Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090335

Authors: Boan Zhao Lyndon Koens

Slender-body approximations have been successfully used to explain many phenomena in low-Reynolds number fluid mechanics. These approximations typically use a line of singularity solutions to represent flow. These singularities can be difficult to implement numerically because they diverge at their origin. Hence, people have regularized these singularities to overcome this issue. This regularization blurs the force over a small blob and thereby removing divergent behaviour. However, it is unclear how best to regularize the singularities to minimize errors. In this paper, we investigate if a line of regularized Stokeslets can describe the flow around a slender body. This is achieved by comparing the asymptotic behaviour of the flow from the line of regularized Stokeslets with the results from slender-body theory. We find that the flow far from the body can be captured if the regularization parameter is proportional to the radius of the slender body. This is consistent with what is assumed in numerical simulations and provides a choice for the proportionality constant. However, more stringent requirements must be placed on the regularization blob to capture the near field flow outside a slender body. This inability to replicate the local behaviour indicates that many regularizations cannot satisfy the no-slip boundary conditions on the body’s surface to leading order, with one of the most commonly used blobs showing an angular dependency of velocity along any cross section. This problem can be overcome with compactly supported blobs, and we construct one such example blob, which can be effectively used to simulate the flow around a slender body.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090334

Authors: Evgenii L. Sharaborin Oleg A. Rogozin Aslan R. Kasimov

In this work, we contribute to the development of numerical algorithms for the direct simulation of three-dimensional incompressible multiphase flows in the presence of multiple fluids and solids. The volume of fluid method is used for interface tracking, and the Brinkman penalization method is used to treat solids; the latter is assumed to be perfectly superhydrophobic or perfectly superhydrophilic, to have an arbitrary shape, and to move with a prescribed velocity. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the open-source software Basilisk and is validated on a number of test cases, such as the Stokes flow between a periodic array of cylinders, vortex decay problem, and multiphase flow around moving solids.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090333

Authors: T.-W. Lee

Coordinate-transformed analysis of turbulence transport is developed, which leads to a symmetric set of gradient expressions for the Reynolds stress tensor components. In this perspective, the turbulence structure in wall-bounded flows is seen to arise from an interaction of a small number of intuitive dynamical terms: transport, pressure and viscous. Main features of the turbulent flow can be theoretically prescribed in this way and reconstructed for channel and boundary layer flows, with and without pressure gradients, as validated in comparison with available direct numerical simulation data. A succinct picture of turbulence structure and its origins emerges, reflective of the basic physics of momentum and energy balance if placed in a specific moving coordinate frame. An iterative algorithm produces an approximate solution for the mean velocity, and its implications toward computability of turbulent flows is discussed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090332

Authors: Hamayun Farooq Ahmad Saeed Imran Akhtar Zafar Bangash

In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based reduced order model (ROM) is developed for the hydrodynamics forces on an airfoil immersed in the flow field at different angles of attack. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the flow field data is employed to obtain pressure modes and the temporal coefficients. These temporal pressure coefficients are used to train the ANN using data from three different angles of attack. The trained network then takes the value of angle of attack (AOA) and past POD coefficients as an input and predicts the future temporal coefficients. We also decompose the surface pressure modes into lift and drag components. These surface pressure modes are then employed to calculate the pressure component of lift CLp and drag CDp coefficients. The train model is then tested on the in-sample data and out-of-sample data. The results show good agreement with the true numerical data, thus validating the neural network based model.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090331

Authors: Xuan Ge Giuliano De Stefano M. Yousuff Hussaini Oleg V. Vasilyev

This article represents the second part of a review by De Stefano and Vasilyev (2021) on wavelet-based adaptive methods for modeling and simulation of turbulent flows. Unlike the hierarchical adaptive eddy-capturing approach, described in the first part and devoted to high-fidelity modeling of incompressible flows, this companion paper focuses on the adaptive eddy-resolving framework for compressible flows in complex geometries, which also includes model-form adaptation from low to high fidelity models. A hierarchy of wavelet-based eddy-resolving methods of different fidelity has been developed for different speed regimes, various boundary conditions, and Reynolds numbers. Solutions of various fidelity are achieved using a range of modeling approaches from unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes simulation to delayed detached eddy simulation, wall-modeled and wall-resolved large eddy simulations. These novel methodologies open the door to construct a hierarchical approach for simulation of compressible flows covering the whole range of possibilities, from only resolving the average or dominant frequency, to capturing the intermittency of turbulence eddies, and to directly simulating the full turbulence spectrum. The generalized hierarchical wavelet-based adaptive eddy-resolving approach, once fully integrated into a single inherently interconnected simulation, results in being a very competitive and predictive tool for complicated flows in industrial design and analysis with high efficiency and accuracy.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090330

Authors: Peter C. Chu Vinicius S. Pessanha Chenwu Fan Joseph Calantoni

The coupled Delft3D-object model has been developed to predict the mobility and burial of objects on sandy seafloors. The Delft3D model is used to predict seabed environmental factors such as currents, waves (peak wave period, significant wave height, wave direction), water level, sediment transport, and seabed change, which are taken as the forcing term to the object model consisting of three components: (a) physical parameters such as diameter, length, mass, and rolling moment; (b) dynamics of the rolling cylinder around its major axis; (c) an empirical sediment scour model with re-exposure parameterization. The model is compared with the observational data collected from a field experiment from 21 April to 13 May 2013 off the coast of Panama City, Florida. The experimental data contain both object mobility using sector scanning sonars and maintenance divers as well as simultaneous environmental time series data of the boundary layer hydrodynamics and sediment transport conditions. Comparison between modeled and observed data clearly shows the model’s capabilities and limitations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090329

Authors: T.-W. Lee

Scaling of turbulent wall-bounded flows is revealed in the gradient structures, for each of the Reynolds stress components. Within the “dissipation” structure, an asymmetrical order exists, which we can deploy to unify the scaling and transport dynamics within and across these flows. There are subtle differences in the outer boundary conditions between channel and flat-plate boundary-layer flows, which modify the turbulence structure far from the wall. The self-similarity exhibited in the gradient space and corresponding transport dynamics establish capabilities and encompassing knowledge of wall-bounded turbulent flows.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090328

Authors: Ekachai Juntasaro Kiattisak Ngiamsoongnirn Phongsakorn Thawornsathit Kazuhiko Suga

The objective of the present work is to propose an extended analytical wall function that is capable of predicting the bypass transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The algebraic γ transition model, the k−ω turbulence model and the analytical wall function are integrated together in this work to detect the transition onset and start the transition process. The present analytical wall function is validated with the experimental data, the Blasius solution and the law of the wall. With this analytical wall function, the transition onset in the skin friction coefficient is detected and the growth rate of transition is properly generated. The predicted mean velocity profiles are found to be in good agreement with the Blasius solution in the laminar flow, the experimental data in the transition zone and the law of the wall in the fully turbulent flow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090327

Authors: Ekaterina Leusheva Nataliia Brovkina Valentin Morenov

Drilling fluids play an important role in the construction of oil and gas wells. Furthermore, drilling of oil and gas wells at offshore fields is an even more complex task that requires application of specialized drilling muds, which are non-Newtonian and complex fluids. With regard to fluid properties, it is necessary to manage the equivalent circulation density because its high values can lead to fracture in the formation, loss of circulation and wellbore instability. Thus, rheology of the used drilling mud has a significant impact on the equivalent circulation density. The aim of the present research is to develop compositions of drilling muds with a low solids load based on salts of formate acid and improve their rheological parameters for wells with a narrow drilling fluid density range. Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide of different molecular weights was proposed as a replacement for hydrolized polyacrylamide. The experiment was conducted on a Fann rotary viscometer. The article presents experimentally obtained data of indicators such as plastic viscosity, yield point, nonlinearity index and consistency coefficient. Experimental data were analyzed by the method of approximation. Analysis is performed in order to determine the most suitable rheological model, which describes the investigated fluids’ flow with the least error.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090326

Authors: Eman Yahia William Schupbach Kannan N. Premnath

Lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods are usually developed on cubic lattices that discretize the configuration space using uniform grids. For efficient computations of anisotropic and inhomogeneous flows, it would be beneficial to develop LB algorithms involving the collision-and-stream steps based on orthorhombic cuboid lattices. We present a new 3D central moment LB scheme based on a cuboid D3Q27 lattice. This scheme involves two free parameters representing the ratios of the characteristic particle speeds along the two directions with respect to those in the remaining direction, and these parameters are referred to as the grid aspect ratios. Unlike the existing LB schemes for cuboid lattices, which are based on orthogonalized raw moments, we construct the collision step based on the relaxation of central moments and avoid the orthogonalization of moment basis, which leads to a more robust formulation. Moreover, prior cuboid LB algorithms prescribe the mappings between the distribution functions and raw moments before and after collision by using a moment basis designed to separate the trace of the second order moments (related to bulk viscosity) from its other components (related to shear viscosity), which lead to cumbersome relations for the transformations. By contrast, in our approach, the bulk and shear viscosity effects associated with the viscous stress tensor are naturally segregated only within the collision step and not for such mappings, while the grid aspect ratios are introduced via simpler pre- and post-collision diagonal scaling matrices in the above mappings. These lead to a compact approach, which can be interpreted based on special matrices. It also results in a modular 3D LB scheme on the cuboid lattice, which allows the existing cubic lattice implementations to be readily extended to those based on the more general cuboid lattices. To maintain the isotropy of the viscous stress tensor of the 3D Navier–Stokes equations using the cuboid lattice, corrections for eliminating the truncation errors resulting from the grid anisotropy as well as those from the aliasing effects are derived using a Chapman–Enskog analysis. Such local corrections, which involve the diagonal components of the velocity gradient tensor and are parameterized by two grid aspect ratios, augment the second order moment equilibria in the collision step. We present a numerical study validating the accuracy of our approach for various benchmark problems at different grid aspect ratios. In addition, we show that our 3D cuboid central moment LB method is numerically more robust than its corresponding raw moment formulation. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the 3D cuboid central moment LB scheme for the simulations of anisotropic and inhomogeneous flows and show significant savings in memory storage and computational cost when used in lieu of that based on the cubic lattice.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090325

Authors: Robert A. Handler Michael J. Buckingham

In a high viscosity, polymeric fluid initially at rest, the release of elastic energy produces vorticity in the form of coherent motions (vortex rings). Such behavior may enhance mixing in the low Reynolds number flows encountered in microfluidic applications. In this work, we develop a theory for such flows by linearizing the governing equations of motion. The linear theory predicts that when elastic energy is released in a symmetric manner, a wave of vorticity is produced with two distinct periods of wave motion: (1) a period of wave expansion and growth extending over a transition time scale, followed by (2) a period of wave translation and viscous decay. The vortex wave speeds are predicted to be proportional to the square root of the initial fluid tension, and the fluid tension itself scales as the viscosity. Besides verifying the predictions of the linearized theory, numerical solutions of the equations of motion for the velocity field, obtained using a pseudo-spectral method, show that the flow is composed of right- and left-traveling columnar vortex pairs, called vortex waves for short. Wave speeds obtained from the numerical simulations are within 1.5% of those from the linear theory when the assumption of linearity holds. Vortex waves are found to decay on a time scale of the order of the vortex size divided by the solution viscosity, in reasonable agreement with the analytical solution of the linearized model for damped vortex waves. When the viscoelastic fluid is governed by a nonlinear spring model, as represented by the Peterlin function, wave speeds are found to be larger than the predictions of the linear theory for small polymer extension lengths.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090323

Authors: Caelan Lapointe Nicholas T. Wimer Sam Simons-Wellin Jeffrey F. Glusman Gregory B. Rieker Peter E. Hamlington

Fires are complex multi-physics problems that span wide spatial scale ranges. Capturing this complexity in computationally affordable numerical simulations for process studies and “outer-loop” techniques (e.g., optimization and uncertainty quantification) is a fundamental challenge in reacting flow research. Further complications arise for propagating fires where a priori knowledge of the fire spread rate and direction is typically not available. In such cases, static mesh refinement at all possible fire locations is a computationally inefficient approach to bridging the wide range of spatial scales relevant to fire behavior. In the present study, we address this challenge by incorporating adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in fireFoam, an OpenFOAM solver for simulations of complex fire phenomena involving pyrolyzing solid surfaces. The AMR functionality in the extended solver, called fireDyMFoam, is load balanced, models gas, solid, and liquid phases, and allows us to dynamically track regions of interest, thus avoiding inefficient over-resolution of areas far from a propagating flame. We demonstrate the AMR capability and computational efficiency for fire spread on vertical panels, showing that the AMR solver reproduces results obtained using much larger statically refined meshes, but at a substantially reduced computational cost. We then leverage AMR in an optimization framework for fire suppression based on the open-source Dakota toolkit, which is made more computationally tractable through the use of fireDyMFoam, minimizing a cost function that balances water use and solid-phase mass loss. The extension of fireFoam developed here thus enables the use of higher fidelity simulations in optimization problems for the suppression of fire spread in both built and natural environments.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090324

