Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5040169

Authors: Skripkiunas Karpova Bendoraitiene Barauskas

In this study, the rheological properties of cement paste modified by a suspension containing both multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (MWCNT/CMC suspension) with different types of plasticising admixtures (Pl), such as lignosulphonate (LS), sulfonated naphthalene formaldehyde condensate (NF), and polycarboxylate ether (PCE) were evaluated. The increase in yield stress and plastic viscosity up to 20% was established in the case of the modification of cement-based mixtures by MWCNT in the dosage up to 0.24% by weight of cement (bwoc) without Pl and with LS and NF. The complex modification of cement paste by MWCNT and PCE increases the yield stress and plastic viscosity from the MWCNT dosage of 0.06% and 0.015% bwoc, respectively. The yield stress and plastic viscosity of cement paste with PCE enhanced by 265% and 107%, respectively, in a MWCNT dosage of 0.12% bwoc. MWCNT do not have a significant influence on the flow behaviour index of cement paste; however, in the case of usage of PCE, the shear thickening effect decreased from a MWCNT dosage of 0.03% bwoc. The significant reduction in the volume coefficient of water bleeding by 99, 100, and 83% was obtained with LS, NF, and PCE, respectively, with an increase in MWCNT dosage up to 0.24% bwoc.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5040167

Authors: Nan Jiang William Layton Michael McLaughlin Yao Rong Haiyun Zhao

This report gives a summary of some recent developments in the mathematical foundations of eddy viscosity models of turbulence.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5040168

Authors: Agostino Lauria Giancarlo Alfonsi Ali Tafarojnoruz

Ski jump spillways are frequently implemented to dissipate energy from high-speed flows. The general feature of this structure is to transform the spillway flow into a free jet up to a location where the impact of the jet creates a plunge pool, representing an area for potential erosion phenomena. In the present investigation, several tests with different ski jump bucket angles are executed numerically by means of the OpenFOAM&reg; digital library, taking advantage of the Reynolds-averaged Navier&ndash;Stokes equations (RANS) approach. The results are compared to those obtained experimentally by other authors as related to the jet length and shape, obtaining physical insights into the jet characteristics. Particular attention is given to the maximum pressure head at the tailwater. Simple equations are proposed to predict the maximum dynamic pressure head acting on the tailwater, as dependent upon the Froude number, and the maximum pressure head on the bucket. Results of this study provide useful suggestions for the design of ski jump spillways in dam construction.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5040166

Authors: Dongnyeok Choi Kwon-Yeong Lee

Hydrogen energy is considered to be a future energy source due to its higher energy density as compared to renewable energy and ease of storage and transport. Water electrolysis is one of the most basic methods for producing hydrogen. KOH and NaOH, which are currently used as electrolytes for water electrolysis, have strong alkalinity. So, it cause metal corrosion and can be serious damage when it is exposed to human body. Hence, experiments using cellulose nanofluid (CNF, C6H10O5) as an electrolyte were carried out to overcome the disadvantages of existing electrolytes and increase the efficiency of hydrogen production. The variables of the experiment were CNF concentration, anode material, voltage applied to the electrode, and initial temperature of the electrolyte. The conditions showing the optimal hydrogen production efficiency (99.4%) within the set variables range were found. CNF, which is not corrosive and has high safety, can be used for electrolysis for a long period of time because it does not coagulate and settle over a long period of time unlike other inorganic nanofluids. In addition, it shows high hydrogen production efficiency. So, it is expected to be used as a next-generation water electrolysis electrolyte.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5040165

Authors: Robert Bruce Alstrom

The purpose of this research is to conduct a preliminary investigation into the possibility of suppressing the flutter and post-flutter (chaotic) responses of a two-dimensional self-excited airfoil with a cubic nonlinear stiffness (in torsion) and linear viscous damping via closed-loop harmonic parametric excitation. It was found that the initial configuration of the proposed control scheme caused the torsional/pitch dynamics to act as a nonlinear energy sink; as a result, it was identified that the mechanisms of vibration suppression are the resonance capture cascade and the short duration or isolated resonance capture. It is the isolated resonance capture that is responsible for the second-order-like damping and full vibration suppression of the aeroelastic system. The unforced and closed-loop system was subjected to random excitation to simulate aerodynamic turbulence. It was found that the random excitation suppresses the phase-coherent chaotic response, and the closed-loop system is susceptible to random excitation.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5040164

Authors: Francesco Farsaci Ester Tellone Antonio Galtieri Silvana Ficarra

In recent years, the use of dielectric spectroscopy as an investigation technique to determine the chemical&ndash;physical characteristics of biological materials has had a great increase. This study used the non-equilibrium thermodynamics with internal variables theory to test the potential pathological features of lung cancer. After a brief exploration of the dielectric polarization concept highlighting some aspects that were used, some thermodynamic functions were obtained as functions of the frequency, both for lung tumor cells and physiological ones. Variations in the intensity of values but not in the trend of the curves were observed and this was attributed to the perturbing field. The trend of this field explains the behavior of phenomena described by other functions, as related to the frequencies of the perturbing field. Compared to the physiological ones, the cancer cells appeared to be "more predisposed" to conserve their state as characterized by minor entropy production, probably because this helped cells to obtain the required adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the minimum amount of nutrients.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5040163

Authors: Maria Teresa Cidade João Miguel Nóbrega

Rheology, defined as the science of the deformation and flow of matter, is a multidisciplinary scientific field, covering both fundamental and applied approaches [...]

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5040162

Authors: Laurence Alhrshy Clemens Jauch Peter Kloft

In this paper, the design of a flexible piston accumulator for application in a hydraulic-pneumatic flywheel system in a wind turbine rotor is presented. The flywheel system enables a wind turbine to vary the inertia of its rotor blades to control the power output and, most importantly, to influence the vibratory behaviour of wind turbine components. The method used for designing the flexible accumulator is based on the one hand on test results of a flexible piston accumulator prototype, and on the other hand, on simulation results of a model of a flexible piston accumulator. As a result, a design of flexible piston accumulators for application in the flywheel system is implemented and compared with the design of conventional steel accumulators. Due to the proposed design of the flywheel system, the impact on the mechanical loads of a wind turbine is analysed. The simulation results show that the new design of the piston accumulators causes a lower impact on the mechanical loads of the wind turbine than a previously published design of piston accumulators. It is further shown that the considered wind turbine can take on the flywheel system without the need for reinforcements in the rotor blades.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030161

Authors: Thomas Höhne Sören Kliem

The aim of the numerical study was the detection of possible vortices in the upper part of the core of a Pre-Konvoi Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) which could lead to temperature cycling. In addition, the practical application of this Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation exists in the full 3D analysis of the coolant flow behavior in the reactor pressure vessel of a nuclear PWR. It also helps to improve the design of future reactor types. Therefore, a CFD simulation of the flow conditions was carried out based on a complex 3D model. The geometry of the model includes the entire Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) plus all relevant internals. The core is modelled using the porous body approach, the different pressure losses along and transverse to the main flow direction were considered. The spacer-grid levels were taken into account to the extent that in these areas no cross-flow is possible. The calculation was carried out for nominal operating conditions, i.e., for full load operation. Furthermore, a prototypical End of Cycle (EOC) power distribution was assumed. For this, a power distribution was applied as obtained from a stationary full-core calculation with the 3D neutron kinetics code DYN3D. In order to be able to adequately reproduce flow vortexes, the calculation was performed transiently with suitable Detached Eddy Simulations (DES) turbulence models. The calculation showed fluctuating transverse flow in the upper part of the core, starting at the 8th spacer grid but also revealed that no large dominant vortices exists in this region. It seems that the core acts as a rectifier attenuating large-scale vortices. The analyses included several spacer grid levels in the core and showed that in some areas of the core cross-section an upward increasingly directed transversal flow to the outlet nozzle occurs. In other areas of the core cross-section, on the other hand, there is nearly any cross-flow. However, the following limitations of the model apply: In the model all fuel elements are treated identical and cross flows due to different axial pressure losses for different FA types cannot be displayed. The complex structure of the FAs (eg. flow vanes in spacer grids) could also influence the formation of large-scale vortices. Also, the possible influence of two-phase flows was not considered.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030160

Authors: Murtaza Mohammadi Paige Wenbin Tien John Kaiser Calautit

Many high-rise buildings have semi-enclosed landscaped spaces, which act as design elements to improve the social and environmental aspects of the building. Designs such as skygardens are open to outdoor airflow and allow occupants to observe the city skyline from a height. Due to their often high location, they are subjected to strong wind speeds and extreme environmental conditions. The current study investigates the effects of three common wind buffers (railing, hedges, and trees) located at a height of 92 m on the performance of a skygarden, in terms of occupants&rsquo; wind comfort. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out using the realisable k-epsilon method, where the vegetation was modelled as a porous zone with cooling capacity. The computational modelling of the high-rise building and vegetation were validated using previous works. The quality class (QC) of the Lawson comfort criteria was used for the evaluation of the wind comfort across the skygarden. The results indicate that, although the three wind buffers offer varying levels of wind reduction in the skygarden, the overall wind conditions generated are suitable for occupancy. Furthermore, vegetation is also able to offer slight temperature reductions in its wake. The right combination and dimension of these elements can greatly assist in generating aero-thermal comfort across skygardens.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030159

Authors: John Lodise Tamay Özgökmen Rafael C. Gonçalves Mohamed Iskandarani Björn Lund Jochen Horstmann Pierre-Marie Poulain Jody Klymak Edward H. Ryan Cedric Guigand

Much of the vertical transport near the surface of the ocean, which plays a critical role in the transport of dissolved nutrients and gases, is thought to be associated with ageostrophic submesoscale phenomena. Vertical velocities are challenging not only to model accurately, but also to measure because of how difficult they are to locate in the surface waters of the ocean. Using unique massive drifter releases during the Lagrangian Submesoscale Experiment (LASER) campaign in the Gulf of Mexico and the Coherent Lagrangian Pathways from the Surface Ocean to the Interior (CALYPSO) experiment in the Mediterranean Sea, we investigate the generation of submesoscale structures along two different mesoscale fronts. We use a novel method to project Lagrangian trajectories to Eulerian velocity fields, in order to calculate horizontal velocity gradients at the surface, which are used as a proxy for vertical transport. The velocity reconstruction uses a squared-exponential covariance function, which characterizes velocity correlations in horizontal space and time, and determines the scales of variation using the data itself. SST and towed CTD measurements support the findings revealed by the drifter data. Due to the production of a submesoscale instability eddy in the Gulf of Mexico, convergence magnitudes of up to &sim;20 times the planetary vorticity, f, are observed, the value of which is almost 3 times larger than that found in the mesoscale dominated Western Mediterranean Sea.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030158

Authors: Weibo Ren Jonathan Reutzsch Bernhard Weigand

Details on the fall speeds of raindrops are essential in both applications and natural events, such as rain-rate retrieval and soil erosion. Here, we examine the influence of turbulence on the terminal velocity of two water drops of different sizes. For the first time, computations of droplets in turbulent surroundings are conducted with a direct numerical simulation code based on a volume of fluid method. Both the drop surface deformation and internal circulation are captured. The turbulence intensity at the inflow area, as well as the turbulence length scale are varied. In turbulent flow, we find a decline in the terminal velocities for both drops. Based on the study of the wake flow characteristics and drop surface deformation, the decrease in the terminal velocity is found to be directly linked to a shortening of the wake recirculation region resulting from an earlier and more drastic increase in the turbulence kinetic energy in the shear layer. The turbulent surroundings trigger substantial rises in the drop axis ratio amplitude and a slight increase in the drop oscillation frequency, but barely influence the time-averaged drop axis length.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030157

Authors: Matthew Karlson Bogdan G. Nita Ashwin Vaidya

We examine two dimensional properties of vortex shedding past elliptical cylinders through numerical simulations. Specifically, we investigate the vortex formation length in the Reynolds number regime 10 to 100 for elliptical bodies of aspect ratio in the range 0.4 to 1.4. Our computations reveal that in the steady flow regime, the change in the vortex length follows a linear profile with respect to the Reynolds number, while in the unsteady regime, the time averaged vortex length decreases in an exponential manner with increasing Reynolds number. The transition in profile is used to identify the critical Reynolds number which marks the bifurcation of the Karman vortex from steady symmetric to the unsteady, asymmetric configuration. Additionally, relationships between the vortex length and aspect ratio are also explored. The work presented here is an example of a module that can be used in a project based learning course on computational fluid dynamics.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030156

Authors: Alexandru Fikl Vincent Le Chenadec Taraneh Sayadi

The applicability of adjoint-based gradient computation is investigated in the context of interfacial flows. Emphasis is set on the approximation of the transport of a characteristic function in a potential flow by means of an algebraic volume-of-fluid method. A class of optimisation problems with tracking-type functionals is proposed. Continuous (differentiate-then-discretize) and discrete (discretize-then-differentiate) adjoint-based gradient computations are formulated and compared in a one-dimensional configuration, the latter being ultimately used to perform optimisation in two dimensions. The gradient is used in truncated Newton and steepest descent optimisers, and the algorithms are shown to recover optimal solutions. These validations raise a number of open questions, which are finally discussed with directions for future work.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030155

