Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications

A special issue of Fluids (ISSN 2311-5521).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2021) | Viewed by 43049

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
J. Mike Walker ’66 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77 843, USA
Interests: computational fluid dynamics; high-performance computing; fluid–structure interaction; bio-fluids; bio-inspired propulsion; cardiovascular flows; suspensions

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Guest Editor
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
Interests: experimental fluid mechanics; unsteady separated flows; fluid–structure interactions; bio-fluid mechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fluid–structure interaction (FSI) is ubiquitous in engineering applications and in natural systems. Nevertheless, the methods, governing parameters, and scaling laws for different applications are still underdeveloped. The numerical methods for FSI suffer from numerical instability, time step restriction, parallel scalability issues, and high computational costs, among others. Novel experimental approaches for FSI measurements are needed for multidisciplinary applications across a range of spatio-temporal scales. This Special Issue of Fluids is dedicated to recent advances in numerical or experimental methods for FSI, comparisons of different FSI techniques, and the applications that shed light on the FSI governing parameters and scaling laws.

Prof. Dr. Iman Borazjani
Prof. Dr. Vrishank Raghav
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • fluid–structure interaction (FSI)
  • numerical methods for FSI
  • experimental methods for FSI
  • comparison of FSI techniques
  • FSI applications

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 7354 KiB  
Article
Free-Decay Heave Motion of a Spherical Buoy
by Jacob K. Colling, Saeed Jafari Kang, Esmaeil Dehdashti, Salman Husain, Hassan Masoud and Gordon G. Parker
Fluids 2022, 7(6), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7060188 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
We examined the heave motion of a spherical buoy during a free-decay drop test. A comprehensive approach was adopted to study the oscillations of the buoy involving experimental measurements and complementary numerical simulations. The experiments were performed in a wave tank equipped with [...] Read more.
We examined the heave motion of a spherical buoy during a free-decay drop test. A comprehensive approach was adopted to study the oscillations of the buoy involving experimental measurements and complementary numerical simulations. The experiments were performed in a wave tank equipped with an array of high-speed motion-capture cameras and a set of high-precision wave gauges. The simulations included three sets of calculations with varying levels of sophistication. Specifically, in one set, the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method was used to solve the incompressible, two-phase, Navier–Stokes equations on an overset grid, whereas the calculations in other sets were based on Cummins and mass-spring-damper models that are both rooted in the linear potential flow theory. Excellent agreements were observed between the experimental data and the results of VOF simulations. Although less accurate, the predictions of the two reduced-order models were found to be quite credible, too. Regarding the motion of the buoy, the obtained results indicate that, after being released from a height approximately equal to its draft at static equilibrium (which is about 60% of its radius), the buoy underwent nearly harmonic damped oscillations. The conducted analysis reveals that the draft length of the buoy has a profound effect on the frequency and attenuation rate of the oscillations. For example, compared to a spherical buoy of the same size that is half submerged at equilibrium (i.e., the draft is equal to the radius), the tested buoy oscillated with a period that was roughly 20% shorter, and its amplitude of oscillations decayed almost twice faster per period. Overall, the presented study provides additional insights into the motion response of a floating sphere that can be used for optimal buoy design for energy extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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22 pages, 3972 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation and Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) Analysis on a Double-Element Simplified Formula One (F1) Composite Wing in the Presence of Ground Effect
by Chris Sungkyun Bang, Zeeshan A. Rana, László Könözsy, Veronica Marchante Rodriguez and Clive Temple
Fluids 2022, 7(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7020085 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4817
Abstract
This research paper focuses on a novel coupling of the aerodynamic and structural behaviour of a double-element composite front wing of a Formula One (F1) vehicle, which was simulated and studied for the first time here. To achieve this goal, a modified two-way [...] Read more.