Authors: Fernando M. López-Aguilar Fernando I. López-Bara

The low energy excitation states in frustrated magnetic structures can generate quasiparticles that behave as if they were magnetic charges. These excited states produce, in the so-called spin-ice materials, two different peaks of specific heat at temperatures less than 1.5 K. In this paper, we consider that the first structure is caused by the formation of fluid of magnetic dipoles configured by the dumbbell model with a boson nature in consonance with that described by Witten for mesons. The second structure, wider than the first one, corresponds to a plasma state that comes from the breaking of a great number of dipoles, which provokes the appearance of free magnetic charges, which constitute a cool magnetic plasma fluid. In this paper, we determine thermodynamic analytical functions: the thermo-potential and internal energy and their respective derivative physical magnitudes: entropy, and magnetic specific heat. We obtain results in a good concordance with the experimental data, which allow us to explain the phase transitions occurred in these spin-ice materials at very low temperatures.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090322

Authors: Purnima Chaturvedi Rohit Kumar Sapna Ratan Shah

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited monogenic disease characterized by distorted red blood cells that causes vaso-occlusion and vasculopathy. Presently, electrophoresis of haemoglobin and genotyping are used as routine tests for diagnosis of the SCD. These techniques require specialized laboratories and are expensive. The low-cost microfluidics-based diagnostic tool holds a great attention for screening of red blood cell (RBC) deformability. In the present study, lubrication theory has been applied in order to develop a biomechanical model of microcirculation with altered rheological properties of sickle blood in the capillary, which is smaller in size compared to the cell diameter, to explain the multifactorial nature and pathogenesis of vaso-occlusion in SCD. The governing equations have been solved analytically for realistic boundary conditions and simulated using MATLAB. We found that the axial velocity of the cell decreases with a decrease in deformability and compliance. The height of the lubricating film predicts deformation of the cell with respect to local pressure in the microcirculation. Leak back and drag force depend non-linearly on the deformed cell radius with varying viscosity of the plasma and Reynolds number. The modelling predictions of this study is in coherence with experimental results. The analyzed parameters provide unique insights with novel possibilities to design a microfluidics-based effective therapeutic intervention for SCD.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090321

Authors: Claas Spille Vaishakh Prasannan Tholan Benjamin Straiton Monika Johannsen Marko Hoffmann Qussai Marashdeh Michael Schlüter

Against the background of current and future global challenges, such as climate change, process engineering requires increasingly specific solutions adapted to the respective problem or application, especially in gas–liquid contact apparatuses. One possibility to adjust the conditions in this kind of apparatuses is an intelligent and customized structuring, which leads to consistent fluid properties and flow characteristics within the reactor. In the course of this, the interfacial area for mass transfer, as well as residence times, have to be adjusted and optimized specifically for the respective application. In order to better understand and advance the research on intelligent customized additively manufactured lattice structures (AMLS), the phase distributions and local gas holdups that are essential for mass transfer are investigated for different structures and flow conditions. For the first time a tomographic measurement technique is used, the Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT), and validated with the volume expansion method and a fiber optical needle probe (A2PS-B-POP) for an air-water system for different modes of operation (with or without co-current liquid flow in empty or packed state). The ECVT proved to be particularly useful for both in the empty tube and the packed state and provided new insights into the phase distributions occurring within structured packings, which would have led to significantly underestimated results based on the visual reference measurements, especially for a densely packed additively manufactured lattice structure (5 mm cubic on the tip). Particularly for the modified structures, which were supposed to show local targeted differences, the ECVT was able to resolve the changes locally. The additional use of a pump for co-current flow operation resulted in slightly higher fluctuations within the ECVT data, although local events could still be resolved sufficiently. The final comparison of the empty tube at rest data with a fiber optical needle probe showed that the results were in good agreement and that the local deviations were due to general differences in the respective measurement techniques.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090320

Authors: Dimitrios N. Konispoliatis Ioannis K. Chatjigeorgiou Spyridon A. Mavrakos

In the present study, the diffraction and the radiation problems of water waves by a surface-piercing porous cylindrical body are considered. The idea conceived is based on the capability of porous structures to dissipate the wave energy and to minimize the environmental impact, developing wave attenuation and protection. In the context of linear wave theory, a three-dimensional solution based on the eigenfunction expansion method is developed for the determination of the velocity potential of the flow field around the cylindrical body. Numerical results are presented and discussed concerning the wave elevation and the hydrodynamic forces on the examined body for various values of porosity coefficients. The results revealed that porosity plays a key role in reducing/controlling the wave loads on the structure and the wave run-up, hence porous barriers can be set up to protect a marine structure against wave attack.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090319

Authors: Omar Elsayed Ralf Kirsch Fabian Krull Sergiy Antonyuk Sebastian Osterroth

Recently, the trend towards sustainable energy production and pollution control has motivated the increased consumption of ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) or bio-fuels. Such fuels have relatively low surface tension with water and therefore, the separation of water from fuel has become a challenging problem. The separation process relies on using porous structures for the collection and removal of water droplets. Hence, understanding the interaction between water droplets and the separators is vital. The simplest geometry of a separator is the wire mesh screen, which is used in many modern water–diesel separators. Thus, it is considered here for systematic study. In this work, pore-scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using OpenFOAM® (an open-source C++ toolbox for fluid dynamics simulations) coupled with a new accurate scheme for the computation of the surface tension force. First, two validation test cases were performed and compared to experimental observations in corresponding bubble-point tests. Second, in order to describe the interaction between water droplets and wire mesh screens, the simulations were performed with different parameters: mean diesel velocity, open area ratio, fiber radii, Young–Laplace contact angle, and the droplet radius. New correlations were obtained which describe the average reduction of open surface area (clogging), the pressure drop, and retention criteria.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090318

Authors: Selin Duruk Edouard Boujo Mathieu Sellier

The present work explores the impact of rotation on the dynamics of a thin liquid layer deposited on a spheroid (bi-axial ellipsoid) rotating around its vertical axis. An evolution equation based on the lubrication approximation was derived, which takes into account the combined effects of the non-uniform curvature, capillarity, gravity, and rotation. This approximate model was solved numerically, and the results were compared favorably with solutions of the full Navier–Stokes equations. A key advantage of the lubrication approximation is the solution time, which was shown to be at least one order of magnitude shorter than for the full Navier–Stokes equations, revealing the prospect of controlling film dynamics for coating applications. The thin film dynamics were investigated for a wide range of geometric, kinematic, and material parameters. The model showed that, in contrast to the purely gravity-driven case, in which the fluid drains downwards and accumulates at the south pole, rotation leads to a migration of the maximum film thickness towards the equator, where the centrifugal force is the strongest.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090317

Authors: Lei Zeng Daniel Velez Jiacai Lu Gretar Tryggvason

The dynamics of a three-phase gas–liquid–liquid multiphase system is examined by direct numerical simulations. The system consists of a continuous liquid phase, buoyant gas bubbles, and smaller heavy drops that fall relative to the continuous liquid. The computational domain is fully periodic, and a force equal to the weight of the mixture is added to keep it in place. The governing parameters are selected so that the terminal Reynolds numbers of the bubbles and the drops are moderate; while the effect of bubble deformability is examined by changing its surface tension, the surface tension for the drops is sufficiently high so they do not deform. One bubble in a “unit cell” and eight freely interacting bubbles are examined. The dependency of the slip velocities, the velocity fluctuations, and the distribution of the dispersed phases on the volume fraction of each phase are examined. It is found that while the distribution of drops around a single bubble in a “unit cell” is uneven and depends on its deformability, the distribution of drops around freely interacting bubbles is relatively uniform for the parameters examined in this study.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090316

Authors: Nikita S. Gibanov Mikhail A. Sheremet

A numerical study of conjugate thermogravitational convection in a closed cavity with a local heater of square or triangular shape placed on a heat-conducting substrate using the double distribution function of the lattice Boltzmann method has been carried out. The side walls of the research area are maintained at a constant minimum temperature. The influence of the geometric shape of the heating element, the Rayleigh number, and the material of the heat-removing substrate on the thermohydrodynamic parameters has been studied. As a result of the research, the joint effect of these mentioned parameters on the efficiency of heat removal from the heater surface has been established. It has been found that a rise of the bottom wall thermal conductivity causes an increase in the average Nusselt number at the heater surface.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090315

Authors: Pavel Bulat Konstantin Volkov Igor Volobuev

In this paper, we study the intersection (interaction) between several steady shocks traveling in the same direction. The interaction between overtaking shocks may be regular or irregular. In the case of regular reflection, the intersection of overtaking shocks leads to the formation of a resulting shock, contact discontinuity, and some reflected discontinuities. The type of discontinuity depends on the parameters of incoming shocks. At the irregular reflection, a Mach shock forms between incoming overtaking shocks. Reflected discontinuities come from the points of intersection of the Mach stem with the incoming shocks. We also consider the possible types of shockwave configurations that form both at regular and irregular interactions of several overtaking shocks. The regions of existence of overtaking shock waves with different types of reflected shock and the intensity of reflected shocks are defined. The results obtained in the study can potentially be useful for designing supersonic intakes and advanced jet engines.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090314

Authors: Corrado Groth Stefano Porziani Marco Evangelos Biancolini

Fluid structure interaction (FSI) is a complex phenomenon that in several applications cannot be neglected. Given its complexity and multi-disciplinarity the solution of FSI problems is difficult and time consuming, requiring not only the solution of the structural and fluid domains, but also the use of expensive numerical methods to couple the two physics and to properly update the numerical grid. Advanced mesh morphing can be used to embed into the fluid grid the vector fields resulting from structural calculations. The main advantage is that such embedding and the related computational costs occur only at initialization of the computation. A proper combination of embedded vector fields can be used to tackle steady and transient FSI problems by structural modes superposition, for the case of linear structures, or to impose a full non-linear displacement time history. Radial basis functions interpolation, a powerful and precise meshless tool, is used in this work to combine the vector fields and propagate their effect to the full fluid domain of interest. A review of industrial high fidelity FSI problems tackled by means of the proposed method and RBF is given for steady, transient, and non-linear transient FSI problems.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090313

Authors: Chen-Yuan Bai Zi-Niu Wu

The Mach stem height is an important parameter in the Mach reflection of steady supersonic flow. Various experimental, numerical, and theoretical works have been conducted to study this parameter in the past. However, much of the established work focuses around a single set of trailing edge heights. Here, we perform a study to show the dependence of Mach stem height on the trailing edge height for a wider range of geometry. Through numerical simulation for a set of trailing edge heights, we found that the normalized Mach stem height is almost linear with respect to the normalized wedge trailing edge height. The parameter used for normalization can be either the inlet height or the length of the lower wedge surface. The observation of this linear trend is justified through a simplified analysis, which leads to an expression of the Mach stem height that linearly depends on the trailing edge height. The present study extends our knowledge about how the geometry affects the Mach stem height, and provides a basis for future work to elaborate analytical models for Mach stem height.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090312

Authors: Luis Mieles-Gómez Santander E. Lastra-Ripoll Edilbert Torregroza-Fuentes Somaris E. Quintana Luis A. García-Zapateiro

Emulsion gels are an alternative to developing food products and adding bioactive compounds; however, different stabilizers have been employed considering natural ingredients. In this work, stabilization of emulsion gels with blends of carboxymethylcellulose and kernel mango starch was performed with the addition of mango peel extracts, evaluating their physical, rheological and microstructural properties. Phenolic extract from mango peels (yields = 11.35 ± 2.05% w/w), with 294.60 ± 0.03 mg GAE/100 g of extract and 436.77 ± 5.30 µMol Trolox/g of the extract, was obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction (1:10 peel: Ethanol w/v, 200 W, 30 min), containing pyrogallol, melezitose, succinic acid, γ-tocopherol, campesterol, stigmasterol, lupeol, vitamin A and vitamin E. In addition, mango kernel starch (yields = 59.51 ± 1.35% w/w) with 27.28 ± 0.05% of amylose was obtained, being the by-product of mango (Mangiferaindica var fachir) an alternative to producing natural food ingredients. After that, stable emulsions gels were prepared to stabilize with carboxy methylcellulose–kernel mango starch blends and mango peel extracts. These results provide an ingredient as an alternative to the development of gelled systems. They offer an alternative to elaborating a new multifunctional food system with bioactive properties with potential application as a fat replacement or delivery system in the food industry.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090311

Authors: Marcello Lappa Alessio Boaro

The present study aims to probe the role of an influential factor heretofore scarcely considered in earlier studies in the field of thermovibrational convection, that is, the specific time-varying shape of the forcing used to produce fluid motion under the effect of an imposed temperature gradient. Towards this end, two different temporal profiles of acceleration are considered: a classical (sinusoidal) and a pulse (square) wave. Their effects are analyzed in conjunction with the ability of a specific category of fluids to accumulate and release elastic energy, i.e., that of Chilcott–Rallison finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE-CR) liquids. Through solution of the related governing equations in time-dependent, three-dimensional, and nonlinear form for a representative set of parameters (generalized Prandtl number Prg=8, normalized frequency Ω=25, solvent-to-total viscosity ratio ξ=0.5, elasticity number ϑ=0.1, and vibrational Rayleigh number Raω=4000), it is shown that while the system responds to a sinusoidal acceleration in a way that is reminiscent of modulated Rayleigh–Bénard (RB) convection in a Newtonian fluid (i.e., producing a superlattice), with a pulse wave acceleration, the flow displays a peculiar breaking-roll mode of convection that is in between classical (un-modulated) RB in viscoelastic fluids and purely thermovibrational flows. Besides these differences, these cases share important properties, namely, a temporal subharmonic response and the tendency to produce spatially standing waves.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090310

