in which the coefficients are integral operators. The problem is solved numerically and plots that describe the evolution of the density in the fluid domain are displayed. We also show that it was possible to determine an analytical solution of the problem when the boundary data are small perturbations of the homogeneous case. Finally, we use such an analytical solution to validate the numerical scheme.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010029

Authors: Luis A. Trujillo-Cayado Jenifer Santos Nuria Calero Maria del Carmen Alfaro José Muñoz

Different continuous phases formulated with ecofriendly ingredients such as AMIDET&reg; N, an ecological surfactant, as well as welan and rhamsan gums were developed. An experimental design strategy was been in order to study the influence of the ratio of these two polysaccharides and the homogenization pressure applied in a microfluidizer on the critical shear stress for the continuous phases developed. A pure rhamsan gum solution was selected as the starting point for further study based on the production of thyme oil-in-water emulsions. The effect of the homogenization pressure on the physical stability, critical shear stress and droplet size distribution was analyzed for emulsions with optimized values of the rhamsan&ndash;welan ratio. These bioactive thyme oil-in-water emulgels could be considered as delivery systems with potential applications in the food industry.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010028

Authors: Salvatore Costanzo Rossana Pasquino Jörg Läuger Nino Grizzuti

During laboratory practice, it is often necessary to perform rheological measurements with small specimens, mainly due to the limited availability of the investigated systems. Such a restriction occurs, for example, because the laboratory synthesis of new materials is performed on small scales, or can concern biological samples that are notoriously difficult to be extracted from living organisms. A complete rheological characterization of a viscoelastic material involves both linear and nonlinear measurements. The latter are more challenging and generally require more mass, as flow instabilities often cause material losses during the experiments. In such situations, it is crucial to perform rheological tests carefully in order to avoid experimental artifacts caused by the use of small geometries. In this paper, we indicate the drawbacks of performing linear and nonlinear rheological measurements with very small amounts of samples, and by using a well-characterized linear polystyrene, we attempt to address the challenge of obtaining reliable measurements with sample masses of the order of a milligram, in both linear and nonlinear regimes. We demonstrate that, when suitable protocols and careful running conditions are chosen, linear viscoelastic mastercurves can be obtained with good accuracy and reproducibility, working with plates as small as 3 mm in diameter and sample thickness of less than 0.2 mm. This is equivalent to polymer masses of less than 2 mg. We show also that the nonlinear start-up shear fingerprint of polymer melts can be reliably obtained with samples as small as 10 mg.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010027

Authors: Ssu-Ying Chien Mark S. Cramer

We consider steady, laminar, compressible lubrication flows in a high-speed two-dimensional journal bearing governed by the appropriate Reynolds equation. The thermodynamic states correspond to pressurized gases and are in the single-phase regime. Simple explicit formulas for the load capacity, power loss, and attitude angle are derived by applying the virial (or small density) expansions of pressure and shear viscosity to results developed in previous studies. The present virial approximation was compared to the exact numerical solutions to the Reynolds equation. It was shown that the results based on our virial expansions are quite accurate at thermodynamic states corresponding to dense and supercritical gases. The first virial correction is seen to significantly improve predictions based on the ideal gas theory.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010026

Authors: Alexander Fuchs Niclas Berg Lisa Prahl Wittberg

Pulsatile flow in the abdominal aorta and the renal arteries of three patients was studied numerically. Two of the patients had renal artery stenosis. The aim of the study was to assess the use of four types of indicators for determining the risk of new stenosis after revascularization of the affected arteries. The four indicators considered include the time averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), the oscillatory shear index (OSI), the relative reference time (RRT) and a power law model based in platelet activation modeling but applied to the endothelium, named endothelium activation indicator (EAI). The results show that the indicators can detect the existing stenosis but are less successful in the revascularized cases. The TAWSS and, more clearly, the EAI approach seem to be better in predicting the risk for stenosis relapse at the original location and close to the post-stenotic dilatation. The shortcomings of the respective indicators are discussed along with potential improvements to endothelial activation modeling and its use as an indicator for risks of restenosis.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010025

Authors: Michelle M. A. Spanjaards Nick O. Jaensson Martien A. Hulsen Patrick D. Anderson

In this work, a systematic investigation of the migration of sedimenting particles in a viscoelastic Couette flow is presented, using finite element 3D simulations. To this end, a novel computational approach is presented, which allows us to simulate a periodic configuration of rigid spherical particles accurately and efficiently. To study the different contributions to the particle migration, we first investigate the migration of particles sedimenting near the inner wall, without an externally-imposed Couette flow, followed by the migration of non-sedimenting particles in an externally-imposed Couette flow. Then, both flows are combined, i.e., sedimenting particles with an externally-imposed Couette flow, which was found to increase the migration velocity significantly, yielding migration velocities that are higher than the sum of the combined flows. It was also found that the trace of the conformation tensor becomes asymmetric with respect to the particle center when the particle is initially placed close to the inner cylinder. We conclude by investigating the sedimentation velocity with an imposed orthogonal shear flow. It is found that the sedimentation velocity can be both higher or lower then the Newtonian case, depending on the rheology of the suspending fluid. Specifically, a shear-thinning viscosity is shown to play an important role, which is in-line with previously-published results.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010024

Authors: Benjamin J. Binder

Two-dimensional free-surface flow past disturbances in an open channel is a classical problem in hydrodynamics&mdash;a problem that has received considerable attention over the last two centuries (e.g., see Lamb&rsquo;s Treatise, 1879). With traces back to Russell&rsquo;s experimental observations of the Great Wave of Translation in 1834, Korteweg and de Vries (1895), and others, derived an unforced equation to describe the balance between nonlinearity and dispersion required to model the solitary wave. More recently, Akylas (1984) derived a forced KdV equation to model a pressure distribution on the free-surface (e.g., a ship). Since then, the forced KdV equation has been shown to be a useful model approximation for two-dimensional flow past disturbances in an open channel. In this paper, we review the stationary solutions of the forced KdV equation for four types of localised disturbances: (i) a flat plate separating two free surfaces; (ii) a compact bump, or dip in the channel bottom topography; (iii) a compact distribution of pressure on the free surface and (iv) a step-wise change in the otherwise constant horizontal level of the channel bottom topography. Moreover, Dias and Vanden-Broeck (2002) developed a phase plane method to analyse flow over a bump, and this general approach has also been applied to the three other types of forcing (see Binder et al., 2005&ndash;2015, and others). In this study, we use eleven basic flow types to classify the steady solutions of the forced KdV equation using the phase plane method. Additionally, considering solutions that are wave-free both far upstream and far downstream, we compare KdV model approximations of the uniform flow conditions in the far-field with exact solutions of the full problem. In particular, we derive a new KdV model approximation for the upstream dimensionless flow-rate which is conveniently given in terms of the known downstream dimensionless flow-rate.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010023