This research paper focuses on a novel coupling of the aerodynamic and structural behaviour of a double-element composite front wing of a Formula One (F1) vehicle, which was simulated and studied for the first time here. To achieve this goal, a modified two-way coupling method was employed in the context of high performance computing (HPC) to simulate a steady-state fluid-structure interaction (FSI) configuration using the ANSYS software package. The front wing plays a key role in generating aerodynamic forces and controlling the fresh airflow to maximise the aerodynamic performance of an F1 car. Therefore, the composite front wing becomes deflected under aerodynamic loading conditions due to its elastic behaviour which can lead to changes in the flow field and the aerodynamic performance of the wing. To reduce the uncertainty of the simulations, a grid sensitivity study and the assessment of different engineering turbulence models were carried out. The practical contribution of our investigations is the quantification of the coupled effect of the aerodynamic and structural performance of the wing and an understanding of the influence of ride heights on the ground effect. It was found that the obtained numerical surface pressure distributions, the aerodynamic forces, and the wake profiles show an accurate agreement with experimental data taken from the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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16 pages, 6976 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Deformation in an Aluminium Hull Impacting Water Free Surface
by Alessandro Mercuri, Pierluigi Fanelli, Giacomo Falcucci, Stefano Ubertini, Elio Jannelli and Chiara Biscarini
Fluids 2022, 7(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7020049 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1827
Abstract
Water impacts provide a challenge for a wide range of applications, from aerospace, to marine, mechanical and civil engineering, due to the complexity conveyed by the coexistence of impulsive loads, large local deformations and high-amplitude vibrations. Thus, the need for reliable structural health [...] Read more.
Water impacts provide a challenge for a wide range of applications, from aerospace, to marine, mechanical and civil engineering, due to the complexity conveyed by the coexistence of impulsive loads, large local deformations and high-amplitude vibrations. Thus, the need for reliable structural health monitoring (SHM) systems is emerging in the industrial field of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) applications. In this paper, we leverage the previous work on strain and displacement fields reconstruction to analyse a scale aluminium model subject to water vertical and oblique impacts. Fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were installed on the hull ribs and used both as reconstruction sensors (to reconstruct the structure mechanical behaviour characteristics) and as control sensors, by using their signals to compare the real and reconstructed structural parameters, at the sensors locations. Finally, the effectiveness of different reconstruction layouts was investigated referring to the strain signal reconstruction quality in case of both vertical and oblique impacts. Results show the potential of the described method for the reconstruction of strain signal through a proper choice of the reconstruction sensors positions both in case of vertical and oblique impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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25 pages, 11088 KiB  
Article
Radial Basis Functions Vector Fields Interpolation for Complex Fluid Structure Interaction Problems
by Corrado Groth, Stefano Porziani and Marco Evangelos Biancolini
Fluids 2021, 6(9), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6090314 - 03 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
Fluid structure interaction (FSI) is a complex phenomenon that in several applications cannot be neglected. Given its complexity and multi-disciplinarity the solution of FSI problems is difficult and time consuming, requiring not only the solution of the structural and fluid domains, but also [...] Read more.
Fluid structure interaction (FSI) is a complex phenomenon that in several applications cannot be neglected. Given its complexity and multi-disciplinarity the solution of FSI problems is difficult and time consuming, requiring not only the solution of the structural and fluid domains, but also the use of expensive numerical methods to couple the two physics and to properly update the numerical grid. Advanced mesh morphing can be used to embed into the fluid grid the vector fields resulting from structural calculations. The main advantage is that such embedding and the related computational costs occur only at initialization of the computation. A proper combination of embedded vector fields can be used to tackle steady and transient FSI problems by structural modes superposition, for the case of linear structures, or to impose a full non-linear displacement time history. Radial basis functions interpolation, a powerful and precise meshless tool, is used in this work to combine the vector fields and propagate their effect to the full fluid domain of interest. A review of industrial high fidelity FSI problems tackled by means of the proposed method and RBF is given for steady, transient, and non-linear transient FSI problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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25 pages, 2268 KiB  
Article
A Revisit of Implicit Monolithic Algorithms for Compressible Solids Immersed Inside a Compressible Liquid
by Sheldon Wang
Fluids 2021, 6(8), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6080273 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1671
Abstract
With the development of mature Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools for fluids (air and liquid) and Finite Element Methods (FEM) for solids and structures, many approaches have been proposed to tackle the so-called Fluid–Structure Interaction or Fluid–Solid Interaction (FSI) problems. Traditional partitioned iterations [...] Read more.