Authors: Yuli D. Chashechkin Iaroslav V. Zagumennyi

Based on the numerical and experimental visualization methods, the flow patterns around a uniformly moving plate located at an arbitrary angle of attack are studied. The study is based on the fundamental equations of continuity, momentum and stratifying substance transport for the cases of strong and weak stratified fluids, as well as potential and actually homogeneous ones. The visualization technique and computation codes were compiled bearing in mind conditions of internal waves, vortices, upstream, and downstream wakes registration, as well as the resolution of ligaments in the form of thin interfaces in schlieren flow images. The analysis was carried out in a unified mathematical formulation for a wide range of plate motion parameters, including slow diffusion-induced flows and fast transient vortex flows. The patterns of formation and subsequent evolution of the basic structural components, such as upstream disturbances, downstream wake, internal waves, vortices, and ligaments, are described both at start of motion and subsequent uniform movement of the plate. Calculations of forces acting on the obstacle in the flow were carried out to study effects of variations in fluid properties, flow conditions and plate parameters on the dynamic characteristics of the obstacle. The numerical and experimental results on the flow patterns around a plate are in a good agreement with each other for different flow regimes.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090309

Authors: Kevin A. Giraldo Juan Sebastian Bermudez Carlos E. Torres Luis H. Reyes Johann F. Osma Juan C. Cruz

One of the main routes to ensure that biomolecules or bioactive agents remain active as they are incorporated into products with applications in different industries is by their encapsulation. Liposomes are attractive platforms for encapsulation due to their ease of synthesis and manipulation and the potential to fuse with cell membranes when they are intended for drug delivery applications. We propose encapsulating our recently developed cell-penetrating nanobioconjugates based on magnetite interfaced with translocating proteins and peptides with the purpose of potentiating their cell internalization capabilities even further. To prepare the encapsulates (also known as magnetoliposomes (MLPs)), we introduced a low-cost microfluidic device equipped with a serpentine microchannel to favor the interaction between the liposomes and the nanobioconjugates. The encapsulation performance of the device, operated either passively or in the presence of ultrasound, was evaluated both in silico and experimentally. The in silico analysis was implemented through multiphysics simulations with the software COMSOL Multiphysics 5.5® (COMSOL Inc., Stockholm, Sweden) via both a Eulerian model and a transport of diluted species model. The encapsulation efficiency was determined experimentally, aided by spectrofluorimetry. Encapsulation efficiencies obtained experimentally and in silico approached 80% for the highest flow rate ratios (FRRs). Compared with the passive mixer, the in silico results of the device under acoustic waves led to higher discrepancies with respect to those obtained experimentally. This was attributed to the complexity of the process in such a situation. The obtained MLPs demonstrated successful encapsulation of the nanobioconjugates by both methods with a 36% reduction in size for the ones obtained in the presence of ultrasound. These findings suggest that the proposed serpentine micromixers are well suited to produce MLPs very efficiently and with homogeneous key physichochemical properties.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090308

Authors: Yuchen He Pierre Suret Amin Chabchoub

Coherent wave groups are not only characterized by the intrinsic shape of the wave packet, but also by the underlying phase evolution during the propagation. Exact deterministic formulations of hydrodynamic or electromagnetic coherent wave groups can be obtained by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). When considering the NLSE, there are two asymptotically equivalent formulations, which can be used to describe the wave dynamics: the time- or space-like NLSE. These differences have been theoretically elaborated upon in the 2016 work of Chabchoub and Grimshaw. In this paper, we address fundamental characteristic differences beyond the shape of wave envelope, which arise in the phase evolution. We use the Peregrine breather as a referenced wave envelope model, whose dynamics is created and tracked in a wave flume using two boundary conditions, namely as defined by the time- and space-like NLSE. It is shown that whichever of the two boundary conditions is used, the corresponding local shape of wave localization is very close and almost identical during the evolution; however, the respective local phase evolution is different. The phase dynamics follows the prediction from the respective NLSE framework adopted in each case.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090307

Authors: Zhen Cui Shi-Yang Pan Yue-Jun Chen

The implementation of floating structures has increased with the construction of new sluices for flood control, and the hydrodynamic moment of a floating structure affects the safety and operation of that structure. Based on basic hydrodynamic theory, theoretical analysis and 121 physical model tests were conducted to study the relationships between the hydrodynamic moment and the influencing factors of floating structures, namely, the shape parameter, hydraulic conditions, and draft depth. Stepwise regression fitting based on the least squares method was performed to obtain a mathematical expression of the hydrodynamic moment, and the experimental results show that hydrodynamic factors significantly influence the hydrodynamic moment of such structures. The results predicted by the mathematical expression agree with the experimental results, and thus, the proposed expression can be used to comprehensively analyze and study the safety of a floating structure under the action of flow in finite water.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090306

Authors: Artur V. Dmitrenko

The purpose of this article was to present the solution for the critical Taylor number in the case of the motion between rotating coaxial cylinders based on the theory of stochastic equations of continuum laws and the equivalence of measures between random and deterministic motions. Analytical solutions are currently of special value, as the solutions obtained by modern numerical methods require verification. At present, in the scientific literature, there are no mathematical relationships connecting the critical Taylor number with the parameters of the initial disturbances in the flow. The result of the solution shows a satisfactory correspondence of the obtained analytical dependence for the critical Taylor number to the experimental data.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090305

Authors: Mikhail V. Chernyshov Karina E. Savelova Anna S. Kapralova

In this study, we obtain the comparative analysis of methods of quick approximate analytical prediction of Mach shock height in planar steady supersonic flows (for example, in supersonic jet flow and in narrowing channel between two wedges), that are developed since the 1980s and being actively modernized now. A new analytical model based on flow averaging downstream curved Mach shock is proposed, which seems more accurate than preceding models, comparing with numerical and experimental data.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090304

Authors: Markus Klein Nilanjan Chakraborty

Multiphase flows are found in several industrial processes encompassing power generation, pharmaceutical and chemical industry and agriculture [...]

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090303

Authors: Beric Skews

Studies of shock-vortex interactions in the past have predominantly been numerical, with a number of idealizations such as assuming an isolated vortex and a plane shock wave. In the present case the vortex is generated from flow separation at a corner. A shear layer results which wraps up into a spiral vortex. The flow is impulsively initiated by the diffraction of a shock wave over the edge. The strength of the shock determines the nature of the flow at the corner and that induced behind the diffracted wave. A wide variety of cases are considered using different experimental arrangements such as having two independent shock waves arriving at the corner at different times, to reflecting the diffracting wave off different surfaces back into the vortex, and to examining the flow around bends where the reflection off the far wall reflects back onto the vortex. The majority of studies have shown that the vortex normally retains its integrity after shock transit. Some studies with curved shock waves and numerous traverses have shown evidence of vortex breakup and the development of turbulent patches in the flow, as well as significant vortex stretching. Depending on the direction of approach of the shock wave it refracts through the shear layer thereby changing the strength and direction of both. Of particular note is that the two diffracted waves which emerge from the vortex as the incident wave passes through interact with each other resulting in a pressure spike of considerable magnitude. An additional spike is also identified.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090302

Authors: Michele Girfoglio Annalisa Quaini Gianluigi Rozza

We present a stabilized POD–Galerkin reduced order method (ROM) for a Leray model. For the implementation of the model, we combine a two-step algorithm called Evolve-Filter (EF) with a computationally efficient finite volume method. In both steps of the EF algorithm, velocity and pressure fields are approximated using different POD basis and coefficients. To achieve pressure stabilization, we consider and compare two strategies: the pressure Poisson equation and the supremizer enrichment of the velocity space. We show that the evolve and filtered velocity spaces have to be enriched with the supremizer solutions related to both evolve and filter pressure fields in order to obtain stable and accurate solutions with the supremizer enrichment method. We test our ROM approach on a 2D unsteady flow past a cylinder at Reynolds number 0≤Re≤100. We find that both stabilization strategies produce comparable errors in the reconstruction of the lift and drag coefficients, with the pressure Poisson equation method being more computationally efficient.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090301

Authors: Pavel Bulat Anzhelika Melnikova Vladimir Upyrev Konstantin Volkov

The refraction of an oblique shock wave on a tangential discontinuity dividing two gas flows with different properties is considered. It is shown that its partial reflection occurs with the exception of the geometrical diffraction of an oblique shock. Another oblique shock, expansion wave or weak discontinuity that coincides with the Mach line can act as a reflected disturbance. This study focuses on the relationships that define the type of reflected discontinuity and its parameters. The domains of shock wave configurations with various types of reflected discontinuities, including characteristic refraction and refraction patterns with a reflected shock and a reflected rarefaction wave, are analyzed. The domains of existence of various shock wave structures with two types of reflected disturbance, and the boundaries between them, are defined. The domains of parameters with one or two solutions exist for the characteristic refraction. Each domain is mapped by the type of refraction with regard to the Mach number, the ratio of the specific heat capacities of the two flows and the intensity of a refracted oblique shock wave. The conditions of the regular refraction and the Mach refraction are formulated, and the boundaries between the two refraction types are defined for various types of gases. Refraction phenomena in various engineering problems (hydrocarbon gaseous fuel and its combustion products, diatomic gas, fuel mixture of oxygen and hydrogen, etc.) are discussed. The result can be applied to the modeling of the shock wave processes that occur in supersonic intakes and in rotating and stationary detonation engines. The solutions derived can be used by other researchers to check the quality of numerical methods and the correctness of experimental results.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6090300

Authors: Taoufik Wassar Matthew A. Franchek Hamdi Mnasri Yingjie Tang

Due to the complex nonlinearity characteristics, analytical modeling of compressible flow in inclined transmission lines remains a challenge. This paper proposes an analytical model for one-dimensional flow of a two-phase gas-liquid fluid in inclined transmission lines. The proposed model is comprised of a steady-state two-phase flow mechanistic model in-series with a dynamic single-phase flow model. The two-phase mechanistic model captures the steady-state pressure drop and liquid holdup properties of the gas-liquid fluid. The developed dynamic single-phase flow model is an analytical model comprised of rational polynomial transfer functions that are explicitly functions of fluid properties, line geometry, and inclination angle. The accuracy of the fluid resonant frequencies predicted by the transient flow model is precise and not a function of transmission line spatial discretization. Therefore, model complexity is solely a function of the number of desired modes. The dynamic single-phase model is applicable for under-damped and over-damped systems, laminar, and turbulent flow conditions. The accuracy of the overall two-phase flow model is investigated using the commercial multiphase flow dynamic code OLGA. The mean absolute error between the two models in step response overshoot and settling time is less than 8% and 2 s, respectively.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080298

Authors: Aleksei Tyrylgin Maria Vasilyeva Dmitry Ammosov Eric T. Chung Yalchin Efendiev

In this paper, we consider the poroelasticity problem in fractured and heterogeneous media. The mathematical model contains a coupled system of equations for fluid pressures and displacements in heterogeneous media. Due to scale disparity, many approaches have been developed for solving detailed fine-grid problems on a coarse grid. However, some approaches can lack good accuracy on a coarse grid and some corrections for coarse-grid solutions are needed. In this paper, we present a coarse-grid approximation based on the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM). We present the construction of the offline and online multiscale basis functions. The offline multiscale basis functions are precomputed for the given heterogeneity and fracture network geometry, where for the construction, we solve a local spectral problem and use the dominant eigenvectors (appropriately defined) to construct multiscale basis functions. To construct the online basis functions, we use current information about the local residual and solve coupled poroelasticity problems in local domains. The online basis functions are used to enrich the offline multiscale space and rapidly reduce the error using residual information. Only with appropriate offline coarse-grid spaces can one guarantee a fast convergence of online methods. We present numerical results for poroelasticity problems in fractured and heterogeneous media. We investigate the influence of the number of offline and online basis functions on the relative errors between the multiscale solution and the reference (fine-scale) solution.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080299

Authors: Roberto Camussi Stefano Meloni

Wavelet transform has become a common tool for processing non-stationary signals in many different fields. The present paper reports a review of some applications of wavelet in aeroacoustics with a special emphasis on the analysis of experimental data taken in compressible jets. The focus is on three classes of wavelet-based signal processing procedures: (i) conditional statistics; (ii) acoustic and hydrodynamic pressure separation; (iii) stochastic modeling. The three approaches are applied to an experimental database consisting of pressure time series measured in the near field of a turbulent jet. Future developments and possible generalization to other applications, e.g., airframe or propeller noise, are also discussed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080297

Authors: Mikhail Semin Ivan Golovatyi Aleksei Pugin

The paper describes a distributed temperature sensing system that was used to monitor the artificial freezing of soils during the construction of a potash mine shaft. The technique of reconstructing the temperature field by solving the inverse problem in the entire volume of frozen soils using the measured temperatures in four thermal monitoring (TM) wells is described. Two local anomalies in temperature distributions in TM wells are described and analyzed theoretically using thermo-hydraulic modeling. The first anomaly concerns the asymmetric temperature distribution in one of the soil layers and is associated with the influence of natural groundwater flow in the horizontal direction. The second anomaly consists of a sharp decrease in water temperature in the section of the TM well located inside the freezing contour. Calculations showed that it is most likely associated with the entry of cold groundwater from the overlying layers of soils through a well filter at a depth of 160 m and the subsequent movement of the water up the well.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080296

Authors: Matteo Zancanaro Markus Mrosek Giovanni Stabile Carsten Othmer Gianluigi Rozza