Authors: Alexander Kurz Jörg Bauer Manfred Wagner

The droplet formation of Newtonian fluids and suspensions modified by spherical, non-colloidal particles has attracted much interest in practical and theoretical research. For the present study, a jetting technique was used which accelerates a geometrically defined plunger by a piezoelectric actuator. Changing rheological properties of materials and extending deformation rates towards nonlinear viscoelastic regimes created the requirement to extend dosage impulses towards larger magnitudes. To mimic the rheological characteristics of nonconductive adhesives we modified Newtonian epoxy resins by thixotropic additives and micro-scale glass spheres. Rheological analysis at steady shear and oscillatory shear ensured a differentiation between material and process-related factors. Evaluation of high-speed images allowed the investigation of drop dynamics and highlighted the dispense impulse reduction by material-specific dampening properties.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010022

Authors: Mª Carmen García González María del Socorro Cely García José Muñoz García Maria-Carmen Alfaro-Rodriguez

The rheological properties exhibited by gums make its use in applications interesting, such as foods, cosmetics, enhanced oil recovery, or constructions materials. Regardless of application field, the effect of temperature on these properties is of great importance, since these properties can be modified and cause the gum not to be useful for those conditions. Diutan and rhamsan gums are biopolymers, belonging to the sphingans, with similar structures which differ in the substituents of their side chains. It is known that both gums exhibit suitable viscoelastic properties and flow behavior when used as a stabilizer, gelling agent, or thickener. Both gums are widely used in food industry, personal care products, construction materials, oil operations, etc. For this reason, to know the effect of the temperature on their rheological properties is very helpful. For this purpose, small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements and flow curves, as a function of the temperature from 10 &deg;C to 60 &deg;C, have been performed, and the results obtained for both gums compared. The obtained results provide interesting information from an industrial point of view, since they reveal that the rheological properties remained almost unaltered in the temperature range assessed with diutan gum aqueous solutions, being slightly more viscous and viscoelastic than rhamsan gum solutions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010021

Authors: Joseph A. Green Daniel J. Ryckman Michael Cromer

Colloidal shear thickening fluids (STFs) have applications ranging from commercial use to those of interest to the army and law enforcement, and the oil industry. The theoretical understanding of the flow of these particulate suspensions has predominantly been focused through detailed particle simulations. While these simulations are able to accurately capture and predict the behavior of suspensions in simple flows, they are not tractable for more complex flows such as those occurring in applications. The model presented in this work, a modification of an earlier constitutive model by Stickel et al. J. Rheol. 2006, 50, 379&ndash;413, describes the evolution of a structure tensor, which is related to the particle mean free-path length. The model contains few adjustable parameters, includes nonlinear terms in the structure, and is able to predict the full range of rheological behavior including shear and extensional thickening (continuous and discontinuous). In order to demonstrate its capability for complex flow simulations, we compare the results of simulations of the model in a simple one-dimensional channel flow versus a full two-dimensional simulation. Ultimately, the model presented is a continuum model shown to predict shear and extensional thickening, as observed in experiment, with a connection to the physical microstructure, and has the capability of helping understand the behavior of STFs in complex flows.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010020

Authors: David J. Schmidt William Kvasnak Goodarz Ahmadi

The formation of a liquid spray emanating from a nozzle in the presence of atomizing air was studied using a computational model approach that accounted for the deformation and break up of droplets. Particular attention was given to the formation of sprays under non-swirling flow conditions. The instantaneous fluctuating fluid velocity and velocity gradient components were evaluated with the use of a probability density function (PDF)-based Langevin equation. Motions of atomized fuel droplets were analyzed, and ensemble and time averaging were used for evaluating the statistical properties of the spray. Effects of shape change of droplets, and their breakup, as well as evaporation, were included in the model. The simulation results showed that the mean-square fluctuation velocities of the droplets vary significantly with their size and shape. Furthermore, the mean-square fluctuation velocities of the evaporating droplet differed somewhat from non-evaporating droplets. Droplet turbulence diffusivities, however, were found to be close to the diffusivity of fluid point particles. The droplet velocity, concentration, and size of the simulated spray were compared with the experimental data and reasonable agreement was found.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010019

Authors: Madison E. James Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou Edgar A. O’Rear

Artificial heart valves may expose blood to flow conditions that lead to unnaturally high stress and damage to blood cells as well as issues with thrombosis. The purpose of this research was to predict the trauma caused to red blood cells (RBCs), including hemolysis, from the stresses applied to them and their exposure time as determined by analysis of simulation results for blood flow through both a functioning and malfunctioning bileaflet artificial heart valve. The calculations provided the spatial distribution of the Kolmogorov length scales that were used to estimate the spatial and size distributions of the smallest turbulent flow eddies in the flow field. The number and surface area of these eddies in the blood were utilized to predict the amount of hemolysis experienced by RBCs. Results indicated that hemolysis levels are low while suggesting stresses at the leading edge of the leaflet may contribute to subhemolytic damage characterized by shortened circulatory lifetimes and reduced RBC deformability.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010018

