Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010016

Authors: Niema M Pahlevan Ray V Matthews

Noninvasive and practical assessment of hemodynamics is a critical unmet need in the treatment of both chronic and acute cardiovascular diseases. Particularly, the ability to monitor left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) noninvasively offers enormous benefit for managing patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Recently, we provided proof of concept that a new cardiac metric, intrinsic frequency (IF), derived from mathematical analysis of non-invasively captured arterial waveforms, can be used to accurately compute cardiovascular hemodynamic measures, such as left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF), by using a smartphone. In this manuscript, we propose a new systems-based method called cardiac triangle mapping (CTM) for hemodynamics evaluation of the left ventricle. This method is based on intrinsic frequency (IF) and systolic time interval (STI) methods that allows computation of LVEDP from noninvasive measurements. Since the CTM method only requires arterial waveform and electrocardiogram (ECG), it can eventually be adopted as a simple smartphone-based device, an inexpensive hand-held device, or perhaps (with future design modifications) a wearable sensor. Such devices, combined with this method, would allow for remote monitoring of heart failure patients.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010015

Authors: Qiancheng Xie James Yang T. Staffan Lundström

Meandering is a common feature in natural alluvial streams. This study deals with alluvial behaviors of a meander reach subjected to both fresh-water flow and strong tides from the coast. Field measurements are carried out to obtain flow and sediment data. Approximately 95% of the sediment in the river is suspended load of silt and clay. The results indicate that, due to the tidal currents, the flow velocity and sediment concentration are always out of phase with each other. The cross-sectional asymmetry and bi-directional flow result in higher sediment concentration along inner banks than along outer banks of the main stream. For a given location, the near-bed concentration is 2&minus;5 times the surface value. Based on Froude number, a sediment carrying capacity formula is derived for the flood and ebb tides. The tidal flow stirs the sediment and modifies its concentration and transport. A 3D hydrodynamic model of flow and suspended sediment transport is established to compute the flow patterns and morphology changes. Cross-sectional currents, bed shear stress and erosion-deposition patterns are discussed. The flow in cross-section exhibits significant stratification and even an opposite flow direction during the tidal rise and fall; the vertical velocity profile deviates from the logarithmic distribution. During the flow reversal between flood and ebb tides, sediment deposits, which is affected by slack-water durations. The bed deformation is dependent on the meander asymmetry and the interaction between the fresh water flow and tides. The flood tides are attributable to the deposition, while the ebb tides, together with run-offs, lead to slight erosion. The flood tides play a key role in the morphodynamic changes of the meander reach.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010014

Authors: Konstantin Koshel Eugene Ryzhov Xavier Carton

Deformation flows are the flows incorporating shear, strain and rotational components. These flows are ubiquitous in the geophysical flows, such as the ocean and atmosphere. They appear near almost any salience, such as isolated coherent structures (vortices and jets) and various fixed obstacles (submerged obstacles and continental boundaries). Fluid structures subject to such deformation flows may exhibit drastic changes in motion. In this review paper, we focus on the motion of a small number of coherent vortices embedded in deformation flows. Problems involving isolated one and two vortices are addressed. When considering a single-vortex problem, the main focus is on the evolution of the vortex boundary and its influence on the passive scalar motion. Two vortex problems are addressed with the use of point vortex models, and the resulting stirring patterns of neighbouring scalars are studied by a combination of numerical and analytical methods from the dynamical system theory. Many dynamical effects are reviewed with emphasis on the emergence of chaotic motion of the vortex phase trajectories and the scalars in their immediate vicinity.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010013

Authors: Luis G. Baltazar Fernando M.A. Henriques Maria Teresa Cidade

This review provides an overview of the recent progress in the field of the rheology of grouts for historic masonry consolidation. During the last two decades, significant research has been devoted on the grouting technique for stone masonry consolidation but most results are scattered by scientific papers, congress communications, and thesis. This paper compiles and briefly demonstrates the effect of several intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, such as admixtures, additions, pressure, temperature, and measuring instrumentation, on the rheological performance of natural hydraulic lime-based grouts.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010012

Authors: Ahmad Alqallaf Markus Klein Nilanjan Chakraborty

The effects of Lewis number on the physical mechanisms pertinent to the curvature evolution have been investigated using three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of spherically expanding turbulent premixed flames with characteristic Lewis number of L e = 0.8 , 1.0 and 1.2. It has been found that the overall burning rate and the extent of flame wrinkling increase with decreasing Lewis number L e , and this tendency is particularly prevalent for the sub-unity Lewis number (e.g., L e = 0.8 ) case due to the occurrence of the thermo-diffusive instability. Accordingly, the L e = 0.8 case has been found to exhibit higher probability of finding saddle topologies with large magnitude negative curvatures in comparison to the corresponding L e = 1.0 and 1.2 cases. It has been found that the terms in the curvature transport equation due to normal strain rate gradients and curl of vorticity arising from both fluid flow and flame normal propagation play pivotal roles in the curvature evolution in all cases considered here. The net contribution of the source/sink terms of the curvature transport equation tends to increase the concavity and convexity of the flame surface in the negatively and positively curved locations, respectively for the L e = 0.8 case. This along with the occurrence of high and low temperature (and burning rate) values at the positively and negatively curved zones, respectively acts to augment positive and negative curved wrinkles induced by turbulence in the L e = 0.8 case, which is indicative of thermo-diffusive instability. By contrast, flame propagation effects tend to weakly promote the concavity of the negatively curved cusps, and act to decrease the convexity of the highly positively curved bulges in the L e = 1.0 and 1.2 cases, which are eventually smoothed out due to high and low values of displacement speed S d at negatively and positively curved locations, respectively. Thus, flame propagation tends to smoothen the flame surface in the L e = 1.0 and 1.2 cases.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010011

Authors: Yorgos G. Stergiou Athanasios G. Kanaris Aikaterini A. Mouza Spiros V. Paras

The Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a local dilation of the abdominal aorta and it is a cause for serious concern because of the high mortality associated with its rupture. Consequently, the understanding of the phenomena related to the creation and the progression of an AAA is of crucial importance. In this work, the complicated interaction between the blood flow and the AAA wall is numerically examined using a fully coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) method. The study investigates the possible link between the dynamic behavior of an AAA and the blood viscosity variations attributed to the haematocrit value, while it also incorporates the pulsatile blood flow, the non-Newtonian behavior of blood and the hyperelasticity of the arterial wall. It was found that blood viscosity has no significant effect on von Mises stress magnitude and distribution, whereas there is a close relation between the haematocrit value and the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) magnitude in AAAs. This WSS variation can possibly alter the mechanical properties of the arterial wall and increase its growth rate or even its rupture possibility. The relationship between haematocrit and dynamic behavior of an AAA can be helpful in designing a patient specific treatment.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010010

Authors: James Yang Patrik Andreasson Penghua Teng Qiancheng Xie

Most of the hydropower dams in Sweden were built before 1980. The present dam-safety guidelines have resulted in higher design floods than their spillway discharge capacity and the need for structural upgrades. This has led to renewed laboratory model tests. For some dams, even computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed. This provides the possibility to compare the spillway discharge data between the model tests performed a few decades apart. The paper presents the hydropower development, the needs for the ongoing dam rehabilitations and the history of physical hydraulic modeling in Sweden. More than 20 spillways, both surface and bottom types, are analyzed to evaluate their discharge modeling accuracy. The past and present model tests are compared with each other and with the CFD results if available. Discrepancies do exist in the discharges between the model tests made a few decades apart. The differences fall within the range &minus;8.3%&ndash;+11.2%. The reasons for the discrepancies are sought from several aspects. The primary source of the errors is seemingly the model construction quality and flow measurement method. The machine milling technique and 3D printing reduce the source of construction errors and improve the model quality. Results of the CFD simulations differ, at the maximum, by 3.8% from the physical tests. They are conducted without knowledge of the physical model results in advance. Following the best practice guidelines, CFD should generate results of decent accuracy for discharge prediction.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010009

Authors: Fluids Editorial Office Fluids Editorial Office

Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...]

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010008

Authors: Angeliki T. Koupa Yorgos G. Stergiou Aikaterini A. Mouza

Among the most important variables in the design of falling film microreactors (FFMRs) is the liquid film thickness as well as the gas/liquid interfacial area, which dictate the mass and heat transfer rates. In a previous work conducted in our lab the characteristics of a free-falling Newtonian liquid film have been studied and appropriate correlations have been proposed. In this work the geometrical characteristics of a non-Newtonian shear thinning liquid, flowing in an inclined open microchannel, have been experimentally investigated and design correlations that can predict with reasonable accuracy the features of a FFMR have been proposed. The test section used was an open &mu;-channel with square cross section (WO = 1200 &mu;m) made of brass which can be set to various inclination angles. The liquid film characteristics were measured by a non-intrusive technique that is based on the features of a micro Particle Image Velocimetry (&mu;-PIV) system. Relevant computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations revealed that the volume average dynamic viscosity over the flow domain is practically the same as the corresponding asymptotic viscosity value, which can thus be used in the proposed design equations. Finally, a generalized algorithm for the design of FFMRs, containing non-Newtonian shear thinning liquids, is suggested.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010007

Authors: Mercedes Fernandez Arrate Huegun Antxon Santamaria

Linear and nonlinear rheological features and electrical conductivity of two nanocomposite systems based on polypropylene/multiwall carbon nanotubes (PP/MWCNT) are investigated. The nanocomposites were irradiated with an electron beam following two different procedures. Protocol A, where the nanocomposite mixture is irradiated, and Protocol B where only the PP matrix is irradiated before mixing with MWCNT. The same irradiation dose adjusted to bring about long chain branching (LCB) but not crosslinking, is used in both types of nanocomposites. The modification of the polymer matrix viscosity caused by irradiation determines the MWCNT dispersion and therefore the rheological and percolation thresholds. Elongational flow results reveal that strain hardening, typical of irradiated PPs, is observed for the nanocomposites irradiated, but not for the nanocomposites prepared with the irradiated PP. The hypothesis of a shear flow modification that aligns the branches into the backbone, eliminating the strain hardening is considered.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010006

Authors: Miguel A. Delgado Sebastien Secouard Concepción Valencia José M. Franco

Practical steady-state flow curves were obtained from different rheological tests and protocols for five lubricating greases, containing thickeners of a rather different nature, i.e., aluminum complex, lithium, lithium complex, and calcium complex soaps and polyurea. The experimental results demonstrated the difficulty to reach &ldquo;real&rdquo; steady-state flow conditions for these colloidal suspensions as a consequence of the strong time dependence and marked yielding behavior in a wide range of shear rates, resulting in flow instabilities such as shear banding and fracture. In order to better understand these phenomena, transient flow experiments, at constant shear rates, and creep tests, at constant shear stresses, were also carried out using controlled-strain and controlled-stress rheometers, respectively. The main objective of this work was to study the steady-state flow behaviour of lubricating greases, analyzing how the microstructural characteristics may affect the yielding flow behaviour.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010005

Authors: Bilen Emek Abali

Despite its numerical challenges, finite element method is used to compute viscous fluid flow. A consensus on the cause of numerical problems has been reached; however, general algorithms&mdash;allowing a robust and accurate simulation for any process&mdash;are still missing. Either a very high computational cost is necessary for a direct numerical solution (DNS) or some limiting procedure is used by adding artificial dissipation to the system. These stabilization methods are useful; however, they are often applied relative to the element size such that a local monotonous convergence is challenging to acquire. We need a computational strategy for solving viscous fluid flow using solely the balance equations. In this work, we present a general procedure solving fluid mechanics problems without use of any stabilization or splitting schemes. Hence, its generalization to multiphysics applications is straightforward. We discuss emerging numerical problems and present the methodology rigorously. Implementation is achieved by using open-source packages and the accuracy as well as the robustness is demonstrated by comparing results to the closed-form solutions and also by solving well-known benchmarking problems.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010004

Authors: Dimosthenis Sarigiannis Spyros Karakitsios

Physiology-Based BioKinetic (PBBK) models are of increasing interest in modern risk assessment, providing quantitative information regarding the absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion (ADME). They focus on the estimation of the effective dose at target sites, aiming at the identification of xenobiotic levels that are able to result in perturbations to the biological pathway that are potentially associated with adverse outcomes. The current study aims at the development of a lifetime PBBK model that covers a large chemical space, coupled with a framework for human biomonitoring (HBM) data assimilation. The methodology developed herein was demonstrated in the case of bisphenol A (BPA), where exposure analysis was based on European HBM data. Based on our calculations, it was found that current exposure levels in Europe are below the temporary Tolerable Daily Intake (t-TDI) of 4 &mu;g/kg_bw/day proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Taking into account age-dependent bioavailability differences, internal exposure was estimated and compared with the biologically effective dose (BED) resulting from translating the EFSA temporary total daily intake (t-TDI) into equivalent internal dose and an alternative internal exposure reference value, namely biological pathway altering dose (BPAD); the use of such a refined exposure metric, showed that environmentally relevant exposure levels are below the concentrations associated with the activation of biological pathways relevant to toxicity based on High Throughput Screening (HTS) in vitro studies.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010003

Authors: Priscilla R. Varges Camila M. Costa Bruno S. Fonseca Mônica F. Naccache Paulo De Souza Mendes