Geometrically parametrized partial differential equations are currently widely used in many different fields, such as shape optimization processes or patient-specific surgery studies. The focus of this work is some advances on this topic, capable of increasing the accuracy with respect to previous approaches while relying on a high cost–benefit ratio performance. The main scope of this paper is the introduction of a new technique combining a classical Galerkin-projection approach together with a data-driven method to obtain a versatile and accurate algorithm for the resolution of geometrically parametrized incompressible turbulent Navier–Stokes problems. The effectiveness of this procedure is demonstrated on two different test cases: a classical academic back step problem and a shape deformation Ahmed body application. The results provide insight into details about the properties of the architecture we developed while exposing possible future perspectives for this work.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080295

Authors: Nadish Anand Richard Gould

Ferrofluid sloshing vibration energy harvesters use ferrofluid sloshing movement as a moving magnet between a fixed coil to induce current and, in turn, harvest energy from external excitations. A symmetric ferrofluid sloshing vibration energy harvester configuration is introduced in this study which utilizes four external, symmetrically placed, permanent magnets to magnetize a ferrofluid inside a tank. An external sinusoidal excitation of amplitude 1 m/s2 is imparted, and the whole system is studied numerically using a level-set method to track the sharp interface between ferrofluid and air. The system is studied for two significant length scales of 0.1 m and 0.05 m while varying the four external magnets’ polarity arrangements. All of the system configuration dimensions are parametrized with the length scale to keep the system configuration invariant with the length scale. Finally, a frequency sweep is performed, encompassing the structure’s first modal frequency and impedance matching to obtain the system’s energy harvesting characteristics.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080294

Authors: Sundeep Singh Roderick Melnik

In this study, a fully coupled electro-thermo-mechanical model of radiofrequency (RF)-assisted cardiac ablation has been developed, incorporating fluid–structure interaction, thermal relaxation time effects and porous media approach. A non-Fourier based bio-heat transfer model has been used for predicting the temperature distribution and ablation zone during the cardiac ablation. The blood has been modeled as a Newtonian fluid and the velocity fields are obtained utilizing the Navier–Stokes equations. The thermal stresses induced due to the heating of the cardiac tissue have also been accounted. Parametric studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of cardiac tissue porosity, thermal relaxation time effects, electrode insertion depths and orientations on the treatment outcomes of the cardiac ablation. The results are presented in terms of predicted temperature distributions and ablation volumes for different cases of interest utilizing a finite element based COMSOL Multiphysics software. It has been found that electrode insertion depth and orientation has a significant effect on the treatment outcomes of cardiac ablation. Further, porosity of cardiac tissue also plays an important role in the prediction of temperature distribution and ablation volume during RF-assisted cardiac ablation. Moreover, thermal relaxation times only affect the treatment outcomes for shorter treatment times of less than 30 s.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080292

Authors: Amel Bouachir Mahmoud Mamou Redha Rebhi Smail Benissaad

Analytical and numerical investigations were performed to study the influence of the Soret and Dufour effects on double-diffusive convection in a vertical porous layer filled with a binary mixture and subject to horizontal thermal and solute gradients. In particular, the study was focused on the effect of Soret and Dufour diffusion on bifurcation types from the rest state toward steady convective state, and then toward oscillatory convective state. The Brinkman-extended Darcy model and the Boussinesq approximation were employed to model the convective flow within the porous layer. Following past laboratory experiments, the investigations dealt with the particular situation where the solutal and thermal buoyancy forces were equal but acting in opposite direction to favor the possible occurrence of the rest state condition. For this situation, the onset of convection could be either supercritical or subcritical and occurred at given thresholds and following various bifurcation routes. The analytical investigation was based on the parallel flow approximation, which was valid only for a tall porous layer. A numerical linear stability analysis of the diffusive and convective states was performed on the basis of the finite element method. The thresholds of supercritical, RTCsup, and overstable, RTCover, convection were computed. In addition, the stability of the established convective flow, predicted by the parallel flow approximation, was studied numerically to predict the onset of Hopf’s bifurcation, RTCHopf, which marked the transition point from steady toward unsteady convective flows; a route towards the chaos. To support the analytical analyses of the convective flows and the numerical stability methodology and results, nonlinear numerical solutions of the full governing equations were obtained using a second-order finite difference method. Overall, the Soret and Dufour effects were seen to affect significantly the thresholds of stationary, overstable and oscillatory convection. The Hopf bifurcation was marked by secondary convective flows consisting of superposed vertical layers of opposite traveling waves. A good agreement was found between the predictions of the parallel flow approximation, the numerical solution and the linear stability results.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080293

Authors: Nurlybek Kasimov Eric Dymkoski Giuliano De Stefano Oleg V. Vasilyev

This work extends the characteristic-based volume penalization method, originally developed and demonstrated for compressible subsonic viscous flows in (J. Comput. Phys. 262, 2014), to a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations involving complex domains with moving boundaries. The proposed methodology is shown to be Galilean-invariant and can be used to impose either homogeneous or inhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin type boundary conditions on immersed boundaries. Both integrated and non-integrated variables can be treated in a systematic manner that parallels the prescription of exact boundary conditions with the approximation error rigorously controlled through an a priori penalization parameter. The proposed approach is well suited for use with adaptive mesh refinement, which allows adequate resolution of the geometry without over-resolving flow structures and minimizing the number of grid points inside the solid obstacle. The extended Galilean-invariant characteristic-based volume penalization method, while being generally applicable to both compressible Navier–Stokes and Euler equations across all speed regimes, is demonstrated for a number of supersonic benchmark flows around both stationary and moving obstacles of arbitrary shape.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080291

Authors: Agissilaos G. Athanassoulis Odin Gramstad

The Alber equation is a phase-averaged second-moment model used to study the statistics of a sea state, which has recently been attracting renewed attention. We extend it in two ways: firstly, we derive a generalized Alber system starting from a system of nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which contains the classical Alber equation as a special case but can also describe crossing seas, i.e., two wavesystems with different wavenumbers crossing. (These can be two completely independent wavenumbers, i.e., in general different directions and different moduli.) We also derive the associated two-dimensional scalar instability condition. This is the first time that a modulation instability condition applicable to crossing seas has been systematically derived for general spectra. Secondly, we use the classical Alber equation and its associated instability condition to quantify how close a given nonparametric spectrum is to being modulationally unstable. We apply this to a dataset of 100 nonparametric spectra provided by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and find that the vast majority of realistic spectra turn out to be stable, but three extreme sea states are found to be unstable (out of 20 sea states chosen for their severity). Moreover, we introduce a novel “proximity to instability” (PTI) metric, inspired by the stability analysis. This is seen to correlate strongly with the steepness and Benjamin–Feir Index (BFI) for the sea states in our dataset (&gt;85% Spearman rank correlation). Furthermore, upon comparing with phase-resolved broadband Monte Carlo simulations, the kurtosis and probability of rogue waves for each sea state are also seen to correlate well with the PTI (&gt;85% Spearman rank correlation).

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080290

Authors: Mikhail Sotskiy Denis Levin Victor Selivanov

A new visualization technology is presented, which was used in applied research when observing and modeling the dynamics of the flow of gaseous environments. In the process of developing and improving the technology, a set of experimental results was compiled to study the phenomenon of combustion and detonation of a hydrogen-oxygen mixture, as well as the phenomena of propagation, action, and interaction of shock waves and gas-dynamic structures. On the example of analyzing data on the dynamics of the formation of a vortex ring, the possibilities of verifying the computational model of the implemented physical process are shown. The presented results reflect the level of information content when using technology to carry out tests.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080289

Authors: Imogen Guinness Tim Persoons

This paper presents a numerical study on the impact of partial leeward porous coatings on the drag of circular cylinders in cross-flow. Porous coatings are receiving increasing attention for their potential in passive flow control. An unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes model was developed that agreed well with the numerical and experimental literature. Using the two-equation shear stress transport k−ω turbulence model, 2D flow around a circular cylinder was simulated at Re = 4.2×104 with five different angles of partial leeward porous coatings and a full porous coating. For coating angles below 130∘, the coating resulted in an increase in pressure on the leeward side of the cylinder. There was a significant reduction in the fluctuation of the pressure and aerodynamic forces and a damping effect on vortex shedding. Flow separation occurred earlier; the wake was widened; and there was a decrease in turbulence intensity at the outlet. A reduction of drag between 5 and 16% was measured, with the maximum at a 70∘ coating angle. The results differed greatly for a full porous coating and a 160∘ coating, which were found to cause an increase in drag of 42% and 43%, respectively. The results showed that leeward porous coatings have a clear drag-reducing potential, with possibilities for further research into the optimum configuration.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080288

Authors: Stefan Heinz Joachim Peinke Bernhard Stoevesandt

The availability of reliable and efficient turbulent flow simulation methods is highly beneficial for wind energy and aerospace developments. However, existing simulation methods suffer from significant shortcomings. In particular, the most promising methods (hybrid RANS-LES methods) face divergent developments over decades, there is a significant waste of resources and opportunities. It is very likely that this development will continue as long as there is little awareness of conceptional differences of hybrid methods and their implications. The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to such clarification by identifying a basic requirement for the proper functioning of hybrid RANS-LES methods: a physically correct communication of RANS and LES modes. The state of the art of continuous eddy simulations (CES) methods (which include the required mode communication) is described and requirements for further developments are presented.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080287

Authors: Huseyin Enes Salman Levent Saltik Huseyin C. Yalcin

Calcification and bicuspid valve formation are important aortic valve disorders that disturb the hemodynamics and the valve function. The detailed analysis of aortic valve hemodynamics would lead to a better understanding of the disease’s etiology. We computationally modeled the aortic valve using simplified three-dimensional geometry and inlet velocity conditions obtained via echocardiography. We examined various calcification severities and bicuspid valve formation. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses were adapted using ANSYS Workbench to incorporate both flow dynamics and leaflet deformation accurately. Simulation results were validated by comparing leaflet movements in B-mode echo recordings. Results indicate that the biomechanical environment is significantly changed for calcified and bicuspid valves. High flow jet velocities are observed in the calcified valves which results in high transvalvular pressure difference (TPG). Wall shear stresses (WSS) increased with the calcification on both fibrosa (aorta side) and ventricularis (left ventricle side) surfaces of the leaflet. The WSS distribution is regular on the ventricularis, as the WSS values proportionally increase from the base to the tip of the leaflet. However, WSS patterns are spatially complex on the fibrosa side. Low WSS levels and spatially complex WSS patterns on the fibrosa side are considered as promoting factors for further calcification and valvular diseases.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080286

Authors: Shaurya Shrivastava Theresa Saxton-Fox

The preferential organisation of coherent vortices in a turbulent boundary layer in relation to local large-scale streamwise velocity features was investigated. Coherent vortices were identified in the wake region using the Triple Decomposition Method (originally proposed by Kolář) from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) data of a canonical turbulent boundary layer. Two different approaches, based on conditional averaging and quantitative statistical analysis, were used to analyze the data. The large-scale streamwise velocity field was first conditionally averaged on the height of the detected coherent vortices and a change in the sign of the average large scale streamwise fluctuating velocity was seen depending on the height of the vortex core. A correlation coefficient was then defined to quantify this relationship between the height of coherent vortices and local large-scale streamwise fluctuating velocity. Both of these results indicated a strong negative correlation in the wake region of the boundary layer between vortex height and large-scale velocity. The relationship between vortex height and full large-scale velocity isocontours was also studied and a conceptual model based on the findings of the study was proposed. The results served to relate the hairpin vortex model of Adrian et al. to the scale interaction results reported by Mathis et al., and Chung and McKeon.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080285

Authors: Ian Jay T. Matias Louis Angelo M. Danao Binoe E. Abuan

Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are employed to investigate the effects of adding a circular-arc-shaped windshield on the performance of a Banki type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), particularly to the application where the VAWT is harnessing wind energy in highway caused by the passing vehicles. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) is the computational approach used to calculate the turbulent flow within the domain. Two sets of simulation cases based on two different vehicles (i.e., car and a bus) are performed with varying arc-length of the windshield. The results show that the windshield provides an increase in the energy captured by the VAWT by up to 16.14% compared to no windshield case when the car model is used. In contrast, windshield in all the simulation cases using a bus model gives a negative effect to VAWT performance where the worst case yields −64.77%.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080284

Authors: Violeta Carvalho Filipa Carneiro Ana C. Ferreira Vasco Gama José C. Teixeira Senhorinha Teixeira

Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of death and disability worldwide and they are commonly associated with the occurrence of atherosclerotic plaque deposition in the vessel walls, a process denoted as atherosclerosis. This is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of large-/medium-sized blood vessels that affects blood flow profiles, with the abdominal aorta and its branches being one of the locations prone to the development of this pathology, due to their curvatures and bifurcations. In this regard, the effect of flow patterns was studied and compared for both a simplified three-dimensional model of aorta bifurcation on the iliac arteries and a realistic model of iliac bifurcation, which was constructed from a computational tomography medical image. The flow patterns were analyzed in terms of velocity and wall shear stress distribution, but a special focus was given to the size and location of the recirculation zone. The simulations were performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamics software, FLUENT, taking into account the cardiac cycle profile at the infrarenal aorta. The shear stress and the velocity distribution observed for both models indicated that higher shear stress occurred along the flow divider wall (inner wall) and low shear stress occurred along the outer walls. In addition, the results demonstrated that the wall shear stress profiles were deeply affected by the transient profile of the cardiac cycle, with the deceleration phase being the most critical phase to the occurrence of backflow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080283