With the development of mature Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools for fluids (air and liquid) and Finite Element Methods (FEM) for solids and structures, many approaches have been proposed to tackle the so-called Fluid–Structure Interaction or Fluid–Solid Interaction (FSI) problems. Traditional partitioned iterations are often used to link available FEM codes with CFD codes in the study of FSI systems. Although these procedures are convenient, fluid mesh adjustments according to the motion and finite deformation of immersed solids or structures can be challenging or even prohibitive. Moreover, complex dynamic behaviors of coupled FSI systems are often lost in these iterative processes. In this paper, the author would like to review the so-called monolithic approaches for the solution of coupled FSI systems as a whole in the context of the immersed boundary method. In particular, the focus is on the implicit monolithic algorithm for compressible solids immersed inside a compressible liquid. Notice here the main focus of this paper is on liquid or more precisely liquid phase of water as working fluid. Using the word liquid, the author would like to emphasize the consideration of the compressibility of the fluid and the assumption of constant density and temperature. It is a common practice to assume that the pressure variations are not strong enough to alter the liquid density in any significant fashion for acoustic fluid–solid interactions problems. Although the algorithm presented in this paper is not directly applicable to aerodynamics in which the density change is significant along with its relationship with the pressure and the temperature, the author did revisit his earlier work on merging immersed boundary method concepts with a fully-fledged compressible aerodynamic code based on high-order compact scheme and energy conservative form of governing equations. In the proposed algorithm, on top of a uniform background (ghost) mesh, a fully implicit immersed method is implemented with mixed finite element methods for compressible liquid as well as immersed compressible solids with a matrix-free Newton–Krylov iterative solution scheme. In this monolithic approach, with the simple modulo function, the immersed solid or structure points can be easily located and thus the displacement projections and force distributions stipulated in the immersed boundary method can be effectively and efficiently implemented. This feature coupled with the key concept of the immersed boundary method helps to avoid topologically challenging mesh adjustments and to incorporate parallel processing commands such as Message Passing Interface (MPI) and further vectorization of the numerical operation. Once these high-performance procedures are implemented coupled with the monolithic implicit matrix-free Newton–Krylov iterative scheme with immersed methods, effective and efficient reduced order modeling techniques can then be employed to explore phase and parametric spaces. The in-house developed programs are at the moment two-dimensional. Furthermore, based on the same approach implemented in one-dimensional test example with one continuum immersed in another continuum, such monolithic implicit matrix-free Newton–Krylov iterative approach can be extended for the study of composites with deformable aggregates and matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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35 pages, 1720 KiB  
Article
A Monolithic and a Partitioned, Reduced Basis Method for Fluid–Structure Interaction Problems
by Monica Nonino, Francesco Ballarin and Gianluigi Rozza
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060229 - 19 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2904
Abstract
The aim of this work is to present an overview about the combination of the Reduced Basis Method (RBM) with two different approaches for Fluid–Structure Interaction (FSI) problems, namely a monolithic and a partitioned approach. We provide the details of implementation of two [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to present an overview about the combination of the Reduced Basis Method (RBM) with two different approaches for Fluid–Structure Interaction (FSI) problems, namely a monolithic and a partitioned approach. We provide the details of implementation of two reduction procedures, and we then apply them to the same test case of interest. We first implement a reduction technique that is based on a monolithic procedure where we solve the fluid and the solid problems all at once. We then present another reduction technique that is based on a partitioned (or segregated) procedure: the fluid and the solid problems are solved separately and then coupled using a fixed point strategy. The toy problem that we consider is based on the Turek–Hron benchmark test case, with a fluid Reynolds number Re=100. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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17 pages, 1634 KiB  
Article
On the Choice of Interface Parameters in Robin–Robin Loosely Coupled Schemes for Fluid–Structure Interaction
by Giacomo Gigante and Christian Vergara
Fluids 2021, 6(6), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6060213 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1663
Abstract
We consider two loosely coupled schemes for the solution of the fluid–structure interaction problem in the presence of large added mass effect. In particular, we introduce the Robin–Robin and Robin–Neumann explicit schemes where suitable interface conditions of Robin type are used. For the [...] Read more.