Authors: Yong G. Lai Kuowei Wu

Three-dimensional (3D) hydrostatic-pressure-assumption numerical models are widely used for environmental flows with free surfaces and phase interfaces. In this study, a new flow and sediment transport model is developed, aiming to be general and more flexible than existing models. A general set of governing equations are used for the flow and suspended sediment transport, an improved solution algorithm is proposed, and a new mesh type is developed based on the unstructured polygonal mesh in the horizontal plane and a terrain-following sigma mesh in the vertical direction. The new flow model is verified first with the experimental cases, to ensure the validity of flow and free surface predictions. The model is then validated with cases having the suspended sediment transport. In particular, turbidity current flows are simulated to examine how the model predicts the interface between the fluid and sediments. The predicted results agree well with the available experimental data for all test cases. The model is generally applicable to all open-channel flows, such as rivers and reservoirs, with both flow and suspended sediment transport issues.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010017

Authors: Prodromos Arsenidis Kostas Karatasos

Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study in detail the interactions between a complex comprised by a PEGylated hyperbranched polyester (HBP) and doxorubicin molecules, with a model dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol membrane in an aqueous environment. The effects of the presence of the lipid membrane in the drug molecules&rsquo; spatial arrangement were examined in detail and the nature of their interaction with the latter were discussed and quantified where possible. It was found that a partial migration of the drug molecules towards the membrane&rsquo;s surface takes place, driven either by hydrogen-bonding (for the protonated drugs) or by hydrophobic interactions (for the neutral drug molecules). The clustering behavior of the drug molecules appeared to be enhanced in the presence of the membrane, while the development of a charge excess close to the surface of the hyperbranched polymer and of the lipid membrane was observed. The uneven charge distribution created an effective overcharging of the HBP/drug complex and the membrane/drug surface. The translational motion of the drug molecules was found to be strongly affected by the presence of the membrane. The extent of the observed changes depended on the charge of the drug molecule. The build-up of the observed charge excesses close to the surface of the polymeric host and the membrane, together with the changes in the diffusional behavior of the drug molecules are of particular interest. Both phenomena could be important at the latest stages of the liposomal disruption and the release of the drug cargo in formulations based on relevant liposomal carriers.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010016

Authors: Niema M. Pahlevan Ray V. Matthews

Noninvasive and practical assessment of hemodynamics is a critical unmet need in the treatment of both chronic and acute cardiovascular diseases. Particularly, the ability to monitor left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) noninvasively offers enormous benefit for managing patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Recently, we provided proof of concept that a new cardiac metric, intrinsic frequency (IF), derived from mathematical analysis of non-invasively captured arterial waveforms, can be used to accurately compute cardiovascular hemodynamic measures, such as left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF), by using a smartphone. In this manuscript, we propose a new systems-based method called cardiac triangle mapping (CTM) for hemodynamics evaluation of the left ventricle. This method is based on intrinsic frequency (IF) and systolic time interval (STI) methods that allows computation of LVEDP from noninvasive measurements. Since the CTM method only requires arterial waveform and electrocardiogram (ECG), it can eventually be adopted as a simple smartphone-based device, an inexpensive hand-held device, or perhaps (with future design modifications) a wearable sensor. Such devices, combined with this method, would allow for remote monitoring of heart failure patients.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010015

Authors: Qiancheng Xie James Yang T. Staffan Lundström

Meandering is a common feature in natural alluvial streams. This study deals with alluvial behaviors of a meander reach subjected to both fresh-water flow and strong tides from the coast. Field measurements are carried out to obtain flow and sediment data. Approximately 95% of the sediment in the river is suspended load of silt and clay. The results indicate that, due to the tidal currents, the flow velocity and sediment concentration are always out of phase with each other. The cross-sectional asymmetry and bi-directional flow result in higher sediment concentration along inner banks than along outer banks of the main stream. For a given location, the near-bed concentration is 2&minus;5 times the surface value. Based on Froude number, a sediment carrying capacity formula is derived for the flood and ebb tides. The tidal flow stirs the sediment and modifies its concentration and transport. A 3D hydrodynamic model of flow and suspended sediment transport is established to compute the flow patterns and morphology changes. Cross-sectional currents, bed shear stress and erosion-deposition patterns are discussed. The flow in cross-section exhibits significant stratification and even an opposite flow direction during the tidal rise and fall; the vertical velocity profile deviates from the logarithmic distribution. During the flow reversal between flood and ebb tides, sediment deposits, which is affected by slack-water durations. The bed deformation is dependent on the meander asymmetry and the interaction between the fresh water flow and tides. The flood tides are attributable to the deposition, while the ebb tides, together with run-offs, lead to slight erosion. The flood tides play a key role in the morphodynamic changes of the meander reach.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010014

Authors: Konstantin V. Koshel Eugene A. Ryzhov Xavier J. Carton

Deformation flows are the flows incorporating shear, strain and rotational components. These flows are ubiquitous in the geophysical flows, such as the ocean and atmosphere. They appear near almost any salience, such as isolated coherent structures (vortices and jets) and various fixed obstacles (submerged obstacles and continental boundaries). Fluid structures subject to such deformation flows may exhibit drastic changes in motion. In this review paper, we focus on the motion of a small number of coherent vortices embedded in deformation flows. Problems involving isolated one and two vortices are addressed. When considering a single-vortex problem, the main focus is on the evolution of the vortex boundary and its influence on the passive scalar motion. Two vortex problems are addressed with the use of point vortex models, and the resulting stirring patterns of neighbouring scalars are studied by a combination of numerical and analytical methods from the dynamical system theory. Many dynamical effects are reviewed with emphasis on the emergence of chaotic motion of the vortex phase trajectories and the scalars in their immediate vicinity.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010013

Authors: Luis G. Baltazar Fernando M.A. Henriques Maria Teresa Cidade

This review provides an overview of the recent progress in the field of the rheology of grouts for historic masonry consolidation. During the last two decades, significant research has been devoted on the grouting technique for stone masonry consolidation but most results are scattered by scientific papers, congress communications, and thesis. This paper compiles and briefly demonstrates the effect of several intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, such as admixtures, additions, pressure, temperature, and measuring instrumentation, on the rheological performance of natural hydraulic lime-based grouts.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010012