Authors: Laurel Ohm

We remark on the use of regularized Stokeslets in the slender body theory (SBT) approximation of Stokes flow about a thin fiber of radius ϵ&gt;0. Denoting the regularization parameter by δ, we consider regularized SBT based on the most common regularized Stokeslet plus a regularized doublet correction. Given sufficiently smooth force data along the filament, we derive L∞ bounds for the difference between regularized SBT and its classical counterpart in terms of δ, ϵ, and the force data. We show that the regularized and classical expressions for the velocity of the filament itself differ by a term proportional to log(δ/ϵ); in particular, δ=ϵ is necessary to avoid an O(1) discrepancy between the theories. However, the flow at the surface of the fiber differs by an expression proportional to log(1+δ2/ϵ2), and any choice of δ∝ϵ will result in an O(1) discrepancy as ϵ→0. Consequently, the flow around a slender fiber due to regularized SBT does not converge to the solution of the well-posed slender body PDE which classical SBT is known to approximate. Numerics verify this O(1) discrepancy but also indicate that the difference may have little impact in practice.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080282

Authors: Alexander B. Mikishev Alexander A. Nepomnyashchy

Nonlinear dynamics of patterns near the threshold of long-wave monotonic Marangoni instability of conductive state in a heated thin layer of liquid covered by insoluble surfactant is considered. Pattern selection between roll and square planforms is analyzed. The dependence of pattern stability on the heat transfer from the free surface of the liquid characterized by Biot number and the gravity described by Galileo number at different surfactant concentrations is studied. Using weakly nonlinear analysis, we derive a set of amplitude equations governing the large-scale roll distortions in the presence of the surface deformation and the surfactant redistribution. These equations are used for the linear analysis of modulational instability of stationary rolls.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080281

Authors: Yadong Ruan Ali Nadim Lekha Duvvoori Marina Chugunova

We provide a new framework for analyzing the flow of an axisymmetric liquid film flowing down a vertical fiber, applicable to fiber coating flows and those in similar geometries in heat exchangers, water treatment, and desalination processes. The problem considered is that of a viscous liquid film falling under the influence of gravity and surface tension on a solid cylindrical fiber. Our approach is different from existing ones in that we derive our mathematical model by using a control-volume approach to express the conservation of mass and axial momentum in simple and intuitively appealing forms, resulting in a pair of equations that are reminiscent of the Saint-Venant shallow-water equations. Two versions of the model are obtained, one assuming a plug-flow velocity profile with a linear drag force expression, and the other using the fully-developed laminar velocity profile for a locally uniform film to approximate the drag. These can, respectively, model high- and low-Reynolds number regimes of flow. Linear stability analyses and fully nonlinear numerical simulations are presented that show the emergence of traveling wave solutions representing chains of identical droplets falling down the fiber. Physical experiments with safflower oil on a fishing line are also undertaken and match the theoretical predictions from the laminar flow model well when machine learning methods are used to estimate the parameters.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080280

Authors: Felix Black Philipp Schulze Benjamin Unger

We propose a new hyper-reduction method for a recently introduced nonlinear model reduction framework based on dynamically transformed basis functions and especially well-suited for transport-dominated systems. Furthermore, we discuss applying this new method to a wildland fire model whose dynamics feature traveling combustion waves and local ignition and is thus challenging for classical model reduction schemes based on linear subspaces. The new hyper-reduction framework allows us to construct parameter-dependent reduced-order models (ROMs) with efficient offline/online decomposition. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the ROMs obtained by the novel method outperform those obtained by a classical approach using the proper orthogonal decomposition and the discrete empirical interpolation method in terms of run time and accuracy.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080279

Authors: Juergen Liebsch Christian Oliver Paschereit

Wall jets are applied to reduce flow separation and recirculation of the airflow entering the inner space of a laboratory fume hood through its front opening. The flow separation in the hood was further reduced by introducing a self-induced oscillatory motion using fluidic oscillators. The design of the oscillators integrated in the predetermined contour are based on numerical simulations. The effect of the steady and unsteady wall jet was investigated experimentally using flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and containment measurements. The oscillatory wall-jet led to reduction of flow separation and recirculation even at lower injection volume flows. In consequence, the usage of fluidic oscillators for a laboratory fume hood increases the energy efficiency of the system without reducing the safety of the laboratory fume hood.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080278

Authors: Sergey Denisikhin Vladislav Emelyanov Konstantin Volkov

A numerical simulation of the gas-dynamic processes in the thrust vectorable nozzle of the solid rocket motor is considered. Construction of a geometric model and a generation of computational mesh, and reconstruction of model and mesh at each time step are discussed. Calculations of the flowfield of combustion products in the pre-nozzle chamber and nozzle block are carried out for various angles of nozzle rotation. The distributions of the gas dynamic quantities in the pre-nozzle volume corresponding to the outflow of the combustion products from the cylindrical channel and star-shaped channel are compared, as well as the solutions of the problem obtained with quasi-stationary and unsteady formulations. The effects of the channel shape on the distribution of flow quantities and formation of a vortical flow structure in the nozzle block are discussed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080277

Authors: Doohyeon Kim Jihun Kang Ehsan Adeeb Gyu-Han Lee Dong Hyun Yang Hojin Ha

Although recent advances of four-dimensional (4D) flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has introduced a new way to measure Reynolds stress tensor (RST) in turbulent flows, its measurement accuracy and possible bias have remained to be revealed. The purpose of this study was to compare the turbulent flow measurement of 4D flow MRI and particle image velocimetry (PIV) in terms of velocity and turbulence quantification. Two difference flow rates of 10 and 20 L/min through a 50% stenosis were measured with both PIV and 4D flow MRI. Not only velocity through the stenosis but also the turbulence parameters such as turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence production were quantitatively compared. Results shows that 4D flow MRI velocity measurement well agreed with the that of PIV, showing the linear regression slopes of two methods are 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. Although turbulence mapping of 4D flow MRI was qualitatively agreed with that of PIV, the quantitative comparison shows that the 4D flow MRI overestimates RST showing the linear regression slopes of 1.44 and 1.66, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that the 4D flow MRI visualize and quantify not only flow velocity and also turbulence tensor. However, further optimization of 4D flow MRI for better accuracy might be remained.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080276

Authors: Hideo Kawahara Kazuhito Kudo Koichiro Ogata

An unstable discharge rate occurs during dry fine powder discharge from a hopper because of the significant two-phase solid/gas interactions that occur in powder flows. In addition, the air bubble phenomenon may occur in a silo during fine powder discharge. In this study, we conducted experiments using a semi-conical dual-structure hopper, and examined the effects on the hopper internal flow structure, cavity fluid pressure, pressure inside the airtight cavity section, and the powder discharge rate when changes are made in the position of the supplied air injection port and the solenoid valve open/close timing. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that an appropriate pressure supply port position exists, and the change in expansion/contraction of the flexible container due to air vibration is determined by the balance between the amount of air inserted and the amount of air discharged, and does not affect the presence or absence of powder so much. Furthermore, as the pressure value in the airtight void is directly related to the change in the expansion and contraction of the flexible container, the maximum amplitude value of the pressure in the airtight void can be kept high and constant at the time of opening and closing the solenoid valve.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080275

Authors: Ahmed J. Hamad

One essential utilization of phase change materials as energy storage materials is energy saving and temperature control in air conditioning and indirect solar air drying systems. This study presents an experimental investigation evaluating the characteristics and energy savings of multiple phase change materials subjected to internal flow in an air heating system during charging and discharging cycles. The experimental tests were conducted using a test rig consisting of two main parts, an air supply duct and a room model equipped with phase change materials (PCMs) placed in rectangular aluminum panels. Analysis of the results was based on three test cases: PCM1 (Paraffin wax) placed in the air duct was used alone in the first case; PCM2 (RT–42) placed in the room model was used alone in the second case; and in the third case, the two PCMs (PCM1 and PCM2) were used at the same time. The results revealed a significant improvement in the energy savings and room model temperature control for the air heating system incorporated with multiple PCMs compared with that of a single PCM. Complete melting during the charging cycle occurred at temperatures in the range of 57–60 °C for PCM1 and 38–43 °C for PCM2, respectively, thereby validating the reported PCMs’ melting–solidification results. Multiple PCMs maintained the room air temperature at the desired range of 35–45.2 °C in the air heating applications by minimizing the air temperature fluctuations. The augmentation in discharging time and improvement in the room model temperature using multiple PCMs were about 28.4% higher than those without the use of PCMs. The total energy saving using two PCMs was higher by about 29.5% and 46.7% compared with the use of PCM1 and PCM2, respectively. It can be concluded that multiple PCMs have revealed higher energy savings and thermal stability for the air heating system considered in the current study.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080274

Authors: Valeriia G. Melnikova Andrey S. Epikhin Matvey V. Kraposhin

This paper presents the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach for numerical modeling of high-speed gas-droplet flows and aeroacoustics. The proposed hybrid approach is implemented using the OpenFOAM library and two different methods. The first method is based on a hybrid convective terms approximation method employing a Kurganov–Tadmor and PIMPLE scheme. The second method employs the regularized or quasi-gas dynamic equations. The Lagrangian part of the flow description uses the OpenFOAM cloud model. Within this model, the injected droplets are simulated as packages (parcels) of particles with constant mass and diameter within each parcel. According to this model, parcels moving in the gas flow could undergo deceleration, heating, evaporation, and breakup due to hydrodynamic instabilities. The far-field acoustic noise is predicted using Ffowcs Williams and Hawking’s analogy. The Lagrangian model is verified using the cases with droplet evaporation and motion. Numerical investigation of water microjet injection into the hot ideally expanded jet allowed studying acoustic properties and flow structures, which emerged due to the interaction of gas and liquid. Simulation results showed that water injection with a mass flow rate equal to 13% of the gas jet mass flow rate reduced the noise by approximately 2 dB. This result was in good coincidence with the experimental observations, where maximum noise reduction was about 1.6 dB.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080273

Authors: Sheldon Wang

With the development of mature Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools for fluids (air and liquid) and Finite Element Methods (FEM) for solids and structures, many approaches have been proposed to tackle the so-called Fluid–Structure Interaction or Fluid–Solid Interaction (FSI) problems. Traditional partitioned iterations are often used to link available FEM codes with CFD codes in the study of FSI systems. Although these procedures are convenient, fluid mesh adjustments according to the motion and finite deformation of immersed solids or structures can be challenging or even prohibitive. Moreover, complex dynamic behaviors of coupled FSI systems are often lost in these iterative processes. In this paper, the author would like to review the so-called monolithic approaches for the solution of coupled FSI systems as a whole in the context of the immersed boundary method. In particular, the focus is on the implicit monolithic algorithm for compressible solids immersed inside a compressible liquid. Notice here the main focus of this paper is on liquid or more precisely liquid phase of water as working fluid. Using the word liquid, the author would like to emphasize the consideration of the compressibility of the fluid and the assumption of constant density and temperature. It is a common practice to assume that the pressure variations are not strong enough to alter the liquid density in any significant fashion for acoustic fluid–solid interactions problems. Although the algorithm presented in this paper is not directly applicable to aerodynamics in which the density change is significant along with its relationship with the pressure and the temperature, the author did revisit his earlier work on merging immersed boundary method concepts with a fully-fledged compressible aerodynamic code based on high-order compact scheme and energy conservative form of governing equations. In the proposed algorithm, on top of a uniform background (ghost) mesh, a fully implicit immersed method is implemented with mixed finite element methods for compressible liquid as well as immersed compressible solids with a matrix-free Newton–Krylov iterative solution scheme. In this monolithic approach, with the simple modulo function, the immersed solid or structure points can be easily located and thus the displacement projections and force distributions stipulated in the immersed boundary method can be effectively and efficiently implemented. This feature coupled with the key concept of the immersed boundary method helps to avoid topologically challenging mesh adjustments and to incorporate parallel processing commands such as Message Passing Interface (MPI) and further vectorization of the numerical operation. Once these high-performance procedures are implemented coupled with the monolithic implicit matrix-free Newton–Krylov iterative scheme with immersed methods, effective and efficient reduced order modeling techniques can then be employed to explore phase and parametric spaces. The in-house developed programs are at the moment two-dimensional. Furthermore, based on the same approach implemented in one-dimensional test example with one continuum immersed in another continuum, such monolithic implicit matrix-free Newton–Krylov iterative approach can be extended for the study of composites with deformable aggregates and matrix.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080272

Authors: Qimei Gu Lance Dockery Marie-Christine Daniel Charles J. Bieberich Ronghui Ma Liang Zhu

This work discusses in vivo experiments that were performed to evaluate whether local or whole-body heating to 40 °C reduced interstitial fluid pressures (IFPs) and enhanced nanoparticle delivery to subcutaneous PC3 human prostate cancer xenograft tumors in mice. After heating, 0.2 mL of a previously developed nanofluid containing gold nanoparticles (10 mg Au/mL) was injected via the tail vein. The induced whole-body hyperthermia led to increases in tumor and mouse body blood perfusion rates of more than 50% and 25%, respectively, while the increases were much smaller in the local heating group. In the whole-body hyperthermia groups, the IFP reduction from the baseline at the tumor center immediately after heating was found to be statistically significant when compared to the control group. The 1 h of local heating group showed IFP reductions at the tumor center, while the IFPs increased in the periphery of the tumor. The intratumoral gold nanoparticle accumulation was quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Compared to the control group, 1 h or 4 h of experiencing whole-body hyperthermia resulted in an average increase of 51% or 67% in the gold deposition in tumors, respectively. In the 1 h of local heating group, the increase in the gold deposition was 34%. Our results suggest that 1 h of mild whole-body hyperthermia may be a cost-effective and readily implementable strategy for facilitating nanoparticle delivery to PC3 tumors in mice.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080271