Authors: Beatrice Pulvirenti Michele Celli Antonio Barletta

Metal foams are widely studied as possible tools for the enhancement of heat transfer from hot bodies. The basic idea is that a metal foam tends to significantly increase the heat exchange area between the hot solid body and the external cooling fluid. For this reason, this class of porous materials is considered as a good candidate for an alternative to finned surfaces, with different pros and cons. Among the pros, we mention the generally wider area of contact per unit volume between solid and fluid. Among the cons is the difficulty to produce different specimens with the same inner structure, with the consequence that their performance may be significantly variable. This paper will offer a survey of the literature with a focus on the main heat transfer characteristics of the metal foams and the energy balance model based on Local Thermal Non-Equilibrium (LTNE). Then, a numerical simulation of the heat transfer at the pore-scale level for an artificial foam with a spatially periodic structure will be discussed. Finally, these numerical results will be employed to assess the macroscopic modeling of the flow and heat transfer in a metal foam. More precisely, the Darcy&ndash;Forchheimer model and the LTNE model adopted to describe the momentum and energy transfer in metal foams have been validated for metallic periodic structures.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030154

Authors: Houshuo Jiang

Many small marine planktonic organisms converge on similar propulsion mechanisms that involve impulsively generated viscous wake vortex rings, and small-scale fluid physics is key to mechanistically understanding the adaptive values of this important behavioral trait. Here, a theoretical fluid mechanics model is developed for plankton jumping, based on observations that the initial acceleration phase for a jumping plankter to attain its maximum speed is nearly impulsive, taking only a small fraction of the viscous timescale, and therefore can be regarded as nearly inviscid, analogous to a one-dimensional elastic collision. Flow circulation time-series data measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV) are input into the model and Froude propulsion efficiencies are calculated for several plankton species. Jumping by the tailed ciliate Pseudotontonia sp. has a high Froude propulsion efficiency ~0.9. Copepod jumping also has a very high efficiency, usually &gt;0.95. Jumping by the squid Doryteuthis pealeii paralarvae has an efficiency of 0.44 &plusmn; 0.16 (SD). Jumping by the small medusa Sarsia tubulosa has an efficiency of 0.38 &plusmn; 0.26 (SD). Differences in the calculated efficiencies are attributed to the different ways by which these plankters impart momentum on the water during the initial acceleration phase as well as the accompanied different added mass coefficients.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030153

Authors: Md Monir Hossain Anne E. Staples

Large eddy simulations were performed to characterize the flow and mass transport mechanisms in the interior of two Pocillopora coral colonies with different geometries, one with a relatively loosely branched morphology (P. eydouxi), and the other with a relatively densely branched structure (P. meandrina). Detailed velocity vector and streamline fields were obtained inside both corals for the same unidirectional oncoming flow, and significant differences were found between their flow profiles and mass transport mechanisms. For the densely branched P. meandrina colony, a significant number of vortices were shed from individual branches, which passively stirred the water column and enhanced the mass transport rate inside the colony. In contrast, vortices were mostly absent within the more loosely branched P. eydouxi colony. To further understand the impact of the branch density on internal mass transport processes, the non-dimensional Stanton number for mass transfer, St, was calculated based on the local flow time scale and compared between the colonies. The results showed up to a 219% increase in St when the mean vortex diameter was used to calculate St, compared to calculations based on the mean branch diameter. Turbulent flow statistics, including the fluctuating velocity components, the mean Reynolds stress, and the variance of the velocity components were calculated and compared along the height of the flow domain. The comparison of turbulent flow statistics showed similar Reynolds stress profiles for both corals, but higher velocity variations, in the interior of the densely branched coral, P. meandrina.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030152

Authors: Aimad Er-raiy Radouan Boukharfane Matteo Parsani

In this study, a new set of direct numerical simulations is generated and used to examine the influence of mixture composition heterogeneities on the propagation of a premixed iso-octane/air spherical turbulent flame, with a representative chemical description. The dynamic effects of both turbulence and combustion heterogeneities are considered, and their competition is assessed. The results of the turbulent homogeneous case are compared with those of heterogeneous cases which are characterized by multiple stratification length scales and segregation rates in the regime of a wrinkled flame. The comparison reveals that stratification does not alter turbulent flame behaviors such as the preferential alignment of the convex flame front with the direction of the compression. However, we find that the overall flame front propagation is slower in the presence of heterogeneities because of the differential on speed propagation. Furthermore, analysis of different displacement speed components is performed by taking multi-species formalism into account. This analysis shows that the global flame propagation front slows down due to the heterogeneities caused by the reaction mechanism and the differential diffusion accompanied by flame surface density variations. Quantification of the effects of each of these mechanisms shows that their intensity increases with the increase in stratification&rsquo;s length scale and segregation rate.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030151

Authors: Claude Aurélien Kamdem Kamdem Xiaolu Zhu

Nowadays, cooling high thermal flows in compact volumes continues to be one of the crucial problems in the industry. With the advent of advanced technologies, much more attention has been paid to how to improve the performance of cooling systems in the area of micro-technologies. Rectangular mini-channels are typical representatives which commonly used for cooling applications. However, micro-technologies still face the problem of low performance due to the low productivity of cooling related to unbefitting physical parameter values. Here, this work studies the applicability of the heat transfer scheme of convective flow and flow boiling in a rectangular mini-channel for satisfying the cooling requirement of industrial micro-technologies, through a simulation model governed by the coupled mechanism from Navier-Stokes (N-S) equation and heat transfer equations with phase change effect. In this work, various hydraulic diameters and different inlet fluid speed are used to calculate the different velocity profiles, pressure drops, coefficients of friction and finally, the distribution of the temperatures and dissipated heat flux. The simulation results show the applicability of the rectangular mini-channel in diverse applications such as engine cooling, electronic components, automotive on-board electronics and aerospace engineering. Flow boiling simulation results reveal that the obtained patterns were smooth mixture flow and discrete flow. The dissipated heat flux can reach 1.02&ndash;5.34 MW/m2 for a hydraulic diameter of 0.5 mm. We show that the system with the gradient temperature that evolves increasingly along the top and bottom walls of the channels presents the highest heat flux dissipated in flow boiling. Additionally, the fin efficiency of the system is 0.88 and the coefficient value of convective heat transfer is in the range between 5000 &lt; h &lt; 100,000, which indicates the flow boiling heat transfer is effective in the mini-channel when the Reynolds number is less than 400. It provides a significant heat exchange for cooling in these application areas.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030150

Authors: Rajinder Pal

The viscous behavior of solids-in-liquid suspensions and liquid-in-liquid emulsions of non-Brownian solid particles and liquid droplets dispersed in Newtonian liquids is thoroughly discussed and reviewed. The full concentration range of the dispersed particles/droplets is covered, that is, 0&lt;ϕ&lt;ϕm, where ϕ is the volume fraction of inclusions (particles or droplets) and ϕm is the maximum packing volume fraction of inclusions. The existing viscosity models for suspensions and emulsions are evaluated using a large pool of experimental viscosity data on suspensions and emulsions. A new generalized model for the viscosity of suspensions and emulsions is proposed and evaluated. The model takes into consideration the influence of shear-induced aggregation of particles and droplets. It also includes the effect of the droplet-to-matrix viscosity ratio &lambda; on the viscosity of emulsions. In the limit of high ratio of droplet viscosity to matrix viscosity (&lambda;&rarr;&infin;), the model reduces to the suspension viscosity model. The proposed model uncovers some important and novel characteristics of suspension systems rarely discussed heretofore in the literature. The model is validated using twenty sets of experimental viscosity data on solids-in-liquid suspensions and twenty-three sets of experimental viscosity data on liquid-in-liquid emulsions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030149

Authors: Novry Erwina Didit Adytia Sri Redjeki Pudjaprasetya Toni Nuryaman

Simulating discontinuous phenomena such as shock waves and wave breaking during wave propagation and run-up has been a challenging task for wave modeller. This requires a robust, accurate, and efficient numerical implementation. In this paper, we propose a two-dimensional numerical model for simulating wave propagation and run-up in shallow areas. We implemented numerically the 2-dimensional Shallow Water Equations (SWE) on a staggered grid by applying the momentum conserving approximation in the advection terms. The numerical model is named MCS-2d. For simulations of wet&ndash;dry phenomena and wave run-up, a method called thin layer is used, which is essentially a calculation of the momentum deactivated in dry areas, i.e., locations where the water thickness is less than the specified threshold value. Efficiency and robustness of the scheme are demonstrated by simulations of various benchmark shallow flow tests, including those with complex bathymetry and wave run-up. The accuracy of the scheme in the calculation of the moving shoreline was validated using the analytical solutions of Thacker 1981, N-wave by Carrier et al., 2003, and solitary wave in a sloping bay by Zelt 1986. Laboratory benchmarking was performed by simulation of a solitary wave run-up on a conical island, as well as a simulation of the Monai Valley case. Here, the embedded-influxing method is used to generate an appropriate wave influx for these simulations. Simulation results were compared favorably to the analytical and experimental data. Good agreement was reached with regard to wave signals and the calculation of moving shoreline. These observations suggest that the MCS method is appropriate for simulations of varying shallow water flow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030148

Authors: Dimitrios Konispoliatis Spyridon Mavrakos

This paper presents a numerical and experimental investigation of the second-order steady horizontal and vertical drift forces acting on cylindrical bodies in regular waves. The examined bodies are either kept restrained in front of a vertical breakwater or are considered free- floating when alone in the wave field. Two principally different approaches for mean drift forces determination are described: the momentum conservation principle and the direct integration of all pressure contributions upon the instantaneous wetted surface of the bodies, whereas, for the solution of the associated diffraction and motion radiation problems, analytical and panel methodologies are applied. The hydrodynamic interaction phenomenon between the bodies and the adjacent breakwater are taken into account by using the method of images. Theoretical and numerical results, concerning the horizontal and the vertical drift forces, are presented and compared with each other. Furthermore, additional comparisons are made with experimental data obtained during an experimental campaign at French research institute for exploitation of the sea (IFREMER), in France.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030147

Authors: Fernand Assene Yves Morel Audrey Delpech Micael Aguedjou Julien Jouanno Sophie Cravatte Frédéric Marin Claire Ménesguen Alexis Chaigneau Isabelle Dadou Gael Alory Ryan Holmes Bernard Bourlès Ariane Koch-Larrouy

In this paper, we analyse the results from a numerical model at high resolution. We focus on the formation and maintenance of subsurface equatorial currents in the Gulf of Guinea and we base our analysis on the evolution of potential vorticity (PV). We highlight the link between submesoscale processes (involving mixing, friction and filamentation), mesoscale vortices and the mean currents in the area. In the simulation, eastward currents, the South and North Equatorial Undercurrents (SEUC and NEUC respectively) and the Guinea Undercurrent (GUC), are shown to be linked to the westward currents located equatorward. We show that east of 20&deg; W, both westward and eastward currents are associated with the spreading of PV tongues by mesoscale vortices. The Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) brings salty waters into the Gulf of Guinea. Mixing diffuses the salty anomaly downward. Meridional advection, mixing and friction are involved in the formation of fluid parcels with PV anomalies in the lower part and below the pycnocline, north and south of the EUC, in the Gulf of Guinea. These parcels gradually merge and vertically align, forming nonlinear anticyclonic vortices that propagate westward, spreading and horizontally mixing their PV content by stirring filamentation and diffusion, up to 20&deg; W. When averaged over time, this creates regions of nearly homogeneous PV within zonal bands between 1.5&deg; and 5&deg; S or N. This mean PV field is associated with westward and eastward zonal jets flanking the EUC with the homogeneous PV tongues corresponding to the westward currents, and the strong PV gradient regions at their edges corresponding to the eastward currents. Mesoscale vortices strongly modulate the mean fields explaining the high spatial and temporal variability of the jets.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030146

Authors: Mathieu Morvan Xavier Carton Stéphanie Corréard Rémy Baraille

We have investigated the surface and subsurface submesoscale dynamics in the Gulf of Aden and the Gulf of Oman. Our results are based on the analyses of regional numerical simulations performed with a primitive equation model (HYCOM) at submesoscale permitting horizontal resolution. A model zoom for each gulf was embedded in a regional mesoscale-resolving simulation. In the Gulf of Aden and the Gulf of Oman, the interactions of mesoscale structures and fronts instabilities form submesoscale eddies and filaments. Rotational energy spectra show that the Gulf of Aden has a higher ratio of submesoscale to mesocale energy than the Gulf of Oman. Fast waves (internal gravity waves, tidal waves, Kelvin waves) and slow waves (Rossby waves) were characterized via energy spectra of the divergent velocity. Local upwelling systems which shed cold filaments, coastal current instabilities at the surface, and baroclinic instability at capes in subsurface were identified as generators of submesocale structures. In particular, the Ras al Hamra and Ras al Hadd capes in the Gulf of Oman, and the Cape of Berbera in the Gulf of Aden, are loci of submesoscale eddy generation. To determine the instability mechanisms involved in these generations, we diagnosed the Ertel potential vorticity and the energy conversion terms: the horizontal and vertical Reynolds stresses and the vertical buoyancy flux. Finally, the impacts of the subsurface submesoscale eddy production at capes on the diffusion and fate of the Red Sea Water (in the Gulf of Aden) and the Persian Gulf Water (in the Gulf of Oman) are highlighted.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030145

Authors: Lia Siegelman Patrice Klein Andrew F. Thompson Hector S. Torres Dimitris Menemenlis