The influence of the solvent type on the rheological properties of Carbopol ® NF 980 dispersions in water and in water/glycerol solutions is investigated. The material formulation, preparation procedure, common experimental challenges and artifact sources are all addressed. Transient and steady-state experiments were performed. For both solvent types, a clearly thixotropic behavior occurs slightly above the yield stress, where the avalanche effect is observed. For larger stresses, thixotropy is always negligible. Among other findings, it is observed that, for a given Carbopol concentration, the dispersion in the more viscous solvent possesses a lower yield stress and moduli, a larger power-law index, and a longer time to reach steady state.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010002

Authors: David Andrade Raphael Stuhlmeier Michael Stiassnie

This article is concerned with the non-linear interaction of homogeneous random ocean surface waves. Under this umbrella, numerous kinetic equations have been derived to study the evolution of the spectral action density, each employing slightly different assumptions. Using analytical and numerical tools, and providing exact formulas, we demonstrate that the recently derived generalized kinetic equation exhibits blow up in finite time for certain degenerate quartets of waves. This is discussed in light of the assumptions made in the derivation, and this equation is contrasted with other kinetic equations for the spectral action density.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids4010001

Authors: Christian Y. Cardall

A kinetic theory of classical particles serves as a unified basis for developing a geometric 3 + 1 spacetime perspective on fluid dynamics capable of embracing both Minkowski and Galilei/Newton spacetimes. Parallel treatment of these cases on as common a footing as possible reveals that the particle four-momentum is better regarded as comprising momentum and inertia rather than momentum and energy; and, consequently, that the object now known as the stress-energy or energy-momentum tensor is more properly understood as a stress-inertia or inertia-momentum tensor. In dealing with both fiducial and comoving frames as fluid dynamics requires, tensor decompositions in terms of the four-velocities of observers associated with these frames render use of coordinate-free geometric notation not only fully viable, but conceptually simplifying. A particle number four-vector, three-momentum ( 1 , 1 ) tensor, and kinetic energy four-vector characterize a simple fluid and satisfy balance equations involving spacetime divergences on both Minkowski and Galilei/Newton spacetimes. Reduced to a fully 3 + 1 form, these equations yield the familiar conservative formulations of special relativistic and non-relativistic fluid dynamics as partial differential equations in inertial coordinates, and in geometric form will provide a useful conceptual bridge to arbitrary-Lagrange&ndash;Euler and general relativistic formulations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040108

Authors: Junru Wu

Broadly speaking, acoustic streaming is generated by a nonlinear acoustic wave with a finite amplitude propagating in a viscid fluid. The fluid volume elements of molecules, d V , are forced to oscillate at the same frequency as the incident acoustic wave. Due to the nature of the nonlinearity of the acoustic wave, the second-order effect of the wave propagation produces a time-independent flow velocity (DC flow) in addition to a regular oscillatory motion (AC motion). Consequently, the fluid moves in a certain direction, which depends on the geometry of the system and its boundary conditions, as well as the parameters of the incident acoustic wave. The small scale acoustic streaming in a fluid is called &ldquo;microstreaming&rdquo;. When it is associated with acoustic cavitation, which refers to activities of microbubbles in a general sense, it is often called &ldquo;cavitation microstreaming&rdquo;. For biomedical applications, microstreaming usually takes place in a boundary layer at proximity of a solid boundary, which could be the membrane of a cell or walls of a container. To satisfy the non-slip boundary condition, the flow motion at a solid boundary should be zero. The magnitude of the DC acoustic streaming velocity, as well as the oscillatory flow velocity near the boundary, drop drastically; consequently, the acoustic streaming velocity generates a DC velocity gradient and the oscillatory flow velocity gradient produces an AC velocity gradient; they both will produce shear stress. The former is a DC shear stress and the latter is AC shear stress. It was observed the DC shear stress plays the dominant role, which may enhance the permeability of molecules passing through the cell membrane. This phenomenon is called &ldquo;sonoporation&rdquo;. Sonoporation has shown a great potential for the targeted delivery of DNA, drugs, and macromolecules into a cell. Acoustic streaming has also been used in fluid mixing, boundary cooling, and many other applications. The goal of this work is to give a brief review of the basic mathematical theory for acoustic microstreaming related to the aforementioned applications. The emphasis will be on its applications in biotechnology.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040107

Authors: Frank Austin Mier Raj Bhakta Nicolas Castano John Garcia Michael J. Hargather

Liquid coiling occurs as a viscous fluid flows into a stagnant reservoir causing a localized accumulation of settling material, which coils into a stack as it accumulates. These coiling flows are broadly characterized into three primary coiling regimes of viscous, gravitational, or inertial coiling, based on the velocity of the falling fluid, the height of the fall, the radius of the fluid rope, the stack height, and the fluid properties including viscosity. A computer-controlled flow delivery apparatus was developed here to produce precisely controlled flow conditions to study steady and transitional coiling regimes with independently varied parameters. Data were recorded using high-speed digital video cameras and a purpose-built digital image processing routine to extract rope and stack dimensions as well as time-resolved coiling frequency. The precision of the setup and data analysis methods allowed a detailed study of the transition between gravitational and inertial flow regimes. The results show a smooth transition between the regimes, with no evidence of the inertial-gravitational regime. Unsteady coiling was able to be momentarily produced by applying a perturbation to the system, but the unstable regime quickly decayed to either the base inertial or gravitational regime.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040106

Authors: Francisco-José Rubio-Hernández

Rheology of a concrete is mainly controlled by the rheological behavior of its cement paste. This is the main practical reason for the extensive research activity observed during 70 years in this research subfield. In this brief review, some areas of the research on the rheological behavior of fresh cement pastes (mixture method influence, microstructure analysis, mineral additions influence, chemical additives influence, blended cements behavior, viscoelastic behavior, flow models, and flow behavior analysis with alternative methods) are examined.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040105

Authors: Liyuan Gong Xiuling Wang

Roadside noise barrier helps to reduce downwind pollutant concentrations from vehicle emission. This positive characteristic of the construction feature can be explained by its interaction with flow distribution and species dispersion. In this paper, a three-dimensional numerical model has been developed to simulate highway pollutant dispersion&mdash;a realizable k-&epsilon; model was employed to model turbulent flow, and a non-reaction species dispersion model was applied to simulate species transport. First, numerical models were validated with experimental data, and good agreement was observed. Then, detailed simulations were conducted to study double barriers&rsquo; effects on highway pollutant dispersion under different settings: noise barriers with different heights, noise barriers with and without edge effects, and different atmospheric thermal boundary conditions. Results show that: (1) Noise barriers without edge effects cause bigger downwind velocity and turbulence intensity than noise barriers with edge effects. (2) At ground level, lower downwind pollutant concentration and higher pollutant concentration, near upwind barrier and between barriers, are observed for noise barriers without edge effect cases; higher on-road pollutant concentration can be seen near barrier side edges for cases with edge effect. (3) Downwind velocity and turbulence intensity increase as barrier height increases, which causes reduced downwind pollutant concentration. (4) With the same barrier height, under unstable atmospheric boundary condition, the lowest pollutant concentration can be found for both downwind and between barriers. Overall, these findings will provide valuable inputs to noise barrier design, so as to improve roadside neighborhood air quality.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040104

Authors: Gautham Krishnamoorthy Lucky Nteke Mulenga

While there has been some recognition regarding the impact of thermal boundary conditions (adiabatic versus isothermal) on premixed flame propagation mechanisms in micro-channels (hydraulic diameters &lt;10 mm), their impact in macro-channels has often been overlooked due to small surface-area-to-volume ratios of the propagating combustion wave. Further, the impact of radiative losses has also been neglected due to its anticipated insignificance based on scaling analysis and the high computational cost associated with resolving it&rsquo;s spatial, temporal, directional, and wavelength dependencies. However, when channel conditions promote flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions (DDT), large pressures are encountered in the vicinity of the combustion wave, thereby increasing the magnitude of radiative losses which in turn can impact the strength and velocity of the combustion wave. This is demonstrated for the first time through simulations of lean (equivalence ratio: 0.5) hydrogen-air mixtures in a macro-channel (hydraulic diameter: 174 mm) with obstacles (Blockage ratio: 0.51). By employing Planck mean absorption coefficients in conjunction with the P-1 radiation model, radiative losses are shown to affect the run-up distances to DDT in a long channel (length: 11.878 m). As anticipated, the differences in run-up distances resulting from radiative losses only increased with system pressure.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040103

Authors: Giancarlo Comes Carlo Cravero

The present work is focused on the study of an innovative fluidic device. It consists of a two-ways diverter valve able to elaborate an inlet water flow and divert it through one of the two outlets without moving parts but as a result of a fluctuation of pressure induced by two actuation ports, or channels. Such apparatus is named Attachment Bi-Stable Diverter (ABD) and is able to work with the effect of the fluid adhesion to a convex wall adjacent to it, this phenomenon is known as Coanda Effect; it generates the force responsible for the fluid attachment and the consequent deviation. The main purpose of this work is to develop a knowhow for the design and development of such particular device. A mathematical model for the ABD has been developed and used to find the relationships between the geometrical parameters and the operative conditions. A configuration has been designed, simulated with a computational fluid dynamics approach. A prototype has been printed with and additive manufacturing printer and tested in laboratory to check the effective working point of the device.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040102

Authors: Alexey Beliaev Gennady Krichevets

One of the most significant difficulties in subsurface hydrology is the considerable uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity values in the medium. This stimulates qualitative analysis of the effect of conductivity distribution on the solutions or on some components of the solutions of groundwater flow equations. This work is an attempt to develop a rigorous basis for deciding whether the solutions are monotonous with respect to hydraulic conductivity. Such monotonicity is analogous to the well-known comparison principles with respect to variations of initial data or external supplies. Some example problems are given in this paper, including a problem with a free boundary, in which the monotonous dependence of the solution on the conductivity distribution is proved rigorously. Examples are also given, in which monotonicity assumptions, despite being apparently obvious, are proved to be invalid.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040101

Authors: Wentao Wu Bing Wang Ali Malkawi Nari Yoon Zlatan Sehovic Bin Yan

Natural ventilation is often used as a passive technology to reduce building energy consumption. To leverage the rule-based natural ventilation control to more advanced control at multiple spatial scales, mathematical modeling is needed to calculate the real-time ventilation rate, indoor air temperatures, and velocities at high spatial resolution. This study aims to develop a real-time mathematical modeling framework based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The real-time concept is implemented by using real-time sensor data, e.g., wall surface temperatures as boundary conditions, while data assimilation is employed to implement real-time self-calibration. The proof of concept is demonstrated by a case study using synthetic data. The results show that the modeling framework can adequately predict real-time ventilation rates and indoor air temperatures. The data assimilation method can nudge the simulated air velocities toward the observed values to continuously calibrate the model. The real-time CFD modeling framework will be further tested by the real-time sensor data once building construction is fully completed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040100

Authors: Sergey Nesis Daniel Gottwald Thomas Geber Rolf Pelster

The simultaneous visualization and characterization of heat transfer processes from hot vibrating objects is a challenging task. This article presents an experimental set-up for the investigation of thermomechanical oscillations in thin cylindrical heaters, allowing us to visualize convection processes using Schlieren photography, infrared photometry, and other methods. It is demonstrated that heat transfer considerably changes in the regions of parametric instability.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040099

Authors: Kazuma Yamanaka Takayuki Narumi Megumi Hashiguchi Hirotaka Okabe Kazuhiro Hara Yoshiki Hidaka

The properties of chaotic advection arising from defect turbulence, that is, weak turbulence in the electroconvection of nematic liquid crystals, were experimentally investigated. Defect turbulence is a phenomenon in which fluctuations of convective rolls arise and are globally disturbed while maintaining convective rolls locally. The time-dependent diffusion coefficient, as measured from the motion of a tagged particle driven by the turbulence, was used to clarify the dependence of the type of diffusion on coarse-graining time. The results showed that, as coarse-graining time increases, the type of diffusion changes from superdiffusion → subdiffusion → normal diffusion. The change in diffusive properties over the observed timescale reflects the coexistence of local order and global disorder in the defect turbulence.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040098

Authors: Pooja Thanekar Parag Gogate

The concentration of hazardous pollutants in the wastewater streams has to keep below a certain level in order to comply with the stringent environmental laws. The conventional technologies for wastewater treatment have drawbacks in terms of limited applicability and efficiency. Utilization of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactors for the degradation of pollutants at large scale has shown considerable promise over last few years, due to higher energy efficiencies and low cost operation based on lower consumption of chemicals for the treatment. The present work overviews the degradation of different pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, pesticide, phenolic derivatives and dyes, as well as the treatment of real industrial effluents using hybrid methods based on HC viz. HC/H2O2, HC/Ozone, HC/Fenton, HC/Ultraviolet irradiations (UV), and HC coupled with biological oxidation. Furthermore, based on the literature reports, recommendations for the selection of optimum operating parameters, such as inlet pressure, solution temperature, initial pH and initial pollutant concentration have been discussed in order to maximize the process intensification benefits. Moreover, hybrid methods based on HC has been demonstrated to show good synergism as compared to individual treatment approach. Overall, high energy efficient wastewater treatment can be achieved using a combined treatment approach based on HC under optimized conditions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040097