Authors: Dustin Steven Weaver Sanja Mišković

This paper presents an analysis of linear viscous stress Favre averaged turbulence models for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of fully turbulent round jets with a long straight tube geometry in the near field. Although similar work has been performed in the past with very relevant solutions, considerations were not given for the issues and limitations involved with coupling between an Eulerian and Lagrangian phase, such as in fully two-way coupled CFD-DEM. These issues include limitations on solution domain, mesh cell size, wall modelling, and momentum coupling between the two phases in relation to the particles size. Therefore, within these considerations, solutions are provided to the Navier–Stokes equations with various turbulence models using a three-dimensional wedge long straight tube geometry for fully developed turbulence flow. Simulations are performed with a Reynolds number of 13,000 and 51,000 using two different tube diameters. It is found that a modified k-ε turbulence model achieved the most agreeable results for both the velocity and turbulent flow fields between these two flow regimes, while a modified k-ω SST/BSL also provided suitable results.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080270

Authors: Nicholas Thomson Joana Rocha

This study presents an evaluation of semi-empirical single-point wall pressure spectrum models by comparing model predictions with wind tunnel and flight test data. The mean squared error was used to compare the power spectral density of the wall pressure fluctuations predicted by semi-empirical models with a large amount of experimental data. Results show that the models proposed by Goody and Smol’yakov have the lowest mean squared error when predicting the power spectral density for wind tunnel experiments and the Rackl and Weston model has the lowest mean squared error when predicting the power spectral density for flight test data. In addition, although current studies of the power spectra obtained in the wind tunnel are similar, they are not generally an accurate representation of flight test experiments.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080269

Authors: Ashwin Vaidya

This issue showcases a compilation of papers on fluid mechanics (FM) education, covering different sub topics of the subject [...]

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080268

Authors: Lei Zhang Zi-Niu Wu

The influence of the expansion corner on pressure fluctuation is an important subject in supersonic flow around high-speed vehicles. Past studies have clarified how the expansion corner alters the root-mean-square of the fluctuating pressure coefficient (Cprms) and the power spectral density (PSD) without considering how these fluctuating properties are related to compressible waves. In this paper, we use characteristics to determine the direction of wave propagation and identified three zones—U-zone, M-zone and D-zone—within which both Cprms and PSD are likely to display different behaviors across the boundary layer. The U-zone is upstream of the characteristic line of the second family and passing through the corner. The D-zone is downstream of the characteristic line of the first family and passing through the corner. The middle zone lies between the U-zone and D-zone. The results of Cprms and PSD at different layers within the boundary layer are obtained using numerical computation through a Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). It is found that in the U-zone and D-zone, both Cprms and PSD are the same in different layers within the boundary layer. In the M-zone, however, both Cprms and PSD may vary in different layers and this variation occurs in the high-frequency band upstream of the corner and mid-frequency band downstream of the corner. A feedback mechanism is tentatively used to explain the difference of spatial distribution of fluctuation properties inside the M-zone.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080267

Authors: Andrey V. Boiko Kirill V. Demyanko Yuri M. Nechepurenko Grigory V. Zasko

In this paper, known probabilistic methods for estimating the thickness of the boundary layer of a two-dimensional laminar flow of viscous incompressible fluid are extended to three-dimensional laminar flows of a viscous compressible medium. Their applicability to the problems of boundary-layer stability is studied with the LOTRAN3 software package, which allows us to compute the position of laminar-turbulent transition in three-dimensional aerodynamic configurations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080266

Authors: Péter German Mauricio E. Tano Carlo Fiorina Jean C. Ragusa

This work presents a data-driven Reduced-Order Model (ROM) for parametric convective heat transfer problems in porous media. The intrusive Proper Orthogonal Decomposition aided Reduced-Basis (POD-RB) technique is employed to reduce the porous medium formulation of the incompressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with heat transfer. Instead of resolving the exact flow configuration with high fidelity, the porous medium formulation solves a homogenized flow in which the fluid-structure interactions are captured via volumetric flow resistances with nonlinear, semi-empirical friction correlations. A supremizer approach is implemented for the stabilization of the reduced fluid dynamics equations. The reduced nonlinear flow resistances are treated using the Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM), while the turbulent eddy viscosity and diffusivity are approximated by adopting a Radial Basis Function (RBF) interpolation-based approach. The proposed method is tested using a 2D numerical model of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR), which involves the simulation of both clean and porous medium regions in the same domain. For the steady-state example, five model parameters are considered to be uncertain: the magnitude of the pumping force, the external coolant temperature, the heat transfer coefficient, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the Prandtl number. For transient scenarios, on the other hand, the coastdown-time of the pump is the only uncertain parameter. The results indicate that the POD-RB-ROMs are suitable for the reduction of similar problems. The relative L2 errors are below 3.34% for every field of interest for all cases analyzed, while the speedup factors vary between 54 (transient) and 40,000 (steady-state).

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080265

Authors: Narges Tabatabaei Ramis Örlü Ricardo Vinuesa Philipp Schlatter

Parallel sidewalls are the standard bounding walls in wind tunnels when making a wind tunnel model for free-flight condition. The consequence of confinement in wind tunnel tests, known as wall-interference, is one of the main sources of uncertainty in experimental aerodynamics, limiting the realizability of free-flight conditions. Although this has been an issue when designing transonic wind tunnels and/or in cases with large blockage ratios, even subsonic wind tunnels at low-blockage-ratios might require wall corrections if a good representation of free-flight conditions is intended. In order to avoid the cumbersome streamlining methods especially for subsonic wind tunnels, a sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to investigate the effect of inclined sidewalls as a reduced-order wall insert in the airfoil plane. This problem is investigated via Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations, and a NACA4412 wing at the angles of attack between 0 and 11 degrees at a moderate Reynolds number (400 k) is considered. The simulations are validated with well-resolved large-eddy simulation (LES) results and experimental wind tunnel data. Firstly, the wall-interference contribution in aerodynamic forces, as well as the local pressure coefficients, are assessed. Furthermore, the isolated effect of confinement is analyzed independent of the boundary-layer growth. Secondly, wall-alignment is modified as a calibration parameter in order to reduce wall-interference based on the aforementioned assessment. In the outlined method, we propose the use of linear inserts to account for the effect of wind tunnel walls, which are experimentally simple to realize. The use of these inserts in subsonic wind tunnels with moderate blockage ratio leads to very good agreement between free-flight and wind tunnel data, while this approach benefits from simple manufacturing and experimental realization.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080264

Authors: Konduru Sarada Ramanahalli J. Punith Gowda Ioannis E. Sarris Rangaswamy Naveen Kumar Ballajja C. Prasannakumara

A mathematical model is proposed to describe the flow, heat, and mass transfer behaviour of a non-Newtonian (Jeffrey and Oldroyd-B) fluid over a stretching sheet. Moreover, a similarity solution is given for steady two-dimensional flow subjected to Buongiorno’s theory to investigate the nature of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in a porous medium, utilizing the local thermal non-equilibrium conditions (LTNE). The LTNE model is based on the energy equations and defines distinctive temperature profiles for both solid and fluid phases. Hence, distinctive temperature profiles for both the fluid and solid phases are employed in this study. Numerical solution for the nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained by employing fourth fifth order Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg numerical methodology with shooting technique. Results reveal that, the velocity of the Oldroyd-B fluid declines faster and high heat transfer is seen for lower values of magnetic parameter when compared to Jeffry fluid. However, for higher values of magnetic parameter velocity of the Jeffery fluid declines faster and shows high heat transfer when compared to Oldroyd-B fluid. The Jeffery liquid shows a higher fluid phase heat transfer than Oldroyd-B liquid for increasing values of Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters. The increasing values of thermophoresis parameter decline the liquid and solid phase heat transfer rate of both liquids.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080263

Authors: Sebastian Ullmann Christopher Müller Jens Lang

We consider the estimation of parameter-dependent statistics of functional outputs of steady-state convection–diffusion–reaction equations with parametrized random and deterministic inputs in the framework of linear elliptic partial differential equations. For a given value of the deterministic parameter, a stochastic Galerkin finite element (SGFE) method can estimate the statistical moments of interest of a linear output at the cost of solving a single, large, block-structured linear system of equations. We propose a stochastic Galerkin reduced basis (SGRB) method as a means to lower the computational burden when statistical outputs are required for a large number of deterministic parameter queries. Our working assumption is that we have access to the computational resources necessary to set up such a reduced-order model for a spatial-stochastic weak formulation of the parameter-dependent model equations. In this scenario, the complexity of evaluating the SGRB model for a new value of the deterministic parameter only depends on the reduced dimension. To derive an SGRB model, we project the spatial-stochastic weak solution of a parameter-dependent SGFE model onto a reduced basis generated by a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of snapshots of SGFE solutions at representative values of the parameter. We propose residual-corrected estimates of the parameter-dependent expectation and variance of linear functional outputs and provide respective computable error bounds. We test the SGRB method numerically for a convection–diffusion–reaction problem, choosing the convective velocity as a deterministic parameter and the parametrized reactivity or diffusivity field as a random input. Compared to a standard reduced basis model embedded in a Monte Carlo sampling procedure, the SGRB model requires a similar number of reduced basis functions to meet a given tolerance requirement. However, only a single run of the SGRB model suffices to estimate a statistical output for a new deterministic parameter value, while the standard reduced basis model must be solved for each Monte Carlo sample.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6080262

Authors: Hassan Abdulmouti

Gas–liquid two-phase flow is widely used in many engineering fields, and bubble dynamics is of vital importance in optimizing the engineering design and operating parameters of various adsorptive bubble systems. The characteristics of gas–liquid two-phase (e.g., bubble size, shape, velocity, and trajectory) remain of interest because they give insight into the dynamics of the system. Bubble plumes are a transport phenomenon caused by the buoyancy of bubbles and are capable of generating large-scale convection. The surface flow generated by bubble plumes has been proposed to collect surface-floating substances (in particular, oil layers formed during large oil spills) to protect marine systems, rivers, and lakes. Furthermore, the surface flows generated by bubble plumes are important in various types of reactors, engineering processes, and industrial processes involving a free surface. The bubble parameters play an important role in generating the surface flow and eventually improving the flow performance. This paper studies the effects of temperature on bubble parameters and bubble motion to better understand the relationship between the various bubble parameters that control bubble motion and how they impact the formation of surface flow, with the ultimate goal of improving the efficiency of the generation of surface flow (i.e., rapidly generate a strong, high, and wide surface flow over the bubble-generation system), and to control the parameters of the surface flow, such as thickness, width, and velocity. Such flow depends on the gas flow rate, bubble size (mean bubble diameter), void fraction, bubble velocity, the distance between bubble generator and free surface (i.e., water height), and water temperature. The experiments were carried out to measure bubble parameters in a water column using the image visualization technique to determine their inter-relationships and improve the characteristics of surface flow. The data were obtained by processing visualized images of bubble flow structure for the different sections of the bubble regions, and the results confirm that temperature, bubble size, and gas flow rate significantly affect the flow structure and bubble parameters.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070261

Authors: Mehdi Mostafaiyan Sven Wießner Gert Heinrich Mahdi Salami Hosseini

We introduce an improved conservative direct re-initialization (ICDR) method (for two-phase flow problems) as a new and efficient geometrical re-distancing scheme. The ICDR technique takes advantage of two mass-conserving and fast re-distancing schemes, as well as a global mass correction concept to reduce the extent of the mass loss/gain in two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) problems. We examine the ICDR method, at the first step, with two 2D benchmarks: the notched cylinder and the swirling flow vortex problems. To do so, we (for the first time) extensively analyze the dependency of the regenerated interface quality on both time-step and element sizes. Then, we quantitatively assess the results by employing a defined norm value, which evaluates the deviation from the exact solution. We also present a visual assessment by graphical demonstration of original and regenerated interfaces. In the next step, we investigate the performance of the ICDR in three-dimensional (3D) problems. For this purpose, we simulate drop deformation in a simple shear flow field. We describe our reason for this choice and show that, by employing the ICDR scheme, the results of our analysis comply with the existing numerical and experimental data in the literature.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070260

Authors: Kamran Ahmed Waqar A. Khan Tanvir Akbar Ghulam Rasool Sayer O. Alharbi Ilyas Khan

The present investigation aims to examine the heat flux mechanism in the hagnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convective flow of Williamson-type fluid across an exponential stretching porous curved surface. The significant role of thermal conductivity (variable), non-linear thermal radiation, unequal source-sink, and Joules heating is considered. The governing problems are obtained using the Navier–Stokes theory, and the appropriate similarity transformation is applied to write the partial differential equations in the form of single-variable differential equations. The solutions are obtained by using a MATLAB-based built-in bvp4c package. The vital aspect of this analysis is to observe the effects of the curvature parameter, magnetic number, suction/injection parameter, permeability parameter, Prandtl factor, Eckert factor, non-linear radiation parameter, buoyancy parameter, temperature ratio parameter, Williamson fluid parameter, and thermal conductivity (variable) parameter on the velocity field, thermal distribution, and pressure profile which are discussed in detail using a graphical approach. The correlation with the literature reveals a satisfactory improvement in the existing results on permeability factors in Williamson fluids.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070259