Recent studies demonstrate that energetic sub-mesoscale fronts (10&ndash;50 km width) extend in the ocean interior, driving large vertical velocities and associated fluxes. However, diagnosing the dynamics of these deep-reaching fronts from in situ observations remains challenging because of the lack of information on the 3-D structure of the horizontal velocity. Here, a realistic numerical simulation in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is used to study the dynamics of submesocale fronts in relation to velocity gradients, responsible for the formation of these fronts. Results highlight that the stirring properties of the flow at depth, which are related to the velocity gradients, can be inferred from finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) at the surface. Satellite altimetry observations of FSLE and velocity gradients are then used in combination with recent in situ observations collected by an elephant seal in the ACC to reconstruct frontal dynamics and their associated vertical velocities down to 500 m. The approach proposed here is well suited for the analysis of sub-mesoscale-resolving datasets and the design of future sub-mesoscale field campaigns.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030144

Authors: Leonardo Chirco Sandro Manservisi

Fluid&ndash;structure interaction (FSI) systems consist of a fluid which flows and deforms one or more solid surrounding structures. In this paper, we study inverse FSI problems, where the goal is to find the optimal value of some control parameters, such that the FSI solution is close to a desired one. Optimal control problems are formulated with Lagrange multipliers and adjoint variables formalism. In order to recover the symmetry of the stationary state-adjoint system an auxiliary displacement field is introduced and used to extend the velocity field from the fluid into the structure domain. As a consequence, the adjoint interface forces are balanced automatically. We present three different FSI optimal controls: inverse parameter estimation, boundary control and distributed control. The optimality system is derived from the first order necessary condition by taking the Fr&eacute;chet derivatives of the augmented Lagrangian with respect to all the variables involved. The optimal solution is obtained through a gradient-based algorithm applied to the optimality system. In order to support the proposed approach and compare these three optimal control approaches numerical tests are performed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030143

Authors: Carlo Nonino Stefano Savino

An in-house finite element method (FEM) procedure is used to carry out a numerical study on the thermal behavior of cross-flow double-layered microchannel heat sinks with an unequal number of microchannels in the two layers. The thermal performance is compared with those yielded by other more conventional flow configurations. It is shown that if properly designed, i.e., with several microchannels in the top layer smaller than that in the bottom layer, cross-flow double-layered microchannel heat sinks can provide an acceptable thermal resistance and a reasonably good temperature uniformity of the heated base with a header design that is much simpler than that required by the counter-flow arrangement.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030142

Authors: Scott D. Bachman

The release of available potential energy by growing baroclinic instability requires the slope of the eddy fluxes to be shallower than that of mean density surfaces, where the amount of energy released depends on both the flux angle and the distance of fluid parcel excursions against the background density gradient. The presence of a lateral potential vorticity (PV) gradient is known to affect the growth rate and energy release by baroclinic instability, but often makes the mathematics of formal linear stability analysis intractable. Here the effects of a lateral PV gradient on baroclinic growth are examined by considering its effects on the slope of the eddy fluxes. It is shown that the PV gradient systematically shifts the unstable modes toward higher wavenumbers and creates a cutoff to the instability at large scales, both of which steepen the eddy flux angle and limit the amount of energy released. This effect may contribute to the severe inhibition of baroclinic turbulence in systems dominated by barotropic jets, making them less likely to transition to turbulence-dominated flow regimes.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030141

Authors: Paolo Falsaperla Andrea Giacobbe Giuseppe Mulone

We study the stability of laminar Bingham&ndash;Poiseuille flows in a sheet of fluid (open channel) down an incline with constant slope angle &beta;&isin;(0,&pi;/2). This problem has geophysical applications to the evolution of landslides. In this article, we apply to this problem recent results of Falsaperla et al. for laminar Couette and Poiseuille flows of Newtonian fluids in inclined channels. The stability of the basic motion of the generalised Navier&ndash;Stokes system for a Bingham fluid in a horizontal channel against linear perturbations has been studied. In this article, we study the flows of a Bingham fluid when the channel is oblique and we prove a stabilizing effect of the Bingham parameter B. We also study the stability of the linear system with an energy method (Lyapunov functions) and prove that the streamwise perturbations are always stable, while the spanwise perturbations are energy-stable if the Reynolds number Re is less than the critical Reynolds number Rc obtained solving a generalised Orr equation of a maximum variational problem.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030140

Authors: Nik Nur Amiza Nik Ismail Azwani Alias Fatimah N. Harun

A nonlinear equation of the Korteweg&ndash;de Vries equation usually describes internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean that lead to an exact solitary wave solution. However, in any real application, there exists the Earth&rsquo;s rotation. Thus, an additional term is required, and consequently, the Ostrovsky equation is developed. This additional term is believed to destroy the solitary wave solution and form a nonlinear envelope wave packet instead. In addition, an internal solitary wave is commonly disseminated over the variable topography in the ocean. Because of these effects, the Ostrovsky equation is retrieved by a variable-coefficient Ostrovsky equation. In this study, the combined effects of both background rotation and variable topography on a solitary wave in a two-layer fluid is studied since internal waves typically happen here. A numerical simulation for the variable-coefficient Ostrovsky equation with a variable topography is presented. Two basic examples of the depth profile are considered in detail and sustained by numerical results. The first one is the constant-slope bottom, and the second one is the specific bottom profile following the previous studies. These indicate that the combination of variable topography and rotation induces a secondary trailing wave packet.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030139

Authors: Francesca Brini Leonardo Seccia

Rational Extended Thermodynamics theories with different number of moments are usually introduced to study non-equilibrium phenomena in rarefied gases. Here, we use them to describe one-dimensional acceleration waves in a rarefied monatomic gas. In particular, we focus on the degeneracy of the acceleration wave to a shock wave, in order to test the validity of the models and the role played by an increasing number of moments. As a byproduct, some peculiarities of the characteristic velocities at equilibrium are analyzed as well.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030138

Authors: Akshay Sherikar Peter J. Disimile

A turbulent Couette flow over a wavy surface is subject to a detailed parametric study in which three parameters&mdash;Aspect Ratio, Wave Slope and Reynolds number&mdash;are independently varied over an order of magnitude to investigate their influence on the flow. Stdk&minus;&epsilon; turbulence model with enhanced wall functions is used to simulate all cases in the study and the results are validated against experimental data as well as analytical theories pertaining to flow over wavy surfaces. Gross flow properties such as mean velocity profiles, mass flow rate, shear stress and pressure on the walls, as well as turbulent flow characteristics such as inner-wall coordinates, log-law fit, eddy viscosity profiles and turbulence kinetic energy across the domain, are presented and their corroboration with existing literature is discussed. The effect of the three parameters on the flow variables is investigated. It is observed that while all response flow variables scale monotonically with a progressive change in the parameters, there are certain flow characteristics that can be ascribed exclusively to one of the three parameters. The study also discusses the influence of the top plate, a much-needed discussion that seems to be absent in most literature pertaining to Couette flow in wavy channels.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030137

Authors: Mingrui Liu Xiuling Wang

Three-dimensional urban wind field construction plays an important role not only in the analysis of pedestrian levels of comfort but also in the effectiveness of harnessing wind energy in an urban environment. However, it is challenging to accurately simulate urban wind flow due to the complex land use in urban environments. In this study, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed for urban wind flow construction. To obtain an accurate urban wind field, various turbulence models, including the Reynolds stress model (RSM), k-&omega; shear stress transport (SST), realizable k-&epsilon;, and (Re-Normalisation Group (RNG) k-&epsilon; models were tested. Simulation results were compared with experimental data in the literature. The RSM model showed promising potential in simulating urban wind flow. The model was then adopted to simulate urban wind flow for Purdue University Northwest, which is located in the Northwest Indiana urban region. Based on the simulation results, the optimal location was identified for urban wind turbine siting.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030136

Authors: Pranjal Bathla John Kennedy

The use of porous coatings is one of the passive flow control methods used to reduce turbulence, noise and vibrations generated due to fluid flow. Porous coatings for flow stabilization have potential for a light-weight, cost-effective, and customizable solution. The design and performance of a structured porous coating depend on multiple control parameters like lattice size, strut thickness, lattice structure/geometry, etc. This study investigated the suitability of MSLA 3D printers to manufacture porous coatings based on unit cell designs to optimize porous lattices for flow control behind a cylinder. The Reynolds number used was 6.1&times;104&ndash;1.5&times;105 and the flow measurements were taken using a hotwire probe. Different experiment sets were conducted for single cylinder with varying control parameters to achieve best performing lattice designs. It was found that lattice structures with higher porosity produced lower turbulence intensity in the wake of the cylinder. However, for constant porosity lattice structures, there was negligible difference in turbulence and mean wake velocity levels. Coating thickness did not have a linear relationship with turbulence reduction, suggesting an optimal thickness value. For constant porosity coatings, cell count in coating thickness did not influence the turbulence or mean wake velocity. Partial coating designs like helical and spaced coatings had comparable performance to that of a full coating. MSLA printers were found capable of manufacturing thin and complex porous lattices.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030135

Authors: Dimitrios N. Konispoliatis Spyridon A. Mavrakos

This study investigates the effect of an orthogonal-shaped reflecting breakwater on the hydrodynamic characteristics of a vertical cylindrical body. The reflecting walls are placed behind the body, which can be conceived as a floater for wave energy absorption. Linear potential theory is assumed, and the associated diffraction and motion radiation problems are solved in the frequency domain. Axisymmetric eigenfunction expansions of the velocity potential are introduced into properly defined ring-shaped fluid regions surrounding the floater. The hydrodynamic interaction phenomena between the body and the adjacent breakwaters are exactly taken into account by using the method of images. Results are presented and discussed concerning the exciting wave forces on the floater and its hydrodynamic coefficients, concluding that the hydrodynamics of a vertical cylindrical body in front of an orthogonally shaped breakwater differ from those in unbounded waters.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030134

Authors: Aishvarya Kumar Ali Ghobadian Jamshid M. Nouri

This study assessed two cavitation models for compressible cavitating flows within a single hole nozzle. The models evaluated were SS (Schnerr and Sauer) and ZGB (Zwart-Gerber-Belamri) using realizable k-epsilon turbulent model, which was found to be the most appropriate model to use for this flow. The liquid compressibility was modeled using the Tait equation, and the vapor compressibility was modeled using the ideal gas law. Compressible flow simulation results showed that the SS model failed to capture the flow physics with a weak agreement with experimental data, while the ZGB model predicted the flow much better. Modeling vapor compressibility improved the distribution of the cavitating vapor across the nozzle with an increase in vapor volume compared to that of the incompressible assumption, particularly in the core region which resulted in a much better quantitative and qualitative agreement with the experimental data. The results also showed the prediction of a normal shockwave downstream of the cavitation region where the local flow transforms from supersonic to subsonic because of an increase in the local pressure.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030133

Authors: Mark Dostalík Josef Málek Vít Průša Endre Süli

We revisit some classical models for dilute polymeric fluids, and we show that thermodynamically consistent models for non-isothermal flows of these fluids can be derived in a very elementary manner. Our approach is based on the identification of energy storage mechanisms and entropy production mechanisms in the fluid of interest, which, in turn, leads to explicit formulae for the Cauchy stress tensor and for all of the fluxes involved. Having identified these mechanisms and derived the governing equations, we document the potential use of the thermodynamic basis of the model in a rudimentary stability analysis. In particular, we focus on finite amplitude (nonlinear) stability of a stationary spatially homogeneous state in a thermodynamically isolated system.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030132

Authors: Xiang Zhang Ramesh K. Agarwal

The goal of this paper is to study numerically the flow physics of a fountain formed by twin-jet impingement on ground. The incompressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with realizable k-&epsilon; and WA (Wray-Agarwal) turbulence model are employed in the numerical simulations with ANSYS Fluent. A series of numerical simulations for straight and inclined fountain formations are conducted by changing the geometric and flow parameters of twin jets and distance between them. The changes in parameters include variations in the jet Reynolds number from 2 &times; 104 to 8 &times; 104, impingement height, distance between the centerlines of the two jets from 1.4D to 16D where D is the jet diameter, and ratio of the Reynolds number of the two jets from 1 to 4. It is shown that different Reynolds numbers of the two jets can result in a fountain that inclines towards the jet with smaller Reynolds number. Detailed flow field simulations for a large number of cases are presented, and the flow physics of fountain formation is analyzed for the first time in the literature.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030131

Authors: Aristeidis A. Bloutsos Panayotis C. Yannopoulos

The flow formed by the discharge of inclined turbulent negatively round buoyant jets is common in environmental flow phenomena, especially in the case of brine disposal. The prediction of the mean flow and mixing properties of such flows is based on integral models, experimental results and, recently, on numerical modeling. This paper presents the results of mean flow and mixing characteristics using the escaping mass approach (EMA), a Gaussian model that simulates the escaping masses from the main buoyant jet flow. The EMA model was applied for dense discharge at a quiescent ambient of uniform density for initial discharge inclinations from 15° to 75°, with respect to the horizontal plane. The variations of the dimensionless terminal centerline and the external edge’s height, the horizontal location of the centerline terminal height, the horizontal location of centerline and the external edge’s return point as a function of initial inclination angle are estimated via the EMA model, and compared to available experimental data and other integral or numerical models. Additionally, the same procedure was followed for axial dilutions at the centerline terminal height and return point. The performance of EMA is acceptable for research purposes, and the simplicity and speed of calculations makes it competitive for design and environmental assessment studies.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030130