Authors: Ahmad Alqallaf Markus Klein Nilanjan Chakraborty

The effects of Lewis number on the physical mechanisms pertinent to the curvature evolution have been investigated using three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of spherically expanding turbulent premixed flames with characteristic Lewis number of L e = 0.8 , 1.0 and 1.2. It has been found that the overall burning rate and the extent of flame wrinkling increase with decreasing Lewis number L e , and this tendency is particularly prevalent for the sub-unity Lewis number (e.g., L e = 0.8 ) case due to the occurrence of the thermo-diffusive instability. Accordingly, the L e = 0.8 case has been found to exhibit higher probability of finding saddle topologies with large magnitude negative curvatures in comparison to the corresponding L e = 1.0 and 1.2 cases. It has been found that the terms in the curvature transport equation due to normal strain rate gradients and curl of vorticity arising from both fluid flow and flame normal propagation play pivotal roles in the curvature evolution in all cases considered here. The net contribution of the source/sink terms of the curvature transport equation tends to increase the concavity and convexity of the flame surface in the negatively and positively curved locations, respectively for the L e = 0.8 case. This along with the occurrence of high and low temperature (and burning rate) values at the positively and negatively curved zones, respectively acts to augment positive and negative curved wrinkles induced by turbulence in the L e = 0.8 case, which is indicative of thermo-diffusive instability. By contrast, flame propagation effects tend to weakly promote the concavity of the negatively curved cusps, and act to decrease the convexity of the highly positively curved bulges in the L e = 1.0 and 1.2 cases, which are eventually smoothed out due to high and low values of displacement speed S d at negatively and positively curved locations, respectively. Thus, flame propagation tends to smoothen the flame surface in the L e = 1.0 and 1.2 cases.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010011

Authors: Yorgos G. Stergiou Athanasios G. Kanaris Aikaterini A. Mouza Spiros V. Paras

The Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a local dilation of the abdominal aorta and it is a cause for serious concern because of the high mortality associated with its rupture. Consequently, the understanding of the phenomena related to the creation and the progression of an AAA is of crucial importance. In this work, the complicated interaction between the blood flow and the AAA wall is numerically examined using a fully coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) method. The study investigates the possible link between the dynamic behavior of an AAA and the blood viscosity variations attributed to the haematocrit value, while it also incorporates the pulsatile blood flow, the non-Newtonian behavior of blood and the hyperelasticity of the arterial wall. It was found that blood viscosity has no significant effect on von Mises stress magnitude and distribution, whereas there is a close relation between the haematocrit value and the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) magnitude in AAAs. This WSS variation can possibly alter the mechanical properties of the arterial wall and increase its growth rate or even its rupture possibility. The relationship between haematocrit and dynamic behavior of an AAA can be helpful in designing a patient specific treatment.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010010

Authors: James Yang Patrik Andreasson Penghua Teng Qiancheng Xie

Most of the hydropower dams in Sweden were built before 1980. The present dam-safety guidelines have resulted in higher design floods than their spillway discharge capacity and the need for structural upgrades. This has led to renewed laboratory model tests. For some dams, even computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed. This provides the possibility to compare the spillway discharge data between the model tests performed a few decades apart. The paper presents the hydropower development, the needs for the ongoing dam rehabilitations and the history of physical hydraulic modeling in Sweden. More than 20 spillways, both surface and bottom types, are analyzed to evaluate their discharge modeling accuracy. The past and present model tests are compared with each other and with the CFD results if available. Discrepancies do exist in the discharges between the model tests made a few decades apart. The differences fall within the range &minus;8.3%&ndash;+11.2%. The reasons for the discrepancies are sought from several aspects. The primary source of the errors is seemingly the model construction quality and flow measurement method. The machine milling technique and 3D printing reduce the source of construction errors and improve the model quality. Results of the CFD simulations differ, at the maximum, by 3.8% from the physical tests. They are conducted without knowledge of the physical model results in advance. Following the best practice guidelines, CFD should generate results of decent accuracy for discharge prediction.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010009

Authors: Fluids Editorial Office Fluids Editorial Office

Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...]

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010008

Authors: Angeliki T. Koupa Yorgos G. Stergiou Aikaterini A. Mouza

Among the most important variables in the design of falling film microreactors (FFMRs) is the liquid film thickness as well as the gas/liquid interfacial area, which dictate the mass and heat transfer rates. In a previous work conducted in our lab the characteristics of a free-falling Newtonian liquid film have been studied and appropriate correlations have been proposed. In this work the geometrical characteristics of a non-Newtonian shear thinning liquid, flowing in an inclined open microchannel, have been experimentally investigated and design correlations that can predict with reasonable accuracy the features of a FFMR have been proposed. The test section used was an open &mu;-channel with square cross section (WO = 1200 &mu;m) made of brass which can be set to various inclination angles. The liquid film characteristics were measured by a non-intrusive technique that is based on the features of a micro Particle Image Velocimetry (&mu;-PIV) system. Relevant computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations revealed that the volume average dynamic viscosity over the flow domain is practically the same as the corresponding asymptotic viscosity value, which can thus be used in the proposed design equations. Finally, a generalized algorithm for the design of FFMRs, containing non-Newtonian shear thinning liquids, is suggested.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010007

Authors: Mercedes Fernandez Arrate Huegun Antxon Santamaria

Linear and nonlinear rheological features and electrical conductivity of two nanocomposite systems based on polypropylene/multiwall carbon nanotubes (PP/MWCNT) are investigated. The nanocomposites were irradiated with an electron beam following two different procedures. Protocol A, where the nanocomposite mixture is irradiated, and Protocol B where only the PP matrix is irradiated before mixing with MWCNT. The same irradiation dose adjusted to bring about long chain branching (LCB) but not crosslinking, is used in both types of nanocomposites. The modification of the polymer matrix viscosity caused by irradiation determines the MWCNT dispersion and therefore the rheological and percolation thresholds. Elongational flow results reveal that strain hardening, typical of irradiated PPs, is observed for the nanocomposites irradiated, but not for the nanocomposites prepared with the irradiated PP. The hypothesis of a shear flow modification that aligns the branches into the backbone, eliminating the strain hardening is considered.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010006