Authors: Stefania Fresca Andrea Manzoni

Simulating fluid flows in different virtual scenarios is of key importance in engineering applications. However, high-fidelity, full-order models relying, e.g., on the finite element method, are unaffordable whenever fluid flows must be simulated in almost real-time. Reduced order models (ROMs) relying, e.g., on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) provide reliable approximations to parameter-dependent fluid dynamics problems in rapid times. However, they might require expensive hyper-reduction strategies for handling parameterized nonlinear terms, and enriched reduced spaces (or Petrov–Galerkin projections) if a mixed velocity–pressure formulation is considered, possibly hampering the evaluation of reliable solutions in real-time. Dealing with fluid–structure interactions entails even greater difficulties. The proposed deep learning (DL)-based ROMs overcome all these limitations by learning, in a nonintrusive way, both the nonlinear trial manifold and the reduced dynamics. To do so, they rely on deep neural networks, after performing a former dimensionality reduction through POD, enhancing their training times substantially. The resulting POD-DL-ROMs are shown to provide accurate results in almost real-time for the flow around a cylinder benchmark, the fluid–structure interaction between an elastic beam attached to a fixed, rigid block and a laminar incompressible flow, and the blood flow in a cerebral aneurysm.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070258

Authors: Nadezhda S. Bondareva Mikhail A. Sheremet

The constant growth of urban agglomerations with the development of transport networks requires the optimal use of energy and new ways of storing it. Energy efficiency is becoming one of the main challenges of modern engineering. The use of phase change materials in construction expands the possibilities of accumulating and storing solar energy, as well as reducing energy consumption. In this study, we consider the problem of the effect of natural convection on heat transfer in a building block containing a phase change material. Heat transfer, taking into account melting in brick, was analyzed at various temperature differences. The mathematical model was formulated in the form of time-dependent equations of conjugate natural convection using non-dimensional stream function, vorticity, and temperature. The equations describing melting, taking into account natural convection, were solved using the finite difference method. Smoothing parameters were used to describe phase transitions in the material. As a result of calculations, local characteristics of heat and mass transfer at various points in time were obtained, as well as changes in temperature profiles on the side surfaces. It is shown that with a large volume of melt, natural convection increases heat loss by more than 10%.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070257

Authors: Samuel Mitchell Iheanyichukwu Ogbonna Konstantin Volkov

The design of wind turbines requires a deep insight into their complex aerodynamics, such as dynamic stall of a single airfoil and flow vortices. The calculation of the aerodynamic forces on the wind turbine blade at different angles of attack (AOAs) is a fundamental task in the design of the blades. The accurate and efficient calculation of aerodynamic forces (lift and drag) and the prediction of stall of an airfoil are challenging tasks. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is able to provide a better understanding of complex flows induced by the rotation of wind turbine blades. A numerical simulation is carried out to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a single airfoil in a wide range of conditions. Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations and large-eddy simulation (LES) results of flow over a single NACA0012 airfoil are presented in a wide range of AOAs from low lift through stall. Due to the symmetrical nature of airfoils, and also to reduce computational cost, the RANS simulation is performed in the 2D domain. However, the 3D domain is used for the LES calculations with periodical boundary conditions in the spanwise direction. The results obtained are verified and validated against experimental and computational data from previous works. The comparisons of LES and RANS results demonstrate that the RANS model considerably overpredicts the lift and drag of the airfoil at post-stall AOAs because the RANS model is not able to reproduce vorticity diffusion and the formation of the vortex. LES calculations offer good agreement with the experimental measurements.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070256

Authors: Alberto Benato Francesco De Vanna Ennio Gallo Anna Stoppato Giovanna Cavazzini

The spread of renewable resources, such as wind and solar, is one of the main drivers to move from a fossil-based to a renewable-based power generation system. However, wind and solar production are difficult to predict; hence, to avoid a mismatch between electricity supply and demand, there is a need for energy storage units. To this end, new storage concepts have been proposed, and one of the most promising is to store electricity in the form of heat in a Thermal Energy Storage reservoir. However, in Thermal Energy Storage based systems, the critical component is the storage tank and, in particular, its mathematical model as this plays a crucial role in the storage unit performance estimation. Although the literature presents three modelling approaches, each of them differs in the considered parameters and in the method of modelling the fluid and the solid properties. Therefore, there is a need to clarify the model differences and the parameter influences on plant performance as well as to develop a more complete model. For this purpose, the present work first aim is to compare the models available in the literature to identify their strengths and weaknesses. Then, considering that the models’ comparison showed the importance of adopting temperature-dependent fluid and storage material properties to better predict the system performance, the authors developed a new and more detailed model, named TES-PD, which works with time and space variable fluid and solid properties. In addition, the authors included the tank heat losses and the solid effective thermal conductivity to improve the model accuracy. Based on the comparisons between the TES-PD model and the ones available in the literature, the proposal can better predict the first cycle charging time, as it avoids a 4% underestimation. This model also avoids overestimation of the delivery time, delivered energy, mean generated power and plant round-trip efficiency. Therefore, the results underline that a differential and time-accurate model, like the TES-PD, even if one-dimensional, allows a fast and effective prediction of the performance of both the tank and the storage plant. This is essential information for the preliminary design of innovative large-scale storage units operating with thermal storage.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070255

Authors: Paul J. Kristo Mark L. Kimber Sharath S. Girimaji

Many complex turbulent flows in nature and engineering can be qualitatively regarded as being constituted of multiple simpler unit flows. The objective of this work is to characterize the coherent structures in such complex flows as a combination of constituent unitary flow structures for the purpose of reduced-order representation. While turbulence is clearly a non-linear phenomenon, we aim to establish the degree to which the optimally weighted superposition of unitary flow structures can represent the complex flow structures. The rationale for investigating such superposition stems from the fact that the large-scale coherent structures are generated by underlying flow instabilities that may be reasonably described using linear analysis. Clearly, the degree of validity of superposition will depend on the flow under consideration. In this work, we take the first step toward establishing a procedure for investigating superposition. Experimental data of single and triple tandem jets in crossflow are used to demonstrate the procedure. A composite triple tandem jet flow field is generated from optimal superposition of single jet data and compared against ‘true’ triple jet data. Direct comparisons between the true and composite fields are made for spatial, temporal, and kinetic energy content. The large-scale features (obtained from proper orthogonal decomposition or POD) of true and composite tandem jet wakes exhibit nearly 70% agreement in terms of modal eigenvector correlation. Corresponding eigenvalues reveal that the kinetic energy of the flow is also emulated with only a slight overprediction. Temporal frequency features are also examined in an effort to completely characterize POD modes. The proposed method serves as a foundation for more rigorous and robust dimensional reduction in complex flows based on unit flow modes.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070254

Authors: Mitsufumi Asami Arata Kimura Hideyuki Oka

In general, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models incur high computational costs when dealing with realistic and complicated flows. In contrast, the mass-consistent flow (MASCON) field model provides a three-dimensional flow field at reasonable computational cost. Unfortunately, some weaknesses in simulating the flow of the wake zone exist because the momentum equations are not considered in the MASCON field model. In the present study, a new set of improved algebraic models to provide initial flow fields for the MASCON field model are proposed to overcome these weaknesses by considering the effect of momentum diffusion in the wake zone. Specifically, these models for the wake region are developed on the basis of the wake models used in well-recognized Gaussian plume models, ADMS-build and PRIME. The MASCON fields provided by the new set of wake zone models are evaluated against wind-tunnel experimental data on flow around a wall-mounted rectangular obstacle. Each MASCON field is compared with the experimental results, focusing on the positions of the vortex core and saddle points of the vortex formed in the near-wake zone and the vertical velocity distribution in the far-wake zone. The set of wake zone models developed in the present study better reproduce the experimental results in both the wake zones compared to the previously proposed models. In particular, the complicated recirculation flow which is formed by the union of the sidewall recirculation zone and the near-wake zone is reproduced by the present wake zone model using the PRIME model that includes the parameterization of the sidewall recirculation zones.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070253

Authors: Hossam A. Nabwey S.M.M. El-Kabeir A.M. Rashad M.M.M. Abdou

The bioconvection phenomenon, through the utilization of nanomaterials, has recently encountered significant technical and manufacturing applications. Bioconvection has various applications in bio-micro-systems due to the improvement it brings in mixing and mass transformation, which are crucial problems in several micro-systems. The present investigation aims to explore the bioconvection phenomenon in magneto-nanofluid flow via free convection along an inclined stretching sheet with useful characteristics of viscous dissipation, constant heat flux, solutal, and motile micro-organisms boundary conditions. The flow analysis is addressed based on the Buongiorno model with the integration of Brownian motion and thermophoresis diffusion effects. The governing flow equations are changed into ordinary differential equations by means of appropriate transformation; they were solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg integration scheme shooting technique. The influence of all the sundry parameters is discussed for local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, local Sherwood number, and local density of the motile micro-organisms number.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070252

Authors: Thanh-Long Le Duc-Thong Hong

In this study, numerical computation is used to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of a torpedo-shaped underwater glider. The physical model of a torpedo-shaped underwater glider is developed by Myring profile equations and analyzed by the computational fluid dynamics approach. The Navier–Stokes equations and the energy equation coupled with the appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically by using Comsol Multiphysics software. The numerical results contribute to the major part of reducing the effects of fluid flow on the glider’s profile and make the underwater glider more hydrodynamically efficient. The drag and lift forces acting on the underwater glider are enhanced by a higher velocity and a larger angle of attack of the underwater glider. Since the obtained results show a good observation with the experimental works, the need and the practicality of using CFD in the glider design process are proven.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070251

Authors: Sergio A. Rojas-Torres Somaris E. Quintana Luis Alberto García-Zapateiro

Stabilizers are ingredients employed to improve the technological properties of products. The food industry and consumers have recently become interested in the development of natural ingredients. In this work, the effects of hydrocolloids from butternut squash (Cucurbita&nbsp;moschata) seeds (HBSS) as stabilizers on the physicochemical, rheological, and sensory properties of natural yogurt were examined. HBSS improved the yogurt’s physical stability and physicochemical properties, decreasing syneresis and modifying the samples’ rheological properties, improving the assessment of sensory characteristics. The samples presented shear thinning behavior characterized by a decrease in viscosity with the increase of the shear rate; nevertheless, the samples showed a two-step yield stress. HBSS is an alternative as a natural stabilizer for the development of microstructured products.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070250

Authors: Shiying Cai Chunpei Cai

This paper presents a simple model for slightly charged gas expanding into a vacuum from a planar exit. The number density, bulk velocity, temperature, and potential at the exit are given. The electric field force is assumed weaker than the convection term and is neglected in the analysis. As such, the quasi-neutral condition is naturally adopted and the potential field is computed with the Boltzmann relation. At far field, the exit degenerates as a point source, and simplified analytical formulas for flow and electric fields are obtained. The results are generic and offer insights on many existing models in the literature. They can be used to quickly approximate the flowfield and potential distributions without numerical simulations. They can also be used to initialize a simulation. Based on these results, more advanced models may be further developed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070249

Authors: Ludovic Jami Grey T. Gustafson Thomas Steinmann Miguel Piñeirua Jérôme Casas

Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) are among the best swimmers of all aquatic insects. They live mostly at the water’s surface and their capacity to swim fast is key to their survival. We present a minimal model for the viscous and wave drags they face at the water’s surface and compare them to their thrust capacity. The swimming speed accessible is thus derived according to size. An optimal size range for swimming at the water’s surface is observed. These results are in line with the evolutionary trajectories of gyrinids which evolved into lineages whose members are a few milimeter’s long to those with larger-sized genera being tens of millimeters in length. The size of these beetles appears strongly constrained by the fluid mechanical laws ruling locomotion and adaptation to the water-air interface.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070248

Authors: Tran Minh Duc Tran The Long Ngo Minh Tuan

Machining difficult-to-cut materials is one of the increasingly concerned issues in the metalworking industry. Low machinability and high cutting temperature generated from the contact zone are the main obstacles that need to be solved in order to improve economic and technical efficiency but still have to ensure environmental friendliness. The application of MQL method using nano cutting fluid is one of the suggested solutions to improve the cooling and lubricating performance of pure-MQL for machining difficult-to-cut materials. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of nanofluid MQL (NFMQL) parameters including the fluid type, type of nanoparticles, air pressure and air flow rate on cutting forces and surface roughness in hard milling of 60Si2Mn hardened steel (50–52 HRC). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was implemented to study the effects of investigated variables on hard machining performance. The most outstanding finding is that the main effects of the input variables and their interaction are deeply investigated to prove the better machinability and the superior cooling lubrication performance when machining under NFMQL condition. The experimental results indicate that the uses of smaller air pressure and higher air flow rate decrease the cutting forces and improve the surface quality. Al2O3 nanoparticles show the better results than MoS2 nanosheets. The applicability of soybean oil, a type of vegetable oil, is proven to be enlarged in hard milling by suspending nanoparticles, suitable for further studies in the field of sustainable manufacturing.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070247