Authors: Imran Akhtar Jeff Borggaard John Burns

We discuss developing efficient reduced-order models (ROM) for designing energy-efficient buildings using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. This is often the first step in the reduce-then-control technique employed for flow control in various industrial and engineering problems. This approach computes the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) eigenfunctions from high-fidelity simulations data and then forms a ROM by projecting the Navier-Stokes equations onto these basic functions. In this study, we develop a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control based on the ROM of flow in a room. We demonstrate these approaches on a one-room model, serving as a basic unit in a building. Furthermore, the ROM is used to compute feedback functional gains. These gains are in fact the spatial representation of the feedback control. Insight of these functional gains can be used for effective placement of sensors in the room. This research can further lead to developing mathematical tools for efficient design, optimization, and control in building management systems.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040096

Authors: Zihua Liu Roger Grimshaw Edward Johnson

Large amplitude, horizontally propagating internal waves are commonly observed in the coastal ocean. They are often modelled by a variable-coefficient Korteweg&ndash;de Vries equation to take account of a horizontally varying background state. Although this equation is now well-known, a term representing non-conservative effects, arising from horizontal variation in the underlying basic state density stratification and current, has often been omitted. In this paper, we examine the possible significance of this term using climatological data for several typical oceanic sites where internal waves have been observed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040095

Authors: Valentin Leroy Nicolas Chastrette Margaux Thieury Olivier Lombard Arnaud Tourin

A model for acoustic transmission through a 2D square crystal of R-radius bubbles with a lattice constant L was previously proposed. Assuming a purely monopole response of the bubbles, this model offers a simple analytical expression of the transmission. However, it is not applicable when the bubbles are too close to each other (L/R &lt; 5). This article proposes an extension of the model by including the dipole response of the bubbles. Comparisons with numerical and experimental results show that the new expression gives a good estimate of the concentration at which the monopole model is no longer valid, but fails at properly predicting the transmission.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040094

Authors: Aria Alimi Olaf Wünsch

Active flow control of canonical laminar separation bubbles by steady and harmonic vortex generator jets (VGJs) was investigated using direct numerical simulations. Both control strategies were found to be effective in controlling the laminar boundary-layer separation. However, the present results indicate that using the same blowing amplitude, harmonic VGJs were more effective and efficient at reducing the separated region than the steady VGJs considering the fact that the harmonic VGJs use less momentum than the steady case. For steady VGJs, longitudinal structures forming immediately downstream of the injection location led to the formation of hairpin-type vortices, causing an earlier transition to turbulence. Symmetric hairpin vortices were shown to develop downstream of the forcing location for the harmonic VGJs, as well. However, the increased control effectiveness for harmonic VGJs&rsquo; flow control strategy is attributed to the fact that the shear-layer instability mechanism was exploited. As a result, disturbances introduced by VGJs were strongly amplified, leading to the development of large-scale coherent structures, which are very effective at increasing the momentum exchange, thus limiting the separated region.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040093

Authors: Javeria Jalal Thomas S. H. Leong

Acoustic streaming is the steady flow of a fluid that is caused by the propagation of sound through that fluid. The fluid flow in acoustic streaming is generated by a nonlinear, time-averaged effect that results from the spatial and temporal variations in a pressure field. When there is an oscillating body submerged in the fluid, such as a cavitation bubble, vorticity is generated on the boundary layer on its surface, resulting in microstreaming. Although the effects are generated at the microscale, microstreaming can have a profound influence on the fluid mechanics of ultrasound/acoustic processing systems, which are of high interest to sonochemistry, sonoprocessing, and acoustophoretic applications. The effects of microstreaming have been evaluated over the years using carefully controlled experiments that identify and quantify the fluid motion at a small scale. This mini-review article overviews the historical development of acoustic streaming, shows how microstreaming behaves, and provides an update on new numerical and experimental studies that seek to explore and improve our understanding of microstreaming.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040092

Authors: Gabriel Rojas Jessica Grove-Smith

The operation of a typical indoor swimming pool is very energy intensive. Previous studies have shown that high quality thermal building envelopes, i.e., with high levels of insulation and airtightness, make it possible to rethink conventional ventilation concepts. Due to the reduced condensation risk in and on envelopes of high thermal quality, ventilation design can be optimized for indoor air quality rather than for averting condensation on the facade. This work investigates different air distribution concepts for an existing swimming pool via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to evaluate their ventilation efficiency. To reduce modelling and computational resources, the velocity and turbulence fields produced by the swirl-diffusers are determined in a set of separate CFD simulations and incorporated into the swimming pool models. The results show that the ventilation efficiency in the examined swimming pool could potentially be improved with various alternative air distribution concepts, therefore improving the indoor air quality. Although the results seem plausible and compare well with the limited measurement data of air humidity, a more formal experimental validation is still needed before generalizing recommendations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040091

Authors: Hemant Khatri Pavel Berloff

Multiple zonal jets observed in many parts of the global ocean are often embedded in large-scale eastward and westward vertically sheared background flows. Properties of the jets and ambient eddies, as well as their dynamic interactions, are found to be different between eastward and westward shears. However, the impact of these differences on overall eddy dynamics remains poorly understood and is the main subject of this study. The roles of eddy relative vorticity and buoyancy fluxes in the maintenance of oceanic zonal jets are studied in a two-layer quasigeostrophic model. Both eastward and westward uniform, zonal vertically sheared cases are considered in the study. It is shown that, despite the differences in eddy structure and local characteristics, the fundamental dynamics are essentially the same in both cases: the relative-vorticity fluxes force the jets in the entire fluid column, and the eddy-buoyancy fluxes transfer momentum from the top to the bottom layer, where it is balanced by bottom friction. It is also observed that the jets gain more energy via Reynolds stress work in the layer having a positive gradient in the background potential vorticity, and this is qualitatively explained by a simple reasoning based on Rossby wave group velocity.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040090

Authors: Alexey Maksimov

The purpose of the present review is to describe the effect of an interface between media with different mechanical properties on the acoustic response of a gas bubble. This is necessary to interpret sonar signals received from underwater gas seeps and mud volcanoes, as well as in the case of acoustic studies on the Arctic shelf where rising gas bubbles accumulate at the lower boundary of the ice cover. The ability to describe the dynamics of constrained bubble by analytical methods is related to the presence of internal symmetry in the governing equations. This leads to the presence of specific (toroidal and bi-spherical) coordinate systems in which the variables are separated. The existence of symmetry properties is possible only under certain conditions. In particular, the characteristic wavelength should be larger than the bubble size and the distance to an interface. The derived analytical solution allows us to determine how the natural frequency, radiation damping, and bubble shape depend on the distance to the boundary and the material parameters of contacting media.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040089

Authors: Maxime Lesur Julien Médina Makoto Sasaki Akihiro Shimizu

In neutral fluids and plasmas, the analysis of perturbations often starts with an inventory of linearly unstable modes. Then, the nonlinear steady-state is analyzed or predicted based on these linear modes. A crude analogy would be to base the study of a chair on how it responds to infinitesimaly small perturbations. One would conclude that the chair is stable at all frequencies, and cannot fall down. Of course, a chair falls down if subjected to finite-amplitude perturbations. Similarly, waves and wave-like structures in neutral fluids and plasmas can be triggered even though they are linearly stable. These subcritical instabilities are dormant until an interaction, a drive, a forcing, or random noise pushes their amplitude above some threshold. Investigating their onset conditions requires nonlinear calculations. Subcritical instabilities are ubiquitous in neutral fluids and plasmas. In plasmas, subcritical instabilities have been investigated based on analytical models and numerical simulations since the 1960s. More recently, they have been measured in laboratory and space plasmas, albeit not always directly. The topic could benefit from the much longer and richer history of subcritical instability and transition to subcritical turbulence in neutral fluids. In this tutorial introduction, we describe the fundamental aspects of subcritical instabilities in plasmas, based on systems of increasing complexity, from simple examples of a point-mass in a potential well or a box on a table, to turbulence and instabilities in neutral fluids, and finally, to modern applications in magnetized toroidal fusion plasmas.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040088

Authors: S M Abdullah Al Mamun Chen Lu Balaji Jayaraman

Reconstruction of fine-scale information from sparse data is often needed in practical fluid dynamics where the sensors are typically sparse and yet, one may need to learn the underlying flow structures or inform predictions through assimilation into data-driven models. Given that sparse reconstruction is inherently an ill-posed problem, the most successful approaches encode the physics into an underlying sparse basis space that spans the manifold to generate well-posedness. To achieve this, one commonly uses a generic orthogonal Fourier basis or a data specific proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) basis to reconstruct from sparse sensor information at chosen locations. Such a reconstruction problem is well-posed as long as the sensor locations are incoherent and can sample the key physical mechanisms. The resulting inverse problem is easily solved using l 2 minimization or if necessary, sparsity promoting l 1 minimization. Given the proliferation of machine learning and the need for robust reconstruction frameworks in the face of dynamically evolving flows, we explore in this study the suitability of non-orthogonal basis obtained from extreme learning machine (ELM) auto-encoders for sparse reconstruction. In particular, we assess the interplay between sensor quantity and sensor placement in a given system dimension for accurate reconstruction of canonical fluid flows in comparison to POD-based reconstruction.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040087

Authors: Biao Geng Xudong Zheng Qian Xue Geng Liu Haibo Dong

We numerically solved the acoustic and flow field around cicada wing models with parametrically varied flexibility using the hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting method. We observed a gradual change of sound directivity with flexibility. We found that flexible wings generally produce lower sound due to reduced aerodynamic forces, which were further found to scale with the dynamic pressure force defined as the integration of dynamic pressure over the wing area. Unlike conventional scaling where the incoming flow velocity is used as the reference to calculate the force coefficients, here only the normal component of the relative velocity of the wing to the flow was used to calculate the dynamic pressure, putting kinematic factors into the dynamic pressure force and leaving the more fundamental physics to the force coefficients. A high correlation was found between the aerodynamic forces and the dynamic pressure. The scaling is also supported by previously reported data of revolving wing experiments.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040086

Authors: Sk. Mashfiqur Rahman Omer San Adil Rasheed

We put forth a robust reduced-order modeling approach for near real-time prediction of mesoscale flows. In our hybrid-modeling framework, we combine physics-based projection methods with neural network closures to account for truncated modes. We introduce a weighting parameter between the Galerkin projection and extreme learning machine models and explore its effectiveness, accuracy and generalizability. To illustrate the success of the proposed modeling paradigm, we predict both the mean flow pattern and the time series response of a single-layer quasi-geostrophic ocean model, which is a simplified prototype for wind-driven general circulation models. We demonstrate that our approach yields significant improvements over both the standard Galerkin projection and fully non-intrusive neural network methods with a negligible computational overhead.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040085

Authors: Fengyuan Zhang Hamid Emami-Meybodi

Natural convection induced by carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolution from a gas cap into the resident formation brine of a deep saline aquifer in the presence of a capillary transition zone is an important phenomenon that can accelerate the dissolution process, reducing the risk of CO2 leakage to the shallower formations. Majority of past investigations on the instability of the diffusive boundary layer assumed a sharp CO2&ndash;brine interface with constant CO2 concentration at the top of the aquifer, i.e., single-phase system. However, this assumption may lead to erroneous estimates of the onset of natural convection. The present study demonstrates the significant effect of the capillary transition zone on the onset of natural convection in a two-phase system in which a buoyant CO2 plume overlaid a water-saturated porous layer. Using the quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA), we performed a linear stability analysis to assess critical times, critical wavenumbers, and neutral stability curves as a function of Bond number. We show that the capillary transition zone could potentially accelerate the evolution of the natural convection by sixfold. Furthermore, we characterized the instability problem for capillary-dominant, in-transition, and buoyancy-dominant systems. In the capillary-dominant systems, capillary transition zone has a strong role in destabilizing the diffusive boundary layer. In contrast, in the buoyancy-dominant systems, the buoyancy force is the sole cause of the instability, and the effect of the capillary transition zone can be ignored. Our findings provide further insight into the understanding of the natural convection in the two-phase CO2&ndash;brine system and the long-term fate of the injected CO2 in deep saline aquifers.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040084

Authors: Xuping Xie Feng Bao Clayton G. Webster

In this paper, we introduce the evolve-then-filter (EF) regularization method for reduced order modeling of convection-dominated stochastic systems. The standard Galerkin projection reduced order model (G-ROM) yield numerical oscillations in a convection-dominated regime. The evolve-then-filter reduced order model (EF-ROM) aims at the numerical stabilization of the standard G-ROM, which uses explicit ROM spatial filter to regularize various terms in the reduced order model (ROM). Our numerical results are based on a stochastic Burgers equation with linear multiplicative noise. The numerical result shows that the EF-ROM is significantly better than G-ROM.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040083