We consider two loosely coupled schemes for the solution of the fluid–structure interaction problem in the presence of large added mass effect. In particular, we introduce the Robin–Robin and Robin–Neumann explicit schemes where suitable interface conditions of Robin type are used. For the estimate of interface Robin parameters which guarantee stability of the numerical solution, we propose a new strategy based on the optimization of the reduction factor of the corresponding strongly coupled (implicit) scheme, by means of the optimized Schwarz method. To check the suitability of our proposals, we show numerical results both in an ideal cylindrical domain and in a real human carotid. Our results showed the effectiveness of our proposal for the calibration of interface parameters, which leads to stable results and shows how the explicit solution tends to the implicit one for decreasing values of the time discretization parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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21 pages, 2330 KiB  
Article
Optimal Pressure Boundary Control of Steady Multiscale Fluid-Structure Interaction Shell Model Derived from Koiter Equations
by Andrea Chierici, Leonardo Chirco and Sandro Manservisi
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040149 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems are of great interest, due to their applicability in science and engineering. However, the coupling between large fluid domains and small moving solid walls presents numerous numerical difficulties and, in some configurations, where the thickness of the solid wall [...] Read more.
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems are of great interest, due to their applicability in science and engineering. However, the coupling between large fluid domains and small moving solid walls presents numerous numerical difficulties and, in some configurations, where the thickness of the solid wall can be neglected, one can consider membrane models, which are derived from the Koiter shell equations with a reduction of the computational cost of the algorithm. With this assumption, the FSI simulation is reduced to the fluid equations on a moving mesh together with a Robin boundary condition that is imposed on the moving solid surface. In this manuscript, we are interested in the study of inverse FSI problems that aim to achieve an objective by changing some design parameters, such as forces, boundary conditions, or geometrical domain shapes. We study the inverse FSI membrane model by using an optimal control approach that is based on Lagrange multipliers and adjoint variables. In particular, we propose a pressure boundary optimal control with the purpose to control the solid deformation by changing the pressure on a fluid boundary. We report the results of some numerical tests for two-dimensional domains to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of our method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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19 pages, 8002 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Continuum-Particle Approach for Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Red Blood Cells in Fluid Flows
by Lahcen Akerkouch and Trung Bao Le
Fluids 2021, 6(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6040139 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3308
Abstract
Transport of cells in fluid flow plays a critical role in many physiological processes of the human body. Recent developments of in vitro techniques have enabled the understanding of cellular dynamics in laboratory conditions. However, it is challenging to obtain precise characteristics of [...] Read more.