Authors: Lokesh Pandey Satyendra Singh

The present investigation constitutes CFD analysis of the heat transmission phenomenon in a tube heat exchanger with a Y-shaped insert with triangular perforation. The analysis is accomplished by considering air as a working fluid with a Reynolds number ranging from 3000 to 21,000. The segment considered for analysis consists of a circular tube of 68 mm diameter and 1.5 m length. The geometrical parameter considered is the perforation index (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%). The constant heat flux is provided at the tube wall and a pressure-based solver is used for the solution. The studies are performed for analyzing the effects of inserts on the heat transfer and friction factor in the circular tube heat exchanger which results in augmented heat transfer at a higher perforation index (PI) and lower friction factor. The investigation results show that the highest heat transfer is 5.84 times over a simple plain tube and the maximum thermal performance factor (TPF) is 3.25 at PI = 30%, Re = 3000.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070246

Authors: Rozie Zangeneh

The Wall-modeled Large-eddy Simulation (WMLES) methods are commonly accompanied with an underprediction of the skin friction and a deviation of the velocity profile. The widely-used Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) method is suggested to improve the prediction of the mean skin friction when it acts as WMLES, as claimed by the original authors. However, the model tested only on flow configurations with no heat transfer. This study takes a systematic approach to assess the performance of the IDDES model for separated flows with heat transfer. Separated flows on an isothermal wall and walls with mild and intense heat fluxes are considered. For the case of the wall with heat flux, the skin friction and Stanton number are underpredicted by the IDDES model however, the underprediction is less significant for the isothermal wall case. The simulations of the cases with intense wall heat transfer reveal an interesting dependence on the heat flux level supplied; as the heat flux increases, the IDDES model declines to predict the accurate skin friction.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070245

Authors: Anja Fink Oliver Nett Simon Schmidt Oliver Krüger Thomas Ebert Alexander Trottner Bojan Jander

The H2 internal combustion engine (ICE) is a key technology for complete decarbonization of the transport sector. To match or exceed the power density of conventional combustion engines, H2 direct injection (DI) is essential. Therefore, new injector concepts that meet the requirements of a H2 operation have to be developed. The macroscopic free stream behavior of H2 released from an innovative fluidic oscillating nozzle is investigated and compared with that of a conventional multi-hole nozzle. This work consists of H2 flow measurements and injection tests in a constant volume chamber using the Schlieren method and is accompanied by a LES simulation. The results show that an oscillating H2 free stream has a higher penetration velocity than the individual jets of a multi-hole nozzle. This behavior can be used to inject H2 far into the combustion chamber in the vertical direction while the piston is still near bottom dead center. As soon as the oscillation of the H2 free stream starts, the spray angle increases and therefore H2 is also distributed in the horizontal direction. In this phase of the injection process, spray angles comparable to those of a multi-hole nozzle are achieved. This behavior has a positive effect on H2 homogenization, which is desirable for the combustion process.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070244

Authors: Salem S. Abdel Aziz Abdel-Halim Saber Salem Said

Flow over shallow cavities is used to model the flow field and heat transfer in a solar collector and a variety of engineering applications. Many studies have been conducted to demonstrate the effect of cavity aspect ratio (AR), but very few studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of cavity height ratio (HR) on shallow cavity flow behavior. In this paper, flow field structure and heat transfer within the 3-D shallow cavity are obtained numerically for two height ratio categories: HR = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 and HR = 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2.0, 2.25, and 2.5. The governing equations, continuity, momentum, and energy are solved numerically and using the standard (K-ε) turbulence model. ANSYS FLUENT 14 CFD code is used to perform the numerical simulation based on the finite volume method. In this study, the cavity aspect ratio, AR = 5.0, and Reynolds number, Re = 3 × 105, parameters are fixed. The cavity’s bottom wall is heated with a constant and uniform heat flux (q = 740 W/m2), while the other walls are assumed to be adiabatic. For the current Reynolds number and cavity geometry, a single vortex structure (recirculation region) is formed and occupies most of the cavity volume. The shape and location of the vortex differ according to the height ratio. A reverse velocity profile across the recirculation region near the cavity’s bottom wall is shown at all cavity height ratios. Streamlines and temperature contours on the plane of symmetry and cavity bottom wall are displayed. Local static pressure coefficient and Nusselt number profiles are obtained along the cavity’s bottom wall, and the average Nusselt number for various height ratios is established. The cavity height ratio (HR) is an important geometry parameter in shallow cavities, and it plays a significant role in the cavity flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics. The results indicate interesting flow dynamics based on height ratio (HR), which includes a minimal value in average Nusselt number for HR ≈ 1.75 and spatial transitions in local Nusselt number distribution along the bottom wall for different HRs.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070243

Authors: Redha Rebhi Mahmoud Mamou Noureddine Hadidi

The present paper reports on an analytical and numerical study of combined Soret and Dufour effects on thermosolutal convection in a horizontal porous cavity saturated with an electrically conducting binary fluid under a magnetic field. The horizontal walls of the system are subject to vertical uniform fluxes of heat and mass, whereas the vertical walls are assumed to be adiabatic and impermeable. The main governing parameters of the problem are the Rayleigh, the Hartmann, the Soret, the Dufour and the Lewis numbers, the buoyancy ratio, the enclosure aspect ratio, and the normalized porosity of the porous medium. An asymptotic parallel flow approximation is applied to determine the onset of subcritical nonlinear convection. In addition, a linear stability analysis is performed to predict explicitly the thresholds for the onset of stationary, overstable and oscillatory convection, and the Hopf bifurcation as functions of the governing parameters. The combined effect of a magnetic field, Soret and Dufour parameters have a noticeable influence on the intensity of the convective flow, the heat and mass transfer rates, and the thresholds of linear convection. It is found that the imposition of a magnetic field delays the onset of convection and its intensification can lead to the total suppression of the convective currents. The heat transfer rate increases with the Dufour number and decreases with the Soret number and vice versa for the mass transfer rate.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070242

Authors: Rachmadian Wulandana

Open water flume tanks with closed-loop circulation driven by centrifugal pumps are essential for hydro experimentation in academic settings as well as research centers. The device is also attractive due to its versatility and easy-to-maintain characteristics. Nevertheless, commercial open flume systems can be expensive and become less prioritized in engineering schools. This paper describes the design and fabrication of an affordable, medium-size water flume tank, suitable for education purposes. The central piece of the system is a transparent observation chamber where fluid experiments are typically conducted and observed. The expected maximum average water speed in the observation chamber of about 60 cm per second was achieved by the inclusion of a 3 hp centrifugal pump. The size and capacity of the current design were constrained by space limitation and available funds. The educational facility was assigned as a two-semester multi-disciplinary capstone senior design project incorporating students and faculty of mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering programs in our campus. The design process provides a training platform for skills in the area of Computer Aided Designs (CAD), Finite Element Analysis (FEA), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), manufacturing, and experimentation. The multi-disciplinary project has contributed to the improvement of soft skills, such as time management, team working, and professional presentation, of the team members. The total material cost of the facility was less than USD 6000, which includes the pump and its variable frequency driver. The project was made possible due to the generous sponsor of the Vibration Institute.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070241

Authors: Stephen Chaffin Nicholas Monk Julia Rees William Zimmerman

Viscoelastic fluids can be difficult to model due to the wide range of different physical behaviors that polymer melts can exhibit. One such feature is the viscous elastic boundary layer. We address the particular problem of a viscoelastic shear-dependent fluid flowing past a corner and investigate how the properties of the boundary layer change for a White-Metzner fluid. The boundary layer equations are derived and the upstream layer is matched with the far-field flow. It was found that if the fluid is sufficiently shear thinning then the viscoelastic boundary layer formulation fails due to the inertial forces becoming dominant. The depth of the boundary layer is controlled by the shear-thinning parameters. These effects are not a feature of other shear-thinning models, such as the Phan-Thien-Tanner model. This study provides insight in the different effects of some commonly used viscoelastic models in corner flows in the upstream boundary layer, the downstream boundary layer is not addressed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070240

Authors: Germán Ferreira Artur Sucena Luís L. Ferrás Fernando T. Pinho Alexandre M. Afonso

This work presents a detailed numerical investigation on the required development length (L=L/B) in laminar Newtonian fluid flow in microchannels with rectangular cross section and different aspect ratios (AR). The advent of new microfluidic technologies shifted the practical Reynolds numbers (Re) to the range of unitary (and even lower) orders of magnitude, i.e., creeping flow conditions. Therefore, accurate estimations of L at Re≤O(1) are important for microsystem design. At such low Reynolds numbers, in which inertial forces are less dominant than viscous forces, flow characteristics become necessarily different from those at the macroscale where Re is typically much larger. A judicious choice of mesh refinement and adequate numerical methods allowed obtaining accurate results and a general correlation for estimating L, valid in the ranges 0≤Re≤2000 and 0.1≤AR≤1, thus covering applications in both macro and microfluidics.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070239

Authors: Kalpana Devi Prashanth Reddy Hanmaiahgari Ram Balachandar Jaan H. Pu

In nature, environmental and geophysical flows frequently encounter submerged cylindrical bodies on a rough bed. The flows around the cylindrical bodies on the rough bed are very complicated as the flow field in these cases will be a function of bed roughness apart from the diameter of the cylinder and the flow velocity. In addition, the sand-bed roughness has different effects on the flow compared to the gravel-bed roughness due to differences in the roughness heights. Therefore, the main objective of this article is to compare the mean velocities and turbulent flow properties in the wake region of a horizontal bed-mounted cylinder over the sand-bed with that over the gravel-bed. Three experimental runs, two for the sand-bed and one for the gravel-bed with similar physical and hydraulic conditions, were recorded to fulfil this purpose. The Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) probe was used for measuring the three-dimensional (3D) instantaneous velocity data. This comparative study shows that the magnitude of mean streamwise flow velocity, streamwise Reynolds normal stress, and Reynolds shear stress are reduced on the gravel-bed compared to the sand-bed. Conversely, the vertical velocities and vertical Reynolds normal stress are higher on the gravel-bed than the sand-bed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070238

Authors: Sharul Sham Dol Tshun Howe Yong Hiang Bin Chan Siaw Khur Wee Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman

A flexible protruding surface was employed as the flow disturbance to promote turbulence at the area of interest. An ultrasonic velocity profiler, UVP technique, was used to study the mean and fluctuating flow properties in the near wake of the rigid and flexible protruding surface in a water tunnel. The polymer based, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) with an aspect ratio of AR = 10, 12, 14, 16 was used as the flexible circular cylinder, and submerged in a flow at Re = 4000, 6000 and 8000. The motion of the cylinder altered the fluid flow significantly. As a means to quantify turbulence, the wakes regions and production terms were analyzed. In general, the flexible cylinders show better capability in augmenting the turbulence than the rigid cylinder. The results show that the turbulence production term generated by the flexible cylinder is higher than that of rigid cylinder. The localized maximum shear production values have increased significantly from 131%, 203% and 94% against their rigid counterparts of AR = 16 at the Re = 4000, 6000 and 8000, respectively. The performance of turbulence enhancement depends heavily on the motion of the cylinder. The findings suggest that the turbulence enhancement was due to the oscillation of the flexible cylinder. The results have concluded that the flexible cylinder is a better turbulence generator than the rigid cylinder, thus improving the mixing of fluid through augmented turbulent flow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070237

Authors: Kurt L. Polzin Binbin Wang Zhankun Wang Fred Thwaites Albert J. Williams

Results from a pilot program to assess boundary mixing processes along the northern continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico are presented. We report a novel attempt to utilize a turbulence flux sensor on a conventional mooring. These data document many of the features expected of a stratified Ekman layer: a buoyancy anomaly over a height less than that of the unstratified Ekman layer and an enhanced turning of the velocity vector with depth. Turbulent stress estimates have an appropriate magnitude and are aligned with the near-bottom velocity vector. However, the Ekman layer is time dependent on inertial-diurnal time scales. Cross slope momentum and temperature fluxes have significant contributions from this frequency band. Collocated turbulent kinetic energy dissipation and temperature variance dissipation estimates imply a dissipation ratio of 0.14 that is not sensibly different from canonical values for shear instability (0.2). This mixing signature is associated with production in the internal wave band rather than frequencies associated with turbulent shear production. Our results reveal that the expectation of a quasi-stationary response to quasi-stationary forcing in the guise of eddy variability is naive and a boundary layer structure that does not support recent theoretical assumptions concerning one-dimensional models of boundary mixing.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids6070236

Authors: Nicholas K.-R. Kevlahan

This paper reviews how dynamically adaptive wavelet methods can be designed to simulate atmosphere and ocean dynamics in both flat and spherical geometries. We highlight the special features that these models must have in order to be valid for climate modelling applications. These include exact mass conservation and various mimetic properties that ensure the solutions remain physically realistic, even in the under-resolved conditions typical of climate models. Particular attention is paid to the implementation of complex topography in adaptive models. Using wavetrisk as an example, we explain in detail how to build a semi-realistic global atmosphere or ocean model of interest to the geophysical community. We end with a discussion of the challenges that remain to developing a realistic dynamically adaptive atmosphere or ocean climate models. These include scale-aware subgrid scale parameterizations of physical processes, such as clouds. Although we focus on adaptive wavelet methods, many of the topics we discuss are relevant for adaptive mesh refinement (AMR).

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