Authors: V. Loodts H. Saghou B. Knaepen L. Rongy A. De Wit

When a solute A dissolves into a host fluid containing a reactant B, an A + B &rarr; C reaction can influence the convection developing because of unstable density gradients in the gravity field. When A increases density and all three chemical species A, B and C diffuse at the same rate, the reactive case can lead to two different types of density profiles, i.e., a monotonically decreasing one from the interface to the bulk and a non-monotonic profile with a minimum. We study numerically here the nonlinear reactive convective dissolution dynamics in the more general case where the three solutes can diffuse at different rates. We show that differential diffusion can add new dynamic effects like the simultaneous presence of two different convection zones in the host phase when a non-monotonic profile with both a minimum and a maximum develops. Double diffusive instabilities can moreover affect the morphology of the convective fingers. Analysis of the mixing zone, the reaction rate, the total amount of stored A and the dissolution flux further shows that varying the diffusion coefficients of the various species has a quantitative effect on convection.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040082

Authors: David M. Rubin Nicole Anderton Charl Smalberger Jethro Polliack Malavika Nathan Michiel Postema

Medical ultrasound technology is available, affordable, and non-invasive. It is used to detect, quantify, and heat tissue structures. This review article gives a concise overview of the types of behaviour that biological cells experience under the influence of ultrasound only, i.e., without the presence of microbubbles. The phenomena are discussed from a physics and engineering perspective. They include proliferation, translation, apoptosis, lysis, transient membrane permeation, and oscillation. The ultimate goal of cellular acoustics is the detection, quantification, manipulation and eradication of individual cells.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040081

Authors: Jeremy A. Pohly James L. Salmon James E. Bluman Kabilan Nedunchezian Chang-kwon Kang

Various tools have been developed to model the aerodynamics of flapping wings. In particular, quasi-steady models, which are considerably faster and easier to solve than the Navier&ndash;Stokes equations, are often utilized in the study of flight dynamics of flapping wing flyers. However, the accuracy of the quasi-steady models has not been properly documented. The objective of this study is to assess the accuracy of a quasi-steady model by comparing the resulting aerodynamic forces against three-dimensional (3D) Navier&ndash;Stokes solutions. The same wing motion is prescribed at a fruit fly scale. The pitching amplitude, axis, and duration are varied. Comparison of the aerodynamic force coefficients suggests that the quasi-steady model shows significant discrepancies under extreme pitching motions, i.e., the pitching motion is large, quick, and occurs about the leading or trailing edge. The differences are as large as 1.7 in the cycle-averaged lift coefficient. The quasi-steady model performs well when the kinematics are mild, i.e., the pitching motion is small, long, and occurs near the mid-chord with a small difference in the lift coefficient of 0.01. Our analysis suggests that the main source for the error is the inaccuracy of the rotational lift term and the inability to model the wing-wake interaction in the quasi-steady model.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040080

Authors: Parvaneh Heidari Hassan Hassanzadeh

Long-term geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers offers the possibility of sustaining access to fossil fuels while reducing emissions. However, prior to implementation, associated risks of CO2 leakage need to be carefully addressed to ensure safety of storage. CO2 storage takes place by several trapping mechanisms that are active on different time scales. The injected CO2 may be trapped under an impermeable rock due to structural trapping. Over time, the contribution of capillary, solubility, and mineral trapping mechanisms come into play. Leaky faults and fractures provide pathways for CO2 to migrate upward toward shallower depths and reduce the effectiveness of storage. Therefore, understanding the transport processes and the impact of various forces such as viscous, capillary and gravity is necessary. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed to investigate the influence of the driving forces on CO2 migration through a water saturated leakage pathway. The developed numerical model is used to determine leakage characteristics for different rock formations from a potential CO2 storage site in central Alberta, Canada. The model allows for preliminary analysis of CO2 leakage and finds applications in screening and site selection for geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040079

Authors: Raj Narayan Gopalakrishnan Peter J. Disimile

Round jets impinging at multiple impingement angles were considered for this study to gain better understanding of the parameters affecting resultant jet growth and velocity distribution. Work done by the authors previously on single jet has helped to establish that the SST (Shear Stress Transport) k-&omega; model is the ideal turbulence model for predicting flow characteristics of jets exiting a fully developed pipe at low Reynolds number. Hence, for the study of impinging jets, SST k-&omega; turbulence model was used to study the velocity and jet growth characteristics. Based on the mesh obtained from the grid sensitivity study, jets impinging at 30, 45 and 60 degrees at Reynolds number of 7500 were numerically analyzed. It was observed that the profile of the resultant jet closely matched with the prediction of elliptical profile predicted by past researchers. In addition, it was seen that higher jet growth was predicted in the case of jets impinging at a higher impingement angle.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040078

Authors: Aleck H. Alexopoulos Costas Kiparissides

The spreading of viscous and viscoelastic fluids on flat and curved surfaces is an important problem in many industrial and biomedical processes. In this work the spreading of a linear viscoelastic fluid with changing rheological properties over flat surfaces is investigated via a macroscopic model. The computational model is based on a macroscopic mathematical description of the gravitational, capillary, viscous, and elastic forces. The dynamics of droplet spreading are determined in sessile and pendant configurations for different droplet extrusion or formation times for a hyaluronic acid solution undergoing gelation. The computational model is employed to describe the spreading of hydrogel droplets for different extrusion times, droplet volumes, and surface/droplet configurations. The effect of extrusion time is shown to be significant in the rate and extent of spreading.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040077

Authors: Zohaib Shaikh Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry

Energy consumption due to cooling and ventilation of buildings has grown significantly within the last two decades, and therefore advancement in cooling technologies has become imperative to maximise energy savings. This work numerically investigates the performance of vapour-compression unitary and centralised cooling systems for high rise buildings using an office case-study in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Energy modelling, thermal comfort and indoor air quality analyses have been carried out using the Integrated Environmental Simulation Virtual Environment (IES-VE). Using the benchmark system based on fan-coil units, the findings have indicated that attaching a Variable Speed Drive (VSD) fan can reduce the overall energy consumption of the building by 8%, with 20% reduction in the cooling loads. The unitary cooling system operating on variable refrigerant flow principle achieved an energy reduction of approximately 30%; however, this system is not recommended in high-rise buildings as the CO2 concentration obtained is in excess of 3000 ppm, which is considerably higher than ASHRAE standards. It is essential for buildings running in hot climates to incorporate hybrid cooling techniques to relieve the load on conventional active cooling systems.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040076

Authors: Mohsen Abbaszadeh Seyed M. Shariatipour

CO2 injection into geological formations is considered one way of mitigating the increasing levels of carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and its effect on and global warming. In regard to sequestering carbon underground, different countries have conducted projects at commercial scale or pilot scale and some have plans to develop potential storage geological formations for carbon dioxide storage. In this study, pure CO2 injection is examined on a model with the properties of bunter sandstone and then sensitivity analyses were conducted for some of the fluid, rock and injection parameters. The results of this study show that the extent to which CO2 has been convected in the porous media in the reservoir plays a vital role in improving the CO2 dissolution in brine and safety of its long term storage. We conclude that heterogeneous permeability plays a crucial role on the saturation distribution and can increase or decrease the amount of dissolved CO2 in water around &plusmn; 7% after the injection stops and up to 13% after 120 years. Furthermore, the value of absolute permeability controls the effect of the Kv/Kh ratio on the CO2 dissolution in brine. In other words, as the value of vertical and horizontal permeability decreases (i.e., tight reservoirs) the impact of Kv/Kh ratio on the dissolved CO2 in brine becomes more prominent. Additionally, reservoir engineering parameters, such as well location, injection rate and scenarios, also have a high impact on the amount of dissolved CO2 and can change the dissolution up to 26%, 100% and 5.5%, respectively.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040075

Authors: Aikaterini A. Mouza Olga D. Skordia Ioannis D. Tzouganatos Spiros V. Paras

The aim of this study was to provide scientists with a straightforward correlation that can be applied to the prediction of the Fanning friction factor and consequently the pressure drop that arises during blood flow in small-caliber vessels. Due to the small diameter of the conduit, the Reynolds numbers are low and thus the flow is laminar. This study has been conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations validated with relevant experimental data, acquired using an appropriate experimental setup. The experiments relate to the pressure drop measurement during the flow of a blood analogue that follows the Casson model, i.e., an aqueous Glycerol solution that contains a small amount of Xanthan gum and exhibits similar behavior to blood, in a smooth, stainless steel microtube (L = 50 mm and D = 400 &mu;m). The interpretation of the resulting numerical data led to the proposal of a simplified model that incorporates the effect of the blood flow rate, the hematocrit value (35&ndash;55%) and the vessel diameter (300&ndash;1800 &mu;m) and predicts, with better than &plusmn;10% accuracy, the Fanning friction factor and consequently the pressure drop during laminar blood flow in healthy small-caliber vessels.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040074

Authors: Richard J. Browning Eleanor Stride

Despite an overall improvement in survival rates for cancer, certain resistant forms of the disease still impose a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems. Standard chemotherapy in these cases is often ineffective and/or gives rise to severe side effects. Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics could improve both tumour response and patient experience. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop effective methods for this. Ultrasound is an established technique in both diagnosis and therapy. Its use in conjunction with microbubbles is being actively researched for the targeted delivery of small-molecule drugs. In this review, we cover the methods by which ultrasound and microbubbles can be used to overcome tumour barriers to cancer therapy.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040073

Authors: Galih Bangga

The present studies deliver the computational investigations of a 10 MW turbine with a diameter of 205.8 m developed within the framework of the AVATAR (Advanced Aerodynamic Tools for Large Rotors) project. The simulations were carried out using two methods with different fidelity levels, namely the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and blade element and momentum (BEM) approaches. For this purpose, a new BEM code namely B-GO was developed employing several correction terms and three different polar and spatial interpolation options. Several flow conditions were considered in the simulations, ranging from the design condition to the off-design condition where massive flow separation takes place, challenging the validity of the BEM approach. An excellent agreement is obtained between the BEM computations and the 3D CFD results for all blade regions, even when massive flow separation occurs on the blade inboard area. The results demonstrate that the selection of the polar data can influence the accuracy of the BEM results significantly, where the 3D polar datasets extracted from the CFD simulations are considered the best. The BEM prediction depends on the interpolation order and the blade segment discretization.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040072

Authors: Mike Cullen

A diagnostic method is presented for analysing the large-scale behaviour of the Met Office Unified Model, which is a comprehensive atmospheric model used for weather and climate prediction. Outside the boundary layer, on scales larger than the radius of deformation, semi-geostrophic theory will give an accurate approximation to the model evolution. In particular, the ageostrophic circulation required to maintain geostrophic and hydrostatic balance against prescribed forcing and a rate of change of the geostrophic pressure can be calculated. In the tropics, the balance condition degenerates to the weak temperature gradient approximation. Within the boundary layer, the semi-geotriptic approximation has to be used because friction and rotation are equally important. Assuming the calculated pressure tendency and ageotriptic circulation match the observed model behaviour, the influence of the large-scale state and the nature of the forcing on the model response can be deduced in a straightforward way. The capabilities of the diagnostic are illustrated by comparing predictions of the ageotriptic circulation from the theory and the model. It is then used to show that the effects of latent heat release can be included by modifying the static stability, and to show the effect of an idealised tropical heat source on the subtropical jet. Finally, the response of the ageotriptic flow to boundary layer heating in the tropics is demonstrated. These illustrations show that the model behaviour on large scales conforms with theoretical expectations, so that the results of the diagnostic can be used to aid the development of further improvements to the model, in particular investigating systematic errors and understanding the large-scale atmospheric response to forcing.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040071

Authors: Ruihang Zhang Yan Zhang

The fluid dynamics of a natural aortic valve are complicated due to the highly pulsatile flow conditions, the compliant wall boundaries, and the sophisticated geometry of the aortic root. In the present study, a pulsatile flow simulator was constructed and utilized to investigate the turbulent characteristics and structural deformation of an intact silicone aortic root model under different flow inputs. Particle image velocimetry and high-frequency pressure sensors were combined to gather the pulsatile flow field information. The results demonstrated the distributions and the variations of the jet flow structures at different phases of a cardiac cycle. High turbulence kinetic energy was observed after the peak systole phase when the flow started to decelerate. Deformations of the aortic root upstream and downstream of the valve leaflets under normal boundary conditions were summarized and found to be comparable to results from clinical studies. The cardiac output plays an important role in determining the strength of hemodynamic and structural responses. A reduction in cardiac outputs resulted in a lower post-systole turbulence, smaller circumferential deformation, a smaller geometric orifice area, and a shortened valve-opening period.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040070

Authors: Ahmad Zareidarmiyan Hossein Salarirad Victor Vilarrasa Silvia De Simone Sebastia Olivella

Geologic carbon storage will most likely be feasible only if carbon dioxide (CO2) is utilized for improved oil recovery (IOR). The majority of carbonate reservoirs that bear hydrocarbons are fractured. Thus, the geomechanical response of the reservoir and caprock to IOR operations is controlled by pre-existing fractures. However, given the complexity of including fractures in numerical models, they are usually neglected and incorporated into an equivalent porous media. In this paper, we perform fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical numerical simulations of fluid injection and production into a naturally fractured carbonate reservoir. Simulation results show that fluid pressure propagates through the fractures much faster than the reservoir matrix as a result of their permeability contrast. Nevertheless, pressure diffusion propagates through the matrix blocks within days, reaching equilibrium with the fluid pressure in the fractures. In contrast, the cooling front remains within the fractures because it advances much faster by advection through the fractures than by conduction towards the matrix blocks. Moreover, the total stresses change proportionally to pressure changes and inversely proportional to temperature changes, with the maximum change occurring in the longitudinal direction of the fracture and the minimum in the direction normal to it. We find that shear failure is more likely to occur in the fractures and reservoir matrix that undergo cooling than in the region that is only affected by pressure changes. We also find that stability changes in the caprock are small and its integrity is maintained. We conclude that explicitly including fractures into numerical models permits identifying fracture instability that may be otherwise neglected.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040069