Transport of cells in fluid flow plays a critical role in many physiological processes of the human body. Recent developments of in vitro techniques have enabled the understanding of cellular dynamics in laboratory conditions. However, it is challenging to obtain precise characteristics of cellular dynamics using experimental method alone, especially under in vivo conditions. This challenge motivates new developments of computational methods to provide complementary data that experimental techniques are not able to provide. Since there exists a large disparity in spatial and temporal scales in this problem, which requires a large number of cells to be simulated, it is highly desirable to develop an efficient numerical method for the interaction of cells and fluid flows. In this work, a new Fluid-Structure Interaction formulation is proposed based on the use of hybrid continuum-particle approach, which can resolve local dynamics of cells while providing large-scale flow patterns in the vascular vessel. Here, the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) model for the cellular membrane is used in conjunction with the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) for the fluid plasma. Our results show that the new formulation is highly efficient in computing the deformation of cells within fluid flow while satisfying the incompressibility constraints of the fluid. We demonstrate that it is possible to couple the DPD with the IBM to simulate the complex dynamics of Red Blood Cells (RBC) such as parachuting. Our key observation is that the proposed coupling enables the simulation of RBC dynamics in realistic arterioles while ensuring the incompressibility constraint for fluid plasma. Therefore, the proposed method allows an accurate estimation of fluid shear stresses on the surface of simulated RBC. Our results suggest that this hybrid methodology can be extended for a variety of cells in physiological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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17 pages, 3558 KiB  
Article
Frequency and Amplitude Modulations of a Moving Structure in Unsteady Non-Homogeneous Density Fluid Flow
by Tolotra Emerry Rajaomazava III, Mustapha Benaouicha, Jacques-André Astolfi and Abdel-Ouahab Boudraa
Fluids 2021, 6(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6030130 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
A fluid-structure interaction’s effects on the dynamics of a hydrofoil immersed in a fluid flow of non-homogeneous density is presented and analyzed. A linearized model is applied to solve the fluid-structure coupled problem. Fluid density variations along the hydrofoil upper surface, based on [...] Read more.
A fluid-structure interaction’s effects on the dynamics of a hydrofoil immersed in a fluid flow of non-homogeneous density is presented and analyzed. A linearized model is applied to solve the fluid-structure coupled problem. Fluid density variations along the hydrofoil upper surface, based on the sinusoidal cavity oscillations, are used. It is shown that for the steady cavity case, the value of cavity length Lp does not affect the amplitude of the hydrofoil displacements. However, the natural frequency of the structure increases according to Lp. In the unsteady cavity case, the variations of the added mass and added damping (induced by the fluid density rate of change) generate frequency and amplitude modulations in the hydrofoil dynamics. To analyse this phenomena, the empirical mode decomposition, a well established data-driven method to handle such modulations, is used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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12 pages, 3770 KiB  
Article
Fluid-Structure Interaction of Flexible Whisker-Type Beams and Its Implications for Flow Sensing by Pair-Wise Correlation
by Raphael Glick, Muthukumar Muthuramalingam and Christoph Brücker
Fluids 2021, 6(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6030102 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2403
Abstract
(1) Background: Sensing of critical events or flow signatures in nature often presents itself as a coupled interaction between a fluid and arrays of slender flexible beams, such a wind-hairs or whiskers. It is hypothesized that important information is gained in highly noisy [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Sensing of critical events or flow signatures in nature often presents itself as a coupled interaction between a fluid and arrays of slender flexible beams, such a wind-hairs or whiskers. It is hypothesized that important information is gained in highly noisy environments by the inter-correlation within the array. (2) Methods: The present study uses a model sea lion head with artificial whiskers in the form of slender beams (optical fibres), which are subjected to a mean flow with overlaid turbulent structures generated in the wake of a cylinder. Motion tracking of the array of fibres is used to analyse the correlation of the bending deformations of pairs of fibres. (3) Results: Cross-correlation of the bending signal from tandem pairs of whiskers proves that the detection of vortices and their passage along the animals head is possible even in noisy environments. The underlying pattern, during passage of a vortex core, is a jerk-like response of the whiskers, which can be found at later arrival-times in similar form in the downstream whisker’s response. (4) Conclusions: Coherent vortical structures can be detected from cross-correlation of pairs of cantilever-beam like sensors even in highly turbulent flows. Such vortices carry important information within the environment, e.g., the underlying convection velocity. More importantly in nature, these vortices are characteristic elementary signals left by prey and predators. The present work can help to further develop flow, or critical event, sensory systems which can overcome high noise levels due to the proposed correlation principle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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19 pages, 412 KiB  
Article
Time-Dependent Wave-Structure Interaction Revisited: Thermo-Piezoelectric Scatterers
by George C. Hsiao and Tonatiuh Sánchez-Vizuet
Fluids 2021, 6(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6030101 - 03 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1420
Abstract
In this paper, we are concerned with a time-dependent transmission problem for a thermo-piezoelectric elastic body that is immersed in a compressible fluid. It is shown that the problem can be treated by the boundary-field equation method, provided that an appropriate scaling factor [...] Read more.