Authors: Miguel A. Delgado Sebastien Secouard Concepción Valencia José M. Franco

Practical steady-state flow curves were obtained from different rheological tests and protocols for five lubricating greases, containing thickeners of a rather different nature, i.e., aluminum complex, lithium, lithium complex, and calcium complex soaps and polyurea. The experimental results demonstrated the difficulty to reach &ldquo;real&rdquo; steady-state flow conditions for these colloidal suspensions as a consequence of the strong time dependence and marked yielding behavior in a wide range of shear rates, resulting in flow instabilities such as shear banding and fracture. In order to better understand these phenomena, transient flow experiments, at constant shear rates, and creep tests, at constant shear stresses, were also carried out using controlled-strain and controlled-stress rheometers, respectively. The main objective of this work was to study the steady-state flow behaviour of lubricating greases, analyzing how the microstructural characteristics may affect the yielding flow behaviour.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010005

Authors: Bilen Emek Abali

Despite its numerical challenges, finite element method is used to compute viscous fluid flow. A consensus on the cause of numerical problems has been reached; however, general algorithms&mdash;allowing a robust and accurate simulation for any process&mdash;are still missing. Either a very high computational cost is necessary for a direct numerical solution (DNS) or some limiting procedure is used by adding artificial dissipation to the system. These stabilization methods are useful; however, they are often applied relative to the element size such that a local monotonous convergence is challenging to acquire. We need a computational strategy for solving viscous fluid flow using solely the balance equations. In this work, we present a general procedure solving fluid mechanics problems without use of any stabilization or splitting schemes. Hence, its generalization to multiphysics applications is straightforward. We discuss emerging numerical problems and present the methodology rigorously. Implementation is achieved by using open-source packages and the accuracy as well as the robustness is demonstrated by comparing results to the closed-form solutions and also by solving well-known benchmarking problems.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010004

Authors: Dimosthenis Sarigiannis Spyros Karakitsios

Physiology-Based BioKinetic (PBBK) models are of increasing interest in modern risk assessment, providing quantitative information regarding the absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion (ADME). They focus on the estimation of the effective dose at target sites, aiming at the identification of xenobiotic levels that are able to result in perturbations to the biological pathway that are potentially associated with adverse outcomes. The current study aims at the development of a lifetime PBBK model that covers a large chemical space, coupled with a framework for human biomonitoring (HBM) data assimilation. The methodology developed herein was demonstrated in the case of bisphenol A (BPA), where exposure analysis was based on European HBM data. Based on our calculations, it was found that current exposure levels in Europe are below the temporary Tolerable Daily Intake (t-TDI) of 4 &mu;g/kg_bw/day proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Taking into account age-dependent bioavailability differences, internal exposure was estimated and compared with the biologically effective dose (BED) resulting from translating the EFSA temporary total daily intake (t-TDI) into equivalent internal dose and an alternative internal exposure reference value, namely biological pathway altering dose (BPAD); the use of such a refined exposure metric, showed that environmentally relevant exposure levels are below the concentrations associated with the activation of biological pathways relevant to toxicity based on High Throughput Screening (HTS) in vitro studies.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010003

Authors: Priscilla R. Varges Camila M. Costa Bruno S. Fonseca Mônica F. Naccache Paulo De Souza Mendes

The influence of the solvent type on the rheological properties of Carbopol ® NF 980 dispersions in water and in water/glycerol solutions is investigated. The material formulation, preparation procedure, common experimental challenges and artifact sources are all addressed. Transient and steady-state experiments were performed. For both solvent types, a clearly thixotropic behavior occurs slightly above the yield stress, where the avalanche effect is observed. For larger stresses, thixotropy is always negligible. Among other findings, it is observed that, for a given Carbopol concentration, the dispersion in the more viscous solvent possesses a lower yield stress and moduli, a larger power-law index, and a longer time to reach steady state.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010002

Authors: David Andrade Raphael Stuhlmeier Michael Stiassnie

This article is concerned with the non-linear interaction of homogeneous random ocean surface waves. Under this umbrella, numerous kinetic equations have been derived to study the evolution of the spectral action density, each employing slightly different assumptions. Using analytical and numerical tools, and providing exact formulas, we demonstrate that the recently derived generalized kinetic equation exhibits blow up in finite time for certain degenerate quartets of waves. This is discussed in light of the assumptions made in the derivation, and this equation is contrasted with other kinetic equations for the spectral action density.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010001

Authors: Christian Y. Cardall

A kinetic theory of classical particles serves as a unified basis for developing a geometric 3 + 1 spacetime perspective on fluid dynamics capable of embracing both Minkowski and Galilei/Newton spacetimes. Parallel treatment of these cases on as common a footing as possible reveals that the particle four-momentum is better regarded as comprising momentum and inertia rather than momentum and energy; and, consequently, that the object now known as the stress-energy or energy-momentum tensor is more properly understood as a stress-inertia or inertia-momentum tensor. In dealing with both fiducial and comoving frames as fluid dynamics requires, tensor decompositions in terms of the four-velocities of observers associated with these frames render use of coordinate-free geometric notation not only fully viable, but conceptually simplifying. A particle number four-vector, three-momentum ( 1 , 1 ) tensor, and kinetic energy four-vector characterize a simple fluid and satisfy balance equations involving spacetime divergences on both Minkowski and Galilei/Newton spacetimes. Reduced to a fully 3 + 1 form, these equations yield the familiar conservative formulations of special relativistic and non-relativistic fluid dynamics as partial differential equations in inertial coordinates, and in geometric form will provide a useful conceptual bridge to arbitrary-Lagrange&ndash;Euler and general relativistic formulations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040108