Authors: Eike Tangermann Markus Klein

Generating freestream turbulence within the computational domain instead of applying it as a boundary condition requires a method to introduce the turbulent fluctuations at a specific location. A method based on applying local volume forces has been adapted and supplemented with a control loop in order to compensate for alterations of the turbulence structure resulting from the numerical treatment and physical reasons. The criteria for the tuning of the controller have been developed and the performance of the approach has been assessed. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated for the flow around an airfoil at high angle of attack and with massive flow separation.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030129

Authors: Abdelkader Frendi Christopher Harrison

A new Partially Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) bridging model is derived from existing (k&minus;&omega;) and (k&minus;&epsilon;) PANS formulations. The model behaves like the PANS (k&minus;&omega;) model near rigid walls and like the PANS (k&minus;&epsilon;) model away from walls. The new model is tested using well-known benchmark problems; a backward-facing step representing wall-bounded flows, and a circular cylinder representing free shear flows. Our results are compared to existing experimental data and previous simulation results using PANS (k&minus;&omega;) and PANS (k&minus;&epsilon;). The comparisons show our model to be superior at predicting velocity profiles in both flows. In addition, Reynolds stress predictions are also shown to improve.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030128

Authors: Lei Wang Lihua Zuo Changming Zhu

The exploration and production of geothermal energy have been important missions for the energy contribution of the world, especially because geothermal energy is one environmentally friendly resource. The geothermal resources exist around the world but there are differences in the exploration and production procedures depending on the geophysical properties and brine temperatures in each reservoir. There are plenty of geothermal reservoirs in southwest China but the subsurface situations are so complicated that it is hard to produce the geothermal resource economically and in an environmentally friendly way. In this paper, we summarized the current situations of the geothermal exploration in Cuona and studied the impact of injection wells on the geothermal production performance. Tracer tests were performed to test the connections between three injection wells and two production wells and the streamline algorithm based on Complex Analysis Potential methods is applied to simulate the trajectories and running time of the water from the injection well. The tracer test results were analyzed to get possible interconnection relations between different wells. The most reasonable subsurface conditions including porosity and faults locations were investigated. The technique proposed here could be extended and applied for other geothermal projects in China and other countries in the world.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030127

Authors: Jane Pratt Angela Busse Wolf-Christian Müller

The movement of heat in a convecting system is typically described by the nondimensional Nusselt number, which involves an average over both space and time. In direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows, there is considerable variation in the contributions to the Nusselt number, both because of local spatial variations due to plumes and because of intermittency in time. We develop a statistical approach to more completely describe the structure of heat transfer, using an exit-distance extracted from Lagrangian tracer particles, which we call the Lagrangian heat structure. In a comparison between simulations of homogeneous turbulence driven by Boussinesq convection, the Lagrangian heat structure reveals significant non-Gaussian character, as well as a clear trend with Prandtl number and Rayleigh number. This has encouraging implications for simulations performed with the goal of understanding turbulent convection in natural settings such as Earth&rsquo;s atmosphere and oceans, as well as planetary and stellar dynamos.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030126

Authors: Kai Zhang Ali Ghobadian Jamshid M. Nouri

The scale-resolving simulation of a practical gas turbine combustor is performed using a partially premixed finite-rate chemistry combustion model. The combustion model assumes finite-rate chemistry by limiting the chemical reaction rate with flame speed. A comparison of the numerical results with the experimental temperature and species mole fraction clearly showed the superiority of the shear stress transport, K-omega, scale adaptive turbulence model (SSTKWSAS). The model outperforms large eddy simulation (LES) in the primary region of the combustor, probably for two reasons. First, the lower amount of mesh employed in the simulation for the industrial-size combustor does not fit the LES&rsquo;s explicit mesh size dependency requirement, while it is sufficient for the SSTKWSAS simulation. Second, coupling the finite-rate chemistry method with the SSTKWSAS model provides a more reasonable rate of chemical reaction than that predicted by the fast chemistry method used in LES simulation. Other than comparing with the LES data available in the literature, the SSTKWSAS-predicted result is also compared comprehensively with that obtained from the model based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier&ndash;Stokes (URANS) simulation approach. The superiority of the SSTKWSAS model in resolving large eddies is highlighted. Overall, the present study emphasizes the effectiveness and efficiency of coupling a partially premixed combustion model with a scale-resolving simulation method in predicting a swirl-stabilized, multi-jets turbulent flame in a practical, complex gas turbine combustor configuration.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030125

Authors: Evangelos Karvelas Giorgos Sofiadis Thanasis Papathanasiou Ioannis Sarris

Blood is a non-homogeneous fluid that flows inside the human artery system and provides the cells with nutrients. In this study the auto rotation effect of blood&rsquo;s microstructure on its flow inside a human carotid model is studied by using a micropolar fluid model. The study aims to investigate the flow differences that occur due to its microstructure as compared to a Newtonian fluid. We focus on the vortex viscosity effect, i.e., the ratio of microrotation viscosity to the total one, because this is the only parameter that affects directly the fluid flow. Simulations in a range of vortex viscosities, are carried out in a 3D human carotid model that is computationally reconstructed. All of the simulations are conducted at the diastolic Reynolds number that occurs in the human carotid. Results indicate that micropolarity affects blood velocity in the range of parameters studied by 4%. As micropolarity is increased, higher velocities in the center of vessels and lower near the boundaries are found as compared to a Newtonian fluid consideration. This is an indication that the increase of the fluid&rsquo;s micropolarity leads to an increase of the boundary layer thickness. More importantly, an increase in vortex viscosity and the resulting increase in microrotation result in decreased shear stress in the carotid&rsquo;s walls; this finding can be significant in regards to the onset and the development of atherosclerosis. Finally, the flow distribution at the carotid seems to heavily be affected by the geometry and the micropolarity of the fluid.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030124

Authors: Saneshan Govender

Flow and heat transfer in a horizontal porous layer subjected to internal heat generation and g-jitter is considered for the Dirichlet thermal boundary condition. A linear stability analysis is used to determine the convection threshold in terms of the critical Rayleigh number. For the low amplitude, high frequency approximation, the results show that vibration has a stabilizing effect on the onset of convection when the porous layer is heated from below. When the porous layer is cooled from below and heated from above, the vibration has a destabilizing effect in the presence of internal heat generation. It is also demonstrated that when the top and bottoms walls are cooled and rigid/impermeable, the critical Rayleigh number is infinitely large and conduction is the only possible mode of heat transfer. The impact of increasing the Vadasz number is to stabilize the convection, in addition to reducing the transition point from synchronous to subharmonic solutions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030123

Authors: George Caralis Alexandros Kontzilas Yang Peijin Petros Chasapogiannis Vassiliki Kotroni Konstantinos Lagouvardos Arthouros Zervos

Wind energy and photovoltaic solar energy (PV) are the most mature renewable energy technologies and are widely used to increase renewable energy penetration in non-interconnected Greek islands. However, their penetration is restricted due to technical issues related to the safe operation of autonomous power systems, the current conventional power infrastructure and their variable power output. In this framework, renewable energy curtailment is sometimes a necessity to ensure the balance between demand and supply. The ability of autonomous power systems to absorb wind and PV power is related to the load demand profile, the type and the flexibility of conventional power plants, the size of power system and the spatial dispersion of wind farms. In this connection, a probabilistic approach for estimating wind energy curtailment is thoroughly applied in most of the autonomous power systems in Greece, using detailed information about load demand and conventional power supply. In parallel, high resolution mesoscale model-based hourly wind data for typical meteorological wind year are used to represent the wind features in all the sites of interest. Technical constraints imposed by the local power system operator, related to the commitment of conventional power plants and the load dispatch strategies are taken into account to maximize renewable energy penetration levels. Finally, application for wide ranges of wind and PV capacity and the thorough analysis of the parameters leads to the presentation of comparable results and conclusions, which could be widely used to predict wind energy curtailment in non-interconnected power systems.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030122

Authors: Bailey Carlson Al Habib Ullah Jordi Estevadeordal

An experimental study is conducted to analyze a streamwise-oriented vortex and investigate the unsteady interaction with a finite-aspect-ratio wing. A pressurized vortex tube is used to generate streamwise vortices in a wind tunnel and the resulting flow behavior is analyzed. The vortex tube, operated at various pressures, yields flows that evolve downstream under several freestream wind tunnel speeds. Flow measurements are performed using two- and three- dimensional (2D and 3D) particle image velocimetry to observe vortices and their freestream interactions from which velocity and vorticity data are comparatively analyzed. Results indicate that vortex velocity greater than freestream flow velocity is a primary factor in maintaining vortex structures further downstream, while increased supply pressure and reduced freestream velocity also reduce vortex dissipation rate. The generated streamwise-oriented vortex is also impinged on a finite-aspect-ratio airfoil wing with a cross-section of standard NACA0012 airfoil. The wingtip-aligned vortex is shown to investigate the interaction of the streamwise vortex and the wingtip vortex region. The results indicate that the vorticity at the high vortex-tube pressure has a significant effect on the boundary layer of airfoil.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030121

Authors: Shi Yue Liu Zhengyi Chen Pejman Sanaei

Membrane filtration fouling is a very complex process and is determined by many properties such as the membrane internal morphology, membrane pore structure, flow rate and contaminant properties. In a very slow filtration process or during the late stage of filtration, when the flow rate is naturally low and P&eacute;clet number is small, particle diffusion is essential and cannot be neglected, while in typical filtration models, especially in moderate and fast filtration process, the main contribution stems from the particle advection. The objectives of this study is to formulate mathematical models that can (i) investigate how filtration process varies under possible effects of particles diffusion; and (ii) describe how membrane morphology evolves and investigate the filtration performance during the filtration process. We also compare the results with the case that diffusion is less important and make a prediction about what kind of membrane filter pore structure should be employed to achieve a particular optimum filtration performance. According to our results, the filtrate and efficiency of particle separation are found to be under the trade-off relationship, and the selection of the membrane properties depends on the requirement of the filtration.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030120

Authors: Amir Taqieddin Yuxuan Liu Akram N. Alshawabkeh Michael R. Allshouse

Understanding the generation, growth, and dynamics of bubbles as they absorb or release dissolved gas in reactive flows is crucial for optimizing the efficiency of electrochemically gas-evolving systems like alkaline water electrolysis or hydrogen production. To better model these bubbly flow systems, we use a coupled level set and volume of fluid approach integrated with a one-fluid transport of species model to study the dynamics of stationary and rising bubbles in reactive two-phase flows. To accomplish this, source terms are incorporated into the continuity and phase conservation equations to allow the bubble to grow or shrink as the species moves through the interface. Verification of the hydrodynamics of the solver for non-reactive systems demonstrates the requisite high fidelity interface capturing and mass conservation necessary to incorporate transport of species. In reactive systems where the species impacts the bubble volume, the model reproduces the theoretically predicted and experimentally measured diffusion-controlled growth rate (i.e., R(t)&prop;t0.5). The model is then applied to rising bubbles to demonstrate the impact of transport of species on both the bubble velocity and shape as well as the concentration field in its wake. This improved model enables the incorporation of electric fields and chemical reactions that are essential for studying the physicochemical hydrodynamics in multiphysics systems.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030119

Authors: Lucie Bordois Jonas Nycander Alexandre Paci

We hereby present two different spectral methods for calculating the density anomaly and the vertical energy flux from synthetic Schlieren data, for a periodic field of linear internal waves (IW) in a density-stratified fluid with a uniform buoyancy frequency. The two approaches operate under different assumptions. The first method (hereafter Mxzt) relies on the assumption of a perfectly periodic IW field in the three dimensions (x, z, t), whereas the second method (hereafter MxtUp) assumes that the IW field is periodic in x and t and composed solely of wave components with downward phase velocity. The two methods have been applied to synthetic Schlieren data collected in the CNRM large stratified water flume. Both methods succeed in reconstructing the density anomaly field. We identify and quantify the source of errors of both methods. A new method mixing the two approaches and combining their respective advantages is then proposed for the upward energy flux. The work presented in this article opens new perspectives for density and energy flux estimates from laboratory experiments data.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030118

Authors: Marvin Durango-Cogollo Jose Garcia-Bravo Brittany Newell Andres Gonzalez-Mancera

The dynamics of hydrocyclones is complex, because it is a multiphase flow problem that involves interaction between a discrete phase and multiple continuum phases. The performance of hydrocyclones is evaluated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and it is characterized by the pressure drop, split water ratio, and particle collection efficiency. In this paper, a computational model to improve and evaluate hydrocyclone performance is proposed. Four known computational turbulence models (renormalization group (RNG) k- &epsilon; , Reynolds stress model (RSM), and large-eddy simulation (LES)) are implemented, and the accuracy of each for predicting the hydrocyclone behavior is assessed. Four hydrocyclone configurations were analyzed using the RSM model. By analyzing the streamlines resulting from those simulations, it was found that the formation of some vortices and saddle points affect the separation efficiency. Furthermore, the effects of inlet width, cone length, and vortex finder diameter were found to be significant. The cut-size diameter was decreased by 33% compared to the Hsieh experimental hydrocyclone. An increase in the pressure drop leads to high values of cut-size and classification sharpness. If the pressure drop increases to twice its original value, the cut-size and the sharpness of classification are reduced to less than 63% and 55% of their initial values, respectively.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030117