Authors: Josef Málek Kumbakonam R. Rajagopal Karel Tůma

Viscoelastic rate-type fluid models involving the stress and frame-indifferent time derivatives of second order, like those in Burgers&rsquo; model, are used to describe the complicated response of fluid like materials that are endowed with a complex microstructure that allows them to possess two different relaxation mechanisms as well as other non-Newtonian characteristics. Such models are used in geomechanics, biomechanics, chemical engineering and material sciences. We show how to develop such rate-type fluid models that include the classical Burgers&rsquo; model as well as variants of Burgers&rsquo; model, using a thermodynamic approach based on constitutive assumptions for two scalar quantities (namely, how the material stores energy and how the energy is dissipated) and appealing to the concept of natural configuration associated with the placement of the body that evolves as the body deforms.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3040068

Authors: Hilde Breesch Bart Merema Alexis Versele

The test lecture rooms on Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven) Ghent Technology Campus (Belgium) are a demonstration case of Annex 62: Ventilative Cooling of the International Energy Agency&rsquo;s Energy in Buildings and Communities programme (IEA EBC). The building is cooled by natural night ventilation and indirect evaporative cooling (IEC). Thermal comfort and the performances of ventilative cooling are evaluated. Long-term measurements of internal temperatures, occupancy, opening of windows and IEC were carried out in the cooling season of 2017. The airflow rates through the windows in cross- and single-sided ventilation mode were measured by both tracer gas concentration decay and air velocity measurements. In addition, the air flow pattern is visualized by measuring air temperatures in the room. The results show that good thermal summer comfort was measured except during heat waves and/or periods with high occupancy. Both nighttime ventilation and IEC operate very well. IEC can lower the supply temperature by day significantly compared to the outdoor temperature. The Air Changes Rates (ACR) of the night ventilation greatly depends on wind direction and velocity. The air temperature profile showed that the air is cooled down in the whole lecture but more in the upper zone. The extensive data monitoring system was important to detect malfunctions and to optimize the whole building performance.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030067

Authors: Mohammad Alobaid Ben Hughes Andrew Heyes Dominic O’Connor

The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inlet temperature (Tin) and flowrate ( m ˙ ) on thermal efficiency ( &eta; t h ) of flat plate collectors (FPC). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was employed to simulate a FPC and the results were validated with experimental data from literature. The FPC was examined for high and low level flowrates and for inlet temperatures which varied from 298 to 373 K. Thermal efficiency of 93% and 65% was achieved at 298 K and 370 K inlet temperature&rsquo;s respectively. A maximum temperature increase of 62 K in the inlet temperature was achieved at a flowrate of 5 &times; 10&minus;4 kg/s inside the riser pipe. Tin and m ˙ were optimised in order to achieve the minimum required feed temperature for a 10 kW absorption chiller.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030066

Authors: Kiseok Kim Victor Vilarrasa Roman Y. Makhnenko

Geologic carbon storage is considered as a requisite to effectively mitigate climate change, so large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) are expected to be injected in sedimentary saline formations. CO2 injection leads to the creation of acidic solution when it dissolves into the resident brine, which can react with reservoir rock, especially carbonates. We numerically investigated the behavior of reservoir-caprock system where CO2 injection-induced changes in the hydraulic and geomechanical properties of Apulian limestone were measured in the laboratory. We found that porosity of the limestone slightly decreases after CO2 treatment, which lead to a permeability reduction by a factor of two. In the treated specimens, calcite dissolution was observed at the inlet, but carbonate precipitation occurred at the outlet, which was closed during the reaction time of three days. Additionally, the relative permeability curves were modified after CO2&ndash;rock interaction, especially the one for water, which evolved from a quadratic to a quasi-linear function of the water saturation degree. Geomechanically, the limestone became softer and it was weakened after being altered by CO2. Simulation results showed that the property changes occurring within the CO2 plume caused a stress redistribution because CO2 treated limestone became softer and tended to deform more in response to pressure buildup than the pristine rock. The reduction in strength induced by geochemical reactions may eventually cause shear failure within the CO2 plume affected rock. This combination of laboratory experiments with numerical simulations leads to a better understanding of the implications of coupled chemo-mechanical interactions in geologic carbon storage.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030065

Authors: Arne Heinrich Guido Kuenne Sebastian Ganter Christian Hasse Johannes Janicka

Combustion will play a major part in fulfilling the world&rsquo;s energy demand in the next 20 years. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the fundamentals of the flame&ndash;wall interaction (FWI), which takes place in internal combustion engines or gas turbines. The FWI can increase heat losses, increase pollutant formations and lowers efficiencies. In this work, a Large Eddy Simulation combined with a tabulated chemistry approach is used to investigate the transient near wall behavior of a turbulent premixed stoichiometric methane flame. This sidewall quenching configuration is based on an experimental burner with non-homogeneous turbulence and an actively cooled wall. The burner was used in a previous study for validation purposes. The transient behavior of the movement of the flame tip is analyzed by categorizing it into three different scenarios: an upstream, a downstream and a jump-like upstream movement. The distributions of the wall heat flux, the quenching distance or the detachment of the maximum heat flux and the quenching point are strongly dependent on this movement. The highest heat fluxes appear mostly at the jump-like movement because the flame behaves locally like a head-on quenching flame.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030064

Authors: Rune Kjerrumgaard Jensen Jesper Kær Larsen Kasper Lindgren Lassen Matthias Mandø Anders Andreasen

This paper presents a free code for calculating 1D hydraulic transients in liquid-filled piping. The transient of focus is the Water Hammer phenomenon which may arise due to e.g., sudden valve closure, pump start/stop etc. The method of solution of the system of partial differential equations given by the continuity and momentum balance is the Method of Characteristics (MOC). Various friction models ranging from steady-state and quasi steady-state to unsteady friction models including Convolution Based models (CB) as well as an Instantaneous Acceleration Based (IAB) model are implemented. Furthermore, two different models for modelling cavitation/column separation are implemented. Column separation may occur during low pressure pulses if the pressure decreases below the vapour pressure of the fluid. The code implementing the various models are compared to experiments from the literature. All experiments consist of an upstream reservoir, a straight pipe and a downstream valve.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030063

Authors: Thomas Meunier Claire Ménesguen Xavier Carton Sylvie Le Gentil Richard Schopp

The stability properties of a vortex lens are studied in the quasi geostrophic (QG) framework using the generalized stability theory. Optimal perturbations are obtained using a tangent linear QG model and its adjoint. Their fine-scale spatial structures are studied in details. Growth rates of optimal perturbations are shown to be extremely sensitive to the time interval of optimization: The most unstable perturbations are found for time intervals of about 3 days, while the growth rates continuously decrease towards the most unstable normal mode, which is reached after about 170 days. The horizontal structure of the optimal perturbations consists of an intense counter-shear spiralling. It is also extremely sensitive to time interval: for short time intervals, the optimal perturbations are made of a broad spectrum of high azimuthal wave numbers. As the time interval increases, only low azimuthal wave numbers are found. The vertical structures of optimal perturbations exhibit strong layering associated with high vertical wave numbers whatever the time interval. However, the latter parameter plays an important role in the width of the vertical spectrum of the perturbation: short time interval perturbations have a narrow vertical spectrum while long time interval perturbations show a broad range of vertical scales. Optimal perturbations were set as initial perturbations of the vortex lens in a fully non linear QG model. It appears that for short time intervals, the perturbations decay after an initial transient growth, while for longer time intervals, the optimal perturbation keeps on growing, quickly leading to a non-linear regime or exciting lower azimuthal modes, consistent with normal mode instability. Very long time intervals simply behave like the most unstable normal mode. The possible impact of optimal perturbations on layering is also discussed.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030062

Authors: Eric Pedrol Jaume Massons Francesc Díaz Magdalena Aguiló

The dynamics of a spherical particle in an asymmetric serpentine is studied by finite element method (FEM) simulations in a physically unconstrained system. The two-way coupled time dependent solutions illustrate the path of the particle along a curve where a secondary flow (Dean flow) has developed. The simulated conditions were adjusted to match those of an experiment for which particles were focused under inertial focusing conditions in a microfluidic device. The obtained rotational modes inferred the influence of the local flow around the particle. We propose a new approach to find the decoupled secondary flow contribution employing a quasi-Stokes flow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030061

Authors: Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou Quoc Nguyen

n/a

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030060

Authors: Layachi Hadji

This article deals with the stability problem that arises in the modeling of the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. It provides a more detailed description of the alternative approach to tackling the stability problem put forth by Vo and Hadji (Physics of Fluids, 2017, 29, 127101) and Wanstall and Hadji (Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 2018, 108, 53&ndash;71), and it extends two-dimensional analysis to the three-dimensional case. This new approach, which is based on a step-function base profile, is contrasted with the usual time-evolving base state. While both provide only estimates for the instability threshold values, the step-function base profile approach has one great advantage in the sense that the problem at hand can be viewed as a stationary Rayleigh&ndash;B&eacute;nard problem, the model of which is physically sound and the stability of which is not only well-defined but can be analyzed by a variety of existing analytical methods using only paper and pencil.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030059

Authors: Alexander Gehrke Guillaume De Guyon-Crozier Karen Mulleners

The pitching kinematics of an experimental hovering flapping wing setup are optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. The pitching kinematics of the setup are parameterized with seven degrees of freedom to allow for complex non-linear and non-harmonic pitching motions. Two optimization objectives are considered. The first objective is maximum stroke average efficiency, and the second objective is maximum stroke average lift. The solutions for both optimization scenarios converge within less than 30 generations based on the evaluation of their fitness. The pitching kinematics of the best individual of the initial and final population closely resemble each other for both optimization scenarios, but the optimal kinematics differ substantially between the two scenarios. The most efficient pitching motion is smoother and closer to a sinusoidal pitching motion, whereas the highest lift-generating pitching motion has sharper edges and is closer to a trapezoidal motion. In both solutions, the rotation or pitching motion is advanced with respect to the sinusoidal stroke motion. Velocity field measurements at selected phases during the flapping motions highlight why the obtained solutions are optimal for the two different optimization objectives. The most efficient pitching motion is characterized by a nearly constant and relatively low effective angle of attack at the start of the half stroke, which supports the formation of a leading edge vortex close to the airfoil surface, which remains bound for most of the half stroke. The highest lift-generating pitching motion has a larger effective angle of attack, which leads to the generation of a stronger leading edge vortex and higher lift coefficient than in the efficiency optimized scenario.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030058

Authors: Christopher P. Green Jonathan Ennis-King

Density-driven convective mixing in porous media can be influenced by the spatial heterogeneity of the medium. Previous studies using two-dimensional models have shown that while the initial flow regimes are sensitive to local permeability variation, the later steady flux regime (where the dissolution flux is relatively constant) can be approximated with an equivalent anisotropic porous media, suggesting that it is the average properties of the porous media that affect this regime. This work extends the previous results for two-dimensional porous media to consider convection in three-dimensional porous media. Through the use of massively parallel numerical simulations, we verify that the steady dissolution rate in the models of heterogeneity considered also scales as k v k h in three dimensions, where k v and k h are the vertical and horizontal permeabilities, respectively, providing further evidence that convective mixing in heterogeneous models can be approximated with equivalent anisotropic models.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030057

Authors: Arzu Özbey Mehrdad Karimzadehkhouei Hossein Alijani Ali Koşar

Inertial Microfluidics offer a high throughput, label-free, easy to design, and cost-effective solutions, and are a promising technique based on hydrodynamic forces (passive techniques) instead of external ones, which can be employed in the lab-on-a-chip and micro-total-analysis-systems for the focusing, manipulation, and separation of microparticles in chemical and biomedical applications. The current study focuses on the focusing behavior of the microparticles in an asymmetric curvilinear microchannel with curvature angle of 280&deg;. For this purpose, the focusing behavior of the microparticles with three different diameters, representing cells with different sizes in the microchannel, was experimentally studied at flow rates from 400 to 2700 &micro;L/min. In this regard, the width and position of the focusing band are carefully recorded for all of the particles in all of the flow rates. Moreover, the distance between the binary combinations of the microparticles is reported for each flow rate, along with the Reynolds number corresponding to the largest distances. Furthermore, the results of this study are compared with those of the microchannel with the same curvature angle but having a symmetric geometry. The microchannel proposed in this study can be used or further modified for cell separation applications.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030056