Authors: Junru Wu

Broadly speaking, acoustic streaming is generated by a nonlinear acoustic wave with a finite amplitude propagating in a viscid fluid. The fluid volume elements of molecules, d V , are forced to oscillate at the same frequency as the incident acoustic wave. Due to the nature of the nonlinearity of the acoustic wave, the second-order effect of the wave propagation produces a time-independent flow velocity (DC flow) in addition to a regular oscillatory motion (AC motion). Consequently, the fluid moves in a certain direction, which depends on the geometry of the system and its boundary conditions, as well as the parameters of the incident acoustic wave. The small scale acoustic streaming in a fluid is called &ldquo;microstreaming&rdquo;. When it is associated with acoustic cavitation, which refers to activities of microbubbles in a general sense, it is often called &ldquo;cavitation microstreaming&rdquo;. For biomedical applications, microstreaming usually takes place in a boundary layer at proximity of a solid boundary, which could be the membrane of a cell or walls of a container. To satisfy the non-slip boundary condition, the flow motion at a solid boundary should be zero. The magnitude of the DC acoustic streaming velocity, as well as the oscillatory flow velocity near the boundary, drop drastically; consequently, the acoustic streaming velocity generates a DC velocity gradient and the oscillatory flow velocity gradient produces an AC velocity gradient; they both will produce shear stress. The former is a DC shear stress and the latter is AC shear stress. It was observed the DC shear stress plays the dominant role, which may enhance the permeability of molecules passing through the cell membrane. This phenomenon is called &ldquo;sonoporation&rdquo;. Sonoporation has shown a great potential for the targeted delivery of DNA, drugs, and macromolecules into a cell. Acoustic streaming has also been used in fluid mixing, boundary cooling, and many other applications. The goal of this work is to give a brief review of the basic mathematical theory for acoustic microstreaming related to the aforementioned applications. The emphasis will be on its applications in biotechnology.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040107

Authors: Frank Austin Mier Raj Bhakta Nicolas Castano John Garcia Michael J. Hargather

Liquid coiling occurs as a viscous fluid flows into a stagnant reservoir causing a localized accumulation of settling material, which coils into a stack as it accumulates. These coiling flows are broadly characterized into three primary coiling regimes of viscous, gravitational, or inertial coiling, based on the velocity of the falling fluid, the height of the fall, the radius of the fluid rope, the stack height, and the fluid properties including viscosity. A computer-controlled flow delivery apparatus was developed here to produce precisely controlled flow conditions to study steady and transitional coiling regimes with independently varied parameters. Data were recorded using high-speed digital video cameras and a purpose-built digital image processing routine to extract rope and stack dimensions as well as time-resolved coiling frequency. The precision of the setup and data analysis methods allowed a detailed study of the transition between gravitational and inertial flow regimes. The results show a smooth transition between the regimes, with no evidence of the inertial-gravitational regime. Unsteady coiling was able to be momentarily produced by applying a perturbation to the system, but the unstable regime quickly decayed to either the base inertial or gravitational regime.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040106

Authors: Francisco-José Rubio-Hernández

Rheology of a concrete is mainly controlled by the rheological behavior of its cement paste. This is the main practical reason for the extensive research activity observed during 70 years in this research subfield. In this brief review, some areas of the research on the rheological behavior of fresh cement pastes (mixture method influence, microstructure analysis, mineral additions influence, chemical additives influence, blended cements behavior, viscoelastic behavior, flow models, and flow behavior analysis with alternative methods) are examined.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040105

Authors: Liyuan Gong Xiuling Wang

Roadside noise barrier helps to reduce downwind pollutant concentrations from vehicle emission. This positive characteristic of the construction feature can be explained by its interaction with flow distribution and species dispersion. In this paper, a three-dimensional numerical model has been developed to simulate highway pollutant dispersion&mdash;a realizable k-&epsilon; model was employed to model turbulent flow, and a non-reaction species dispersion model was applied to simulate species transport. First, numerical models were validated with experimental data, and good agreement was observed. Then, detailed simulations were conducted to study double barriers&rsquo; effects on highway pollutant dispersion under different settings: noise barriers with different heights, noise barriers with and without edge effects, and different atmospheric thermal boundary conditions. Results show that: (1) Noise barriers without edge effects cause bigger downwind velocity and turbulence intensity than noise barriers with edge effects. (2) At ground level, lower downwind pollutant concentration and higher pollutant concentration, near upwind barrier and between barriers, are observed for noise barriers without edge effect cases; higher on-road pollutant concentration can be seen near barrier side edges for cases with edge effect. (3) Downwind velocity and turbulence intensity increase as barrier height increases, which causes reduced downwind pollutant concentration. (4) With the same barrier height, under unstable atmospheric boundary condition, the lowest pollutant concentration can be found for both downwind and between barriers. Overall, these findings will provide valuable inputs to noise barrier design, so as to improve roadside neighborhood air quality.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040104

Authors: Gautham Krishnamoorthy Lucky Nteke Mulenga

While there has been some recognition regarding the impact of thermal boundary conditions (adiabatic versus isothermal) on premixed flame propagation mechanisms in micro-channels (hydraulic diameters &lt;10 mm), their impact in macro-channels has often been overlooked due to small surface-area-to-volume ratios of the propagating combustion wave. Further, the impact of radiative losses has also been neglected due to its anticipated insignificance based on scaling analysis and the high computational cost associated with resolving it&rsquo;s spatial, temporal, directional, and wavelength dependencies. However, when channel conditions promote flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions (DDT), large pressures are encountered in the vicinity of the combustion wave, thereby increasing the magnitude of radiative losses which in turn can impact the strength and velocity of the combustion wave. This is demonstrated for the first time through simulations of lean (equivalence ratio: 0.5) hydrogen-air mixtures in a macro-channel (hydraulic diameter: 174 mm) with obstacles (Blockage ratio: 0.51). By employing Planck mean absorption coefficients in conjunction with the P-1 radiation model, radiative losses are shown to affect the run-up distances to DDT in a long channel (length: 11.878 m). As anticipated, the differences in run-up distances resulting from radiative losses only increased with system pressure.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040103

Authors: Giancarlo Comes Carlo Cravero

The present work is focused on the study of an innovative fluidic device. It consists of a two-ways diverter valve able to elaborate an inlet water flow and divert it through one of the two outlets without moving parts but as a result of a fluctuation of pressure induced by two actuation ports, or channels. Such apparatus is named Attachment Bi-Stable Diverter (ABD) and is able to work with the effect of the fluid adhesion to a convex wall adjacent to it, this phenomenon is known as Coanda Effect; it generates the force responsible for the fluid attachment and the consequent deviation. The main purpose of this work is to develop a knowhow for the design and development of such particular device. A mathematical model for the ABD has been developed and used to find the relationships between the geometrical parameters and the operative conditions. A configuration has been designed, simulated with a computational fluid dynamics approach. A prototype has been printed with and additive manufacturing printer and tested in laboratory to check the effective working point of the device.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040102