Authors: Omed S. Q. Yousif Moses Karakouzian

The hydraulic performance of rectangular labyrinth weirs has been investigated by many researchers, however, the effects of the corner shape on the hydraulic performance of rectangular labyrinth weirs have not been addressed in the current literature. Accordingly, this experimental study aims to explore the effect of the corner shape of on discharge efficiency of rectangular labyrinth weirs. Five flat-crested rectangular labyrinth weirs, with five different corner shapes, were made of High-Density Polyethylene Plastic (HDPE) and tested in a rectangular flume. Under different overflow discharges, the discharge coefficients for the rectangular labyrinth weirs were determined. The results showed that the shape of corners for rectangular labyrinth weirs was an effective factor. For example, rounding or beveling the corners can significantly increase the discharge capacity of the rectangular labyrinth weirs. However, the rounded corner shape was slightly better than the beveled corner shape. Among all labyrinth weir models tested in this study, the rectangular labyrinth weir with a semi-circular apex showed the highest hydraulic efficiency, while the one with an acute-angle corner shape showed the lowest hydraulic efficiency. For the rectangular labyrinth weir having a semi-circular shape, although the original effective length reduced by about 14%, the discharge coefficient, CL, increased by 16.7% on average. For the rectangular labyrinth weir that has an acute-angle corner shape, although the effective length (LC) of the weir increased by 23%, its discharge capacity decreased by 35.2% on average. Accordingly, improper folding of the side-walls of the rectangular labyrinth weir led to a significant reduction in the weir&rsquo;s hydraulic performance.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030116

Authors: Hideharu Sasaki Bo Qiu Patrice Klein Yoshikazu Sasai Masami Nonaka

The outputs from a submesoscale permitting hindcast simulation from 1990 to 2016 are used to investigate the interannual to decadal variations of submesoscale motions. The region we focus on is the subtropical Northwestern Pacific including the subtropical countercurrent. The submesoscale kinetic energy (KE) is characterized by strong interannual and decadal variability, displaying larger magnitudes in 1996, 2003, and 2015, and smaller magnitudes in 1999, 2009, 2010, and 2016. These variations are partially explained by those of the available potential energy (APE) release at submesoscale driven by mixed layer instability in winter. Indeed, this APE release depends on the mixed layer depth and horizontal buoyancy gradient, both of them modulated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). As a result of the inverse KE cascade, the submesoscale KE variability possibly leads to interannual to decadal variations of the mesoscale KE (eddy KE (EKE)). These results show that submesoscale motions are a possible pathway to explain the impact associated with the PDO on the decadal EKE variability. The winter APE release estimated from the Argo float observations varies synchronously with that in the simulation on the interannual time scales, which suggests the observation capability to diagnose the submesoscale KE variability.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030115

Authors: Furkan Kodakoglu Sinan Demir Damir Valiev V’yacheslav Akkerman

A recent predictive scenario of premixed flame propagation in unobstructed passages is extended to account for obstructions that can be encountered in facilities dealing with explosive materials such as in coalmines. Specifically, the theory of globally-spherical, self-accelerating premixed expanding flames and that of flame acceleration in obstructed conduits are combined to form a new analytical formulation. The coalmining configuration is imitated by two-dimensional and cylindrical passages of high aspect ratio, with a comb-shaped array of tightly placed obstacles attached to the walls. It is assumed that the spacing between the obstacles is much less or, at least, does not exceed the obstacle height. The passage has one extreme open end such that a flame is ignited at a closed end and propagates to an exit. The key stages of the flame evolution such as the velocity of the flame front and the run-up distance are scrutinized for variety of the flame and mining parameters. Starting with gaseous methane-air and propane-air flames, the analysis is subsequently extended to gaseous-dusty environments. Specifically, the coal (combustible, i.e., facilitating the fire) and inert (such as sand, moderating the process) dust and their combinations are considered, and the impact of the size and concentration of the dust particles on flame acceleration is quantified. Overall, the influence of both the obstacles and the combustion instability on the fire scenario is substantial, and it gets stronger with the blockage ratio.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030114

Authors: Carlo Cravero Andrea Ottonello

In the last three decades computer simulation tools have achieved wide spread use in the design and analysis of engineering devices. This has shortened the overall product design cycle (physical experiments may be impossible during early design stages) and it has also provided better understanding of the operating behavior of the systems under investigation. As a consequence numerical simulation have led to a reduction of physical prototyping and to lower costs for manufacturing production chains. Despite this success, it remains difficult to provide objective confidence levels in quantitative information derived from numerical predictions. The complexity arises from the amount of uncertainties related to the inputs of any computation attempting to represent a physical system. This paper focuses on geometrical sources of uncertainty in the field of CFD applied to twin scroll radial turbines. In particular it has been investigated the effect of uncertainties on tip clearance values at rotor blade leading edge and trailing edge on selected turbine performance parameters. The analysis shows the use of the Surrogate-based uncertainty quantification technique that has been setup by the authors in the Dakota&reg; environment. The polynomial chaos expansion method has been applied to the same case. The comparison of the results coming from the different approaches and the discussion of the pros and cons related to each technique lead to interesting conclusions, which are proposed as guidelines for future UQ applications on the theme of CFD applied to radial turbines.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030113

Authors: Ali Hosseinpour Shafaghi Farzad Rokhsar Talabazar Ali Koşar Morteza Ghorbani

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a highly infectious viral disease and first appeared in Wuhan, China. Within a short time, it has become a global health issue. The sudden emergence of COVID-19 has been accompanied by numerous uncertainties about its impact in many perspectives. One of major challenges is understanding the underlying mechanisms in the spread of this outbreak. COVID-19 is spread similar to the majority of infectious diseases through transmission via relatively large respiratory droplets. The awareness of the dispersal of these droplets is crucial in not only improving methods for controlling the dispersion of COVID-19 droplets, but also in discovering fundamental mechanisms of its transmission. In this study, a numerical model is developed to study the motion of droplets expelled through the respiratory system. Based on the source of these droplets, different sizes of droplets such as large ones and aerosols, which behave differently in the environment, can be generated. In this regard, diverse sources of droplets, namely breathing, coughing, and sneezing, are considered in this analysis. Besides, the time for a single droplet to fall from a height of 1.8 m is also obtained. The results reveal that the traditional distances suggested by different sources for keeping the social distance are not enough, which is linked to different nature of the droplet generation.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030112

Authors: Christian Windt Nicolás Faedo Demián García-Violini Yerai Peña-Sanchez Josh Davidson Francesco Ferri John V. Ringwood

Numerical wave tanks (NWTs) provide efficient test beds for the numerical analysis at various stages during the development of wave energy converters (WECs). To ensure the acquisition of accurate, high-fidelity data sets, validation of NWTs is a crucial step. However, using experimental data as reference during model validation, exact knowledge of all system parameters is required, which may not always be available, thus making an incremental validation inevitable. The present paper documents the numerical model validation of a 1/20 scale Wavestar WEC. The validation is performed considering different test case of increasing complexity: wave-only, wave excitation force, free decay, forced oscillation, and wave-induced motion cases. The results show acceptable agreement between the numerical and experimental data so that, under the well-known modelling constraints for mechanical friction and uncertainties in the physical model properties, the developed numerical model can be declared as validated.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030111

Authors: Milad Habibi Scott T. M. Dawson Amirhossein Arzani

Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is a purely data-driven and equation-free technique for reduced-order modeling of dynamical systems and fluid flow. DMD finds a best fit linear reduced-order model that represents any given spatiotemporal data. In DMD, each mode evolves with a fixed frequency and therefore DMD modes represent physically meaningful structures that are ranked based on their dynamics. The application of DMD to patient-specific cardiovascular flow data is challenging. First, the input flow rate is unsteady and pulsatile. Second, the flow topology can change significantly in different phases of the cardiac cycle. Finally, blood flow in patient-specific diseased arteries is complex and often chaotic. The objective of this study was to overcome these challenges using our proposed multistage dynamic mode decomposition with control (mDMDc) method and use this technique to study patient-specific blood flow physics. The inlet flow rate was considered as the controller input to the systems. Blood flow data were divided into different stages based on the inlet flow waveform and DMD with control was applied to each stage. The system was augmented to consider both velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) vector data, and therefore study the interaction between the coherent structures in velocity and near-wall coherent structures in WSS. First, it was shown that DMD modes can exactly represent the analytical Womersley solution for incompressible pulsatile flow in tubes. Next, our method was applied to image-based coronary artery stenosis and cerebral aneurysm models where complex blood flow patterns are anticipated. The flow patterns were studied using the mDMDc modes and the reconstruction errors were reported. Our augmented mDMDc framework could capture coherent structures in velocity and WSS with a fewer number of modes compared to the traditional DMD approach and demonstrated a close connection between the velocity and WSS modes.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030110

Authors: Majid Allahyari Vahid Esfahanian Kianoosh Yousefi

High-quality, accurate grid generation is a critical challenge in the computational simulation of fluid flows around complex geometries. In particular, the accuracy of the grids is an effective factor in order to achieve a successful numerical simulation. In the current study, we present a series of systematic numerical simulations for fluid flows around a NACA 0012 airfoil using different computational grid generation techniques, including the standard second-order, fourth-order compact, and Theodorsen transformation approaches, to assess the effects of grid accuracy on the flow solutions. The flow solvers are based on the second- and fourth-order schemes for spatial discretizations and Beam-Warming linearization method for time advancement. The obtained grids, as well as the metrics and the corresponding numerical flow solution for each grid generation technique, are compared and studied in detail. It is demonstrated that the quality and orthogonality of the grids is improved by using the fourth-order compact scheme. Moreover, the numerical assessment showed that the accuracy and the quality of the grids directly influence the numerical flow solutions. Finally, the higher-order accurate flow solvers are found to be more sensitive to the accuracy of the generated grid.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030109

Authors: Vladimir A. Sabelnikov Andrei N. Lipatnikov

Recently, Sabelnikov et al. (2019) developed a phenomenological theory of propagation of an infinitely thin reaction sheet, which is adjacent to a mixing layer, in a constant-density turbulent flow in the case of a low Damk&ouml;hler number. In the cited paper, the theory is also supported by Direct Numerical Simulation data and relevance of such a physical scenario to highly turbulent premixed combustion is argued. The present work aims at complementing the theory with a new mathematical framework that allows for appearance of thick mixing zones adjacent to an infinitely thin reaction sheet. For this purpose, the instantaneous reaction-progress-variable c ( x , t ) is considered to consist of two qualitatively different zones, that is, (i) mixture of products and reactants, c ( x , t ) &lt; 1 , where molecular transport plays an important role, and (ii) equilibrium products, c ( x , t ) = 1 . The two zones are separated by an infinitely thin reaction sheet, where c ( x , t ) = 1 and | &nabla; c | is fixed in order for the molecular flux into the sheet to yield a constant local consumption velocity equal to the speed of the unperturbed laminar reaction wave. Exact local instantaneous field equations valid in the entire spaceare derived for the conditioned (to the former, mixing, zone) reaction progress variable, its second moment, and instantaneous characteristic functions. Averaging of these equations yields exact, unclosed transport equations for the conditioned reaction-progress-variable moments and Probability Density Function (PDF), as well as a boundary condition for the PDF at the reaction sheet. The closure problem for the derived equations is beyond the scope of the paper.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030108

Authors: Carlo Cintolesi Etienne Mémin

Numerical simulations are a powerful tool to investigate turbulent flows, both for theoretical studies and practical applications. The reliability of a simulation is mainly dependent on the turbulence model adopted, and improving its accuracy is a crucial issue. In this study, we investigated the potential for an alternative formulation of the Navier&ndash;Stokes equations, based on the stochastic representation of the velocity field. The new approach, named pseudo-stochastic simulation (PSS), is a generalisation of the widespread classical eddy&ndash;viscosity model, where the contribution of the unresolved scales of motion is expressed by a variance tensor, modelled following different paradigms. The PSS models were compared with the classical ones mathematically and numerically in the turbulent channel flow at R e &tau; = 590 . The PSS and the classical models are equivalent when the variance tensor is shaped through a molecular dissipation analogy, while it is more accurate when the tensor is defined by the way of a local variance model. A near-wall damping function derived from recent advancement in the field is also proposed and was successfully validated. The analyses demonstrate the relevance of the approach proposed and provide a basis for the development of an alternative turbulence model.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030107

Authors: Sara Moghtadernejad Christian Lee Mehdi Jadidi

An intensive training course has been developed and implemented at the California State University Long Beach based on 8 years of experience in the multiphase flow area with the specific focus on droplet&ndash;solid interactions. Due to the rapid development of droplet-based equipment and industrial techniques, numerous industries are concerned with understanding the behavior of droplet dynamics and the characteristics that govern them. The presence and ensuing characteristics of the droplet regimes (spreading, receding, rebounding, and splashing) are heavily dependent on droplet and surface conditions. The effect of surface temperature, surface wettability, impact velocity, droplet shape and volume on droplet impact dynamics, and heat transfer are discussed in this training paper. Droplet impacts on moving solid surfaces and the effects of normal and tangential velocities on droplet dynamics are other topics that are discussed here. Despite the vast amount of studies into the dynamics of droplet impact, there is still much more to be investigated as research has expanded into a myriad of different conditions. However, the current paper is intended as a practical training document and a source of basic information, therefore, the scope is kept sufficiently broad to be of interest to readers from different engineering disciplines.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030106