Authors: Hoda Hatoum Lakshmi Prasad Dasi

(1) The study&rsquo;s objective is to assess sinus hemodynamics differences between stenotic native bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and native tricuspid aortic valve (TrAV) sinuses in order to assess sinus flow shear and vorticity dynamics in these common pathological states of the aortic valve. (2) Representative patient-specific aortic roots with BAV and TrAV were selected, segmented, and 3D printed. The flow dynamics within the sinus were assessed in-vitro using particle image velocimetry in a left heart simulator at physiological pressure and flow conditions. Hemodynamic data calculations, vortex tracking, shear stress probability density functions and sinus washout calculations based on Lagrangian particle tracking were performed. (3) (a) At peak systole, velocity and vorticity in BAV reach 0.67 &plusmn; 0.02 m/s and 374 &plusmn; 5 s&minus;1 versus 0.49 &plusmn; 0.03 m/s and 293 &plusmn; 3 s&minus;1 in TrAV; (b) Aortic sinus vortex is slower to form but conserved in BAV sinus; (c) BAV shear stresses exceed those of TrAV (1.05 Pa versus 0.8 Pa); (d) Complete TrAV washout was achieved after 1.5 cycles while it was not for BAV. (4) In conclusion, sinus hemodynamics dependence on the different native aortic valve types and sinus morphologies was clearly highlighted in this study.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030055

Authors: Wei-Tao Wu Nadine Aubry James F. Antaki Mehrdad Massoudi

In this paper, a simple shear flow of a dense suspension is studied. We propose a new constitutive relationship based on the second grade fluid model for the suspension, capable of exhibiting non-linear effects, where the normal stress coefficients are assumed to depend on the volume fraction of the particles and the shear viscosity depends on the shear rate and the volume fraction. After non-dimensionalizing the equations, we perform a parametric study looking at the effects of the normal stress coefficients and the variable viscosity. The numerical results show that for a certain range of parameters, the particles tend to form a region of high and uniform volume fraction, near the lower half of the flow.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030054

Authors: Raphaël Poryles Roberto Zenit

The rising of a Newtonian oil drop in a non-Newtonian viscous solution is studied experimentally. In this case, the shape of the ascending drop is strongly affected by the viscoelastic and shear-thinning properties of the surrounding liquid. We found that the so-called velocity discontinuity phenomena is observed for drops larger than a certain critical size. Beyond the critical velocity, the formation of a long tail is observed, from which small droplets are continuously emitted. We determined that the fragmentation of the tail results mainly from the effect of capillary effects. We explore the idea of using this configuration as a new encapsulation technique, where the size and frequency of droplets are directly related to the volume of the main rising drop, for the particular pair of fluids used. These experimental results could lead to other investigations, which could help to predict the droplet formation process by tuning the two fluids&rsquo; properties, and adjusting only the volume of the main drop.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030053

Authors: Quoc Nguyen Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou

Results from numerical simulations of the mixing of two puffs of scalars released in a turbulent flow channel are used to introduce a measure of mixing quality, and to investigate the effectiveness of turbulent mixing as a function of the location of the puff release and the molecular diffusivity of the puffs. The puffs are released from instantaneous line sources in the flow field with Schmidt numbers that range from 0.7 to 2400. The line sources are located at different distances from the channel wall, starting from the wall itself, the viscous wall layer, the logarithmic layer, and the channel center. The mixing effectiveness is quantified by following the trajectories of individual particles with a Lagrangian approach and carefully counting the number of particles from both puffs that arrive at different locations in the flow field as a function of time. A new measure, the mixing quality index &Oslash;, is defined as the product of the normalized fraction of particles from the two puffs at a flow location. The mixing quality index can take values from 0, corresponding to no mixing, to 0.25, corresponding to full mixing. The mixing quality in the flow is found to depend on the Schmidt number of the puffs when the two puffs are released in the viscous wall region, while the Schmidt number is not important for the mixing of puffs released outside the logarithmic region.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030052

Authors: Edison Amah Muhammad Janjua Pushpendra Singh

A numerical scheme is developed to simulate the motion of dielectric particles in the uniform and nonuniform electric fields of microfluidic devices. The motion of particles is simulated using a distributed Lagrange multiplier method (DLM) and the electric force acting on the particles is calculated by integrating the Maxwell stress tensor (MST) over the particle surfaces. One of the key features of the DLM method used is that the fluid-particle system is treated implicitly by using a combined weak formulation, where the forces and moments between the particles and fluid cancel, as they are internal to the combined system. The MST is obtained from the electric potential, which, in turn, is obtained by solving the electrostatic problem. In our numerical scheme, the domain is discretized using a finite element scheme and the Marchuk-Yanenko operator-splitting technique is used to decouple the difficulties associated with the incompressibility constraint, the nonlinear convection term, the rigid-body motion constraint and the electric force term. The numerical code is used to study the motion of particles in a dielectrophoretic cage which can be used to trap and hold particles at its center. If the particles moves away from the center of the cage, a resorting force acts on them towards the center. The MST results show that the ratio of the particle-particle interaction and dielectrophoretic forces decreases with increasing particle size. Therefore, larger particles move primarily under the action of the dielectrophoretic (DEP) force, especially in the high electric field gradient regions. Consequently, when the spacing between the electrodes is comparable to the particle size, instead of collecting on the same electrode by forming chains, they collect at different electrodes.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030051

Authors: Vigneswaran Narayanamurthy Tze Pin Lee Al’aina Yuhainis Firus Khan Fahmi Samsuri Khairudin Mohamed Hairul Aini Hamzah Madia Baizura Baharom

Microfluidics-based biochips play a vital role in single-cell research applications. Handling and positioning of single cells at the microscale level are an essential need for various applications, including genomics, proteomics, secretomics, and lysis-analysis. In this article, the pipette Petri dish single-cell trapping (PP-SCT) technique is demonstrated. PP-SCT is a simple and cost-effective technique with ease of implementation for single cell analysis applications. In this paper a wide operation at different fluid flow rates of the novel PP-SCT technique is demonstrated. The effects of the microfluidic channel shape (straight, branched, and serpent) on the efficiency of single-cell trapping are studied. This article exhibited passive microfluidic-based biochips capable of vertical cell trapping with the hexagonally-positioned array of microwells. Microwells were 35 &mu;m in diameter, a size sufficient to allow the attachment of captured cells for short-term study. Single-cell capture (SCC) capabilities of the microfluidic-biochips were found to be improving from the straight channel, branched channel, and serpent channel, accordingly. Multiple cell capture (MCC) was on the order of decreasing from the straight channel, branch channel, and serpent channel. Among the three designs investigated, the serpent channel biochip offers high SCC percentage with reduced MCC and NC (no capture) percentage. SCC was around 52%, 42%, and 35% for the serpent, branched, and straight channel biochips, respectively, for the tilt angle, &theta; values were between 10&ndash;15&deg;. Human lung cancer cells (A549) were used for characterization. Using the PP-SCT technique, flow rate variations can be precisely achieved with a flow velocity range of 0.25&ndash;4 m/s (fluid channel of 2 mm width and 100 &micro;m height). The upper dish (UD) can be used for low flow rate applications and the lower dish (LD) for high flow rate applications. Passive single-cell analysis applications will be facilitated using this method.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030050

Authors: Sk. Mashfiqur Rahman Adil Rasheed Omer San

Numerical solution of the incompressible Navier&ndash;Stokes equations poses a significant computational challenge due to the solenoidal velocity field constraint. In most computational modeling frameworks, this divergence-free constraint requires the solution of a Poisson equation at every step of the underlying time integration algorithm, which constitutes the major component of the computational expense. In this study, we propose a hybrid analytics procedure combining a data-driven approach with a physics-based simulation technique to accelerate the computation of incompressible flows. In our approach, proper orthogonal basis functions are generated to be used in solving the Poisson equation in a reduced order space. Since the time integration of the advection&ndash;diffusion equation part of the physics-based model is computationally inexpensive in a typical incompressible flow solver, it is retained in the full order space to represent the dynamics more accurately. Encoder and decoder interface conditions are provided by incorporating the elliptic constraint along with the data exchange between the full order and reduced order spaces. We investigate the feasibility of the proposed method by solving the Taylor&ndash;Green vortex decaying problem, and it is found that a remarkable speed-up can be achieved while retaining a similar accuracy with respect to the full order model.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030049

Authors: João Viegas Fernando Oliveira Daniel Aelenei

Controlling the air quality is of the utmost importance in today’s buildings. Vertical air curtains are often used to separate two different climatic zones with a view to reduce heat transfer. In fact, this research work proposes an air curtain aimed to ensure a proper separation between two zones, a clean one and a contaminated one. The methodology of this research includes: (i) small-scale tests on water models to ensure that the contamination does not pass through the air curtain, and (ii) an analytical development integrating the main physical characteristics of plane jets. In the solution developed, the airflow is extracted from the contaminated compartment to reduce the curtain airflow rejected to the exterior of the compartment. In this research work, it was possible to determine the minimum exhaust flow necessary to ensure the aerodynamic sealing of the air curtain. This article addresses the methodology used to perform the small-scale water tests and the corresponding results.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030048

Authors: Alexandre Chiapolino Richard Saurel

The Noble–Abel Stiffened-Gas (NASG) equation of state (Le Métayer, O. and Saurel, R. proposed in 2016) is extended to variable attractive and repulsive effects to improve the liquid phase accuracy when large temperature and pressure variation ranges are under consideration. The transition from pure phase to supercritical state is of interest as well. The gas phase is considered through the ideal gas assumption with variable specific heat rendering the formulation valid for high temperatures. The liquid equation-of-state constants are determined through the saturation curves making the formulation suitable for two-phase mixtures at thermodynamic equilibrium. The overall formulation is compared to experimental characteristic curves of the phase diagram showing good agreement for various fluids (water, oxygen). Compared to existing cubic equations of state, the present one is convex, a key feature for computations with hyperbolic flow models.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030047

Authors: Federico Fadda Giuseppe Gonnella Antonio Lamura Enzo Orlandini Adriano Tiribocchi

The dynamics of a quasi two-dimensional isotropic droplet in a cholesteric liquid crystal medium under symmetric shear flow is studied by lattice Boltzmann simulations. We consider a geometry in which the flow direction is along the axis of the cholesteric, as this setup exhibits a significant viscoelastic response to external stress. We find that the dynamics depends on the magnitude of the shear rate, the anchoring strength of the liquid crystal at the droplet interface and the chirality. While low shear rate and weak interface anchoring the system shows a non-Newtonian behavior, a Newtonian-like response is observed at high shear rate and strong interface anchoring. This is investigated both by estimating the secondary flow profile, namely a flow emerging along the out-of-plane direction (absent in fully-Newtonian fluids, such as water) and by monitoring defect formation and dynamics, which significantly alter the rheological response of the system.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030046

Authors: Jairo M. Leiva Enrique Geffroy

Understanding the rheology of immiscible liquids mixtures, as well as the role played by its micro-structures are important criteria for the production of new materials and processes in industry. Here, we study changes over time of the droplet size distributions of emulsions induced by slow shearing flows. We observe that the initial heterogeneous microstructure may evolve toward more complex structures (such as bimodal distribution) as a result of coalescence and rupture of droplets. These dynamic structures were produced using a flow cell made up of two parallel disks, separated by a gap of 100 &micro;m. The steady rotation of the lower disk generates a simple shear flow of &gamma;˙=0.75&nbsp;s&minus;1, during ~400 s. After a brief rest time, this procedure was repeated by applying a step ramp until the maximum shear rate of 4.5&nbsp;s&minus;1 was reached, using step increments of 0.75&nbsp;s&minus;1. During the last portion of the flow and during the rest time in between flows, structures of emulsions were characterized. Initially, a broad single-peak distribution of drops was observed, which evolved toward a rather narrower bimodal distribution, at first due to the coalescence of the smaller droplets and subsequently of the larger drops. The rupture of drops at higher shear rates was also observed. The observed evolutions also presented global structures such as &ldquo;pearl necklaces&rdquo; or &ldquo;bands of particles&rdquo;, the latter characterized by alternating bands of a high density of particles and regions of the continuous phase with only a few droplets. These changes may indicate complex, time-dependent rheological properties of these mixtures.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3030045

Authors: Arvind Santhanakrishnan Shannon K. Jones William B. Dickson Martin Peek Vishwa T. Kasoju Michael H. Dickinson Laura A. Miller

In contrast to larger species, little is known about the flight of the smallest flying insects, such as thrips and fairyflies. These tiny animals range from 300 to 1000 microns in length and fly at Reynolds numbers ranging from about 4 to 60. Previous work with numerical and physical models have shown that the aerodynamics of these diminutive insects is significantly different from that of larger animals, but most of these studies have relied on two-dimensional approximations. There can, however, be significant differences between two- and three-dimensional flows, as has been found for larger insects. To better understand the flight of the smallest insects, we have performed a systematic study of the forces and flow structures around a three-dimensional revolving elliptical wing. We used both a dynamically scaled physical model and a three-dimensional computational model at Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 130 and angles of attacks ranging from 0&deg; to 90&deg;. The results of the physical and computational models were in good agreement and showed that dimensionless drag, aerodynamic efficiency, and spanwise flow all decrease with decreasing Reynolds number. In addition, both the leading and trailing edge vortices remain attached to the wing over the scales relevant to the smallest flying insects. Overall, these observations suggest that there are drastic differences in the aerodynamics of flight at the scale of the smallest flying animals.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020044