Authors: Alexey Beliaev Gennady Krichevets

One of the most significant difficulties in subsurface hydrology is the considerable uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity values in the medium. This stimulates qualitative analysis of the effect of conductivity distribution on the solutions or on some components of the solutions of groundwater flow equations. This work is an attempt to develop a rigorous basis for deciding whether the solutions are monotonous with respect to hydraulic conductivity. Such monotonicity is analogous to the well-known comparison principles with respect to variations of initial data or external supplies. Some example problems are given in this paper, including a problem with a free boundary, in which the monotonous dependence of the solution on the conductivity distribution is proved rigorously. Examples are also given, in which monotonicity assumptions, despite being apparently obvious, are proved to be invalid.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040101

Authors: Wentao Wu Bing Wang Ali Malkawi Nari Yoon Zlatan Sehovic Bin Yan

Natural ventilation is often used as a passive technology to reduce building energy consumption. To leverage the rule-based natural ventilation control to more advanced control at multiple spatial scales, mathematical modeling is needed to calculate the real-time ventilation rate, indoor air temperatures, and velocities at high spatial resolution. This study aims to develop a real-time mathematical modeling framework based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The real-time concept is implemented by using real-time sensor data, e.g., wall surface temperatures as boundary conditions, while data assimilation is employed to implement real-time self-calibration. The proof of concept is demonstrated by a case study using synthetic data. The results show that the modeling framework can adequately predict real-time ventilation rates and indoor air temperatures. The data assimilation method can nudge the simulated air velocities toward the observed values to continuously calibrate the model. The real-time CFD modeling framework will be further tested by the real-time sensor data once building construction is fully completed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040100

Authors: Sergey Nesis Daniel Gottwald Thomas Geber Rolf Pelster

The simultaneous visualization and characterization of heat transfer processes from hot vibrating objects is a challenging task. This article presents an experimental set-up for the investigation of thermomechanical oscillations in thin cylindrical heaters, allowing us to visualize convection processes using Schlieren photography, infrared photometry, and other methods. It is demonstrated that heat transfer considerably changes in the regions of parametric instability.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040099

Authors: Kazuma Yamanaka Takayuki Narumi Megumi Hashiguchi Hirotaka Okabe Kazuhiro Hara Yoshiki Hidaka

The properties of chaotic advection arising from defect turbulence, that is, weak turbulence in the electroconvection of nematic liquid crystals, were experimentally investigated. Defect turbulence is a phenomenon in which fluctuations of convective rolls arise and are globally disturbed while maintaining convective rolls locally. The time-dependent diffusion coefficient, as measured from the motion of a tagged particle driven by the turbulence, was used to clarify the dependence of the type of diffusion on coarse-graining time. The results showed that, as coarse-graining time increases, the type of diffusion changes from superdiffusion → subdiffusion → normal diffusion. The change in diffusive properties over the observed timescale reflects the coexistence of local order and global disorder in the defect turbulence.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040098

Authors: Pooja Thanekar Parag Gogate

The concentration of hazardous pollutants in the wastewater streams has to keep below a certain level in order to comply with the stringent environmental laws. The conventional technologies for wastewater treatment have drawbacks in terms of limited applicability and efficiency. Utilization of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactors for the degradation of pollutants at large scale has shown considerable promise over last few years, due to higher energy efficiencies and low cost operation based on lower consumption of chemicals for the treatment. The present work overviews the degradation of different pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, pesticide, phenolic derivatives and dyes, as well as the treatment of real industrial effluents using hybrid methods based on HC viz. HC/H2O2, HC/Ozone, HC/Fenton, HC/Ultraviolet irradiations (UV), and HC coupled with biological oxidation. Furthermore, based on the literature reports, recommendations for the selection of optimum operating parameters, such as inlet pressure, solution temperature, initial pH and initial pollutant concentration have been discussed in order to maximize the process intensification benefits. Moreover, hybrid methods based on HC has been demonstrated to show good synergism as compared to individual treatment approach. Overall, high energy efficient wastewater treatment can be achieved using a combined treatment approach based on HC under optimized conditions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040097

Authors: Imran Akhtar Jeff Borggaard John Burns

We discuss developing efficient reduced-order models (ROM) for designing energy-efficient buildings using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. This is often the first step in the reduce-then-control technique employed for flow control in various industrial and engineering problems. This approach computes the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) eigenfunctions from high-fidelity simulations data and then forms a ROM by projecting the Navier-Stokes equations onto these basic functions. In this study, we develop a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control based on the ROM of flow in a room. We demonstrate these approaches on a one-room model, serving as a basic unit in a building. Furthermore, the ROM is used to compute feedback functional gains. These gains are in fact the spatial representation of the feedback control. Insight of these functional gains can be used for effective placement of sensors in the room. This research can further lead to developing mathematical tools for efficient design, optimization, and control in building management systems.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040096

Authors: Zihua Liu Roger Grimshaw Edward Johnson

Large amplitude, horizontally propagating internal waves are commonly observed in the coastal ocean. They are often modelled by a variable-coefficient Korteweg&ndash;de Vries equation to take account of a horizontally varying background state. Although this equation is now well-known, a term representing non-conservative effects, arising from horizontal variation in the underlying basic state density stratification and current, has often been omitted. In this paper, we examine the possible significance of this term using climatological data for several typical oceanic sites where internal waves have been observed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040095

Authors: Valentin Leroy Nicolas Chastrette Margaux Thieury Olivier Lombard Arnaud Tourin

A model for acoustic transmission through a 2D square crystal of R-radius bubbles with a lattice constant L was previously proposed. Assuming a purely monopole response of the bubbles, this model offers a simple analytical expression of the transmission. However, it is not applicable when the bubbles are too close to each other (L/R &lt; 5). This article proposes an extension of the model by including the dipole response of the bubbles. Comparisons with numerical and experimental results show that the new expression gives a good estimate of the concentration at which the monopole model is no longer valid, but fails at properly predicting the transmission.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040094