Authors: John O. Dabiri Sean P. Colin Brad J. Gemmell Kelsey N. Lucas Megan C. Leftwich John H. Costello

Turning maneuvers by aquatic animals are essential for fundamental life functions such as finding food or mates while avoiding predation. However, turning requires resolution of a fundamental dilemma based in rotational mechanics: the force powering a turn (torque) is favored by an expanded body configuration that maximizes lever arm length, yet minimizing the resistance to a turn (the moment of inertia) is favored by a contracted body configuration. How do animals balance these opposing demands? Here, we directly measure instantaneous forces along the bodies of two animal models&mdash;the radially symmetric Aurelia aurita jellyfish, and the bilaterally symmetric Danio rerio zebrafish&mdash;to evaluate their turning dynamics. Both began turns with a small, rapid shift in body kinematics that preceded major axial rotation. Although small in absolute magnitude, the high fluid accelerations achieved by these initial motions generated powerful pressure gradients that maximized torque at the start of a turn. This pattern allows these animals to initially maximize torque production before major body curvature changes. Both animals then subsequently minimized the moment of inertia, and hence resistance to axial rotation, by body bending. This sequential solution provides insight into the advantages of re-arranging mass by bending during routine swimming turns.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030105

Authors: Clemente Cesarano

The theory of orthogonal polynomials is well established and detailed, covering a wide field of interesting results, as, in particular, for solving certain differential equations. On the other side the concepts and the related formalism of the theory of bi-orthogonal polynomials is less developed and much more limited. By starting from the orthogonality properties satisfied from the ordinary and generalized Hermite polynomials, it is possible to derive a further family (known in literature) of these kind of polynomials, which are bi-orthogonal with their adjoint. This aspect allows us to introduce functions recognized as bi-orthogonal and investigate generalizations of families of orthogonal polynomials

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030104

Authors: António Muralha José F. Melo Helena M. Ramos

The capability of two different OpenFOAM&reg; solvers, namely interFoam and twoPhaseEulerFoam, in reproducing the behavior of a free water jet was investigated. Numerical simulations were performed in order to obtain the velocity and air concentration profiles along the jet. The turbulence intensity was also analyzed. The obtained results were compared with published experimental data and, in general, similar velocity and air concentration profiles were found. InterFoam solver is able to reproduce the velocity field of the free jet but has limitations in the simulation of the air concentration. TwoPhaseEulerFoam performs better in reproducing the air concentration along the jet, the results being in agreement with the experimental data, although the computational runs are less stable and more time consuming. The sensitivity analysis of the inlet turbulent intensity showed that it has no influence in the characteristics of the jet core. With this research it is possible to conclude that: interFoam with k-Epsilon (k-&epsilon;) turbulence model is the best choice if the goal of the numerical simulations is the simulation of the velocity field of the jet. Meanwhile, twoPhaseEulerFoam with mixturek-Epsilon (mk-&epsilon;) shall be considered if the objective is the simulation of the velocity field and the air concentration.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030103

Authors: Caroline H. Suwaki Leandro T. De-La-Cruz Rubens M. Lopes

Zooplankton are prone to the ingestion of microplastics by mistaking them for prey. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the impacts of microplastic availability on zooplankton behavior. In this study, we investigated the effects of polystyrene microbeads on swimming patterns of the calanoid copepod Temora turbinata under laboratory conditions. We acquired high-resolution video sequences using an optical system containing a telecentric lens and a digital camera with an acquisition rate of 20 frames per second. We estimated the mean speed, NGDR (Net-to-Gross Displacement Ratio, a dimensionless single-valued measure of straightness) and turning angle to describe the swimming behavior in three different treatments (control, low and high concentration of microplastics). Our results revealed that swimming speeds decreased up to 40% (instantaneous speed) compared to controls. The NGDR and turning angle distribution of the organisms also changed in the presence of polystyrene microbeads, both at low (100 beads mL&minus;1) and high microplastic concentration (1000 beads mL&minus;1). These results suggest that the swimming behavior of Temora turbinata is affected by microbeads.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030102

Authors: Thomas Höhne Paul Porombka Senen Moya Sáez

In this work, the modelling of horizontal two-phase flows within the two-fluid Euler&ndash;Euler approach is investigated. A modified formulation of the morphology detection functions within the Algebraic Interfacial Area Density (AIAD) model is presented in combination with different models for the drag force acting on a sheared gas&ndash;liquid interface. In the case of free surface flows, those closure laws are often based on experimental correlations whose applicability is limited to certain flow regimes. It is investigated here whether the implementation of the modified blending functions in ANSYS CFX avoids this limitation. The influence of the new functions on the prediction of turbulence parameters in free surface flows is also examined quantitatively for the k-&omega; and k-&epsilon; two-equation turbulence models. Transient simulations of the WENKA counter-current stratified two-phase flow experiment were performed for validation. A prediction of the correct flow pattern as observed in the experiment improved dramatically when a turbulence damping term was included in the standard two-equation models. Using the k-&omega; and a modified k-&epsilon; turbulence model with damping terms close to the interface, better agreement with the experimental data was achieved. The morphology detection mechanism of the unified blending functions within the AIAD is seen as an improvement with respect to the detection of sharp interfaces. Satisfactory quantitative agreement is achieved for the modified free surface drag. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that turbulence dampening has to be accounted for in both turbulence models to qualitatively reproduce the mean flow and turbulence quantities from the experiment.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030101

Authors: Igor Matteo Carraretto Luigi Pietro Maria Colombo Damiano Fasani Manfredo Guilizzoni Andrea Lucchini

This work presents and analyses the results of an experimental activity aimed at the characterization of stratified air&ndash;water flow conditions, which have been poorly analyzed in previous studies although they are significant for industrial applications. Tests were performed in a 24 m long, 60 mm inner diameter PMMA pipe; the superficial velocities ranged between 0.03 m/s and 0.06 m/s for the water and between 0.41 m/s and 2.31 m/s for air. The pressure gradient along the pipeline was determined and compared to the one obtained implementing two-fluid models available in the literature. Fair agreement with the models was found only at high values of the superficial gas velocities, i.e., above 1.31 m/s. Moreover, the void fraction was measured through a resistive probe and compared with the values predicted by available models. Since none of them was able to satisfactorily predict the void fraction in the whole range of superficial velocities, a drift flux model was successfully implemented. Eventually, with both the measured pressure gradient and the void fraction, a two-fluid model was implemented in order to determine the interfacial shear stress and to compare the outcome with the literature, emphasizing the influence of the operating conditions on the prediction performance.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5030100

Authors: Sohaib Obeid Goodarz Ahmadi Ratneshwar Jha

A closed-loop control algorithm for the reduction of turbulent flow separation over NACA 0015 airfoil equipped with leading-edge synthetic jet actuators (SJAs) is presented. A system identification approach based on Nonlinear Auto-Regressive Moving Average with eXogenous inputs (NARMAX) technique was used to predict nonlinear dynamics of the fluid flow and for the design of the controller system. Numerical simulations based on URANS equations are performed at Reynolds number of 106 for various airfoil incidences with and without closed-loop control. The NARMAX model for flow over an airfoil is based on the static pressure data, and the synthetic jet actuator is developed using an incompressible flow model. The corresponding NARMAX identification model developed for the pressure data is nonlinear; therefore, the describing function technique is used to linearize the system within its frequency range. Low-pass filtering is used to obtain quasi-linear state values, which assist in the application of linear control techniques. The reference signal signifies the condition of a fully re-attached flow, and it is determined based on the linearization of the original signal during open-loop control. The controller design follows the standard proportional-integral (PI) technique for the single-input single-output system. The resulting closed-loop response tracks the reference value and leads to significant improvements in the transient response over the open-loop system. The NARMAX controller enhances the lift coefficient from 0.787 for the uncontrolled case to 1.315 for the controlled case with an increase of 67.1%.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020099

Authors: Alexandros Magkouris Markos Bonovas Kostas Belibassakis

A variety of devices and concepts have been proposed and thoroughly investigated for the exploitation of renewable wave energy. Many of the devices operate in nearshore and coastal regions, and thus, variable bathymetry could have significant effects on their performance. In particular, Oscillating Wave Surge Converters (OWSCs) exploit the horizontal motion of water waves interacting with the flap of the device. In this work, a Boundary Element Method (BEM) is developed, and applied to the investigation of variable bathymetry effects on the performance of a simplified 2D model of a surge-type wave energy converter excited by harmonic incident waves. Numerical results, illustrating the effects of depth variation in conjunction with other parameters, like inertia and power-take-off, on the performance of the device, are presented. Finally, a comparative evaluation of the present simplified surge-type WEC model and point absorbers is presented for a case study in a selected coastal site on the Greek nearshore area, characterized by relatively increased wave energy potential.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020098

Authors: Or Werner Asaf Azulay Boris Mikhailovich Avi Levy

For several decades, magnetic nano- and microparticles have been used in various applications, as they can be attracted and controlled using external magnetic fields. Recently, carbonyl iron microparticles were used in a feasibility study of a new cardiac pacing application. The particles were inserted into a heart, attracted to its sidewall using a pulsating magnetic field, and applied pulsating pressure on its sidewall. The magnitude of the sidewall pressure is a critical parameter for the success and safety of the application, and it was evaluated analytically using a simplified model. In the present study, the behaviour of carbonyl iron microparticles in a water chamber was studied experimentally. Several masses of these particles were attracted to the sidewall of the chamber using an external pulsating magnetic field; the behaviours of the masses of particles, the particle&ndash;particle interaction, and the influence of fluid dynamics on them were examined during different periods of pulses. The sidewall pressure during their attraction was measured using an in-house piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride sensor. The relations between the measured sidewall pressure and the mass of the particles, their sizes, and the magnetic field exposure time were investigated. The obtained results suggest an asymptotic sidewall pressure value for the specified magnetic field. The measurements of the sidewall pressure are compared with evaluated results from the analytical model, showing that the model over-predicts the sidewall pressure.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020097

Authors: James L. Blackall Jie Wang Mostafa R. A. Nabawy Mark K. Quinn Bruce D. Grieve

Yellow rust spores currently blight commercial and domestic wheat production in areas of East Africa such as Ethiopia. Yellow rust is a hazard to crops which appears asymptomatic for a time, but inevitably causes significant losses in yield once symptoms of infection manifest themselves to the point where they can be readily observed by the naked eye. Regionally recurrent losses of up to 5% are common and reach as high as 25% in rare cases. Historically, spore sampling has been undertaken by large, cumbersome devices that require heavy power supplies and significant expertise to reliably operate. Moreover, tools for the design and development of such devices are currently limited. This paper, therefore, proposes design and testing processes to develop a spore sampling device that is compact, passive (requires no power to operate), and can better direct spores onto a biomimetic sensor platform enhancing the capture and detection of pathogens. This represents a novel design context for fluidic devices. Performance of the device has been simulated using Lagrangian particle tracking embedded into computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, demonstrating significant improvements across a range of spore Stokes numbers. Experimental validation of numerical simulations was performed using wind tunnel testing and practical performance such as weathervaning was demonstrated. Results show that that the developed sampler is capable of enhancing the probability of yellow rust spores interacting with an internal sensor by a factor of between 20 and 25; demonstrating the effectiveness of the developed design.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020096

Authors: Takao Oku Hiroyuki Hirahara Tomohiro Akimoto Daiki Tsuchida

When a bubble detaches from a nozzle immersed in water, a sound is emitted owing to the detachment. The bubble deformation and sound emission generated after detachment has been investigated in many studies, in which the breathing mode with a natural frequency was discussed based on the dynamics of the interface between the air and water. In this study, the deformation of a bubble was observed, and the sound emitted upon detachment was measured experimentally. To analyze the bubble deformation process, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was conducted using the volume of fluid (VOF) method to predict the sound emission. In the analysis, the deformation behavior, the oscillation frequencies, sound pressure, and radius variation were discussed by comparing the numerical and experimental data. Furthermore, the natural frequency and low frequency vibrations were discussed based on the interference between the detached bubbles and the air column vibrations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020095

Authors: Modesto Pérez-Sánchez P. Amparo López-Jiménez

Subjects related to fluid mechanics for hydraulic engineers ought to be delivered in interesting and active modes. New methods should be introduced to improve the learning students&rsquo; abilities in the different courses of the Bachelor&rsquo;s and Master&rsquo;s degree. Related to active learning methods, a continuous project-based learning experience is described in this research. This manuscript shows the developed learning methodology, which was included on different levels at Universitat Polit&egrave;cnica de Val&egrave;ncia. The main research goal is to show the active learning methods used to evaluate both skills competences (e.g., &ldquo;Design and Project&rdquo;) and specific competences of the students. The research shows a particular developed innovation teaching project, which was developed by lecturers and professors of the Hydraulic Engineering Department, since 2016. This project proposed coordination in different subjects that were taught in different courses of the Bachelor&rsquo;s and Master&rsquo;s degrees, in which 2200 students participated. This coordination improved the acquisition of the learning results, as well as the new teaching methods increased the student&rsquo;s satisfaction index.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020094