Authors: Vishwa T. Kasoju Christopher L. Terrill Mitchell P. Ford Arvind Santhanakrishnan

In contrast to larger flight-capable insects such as hawk moths and fruit flies, miniature flying insects such as thrips show the obligatory use of wing&ndash;wing interaction via &ldquo;clap and fling&rdquo; during the end of upstroke and start of downstroke. Although fling can augment lift generated during flapping flight at chord-based Reynolds number (Re) of 10 or lower, large drag forces are necessary to clap and fling the wings. In this context, bristles observed in the wings of most tiny insects have been shown to lower drag force generated in clap and fling. However, the fluid dynamic mechanism underlying drag reduction by bristled wings and the impact of bristles on lift generated via clap and fling remain unclear. We used a dynamically scaled robotic model to examine the forces and flow structures generated during clap and fling of: three bristled wing pairs with varying inter-bristle spacing, and a geometrically equivalent solid wing pair. In contrast to the solid wing pair, reverse flow through the gaps between the bristles was observed throughout clap and fling, resulting in: (a) drag reduction; and (b) weaker and diffuse leading edge vortices that lowered lift. Shear layers were formed around the bristles when interacting bristled wing pairs underwent clap and fling motion. These shear layers lowered leakiness of flow through the bristles and minimized loss of lift in bristled wings. Compared to the solid wing, peak drag coefficients were reduced by 50&ndash;90% in bristled wings. In contrast, peak lift coefficients of bristled wings were only reduced by 35&ndash;60% from those of the solid wing. Our results suggest that the bristled wings can provide unique aerodynamic benefits via increasing lift to drag ratio during clap and fling for Re between 5 and 15.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020043

Authors: Laurence Noirez Philipp Kahl

There is little literature on the flow properties of the isotropic phase of liquid crystalline fluids. However, this phase is an ideal tool to bridge the physics of liquid crystals with those of (ordinary) fluids. Optical and mechanical studies are presented, demonstrating that away from any phase transition, the isotropic phase of liquid crystalline molecules (LCs) and liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) can work as an optical oscillator in response to low-frequency mechanical excitation, establishing the elastic origin of the flow birefringence and “visualizing” the very existence of the elastic nature of the liquid state. Additionally, mimicking the excellent anchoring ability of liquid crystals, an alternative rheological protocol optimizing the fluid/substrate interfaces is presented to access the low-frequency shear elasticity in various one-component liquids and salt-free aqueous solutions.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020042

Authors: Yebegaeshet T. Zerihun

The classical Dupuit&ndash;Forchheimer approach, commonly used in analysing unconfined groundwater-flow systems, relies on the assumption of a negligible vertical component of the flow. This approximation is valid only when the convergence of streamlines is very limited and the drawdown of the phreatic surface is small, or the thickness of the horizontal layer of the heterogeneous aquifers is sufficiently small. In this study, a higher-order one-dimensional model is proposed for groundwater-flow problems with significant inclination and curvature of the phreatic surface. The model incorporates non-hydrostatic terms that take into account the effects of the vertical velocity of the flow, and was solved with an implicit finite-difference scheme. The accuracy of the proposed model was demonstrated by simulating various unconfined seepage- and groundwater-flow problems with moderate curvilinear effects. The computational results for steady-state flows were compared with the results of the full two-dimensional potential-flow methods and experimental data, resulting in a reasonably good agreement. In general, the comparison results exhibited the efficiency and validity of the model in simulating complex unconfined flows over curved bedrock and curvilinear flows over planar bedrock with a steep slope.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020041

Authors: Maria Cristina Morani Armando Carravetta Giuseppe Del Giudice Aonghus McNabola Oreste Fecarotta

Water systems are usually considered low efficiency systems, due to the large amount of energy that is lost by water leakage and dissipated by pressure reducing valves to control the leakage itself. In water distribution networks, water is often pumped from the source to an elevated tank or reservoir and then supplied to the users. A large energy recovery can be realized by the installation of energy production devices (EPDs) to exploit the excess of pressure that would be dissipated by regulation valves. The feasibility of such a sustainable strategy depends on the potential of energy savings and the amount of energy embedded in water streams, assessed by means of efficiency measures. Alternatively, energy savings can be pursued if the water is directly pumped to the network, bypassing the elevated reservoir. This study focuses on the comparison of two solutions to supply a real network, assessed as a case study. The first solution consists of water pumping to a reservoir, located upstream of the network; the excess of energy is saved by the employment of a pump as turbine (PAT). The second scenario is characterized by a smaller pressure head since a direct variable speed pumping is performed, bypassing the reservoir. The comparison has been carried out in terms of required energy, assessed by means of a new energy index and two literature efficiency indices. Furthermore, differing design conditions have been analyzed by varying the pumping head of both the scenarios, corresponding to different distances and elevation of the water source.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020040

Authors: Nityanand Sinha Roozbeh Golshan

The interaction of a developed train of gravity deep water waves with suddenly applied winds is investigated in this manuscript. The direction of the wind is the same as that of the wave train (i.e., following) and its imposed surface shear stress is constant and steady. The focus of this study is on a micro-scale water wave field where the time scale is on the order of ten wave periods and the length scale is on the order of ten wave lengths. Accurate 2D Reynolds-averaged Navier&ndash;Stokes (RANS) multi-phase simulations of Navier&ndash;Stokes equations are performed in a Eulerian framework to capture the flow features, induced by the wave field and the surface wind. The sufficiently large spatial domain in the horizontal direction, combined with the sufficiently long simulation time, permits the development of surface currents and the consequent formation of a near-surface shear layer. The interaction of surface currents with the wave orbital velocity field results in the generation of spilling breaking waves. Downstream of the domain, vertical turbulent structures are observed as the result of such breaking waves. Lagrangian particle tracking is performed, using the RANS simulation velocity and eddy diffusivity data. A second order random acceleration particle tracking method is applied with the vitally important spatial gradients of the eddy diffusivity (Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 2018, 6, 10.3390/jmse6010007.) also included in calculations. The spatial gradients of the eddy diffusivity were proved to be a key factor in material transport simulations. Our particle tracking results exhibit strong vertical mixing downstream of the domain and by means of visualizing the spiral trajectory of neutrally buoyant particles. Such enhanced vertical mixing (caused by horizontal winds) is the result of the strong near-surface advection (induced by currents) and the turbulence (induced by breaking waves). The objectives of this paper are twofold. Firstly, a numerical approach to simulate wind breaking waves is proposed based on: using K &minus; ϵ RANS model to capture turbulence features, employing the Volume of Fluid Method (VOF) to model the free surface flow, and applying a constant shear stress body force at the interfacial cells to simulate the wind force. Such treatment of the winds eliminates the need for fully resolving the air phase. The computed eddy viscosity profiles are in good agreement with the experimental profiles reported in the literature ( &nu; t = &minus; &kappa; u * z , Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1977, 7, pp. 248&ndash;255; Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1984, 14, pp. 855&ndash;863). Secondly, effects of the horizontally applied wind on the vertical mixing and eddy viscosity profiles on the water column are studied. It is observed that, away from the surface and outside the shear layer, the negative horizontal gradient of eddy diffusivity (induced by the dampening effect of breaking surface waves), combined with the downwards advection velocities (induced by breaking waves), results in an enhanced vertical mixing and reduced horizontal drift of transported material.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020039

Authors: Sourav Mondal Ian M. Griffiths Florian Charlet Apala Majumdar

We numerically and analytically study the flow and nematic order parameter profiles in a microfluidic channel, within the Beris&ndash;Edwards theory for nematodynamics, with two different types of boundary conditions&mdash;strong anchoring/Dirichlet conditions and mixed boundary conditions for the nematic order parameter. We primarily study the effects of the pressure gradient, the effects of the material constants and viscosities modelled by a parameter L 2 and the nematic elastic constant L &lowast; , along with the effects of the choice of the boundary condition. We study continuous and discontinuous solution profiles for the nematic director and these discontinuous solutions have a domain wall structure, with a layered structure that offers new possibilities. Our main results concern the onset of flow reversal as a function of L &lowast; and L 2 , including the identification of certain parameter regimes with zero net flow rate. These results are of value in tuning microfluidic geometries, boundary conditions and choosing liquid crystalline materials for desired flow properties.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020038

Authors: Yixiang Liao Dirk Lucas

The complexity of flashing flows is increased vastly by the interphase heat transfer as well as its coupling with mass and momentum transfers. A reliable heat transfer coefficient is the key in the modelling of such kinds of flows with the two-fluid model. An extensive literature survey on computational modelling of flashing flows has been given in previous work. The present work is aimed at giving a brief review on available theories and correlations for the estimation of interphase heat transfer coefficient, and evaluating them quantitatively based on computational fluid dynamics simulations of bubble growth in superheated liquid. The comparison of predictions for bubble growth rate obtained by using different correlations with the experimental as well as direct numerical simulation data reveals that the performance of the correlations is dependent on the Jakob number and Reynolds number. No generally applicable correlations are available. Both conduction and convection are important in cases of bubble rising and translating in stagnant liquid at high Jakob numbers. The correlations combining the analytical solution for heat diffusion and the theoretical relation for potential flow give the best agreement.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020037

Authors: Alexis Omilion Jodi Turk Wei Zhang

Multi-scale fractal grids can be considered to mimic the fractal characteristic of objects of complex appearance in nature, such as branching pulmonary network and corals in biology, river network, trees, and cumulus clouds in geophysics, and the large-scale structure of the universe in astronomy. Understanding the role that multiple length scales have in momentum and energy transport is essential for effective utilization of fractal grids in a wide variety of engineering applications. Fractal square grids, consisted of the basic square pattern, have been used for enhancing fluid mixing as a passive flow control strategy. While previous studies have solidified the dominant effect of the largest scale, effects of the smaller scales and the interaction of the range of scales on the generated turbulent flow remain unclear. This research is to determine the relationship between the fractal scales (varying with the fractal iteration N), the turbulence statistics of the flow and the pressure drop across the fractal square grids using well-controlled water-tunnel experiments. Instantaneous and ensemble-averaged velocity fields are obtained by a planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method for a set of fractal square grids (N = 1, 2 and 4) at Reynolds number of 3400. The static pressure drop across the fractal square grid is measured by a differential pressure transducer. Flow fields indicate that the multiple jets, wakes and the shear layers produced by the multiple scales of bars are the fundamental flow physics that promote momentum transport in the fractal grid generated turbulence. The wake interaction length scale model is modified to incorporate the effects of smaller scales and thereof interaction, by the effective mesh size M e f f and an empirical coefficient &beta; . Effectiveness of a fractal square grid is assessed using the gained turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress level at the cost of pressure loss, which varies with the distance downstream. In light of the promising capability of the fractal grids to enhance momentum and energy transport, this work can potentially benefit a wide variety of applications where energy efficient mixing or convective heat transfer is a key process.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020036

Authors: Stella Tsermentseli Konstantinos Kontogiannopoulos Vassilios Papageorgiou Andreana Assimopoulou

Liposomes are considered to be one of the most successful drug delivery systems. They apply nanotechnology to potentiate the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the toxicity of conventional medicines. Shikonin and alkannin, a pair of chiral natural naphthoquinone compounds, derived from Alkanna and Lithospermum species, are widely used due to their various pharmacological activities, mainly wound healing, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and their recently established antitumor activity. The purpose of this study was to prepare conventional and PEGylated shikonin-loaded liposomal formulations and measure the effects of different lipids and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on parameters related to particle size distribution, the polydispersity index, the zeta potential, drug-loading efficiency and the stability of the prepared formulations. Three types of lipids were assessed (1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol) (DSPG)), separately and in mixtures, forming anionic liposomes with good physicochemical characteristics, high entrapment efficiencies (varying from 56.5 to 89.4%), satisfactory in vitro release profiles and good physical stability. The addition of the negatively charged DSPG lipids to DOPC, led to an increment in the drug’s incorporation efficiency and reduced the particle size distribution. Furthermore, the shikonin–loaded PEGylated sample with DOPC/DSPG, demonstrated the most satisfactory characteristics. These findings are considered promising and could be used for further design and improvement of such formulations.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020035

Authors: Edtson Emilio Herrera Valencia Alejandro D. Rey

Liquid crystal flexoelectric actuation uses an imposed electric field to create membrane bending, this phenomenon is found in outer hair cells (OHC) located in the inner ear, whose role is to amplify sound through the generation of mechanical power. Oscillations in the OHC membranes create periodic viscoelastic flows in the contacting fluid media. A key objective of this work on flexoelectric actuation relevant to OHC is to find the relations and impact of the electro-mechanical properties of the membrane, the rheological properties of the viscoelastic media, and the frequency response of the generated mechanical power output. The model developed and used in this work is based on the integration of: (i) the flexoelectric membrane shape equation applied to a circular membrane attached to the inner surface of a circular capillary, and (ii) the coupled capillary flow of contacting viscoelastic phases, which are characterized by the Jeffreys constitutive equation with different material conditions. The membrane flexoelectric oscillations drive periodic viscoelastic capillary flows, as in OHCs. By applying the Fourier transform formalism to the governing equations and assuming small Mach numbers, analytical equations for the transfer function, associated to the average curvature, and for the volumetric rate flow as a function of the electrical field were found, and these equations can be expressed as a third-order differential equation which depends on the material properties of the system. When the inertial mechanisms are considered, the power spectrum shows several resonance peaks in the average membrane curvature and volumetric flow rate. When the inertia is neglected, the system follows a non-monotonic behavior in the power spectrum. This behavior is associated with the solvent contributions related to the retardation-Jeffreys mechanisms. The specific membrane-viscoelastic fluid properties that control the power response spectrum are identified. The present theory, model, and computations contribute to the evolving fundamental understanding of biological shape actuation through electromechanical couplings.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020034