In this paper, we are concerned with a time-dependent transmission problem for a thermo-piezoelectric elastic body that is immersed in a compressible fluid. It is shown that the problem can be treated by the boundary-field equation method, provided that an appropriate scaling factor is employed. As usual, based on estimates for solutions in the Laplace-transformed domain, we may obtain properties of corresponding solutions in the time-domain without having to perform the inversion of the Laplace-domain solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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13 pages, 1055 KiB  
Article
A Monolithic Approach of Fluid–Structure Interaction by Discrete Mechanics
by Stéphane Vincent and Jean-Paul Caltagirone
Fluids 2021, 6(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6030095 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
The unification of the laws of fluid and solid mechanics is achieved on the basis of the concepts of discrete mechanics and the principles of equivalence and relativity, but also the Helmholtz–Hodge decomposition where a vector is written as the sum of divergence-free [...] Read more.
The unification of the laws of fluid and solid mechanics is achieved on the basis of the concepts of discrete mechanics and the principles of equivalence and relativity, but also the Helmholtz–Hodge decomposition where a vector is written as the sum of divergence-free and curl-free components. The derived equation of motion translates the conservation of acceleration over a segment, that of the intrinsic acceleration of the material medium and the sum of the accelerations applied to it. The scalar and vector potentials of the acceleration, which are the compression and shear energies, give the discrete equation of motion the role of conservation law for total mechanical energy. Velocity and displacement are obtained using an incremental time process from acceleration. After a description of the main stages of the derivation of the equation of motion, unique for the fluid and the solid, the cases of couplings in simple shear and uniaxial compression of two media, fluid and solid, make it possible to show the role of discrete operators and to find the theoretical results. The application of the formulation is then extended to a classical validation case in fluid–structure interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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21 pages, 32176 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Behaviours of a Filament in a Viscoelastic Uniform Flow
by Jingtao Ma, Fang-Bao Tian, John Young and Joseph C. S. Lai
Fluids 2021, 6(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6020090 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
The dynamic behaviours of a filament in a viscoelastic uniform flow were investigated by an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the Reynolds numbers (Re, ranging from 10 to 200) and the Weissenberg number (Wi, ranging [...] Read more.
The dynamic behaviours of a filament in a viscoelastic uniform flow were investigated by an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the Reynolds numbers (Re, ranging from 10 to 200) and the Weissenberg number (Wi, ranging from 0 to 1.2) on the filament flapping motion and the drag and lift coefficients on the filament were studied. It was found that a higher inertial effect (larger Re) promotes the flapping motion of the filament. In addition, the major effect of the viscoelasticity of the Giesekus fluid is to decrease the critical Reynolds number for the flapping motion of the filament and to promote the flapping motion. The drag coefficient on the filament in a Giesekus uniform flow decreases with the increase of Wi at low Re (Re<100), and experiences oscillations with similar amplitudes at all Wi at a sufficiently high Re (Re>100). In contrast, the viscoelasticity of the FENE-CR fluid increases the critical Reynolds number at lower Wi (Wi<0.8), and shows little influence on the critical Reynolds number at higher Wi (Wi0.8). In addition, the viscoelasticity of the FENE-CR fluid hinders the flapping motion of the filament, and increases the drag coefficient on the filament at low Re (Re<100). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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18 pages, 1048 KiB  
Article
Cross-Flow-Induced Vibration of an Elastic Plate
by Efstathios Konstantinidis
Fluids 2021, 6(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6020082 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
The cross-flow over a surface-mounted elastic plate and its vibratory response are studied as a fundamental two-dimensional configuration to gain physical insight into the interaction of viscous flow with flexible structures. The governing equations are numerically solved on a deforming mesh using an [...] Read more.