Authors: Ruben Ibañez Fanny Casteran Clara Argerich Chady Ghnatios Nicolas Hascoet Amine Ammar Philippe Cassagnau Francisco Chinesta

This paper analyzes the ability of different machine learning techniques, able to operate in the low-data limit, for constructing the model linking material and process parameters with the properties and performances of parts obtained by reactive polymer extrusion. The use of data-driven approaches is justified by the absence of reliable modeling and simulation approaches able to predict induced properties in those complex processes. The experimental part of this work is based on the in situ synthesis of a thermoset (TS) phase during the mixing step with a thermoplastic polypropylene (PP) phase in a twin-screw extruder. Three reactive epoxy/amine systems have been considered and anhydride maleic grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) has been used as compatibilizer. The final objective is to define the appropriate processing conditions in terms of improving the mechanical properties of these new PP materials by reactive extrusion.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020093

Authors: Antonio Esposito Marcello Lappa Gennaro Zuppardi Christophe Allouis Barbara Apicella Mario Commodo Patrizia Minutolo Carmela Russo

The problem relating to the formation of solid particles enabled by hypersonic re-entry in methane-containing atmospheres (such as that of Titan) has been tackled in the framework of a combined experimental&ndash;numerical approach implemented via a three-level analysis hierarchy. First experimental tests have been conducted using a wind tunnel driven by an industrial arc-heated facility operating with nitrogen as working gas (the SPES, i.e., the Small Planetary Entry Simulator). The formation of solid phases as a result of the complex chemical reactions established in such conditions has been detected and quantitatively measured with high accuracy. In a second stage of the study, insights into the related formation process have been obtained by using multispecies models relying on the NASA CEA code and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Through this approach the range of flow enthalpies in which carbonaceous deposits can be formed has been identified, obtaining good agreement with the experimental findings. Finally, the deposited substance has been analyzed by means of a set of complementary diagnostic techniques, i.e., SEM, spectroscopy (Raman, FTIR, UV&ndash;visible absorption and fluorescence), GC&ndash;MS and TGA. It has been found that carbon produced by the interaction of the simulated Titan atmosphere with a solid probe at very high temperatures can be separated into two chemically different fractions, which also include &ldquo;tholins&rdquo;.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020092

Authors: Arthur Sarthou Stéphane Vincent Jean-Paul Caltagirone

The present work studies the interactions between fictitious-domain methods on structured grids and velocity&ndash;pressure coupling for the resolution of the Navier&ndash;Stokes equations. The pressure-correction approaches are widely used in this context but the corrector step is generally not modified consistently to take into account the fictitious domain. A consistent modification of the pressure-projection for a high-order penalty (or penalization) method close to the Ikeno&ndash;Kajishima modification for the Immersed Boundary Method is presented here. Compared to the first-order correction required for the L 2 -penalty methods, the small values of the penalty parameters do not lead to numerical instabilities in solving the Poisson equation. A comparison of the corrected rotational pressure-correction method with the augmented Lagrangian approach which does not require a correction is carried out.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020091

Authors: Nardos Hailu Michiel Postema Ondrej Krejcar Dawit Assefa

The application of atomization technology is common in fields such as agriculture, cosmetics, environmental sciences, and medicine. Aerosolized drugs are administered using nebulizers to treat both pulmonary and nonpulmonary diseases. The characterization and measurement of nebulizers are of great significance in analyzing the performance and accuracy of the nebulizing system and the advancement of the technology. Nevertheless, the characterization of aerosols has been a long-standing challenge in scientific disciplines ranging from atmospheric physics to health sciences. The study of factors that influence nebulization has not been undertaken systematically using experimental techniques. Numerical modeling (NM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can address such issues. This article provides a concise overview of the literature on the application of computational fluid dynamics to medical nebulizers and aerosol measurements.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020090

Authors: Jorge Silva-Leon Andrea Cioncolini

Several problems in science and engineering are characterized by the interaction between fluid flows and deformable structures. Due to their complex and multidisciplinary nature, these problems cannot normally be solved analytically and experiments are frequently of limited scope, so that numerical simulations represent the main analysis tool. Key to the advancement of numerical methods is the availability of experimental test cases for validation. This paper presents results of an experiment specifically designed for the validation of numerical methods for aeroelasticity and fluid-structure interaction problems. Flexible filaments of rectangular cross-section and various lengths were exposed to air flow of moderate Reynolds number, corresponding to laminar and mildly turbulent flow conditions. Experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel, and the flexible filaments dynamics was recorded via fast video imaging. The structural response of the filaments included static reconfiguration, small-amplitude vibration, large-amplitude limit-cycle periodic oscillation, and large-amplitude non-periodic motion. The present experimental setup was designed to incorporate a rich fluid-structure interaction physics within a relatively simple configuration without mimicking any specific structure, so that the results presented herein can be valuable for models validation in aeroelasticity and also fluid-structure interaction applications.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020089

Authors: Peter Brearley Umair Ahmed Nilanjan Chakraborty Markus Klein

The second-order velocity structure function statistics have been analysed using a DNS database of statistically planar turbulent premixed flames subjected to unburned gas forcing. The flames considered here represent combustion for moderate values of Karlovitz number from the wrinkled flamelets to the thin reaction zones regimes of turbulent premixed combustion. It has been found that the second-order structure functions exhibit the theoretical asymptotic scalings in the dissipative and (relatively short) inertial ranges. However, the constant of proportionality for the theoretical asymptotic variation for the inertial range changes from one case to another, and this value also changes with structure function orientation. The variation of the structure functions for small length scale separation remains proportional to the square of the separation distance. However, the constant of proportionality for the limiting behaviour according to the separation distance square remains significantly different from the theoretical value obtained in isotropic turbulence. The disagreement increases with increasing turbulence intensity. It has been found that turbulent velocity fluctuations within the flame brush remain anisotropic for all cases considered here and this tendency strengthens towards the trailing edge of the flame brush. It indicates that the turbulence models derived based on the assumptions of homogeneous isotropic turbulence may not be fully valid for turbulent premixed flames.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020088

Authors: Yutaro Furuichi Toshio Tagawa

Nowadays, the use of baffle plates is anticipated to be one of potential devices used to dampen the sloshing of propellant in rocket tanks. However, some of previous studies reported that the use of a baffle plate may cause larger pressure fluctuations in the tank. In this study, aiming at damping the sloshing without a baffle plate, we paid attention to the characteristic that liquid oxygen is paramagnetic and numerically investigated damping effect of a magnetic field when liquid oxygen sloshing occurs. An incompressible gas&ndash;liquid two-phase flow of gaseous oxygen and liquid oxygen was assumed in a spherical spacecraft tank with a diameter of 1 m in a non-gravitational field, and a triangular impact force was assumed to be imposed as the excitation force. In addition, an electric circular coil was placed outside the spherical tank to generate a static magnetic field. For the sake of simplicity, the effect of heat was not taken into consideration. As a result of computation, the sloshing was damped to a certain extent when the magnetic flux density at the coil center was 1.0 T, and a sufficient damping effect was obtained by setting it to 3.0 T. In fact, it is anticipated that less than 3.0 T is sufficient if the coil is placed on the tank surface. This may contribute to damping of the movement of the center of gravity of a spacecraft and prevention of mixing of ullage gas into the piping.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020087

Authors: Matthew N. Crowe John R. Taylor

Here we consider the effects of surface buoyancy flux and wind stress on a front in turbulent thermal wind (TTW) balance using the framework of Crowe and Taylor (2018). The changes in the velocity and density profiles induced by the wind stress and buoyancy flux interact with the TTW and can qualitatively change the evolution of the front. In the absence of surface-forcing, Crowe and Taylor (2018) found that shear dispersion associated with the TTW circulation causes the frontal width to increase. In many cases, the flow induced by the surface-forcing enhances the spreading rate. However, if the wind stress drives a cross-front flow which opposes the frontal buoyancy gradient or the buoyancy flux drives an unstable stratification, it is possible to obtain an up-gradient cross-front buoyancy flux, which can act to sharpen the front. In certain conditions, an equilibrium state develops where the tendency for the TTW circulation to spread the front is balanced by the frontogenetic tendency of the surface forces. We use numerical solutions to a nonlinear diffusion equation in order to test these predictions. Finally, we describe the connection between surface-forcing and vertical mixing and discuss typical parameters for mid-ocean fronts.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020086

Authors: Shawtaroh Granzier-Nakajima Robert D. Guy Calvin Zhang-Molina

Inspired by the forward swimming of long-tailed crustaceans, we study an underwater propulsion mechanism for a swimming body with multiple rigid paddles attached underneath undergoing cycles of power and return strokes with a constant phase-difference between neighboring paddles, a phenomenon known as metachronal propulsion. To study how inter-paddle phase-difference affects flux production, we develop a computational fluid dynamics model and a numerical algorithm based on the immersed boundary method, which allows us to simulate metachronal propulsion at Reynolds numbers (RE) ranging from close to 0 to about 100. Our main finding is that the highest average flux is generated when nearest-neighbor paddles maintain an approximate 20%&ndash;25% phase-difference with the more posterior paddle leading the cycle; this result is independent of stroke frequency across the full range of RE considered here. We also find that the optimal paddle spacing and the number of paddles depend on RE; we see a qualitative transition in the dynamics of flow generated by metachronal propulsion as RE rises above 80. Roughly speaking, in terms of average flux generation, a tight paddle spacing is preferred when RE is less than 10, but a wider spacing becomes clearly favored when RE is close to or above 100. In terms of efficiency of flux generation, at RE 0.1 the maximum efficiency occurs at two paddles, and the efficiency decreases as the number of paddles increases. At RE 100 the efficiency increases as the number of paddles increases, and it appears to saturate by eight paddles, whereas using four paddles is a good tradeoff for both low and intermediate RE.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020085

Authors: J. Esteban López-Aguilar Hamid R. Tamaddon-Jahromi

This work puts forward a modeling study contrasted against experimental, with focus on abrupt circular contraction flow of two highly-elastic constant shear-viscosity Boger fluids, i.e., a polyacrylamide dissolved in corn-syrup PAA/CS (Fluid-1) and a polyisobutylene dissolved in polybutene PIB/PB (Fluid-2), in various contraction-ratio geometries. Moreover, this work goes hand-in-hand with the counterpart matching of experimental pressure-drops observed in such 4:1 and 8:1 aspect-ratio contraction flows, as described experimentally in the literature. In this study, the experimental findings, for Boger fluids with severe strain-hardening features, reveal significant vortex-evolution characteristics, correlated with enhanced pressure-drop phasing and normal-stress response in the corner region. It is shown how such behavior may be replicated through simulation and the rheological dependencies that are necessary to bring this about. Predictive solutions with an advanced hybrid finite-element/volume (fe/fv) algorithm are able to elucidate the rheological properties (extensional viscosity and normal-stress response) that rule such vortex-enhancement evolution. This is accomplished by employing the novel swanINNFM(q) family of fluids, through the swIM model-variant, with its strong and efficient control on elongational properties.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020084

Authors: João Pedro Bruno Ramôa João Miguel Nóbrega Célio Fernandes

In the present study, the simulation of the three-dimensional (3D) non-isothermal, non-Newtonian fluid flow of polymer melts is investigated. In particular, the filling stage of thermoplastic injection molding is numerically studied with a solver implemented in the open-source computational library O p e n F O A M &reg; . The numerical method is based on a compressible two-phase flow model, developed following a cell-centered unstructured finite volume discretization scheme, combined with a volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique for the interface capturing. Additionally, the Cross-WLF (Williams&ndash;Landel&ndash;Ferry) model is used to characterize the rheological behavior of the polymer melts, and the modified Tait equation is used as the equation of state. To verify the numerical implementation, the code predictions are first compared with analytical solutions, for a Newtonian fluid flowing through a cylindrical channel. Subsequently, the melt filling process of a non-Newtonian fluid (Cross-WLF) in a rectangular cavity with a cylindrical insert and in a tensile test specimen are studied. The predicted melt flow front interface and fields (pressure, velocity, and temperature) contours are found to be in good agreement with the reference solutions, obtained with the proprietary software M o l d e x 3 D &reg; . Additionally, the computational effort, measured by the elapsed wall-time of the simulations, is analyzed for both the open-source and proprietary software, and both are found to be similar for the same level of accuracy, when the parallelization capabilities of O p e n F O A M &reg; are employed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020083

Authors: D. Andrew S. Rees Antonio Barletta

We investigate the onset of convection in an inclined Darcy-B&eacute;nard layer. When such a layer is unbounded in the spanwise direction it is generally known that longitudinal rolls comprise the most unstable planform. On the other hand, when a layer has a sufficiently small spanwise width, then transverse rolls form the most unstable planform. However, the layer remains stable to transverse roll disturbances when the inclination is above roughly 31 degrees from the horizontal. This paper considers the transition between these two extreme cases where the spanwise width takes moderate values and where rectangular cells are considered. It is found that the most unstable planform is quite strongly sensitive to the magnitude of the spanwise width and that there are large regions of parameter space within which three-dimensional convection patterns have the smallest critical Darcy-Rayleigh number.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020082