Authors: Aria Alimi Olaf Wünsch

Active flow control of canonical laminar separation bubbles by steady and harmonic vortex generator jets (VGJs) was investigated using direct numerical simulations. Both control strategies were found to be effective in controlling the laminar boundary-layer separation. However, the present results indicate that using the same blowing amplitude, harmonic VGJs were more effective and efficient at reducing the separated region than the steady VGJs considering the fact that the harmonic VGJs use less momentum than the steady case. For steady VGJs, longitudinal structures forming immediately downstream of the injection location led to the formation of hairpin-type vortices, causing an earlier transition to turbulence. Symmetric hairpin vortices were shown to develop downstream of the forcing location for the harmonic VGJs, as well. However, the increased control effectiveness for harmonic VGJs&rsquo; flow control strategy is attributed to the fact that the shear-layer instability mechanism was exploited. As a result, disturbances introduced by VGJs were strongly amplified, leading to the development of large-scale coherent structures, which are very effective at increasing the momentum exchange, thus limiting the separated region.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040093

Authors: Javeria Jalal Thomas S. H. Leong

Acoustic streaming is the steady flow of a fluid that is caused by the propagation of sound through that fluid. The fluid flow in acoustic streaming is generated by a nonlinear, time-averaged effect that results from the spatial and temporal variations in a pressure field. When there is an oscillating body submerged in the fluid, such as a cavitation bubble, vorticity is generated on the boundary layer on its surface, resulting in microstreaming. Although the effects are generated at the microscale, microstreaming can have a profound influence on the fluid mechanics of ultrasound/acoustic processing systems, which are of high interest to sonochemistry, sonoprocessing, and acoustophoretic applications. The effects of microstreaming have been evaluated over the years using carefully controlled experiments that identify and quantify the fluid motion at a small scale. This mini-review article overviews the historical development of acoustic streaming, shows how microstreaming behaves, and provides an update on new numerical and experimental studies that seek to explore and improve our understanding of microstreaming.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040092

Authors: Gabriel Rojas Jessica Grove-Smith

The operation of a typical indoor swimming pool is very energy intensive. Previous studies have shown that high quality thermal building envelopes, i.e., with high levels of insulation and airtightness, make it possible to rethink conventional ventilation concepts. Due to the reduced condensation risk in and on envelopes of high thermal quality, ventilation design can be optimized for indoor air quality rather than for averting condensation on the facade. This work investigates different air distribution concepts for an existing swimming pool via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to evaluate their ventilation efficiency. To reduce modelling and computational resources, the velocity and turbulence fields produced by the swirl-diffusers are determined in a set of separate CFD simulations and incorporated into the swimming pool models. The results show that the ventilation efficiency in the examined swimming pool could potentially be improved with various alternative air distribution concepts, therefore improving the indoor air quality. Although the results seem plausible and compare well with the limited measurement data of air humidity, a more formal experimental validation is still needed before generalizing recommendations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040091

Authors: Hemant Khatri Pavel Berloff

Multiple zonal jets observed in many parts of the global ocean are often embedded in large-scale eastward and westward vertically sheared background flows. Properties of the jets and ambient eddies, as well as their dynamic interactions, are found to be different between eastward and westward shears. However, the impact of these differences on overall eddy dynamics remains poorly understood and is the main subject of this study. The roles of eddy relative vorticity and buoyancy fluxes in the maintenance of oceanic zonal jets are studied in a two-layer quasigeostrophic model. Both eastward and westward uniform, zonal vertically sheared cases are considered in the study. It is shown that, despite the differences in eddy structure and local characteristics, the fundamental dynamics are essentially the same in both cases: the relative-vorticity fluxes force the jets in the entire fluid column, and the eddy-buoyancy fluxes transfer momentum from the top to the bottom layer, where it is balanced by bottom friction. It is also observed that the jets gain more energy via Reynolds stress work in the layer having a positive gradient in the background potential vorticity, and this is qualitatively explained by a simple reasoning based on Rossby wave group velocity.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040090

Authors: Alexey Maksimov

The purpose of the present review is to describe the effect of an interface between media with different mechanical properties on the acoustic response of a gas bubble. This is necessary to interpret sonar signals received from underwater gas seeps and mud volcanoes, as well as in the case of acoustic studies on the Arctic shelf where rising gas bubbles accumulate at the lower boundary of the ice cover. The ability to describe the dynamics of constrained bubble by analytical methods is related to the presence of internal symmetry in the governing equations. This leads to the presence of specific (toroidal and bi-spherical) coordinate systems in which the variables are separated. The existence of symmetry properties is possible only under certain conditions. In particular, the characteristic wavelength should be larger than the bubble size and the distance to an interface. The derived analytical solution allows us to determine how the natural frequency, radiation damping, and bubble shape depend on the distance to the boundary and the material parameters of contacting media.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040089

Authors: Maxime Lesur Julien Médina Makoto Sasaki Akihiro Shimizu

In neutral fluids and plasmas, the analysis of perturbations often starts with an inventory of linearly unstable modes. Then, the nonlinear steady-state is analyzed or predicted based on these linear modes. A crude analogy would be to base the study of a chair on how it responds to infinitesimaly small perturbations. One would conclude that the chair is stable at all frequencies, and cannot fall down. Of course, a chair falls down if subjected to finite-amplitude perturbations. Similarly, waves and wave-like structures in neutral fluids and plasmas can be triggered even though they are linearly stable. These subcritical instabilities are dormant until an interaction, a drive, a forcing, or random noise pushes their amplitude above some threshold. Investigating their onset conditions requires nonlinear calculations. Subcritical instabilities are ubiquitous in neutral fluids and plasmas. In plasmas, subcritical instabilities have been investigated based on analytical models and numerical simulations since the 1960s. More recently, they have been measured in laboratory and space plasmas, albeit not always directly. The topic could benefit from the much longer and richer history of subcritical instability and transition to subcritical turbulence in neutral fluids. In this tutorial introduction, we describe the fundamental aspects of subcritical instabilities in plasmas, based on systems of increasing complexity, from simple examples of a point-mass in a potential well or a box on a table, to turbulence and instabilities in neutral fluids, and finally, to modern applications in magnetized toroidal fusion plasmas.

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