Authors: Shuji Fujii Yuji Sasaki Hiroshi Orihara

Nonlinear rheological properties of chiral crystal cholesteryl oleyl carbonate (COC) in blue phase III (BPIII) were investigated under different shear deformations: large amplitude oscillatory shear, step shear deformation, and continuous shear flow. Rheology of the liquid crystal is significantly affected by structural rearrangement of defects under shear flow. One of the examples on the defect-mediated rheology is the blue phase rheology. Blue phase is characterized by three dimensional network structure of the disclination lines. It has been numerically studied that the rheological behavior of the blue phase is dominated by destruction and creation of the disclination networks. In this study, we find that the nonlinear viscoelasticity of BPIII is characterized by the fracture of the disclination networks. Depending on the degree of the fracture, the nonlinear viscoelasticity is divided into two regimes; the weak nonlinear regime where the disclination network locally fractures but still shows elastic response, and the strong nonlinear regime where the shear deformation breaks up the networks, which results in a loss of the elasticity. Continuous shear deformation reveals that a series of the fracture process delays with shear rate. The shear rate dependence suggests that force balance between the elastic force acting on the disclination lines and the viscous force determines the fracture behavior.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020033

Authors: Frank E. Fish Terrie M. Williams Erica Sherman Yae Eun Moon Vicki Wu Timothy Wei

Estimation of force generated by dolphins has long been debated. The problem was that indirect estimates of force production for dolphins resulted in low values that could not be validated. Bubble digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) measured hydrodynamic force production for swimming dolphins and demonstrated high force production. To validate the bubble DPIV and reconcile force production measurements, two bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) performing tail stands were measured with bubble DPIV. Microbubbles were generated from a finely porous hose and compressed air source. Displacement of the bubbles by the propulsive motions of the dolphin was tracked with a high-speed video camera. Oscillations of the dolphin flukes generated strong vortices and a downward directed jet flow into the wake. Application of the Kutta&ndash;Joukowski theorem measuring vortex circulations yielded forces up to 997.3 N. Another video camera recorded body height above the water surface to determine the mass-force of the dolphin above the water surface. For the dolphin to hold its position above the water surface, the mass-force approximately balanced the vertical hydrodynamic force from the flukes. The results demonstrated the fluke motions generate high sustained forces roughly equal to the dolphin&rsquo;s weight out of the water. Bubble DPIV validated high forces measured previously for thrust generated in swimming by animals and demonstrated a more accurate technique compared to standard aerodynamic analysis.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020032

Authors: Ayah Lazar Qiong Zhang Andrew F. Thompson

Regions of the ocean near continental slopes are linked to significant vertical velocities caused by advection over a sloping bottom, frictional processes and diffusion. Oceanic motions at submesoscales are also characterized by enhanced vertical velocities, as compared to mesoscale motions, due to greater contributions from ageostrophic flows. These enhanced vertical velocities can make an important contribution to turbulent fluxes. Sloping topography may also induce large-scale potential vorticity gradients by modifying the slope of interior isopycnal surfaces. Potential vorticity gradients, in turn, may feed back on mesoscale stirring and the generation of submesoscale features. In this study, we explore the impact of sloping topography on the characteristics of submesoscale motions. We conduct high-resolution (1 km &times; 1 km) simulations of a wind-driven frontal current over an idealized continental shelf and slope. We explore changes in the magnitude, skewness and spectra of surface vorticity and vertical velocity across different configurations of the topographic slope and wind-forcing orientations. All of these properties are strongly modulated by the background topography. Furthermore, submesoscale characteristics exhibit spatial variability across the continental shelf and slope. We find that changes in the statistical properties of submesoscale motions are linked to mesoscale stirring responding to differences in the interior potential vorticity distributions, which are set by frictional processes at the ocean surface and over the sloping bottom. Improved parameterizations of submesoscale motions over topography may be needed to simulate the spatial variability of these features in coarser-resolution models, and are likely to be important to represent vertical nutrient fluxes in coastal waters.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020031

Authors: Sarvenaz Sobhansarbandi Lizon Maharjan Babak Fahimi Fatemeh Hassanipour

One of the most important methods of methane utilization is the conversion to synthesis gas (syngas). However, conventional ways of reforming methane usually require very high temperature, therefore non-thermal (non-equilibrium) plasma methane reforming is an attractive alternative. In this study, a novel plasma based reformer named 3D Gliding Arc Vortex Reformer (3D-GAVR) was investigated for partial oxidation of methane to produce syngas. The tangential input creates a vortex in the plasma zone and an expanded plasma presides within the entire area between the two electrodes. Using this method, the experimental results show that hydrogen can be produced for as low as $ 4.45 per kg with flow rates of around 1 L per minute. The maximum methane conversion percentage which is achieved by this technology is up to 62.38%. In addition, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is conducted for a cold plasma reformer chamber named reverse vortex flow gliding arc reactor (RVF-GA) to investigate the effects of geometry and configuration on the reformer performance. In this modified reformer, an axial air input port is added to the top of the reaction vessel while the premixed reactants can enter the cylindrical reaction zone through tangential jets. The CFD results show that a reverse vortex flow (RVF) scheme can be created which has an outer swirling rotation along with a low pressure area at its center with some component of axial flow. The reversed vortex flow utilizes the uniform temperature and heat flux distribution inside the cylinder, and enhances the gas mixtures leading to expedition of the chemical reaction and the rate of hydrogen production.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020030

Authors: Mohamed Elshalakani Christoph H. Brücker

This article investigates the formation of spontaneous coordination in a row of flexible 2D flaps (artificial cilia) in a chamber filled with a high viscous liquid (Re = 0.12). Each flap is driven individually to oscillate by a rotary motor with the root of the flap attached to its spindle axle. A computer-vision control loop tracks the flap tips online and toggles the axle rotation direction when the tips reach a pre-defined maximum excursion. This is a vision-controlled implementation of the so-called &ldquo;geometric clutch&rdquo; hypothesis. When running the control loop with the flaps in an inviscid reference situation (air), they remain in their individual phases for a long term. Then, the flaps are studied in the chamber filled with a highly viscous liquid, and the same control loop is started. The flexible flaps now undergo bending due to hydrodynamic coupling and come, after a maximum of 15 beats, into a synchronous metachronal coordination. The study proves in a macroscopic lab experiment that viscous coupling is sufficient to achieve spontaneous synchronization, even for a symmetric cilia shape and beat pattern.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020029

Authors: Longfei Zhao Sergey Shkarayev Erlong Su

In the present study, an oscillating membrane flapper was pivotally attached to the tip of a conventional rigid wing. Stroke-averaged aerodynamic forces were measured for the range of the flapping frequency, showing significant increases in the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio for the wing with a flapper. Major vortex patterns were deduced from observations of smoke-wire visualization and 2D phase-locked particle image velocimetry (PIV). The centerline of the primary vortex wanders in the counterclockwise direction. On the contrary, its core rotates in the same sense of rotation as a wingtip vortex in a conventional wing. The secondary weaker vortex of opposite rotation lasts for a half stroke. The vortex ring sheds from the flapper during the second half of the upstroke and pronation. The outer parts of the vortex system are much stronger than the inner ones. The circulation and size of vortices decrease significantly at the most distant station from the wing. Strong vertical jets were found in smoke-wire visualization and confirmed with velocity and vorticity fields obtained by PIV. These jets are formed between undulating vortices and inside of the vortex ring. The jet airflow moves away from the flapper and downward or upward depending on the flapping direction.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020028

Authors: Huicong Jiang Hua Tan

In recent years, physics-based computer models have been increasingly applied to design the drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet devices. The initial design stage for these devices often requires a fast turnaround time of computer models, because it usually involves a massive screening of a large number of design parameters. Thus, in the present study, a 1D model is developed to achieve the fast prediction of droplet ejection process from DOD devices, including the droplet breakup and coalescence. A popular 1D slender-jet method (Egger, 1994) is adopted in this study. The fluid dynamics in the nozzle region is described by a 2D axisymmetric unsteady Poiseuille flow model. Droplet formation and nozzle fluid dynamics are coupled, and hence solved together, to simulate the inkjet droplet ejection. The arbitrary Lagrangian&ndash;Eulerian method is employed to solve the governing equations. Numerical methods have been proposed to handle the breakup and coalescence of droplets. The proposed methods are implemented in an in-house developed MATLAB code. A series of validation examples have been carried out to evaluate the accuracy and the robustness of the proposed 1D model. Finally, a case study of the inkjet droplet ejection with different Ohnesorge number (Oh) is presented to demonstrate the capability of the proposed 1D model for DOD inkjet process. Our study has shown that 1D model can significantly reduce the computational time (usually less than one minute) yet with acceptable accuracy, which makes it very useful to explore the large parameter space of inkjet devices in a short amount of time.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020027

Authors: Alvaro Gonzalez-Alvarez Oscar E. Coronado-Hernández Vicente S. Fuertes-Miquel Helena M. Ramos

The 24-h maximum rainfall (P24h-max) observations recorded at the synoptic weather station of Rafael N&uacute;&ntilde;ez airport (Cartagena de Indias, Colombia) were analyzed, and a linear increasing trend over time was identified. It was also noticed that the occurrence of the rainfall value (over the years of record) for a return period of 10 years under stationary conditions (148.1 mm) increased, which evidences a change in rainfall patterns. In these cases, the typical stationary frequency analysis is unable to capture such a change. So, in order to further evaluate rainfall observations, frequency analyses of P24h-max for stationary and non-stationary conditions were carried out (by using the generalized extreme value distribution). The goodness-of-fit test of Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), with values of 753.3721 and 747.5103 for stationary and non-stationary conditions respectively, showed that the latter best depicts the increasing rainfall pattern. Values of rainfall were later estimated for different return periods (2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years) to quantify the increase (non-stationary versus stationary condition), which ranged 6% to 12% for return periods from 5 years to 100 years, and 44% for a 2-year return period. The effect of these findings were tested in the Gordo creek watershed by first calculating the resulting direct surface runoff (DSR) for various return periods, and then modeling the hydraulic behavior of the downstream area (composed of a 178.5-m creek&rsquo;s reach and an existing box-culvert located at the watershed outlet) that undergoes flooding events every year. The resulting DSR increase oscillated between 8% and 19% for return periods from 5 to 100 years, and 77% for a 2-year return period when the non-stationary and stationary scenarios were compared. The results of this study shed light upon to the precautions that designers should take when selecting a design, based upon rainfall observed, as it may result in an underestimation of both the direct surface runoff and the size of the hydraulic structures for runoff and flood management throughout the city.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020026

Authors: Rasmita Sahoo Surajit Dhara

Topological defects are important in determining the properties of physical systems and are known varyingly depending on the broken symmetry. In superfluid helium, they are called vortices; in periodic crystals, one refers to dislocations; and in liquid crystals, they are disclinations. The defects and the inter-defect interaction in some highly chiral liquid crystals stabilize some intermediate complex phases such as Blue Phases (BPs) and Twist Grain Boundary-A (TGBA) phases. The defect dynamics of these phases contributes to the rheological properties. The temperature range of these intermediate phases usually are very small in pure liquid crystals; consequently, a detailed experiment has been difficult to achieve. However, the temperature range could be enhanced significantly in multicomponent systems. In this review article, we discuss some recent experimental progress made in understanding the rheological properties of the wide-temperature-range TGBA and BP liquid crystals.

]]>Fluids doi: 10.3390/fluids3020025

Authors: Cortes Williams Olufemi Kadri Roman Voronov Vassilios Sikavitsas

Flow perfusion bioreactors have been extensively investigated as a promising culture method for bone tissue engineering, due to improved nutrient delivery and shear force-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. However, a major drawback impeding the transition to clinically-relevant tissue regeneration is the inability to non-destructively monitor constructs during culture. To alleviate this shortcoming, we investigated the distribution of fluid shear forces in scaffolds cultured in flow perfusion bioreactors using computational fluid dynamic techniques, analyzed the effects of scaffold architecture on the shear forces and monitored tissue mineralization throughout the culture period using microcomputed tomography. For this study, we dynamically seeded one million adult rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on 85% porous poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) polymeric spunbonded scaffolds. After taking intermittent samples over 16 days, the constructs were imaged and reconstructed using microcomputed tomography. Fluid dynamic simulations were performed using a custom in-house lattice Boltzmann program. By taking samples at different time points during culture, we are able to monitor the mineralization and resulting changes in flow-induced shear distributions in the porous scaffolds as the constructs mature into bone tissue engineered constructs, which has not been investigated previously in the literature. From the work conducted in this study, we proved that the average shear stress per construct consistently increases as a function of culture time, resulting in an increase at Day 16 of 113%.

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