Authors: Kyle W. Leathers Brenden T. Michaelis Matthew A. Reidenbach

Olfactory systems in animals play a major role in finding food and mates, avoiding predators, and communication. Chemical tracking in odorant plumes has typically been considered a spatial information problem where individuals navigate towards higher concentration. Recent research involving chemosensory neurons in the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, show they possess rhythmically active or &lsquo;bursting&rsquo; olfactory receptor neurons that respond to the intermittency in the odor signal. This suggests a possible, previously unexplored olfactory search strategy that enables lobsters to utilize the temporal variability within a turbulent plume to track the source. This study utilized computational fluid dynamics to simulate the turbulent dispersal of odorants and assess a number of search strategies thought to aid lobsters. These strategies include quantification of concentration magnitude using chemosensory antennules and leg chemosensors, simultaneous sampling of water velocities using antennule mechanosensors, and utilization of antennules to quantify intermittency of the odorant plume. Results show that lobsters can utilize intermittency in the odorant signal to track an odorant plume faster and with greater success in finding the source than utilizing concentration alone. However, the additional use of lobster leg chemosensors reduced search time compared to both antennule intermittency and concentration strategies alone by providing spatially separated odorant sensors along the body.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020081

Authors: Konstantinos Vontas Cristina Boscariol Manolia Andredaki Anastasios Georgoulas Cyril Crua Jens Honoré Walther Marco Marengo

Liquid penetration analysis in porous media is of great importance in a wide range of applications such as ink jet printing technology, painting and textile design. This article presents an investigation of droplet impingement onto metallic meshes, aiming to provide insights by identifying and quantifying impact characteristics that are difficult to measure experimentally. For this purpose, an enhanced Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) numerical simulation framework is utilised, previously developed in the general context of the OpenFOAM CFD Toolbox. Droplet impacts on metallic meshes are performed both experimentally and numerically with satisfactory degree of agreement. From the experimental investigation three main outcomes are observed&mdash;deposition, partial imbibition, and penetration. The penetration into suspended meshes leads to spectacular multiple jetting below the mesh. A higher amount of liquid penetration is linked to higher impact velocity, lower viscosity and larger pore size dimension. An estimation of the liquid penetration is given in order to evaluate the impregnation properties of the meshes. From the parametric analysis it is shown that liquid viscosity affects the adhesion characteristics of the drops significantly, whereas droplet break-up after the impact is mostly controlled by surface tension. Additionally, wettability characteristics are found to play an important role in both liquid penetration and droplet break-up below the mesh.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020080

Authors: Mathilde Schapira Laurent Seuront

Despite ample evidence of micro- and small-scale (i.e., millimeter- to meter-scale) phytoplankton and zooplankton patchiness in the ocean, direct observations of nutrient distributions and the ecological importance of this phenomenon are still relatively scarce. In this context, we first describe a simple procedure to continuously sample nutrients in surface waters, and subsequently provide evidence of the existence of microscale distribution of ammonium in the ocean. We further show that ammonium is never homogeneously distributed, even under very high conditions of turbulence. Instead, turbulence intensity appears to control nutrient patchiness, with a more homogeneous or a more heterogeneous distribution observed under high and low turbulence intensities, respectively, under the same concentration in nutrient. Based on a modelling procedure taking into account the stochastic properties of intermittent nutrient distributions and observations carried out on natural phytoplankton communities, we introduce and verify the hypothesis that under nutrient limitation, the &ldquo;turbulent history&rdquo; of phytoplankton cells, i.e., the turbulent conditions they experienced in their natural environments, conditions their efficiency to uptake ephemeral inorganic nitrogen patches of different concentrations. Specifically, phytoplankton cells exposed to high turbulence intensities (i.e., more homogeneous nutrient distribution) were more efficient to uptake high concentration nitrogen pulses (2 &micro;M). In contrast, under low turbulence conditions (i.e., more heterogeneous nutrient distribution), uptake rates were higher for low concentration nitrogen pulses (0.5 &micro;M). These results suggest that under nutrient limitation, natural phytoplankton populations respond to high turbulence intensities through a decrease in affinity for nutrients and an increase in their transport rate, and vice versa.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020079

Authors: Vi Nguyen Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou

Transport in porous media is critical for many applications in the environment and in the chemical process industry. A key parameter for modeling this transport is the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient for particles and scalars in a porous medium, which has been found to depend on properties of the medium structure, on the dispersing compound, and on the flow field characteristics. Previous studies have resulted in suggestions of different equation forms, showing the relationship between the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient for various types of porous media in various flow regimes and the Peclet number. The Peclet number is calculated based on a Eulerian length scale, such as the diameter of the spheres in packed beds, or the pore diameter. However, the nature of hydrodynamic dispersion is Lagrangian, and it should take the molecular diffusion effects, as well as the convection effects, into account. This work shifts attention to the Lagrangian time and length scales for the definition of the Peclet number. It is focused on the dependence of the longitudinal hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient on the effective Lagrangian Peclet number by using a Lagrangian length scale and the effective molecular diffusivity. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) was employed to simulate flow in porous media that were constituted by packed spheres, and Lagrangian particle tracking (LPT) was used to track the movement of individual dispersing particles. It was found that the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient linearly depends on the effective Lagrangian Peclet number for packed beds with different types of packing. This linear equation describing the dependence of the dispersion coefficient on the effective Lagrangian Peclet number is both simpler and more accurate than the one formed using the effective Eulerian Peclet number. In addition, the slope of the line is a characteristic coefficient for a given medium.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020078

Authors: Kacie T. M. Niimoto Kyleigh J. Kuball Lauren N. Block Petra H. Lenz Daisuke Takagi

Copepods are agile microcrustaceans that are capable of maneuvering freely in water. However, the physical mechanisms driving their rotational motion are not entirely clear in small larvae (nauplii). Here we report high-speed video observations of copepod nauplii performing acrobatic feats with three pairs of appendages. Our results show rotations about three principal axes of the body: yaw, roll, and pitch. The yaw rotation turns the body to one side and results in a circular swimming path. The roll rotation consists of the body spiraling around a nearly linear path, similar to an aileron roll of an airplane. We interpret the yaw and roll rotations to be facilitated by appendage pronation or supination. The pitch rotation consists of flipping on the spot in a maneuver that resembles a backflip somersault. The pitch rotation involved tail bending and was not observed in the earliest stages of nauplii. The maneuvering strategies adopted by plankton may inspire the design of microscopic robots, equipped with suitable controls for reorienting autonomously in three dimensions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020077

Authors: A. D. Kirwan Mehrdad Massoudi

Bulk kinematic properties of mixtures such as velocity are known to be the density weighed averages of the constituent velocities. No such paradigm exists for the heat flux of mixtures when the constituents have different temperatures. Using standard principles such as frame indifference, we address this topic by developing linear constitutive equations for the constituent heat fluxes, the interaction force between constituents, and the stresses for a mixture of two fluids. Although these equations contain 18 phenomenological coefficients, we are able to use the Clausius-Duhem inequality to obtain inequalities involving the principal and cross flux coefficients. The theory is applied to some special cases and shown to reduce to standard results when the constituents have the same temperature.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020076

Authors: Raquel Portela Filipe Valcovo Pedro L. Almeida Rita G. Sobral Catarina R. Leal

Multidrug resistant bacteria are one of the most serious public health threats nowadays. How bacteria, as a population, react to the presence of antibiotics is of major importance to the outcome of the chosen treatment. In this study we addressed the impact of oxacillin, a &beta;-lactam, the most clinically relevant class of antibiotics, in the viscosity profile of the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain COL. In the first approach, the antibiotic was added, at concentrations under the minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC), to the culture of S. aureus and steady-state shear flow curves were obtained for discrete time points during the bacterial growth, with and without the presence of the antibiotic, showing distinct viscosity progress over time. The different behaviors obtained led us to test the impact of the sub-inhibitory concentration and a concentration that inhibited growth. In the second approach, the viscosity growth curves were measured at a constant shear rate of 10 s&minus;1, over time. The obtained rheological behaviors revealed distinctive characteristics associated to the presence of each concentration of the tested antibiotic. These results bring new insights to the bacteria response to a well-known bacteriolytic antibiotic.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020075

Authors: Eirini I. Anastasiou Eva Loukogeorgaki Ioannis K. Chatjigeorgiou

The main objective of this study is to develop a semi-analytical formulation for the radiation problem of a fully immersed spheroid in a liquid field of infinite depth. The term &ldquo;spheroid&rdquo; refers herein to the oblate geometry of arbitrary eccentricity and to the axisymmetric case, where the axis of symmetry is normal to the free surface. The proposed numerical approach is based on the method of image singularities, and it enables the accurate and fast calculation of the hydrodynamic coefficients for the translational degrees of freedom of the oblate spheroid. The excellent agreement of the results, with those of other investigators for the limiting case of the sphere and with those obtained using a respected boundary integral equation code, demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed methodology. Finally, extensive calculations are presented, illustrating the direct impact of the immersion depth and the slenderness of the spheroid on the hydrodynamic coefficients.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020074

Authors: Arthur R. Zakinyan Ludmila M. Kulgina Anastasia A. Zakinyan Sergey D. Turkin

The structure formation influence on various macroscopic properties of fluid&ndash;fluid disperse systems is poorly investigated. The present work deals with the experimental study of the charge transfer in emulsions whose dispersed phase droplets are arranged into chainlike structures under the action of an external force field. The emulsions studied are the fluid system in which water droplets are dispersed in a hydrocarbon-based magnetic fluid. Under the effect of an external uniform magnetic field, anisotropic aggregates form from the emulsion dispersed phase drops. The low-frequency electrical conductivity of emulsions has been measured. It is demonstrated that the emulsions&rsquo; conductivity grows several times under the effect of magnetic field parallel to the measuring electrical field. The anisotropic character of the emulsion electrical conductivity in the presence of magnetic field has been demonstrated. It is revealed that the maximal response of conductivity on the magnetic field action takes place at the dispersed phase volume fraction of about 20%. The dynamics of the conductivity variation is analyzed in dependence on the magnetic field strength and the dispersed phase volume fraction. The obtained results may be of interest in the development of potential applications of disperse systems with magnetic-field-controllable properties.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020073

Authors: Omer San

In recent decades, the field of computational fluid dynamics has made significant advances in enabling advanced computing architectures to understand many phenomena in biological, geophysical, and engineering fluid flows [...]

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020072

Authors: Furkan Oz Kursat Kara

The time-resolved flow field of a spatially oscillating jet emitted by a sweeping jet (SWJ) actuator is investigated numerically using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier&ndash;Stokes (3D-URANS) equations. Numerical simulations are performed for a range of mass flow rates providing flow conditions varying from incompressible to subsonic compressible flows. After a detailed mesh study, the computational domain is represented using two million hexagonal control volumes. The jet oscillation frequency is predicted by analyzing velocity time histories at the actuator exit, and a linear relationship between the jet oscillation frequency and time-averaged exit nozzle Mach number is found ( f = 511.22 &nbsp; M + 46.618 , R&sup2; = 0.97). The results of our numerical model are compared with data from the literature, and a good agreement is found. In addition, we confirmed that the Strouhal number is almost constant with the Mach number for the subsonic oscillating jet and has an average value of St = 0.0131. The 3D-URANS model that we presented here provides a computationally inexpensive yet accurate alternative to the researchers to investigate jet oscillation characteristics.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020071

Authors: Alessandro Coclite Maria Faruoli Annarita Viggiano Paolo Caso Vinicio Magi

The present work deals with an analysis of the cooling system for a two-stroke aircraft engine with compression ignition. This analysis is carried out by means of a 3D finite-volume RANS equations solver with k- ϵ closure. Three different cooling system geometries are critically compared with a discussion on the capabilities and limitations of each technical solution. A first configuration of such a system is considered and analyzed by evaluating the pressure loss across the system as a function of the inlet mass-flow rate. Moreover, the velocity and vorticity patterns are analyzed to highlight the features of the flow structure. Thermal effects on the engine structure are also taken into account and the cooling system performance is assessed as a function of both the inlet mass-flow rate and the cylinder jackets temperatures. Then, by considering the main thermo-fluid dynamics features obtained in the case of the first configuration, two geometrical modifications are proposed to improve the efficiency of the system. As regards the first modification, the fluid intake is split in two manifolds by keeping the same total mass-flow rate. As regards the second configuration, a new single-inlet geometry is designed by inserting restrictions and enlargements within the cooling system to constrain the coolant flow through the cylinder jackets and by moving downstream the outflow section. It is shown that the second geometry modification achieves the best performances by improving the overall transferred heat of about 20% with respect to the first one, while keeping the three cylinders only slightly unevenly cooled. However, an increase of the flow characteristic loads occurs due to the geometrical restrictions and enlargements of the cooling system.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids5020070

Authors: Farzad Mohebbi Ben Evans

This study proposeda novel exact expression for step length (size) in gradient-based aerodynamic shape optimization for an airfoil in steady inviscid transonic flows. The airfoil surfaces were parameterized using Bezier curves. The Bezier curve control points were considered as design variables and the finite-difference method was used to compute the gradient of the objective function (drag-to-lift ratio) with respect to the design variables. An exact explicit expression was derived for the step length in gradient-based shape optimization problems. It was shown that the derived step length was independent of the method used for calculating the gradient (adjoint method, finite-difference method, etc.). The obtained results reveal the accuracy of the derived step length.

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