The cross-flow over a surface-mounted elastic plate and its vibratory response are studied as a fundamental two-dimensional configuration to gain physical insight into the interaction of viscous flow with flexible structures. The governing equations are numerically solved on a deforming mesh using an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite-element method. The turbulent flow is resolved using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations at a Reynolds number of 2.5×104 based on the plate height. The material properties of the plate are selected so that the structural frequency is close to the frequency of vortex shedding from the free edge of a rigid plate, which is studied initially as the reference case. The results show that the plate tip oscillates back and forth in response to unsteady fluid loading at twice the frequency of vortex shedding, which is attributable to the sequential formation of a primary vortex from the free edge and a secondary vortex near the base of the plate. The effects of the plate elasticity and density on the structural response are considered, and results are compiled in terms of the reduced velocity U* and the density ratio ρ*. The standard deviation of tip displacement increases with reduced velocity in the range 7.1U*18.4, irrespective of whether the elasticity or the density of the plate is varied. However, the average deflection of the plate in the streamwise direction displays different scaling with U* and ρ*, but scales almost linearly with the Cauchy number ∼U*2/ρ*. Interestingly, the synchronization between plate motion and vortex shedding ceases at U*=18.4, and the excitation mechanism in the latter case resembles flutter instability, rather than vortex-induced vibration found at lower U*. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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20 pages, 5248 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of Air Vortex Interaction with Porous Screen
by Xudong An, Lin Jiang and Fatemeh Hassanipour
Fluids 2021, 6(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6020070 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
In many industrial applications, a permeable mesh (porous screen) is used to control the unsteady (most commonly vortex) flows. Vortex flows are known to display intriguing behavior while propagating through porous screens. This numerical study aims to investigate the effects of physical properties [...] Read more.
In many industrial applications, a permeable mesh (porous screen) is used to control the unsteady (most commonly vortex) flows. Vortex flows are known to display intriguing behavior while propagating through porous screens. This numerical study aims to investigate the effects of physical properties such as porosity, Reynolds number, inlet flow dimension, and distance to the screen on the flow behavior. The simulation model includes a piston-cylinder vortex ring generator and a permeable mesh constructed by evenly arranged rods. Two methods of user-defined function and moving mesh have been applied to model the vortex ring generation. The results show the formation, evolution, and characteristics of the vortical rings under various conditions. The results for vorticity contours and the kinetic energy dissipation indicate that the physical properties alter the flow behavior in various ways while propagating through the porous screens. The numerical model, cross-validated with the experimental results, provides a better understanding of the fluid–solid interactions of vortex flows and porous screens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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16 pages, 5389 KiB  
Article
Effect of Strain Measurement Layout on Damage Detection and Localization in a Free Falling Compliant Cylinder Impacting a Water Surface
by Alessandro Mercuri, Pierluigi Fanelli, Stefano Ubertini, Giacomo Falcucci, Elio Jannelli and Chiara Biscarini
Fluids 2021, 6(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6020058 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
The need for effective and reliable damage detection and localization systems is growing in several engineering fields, in particular in water impact problems characterized by impulsive loading conditions, high amplitude vibrations and large local deformations. In this paper, we further develop the approach [...] Read more.
The need for effective and reliable damage detection and localization systems is growing in several engineering fields, in particular in water impact problems characterized by impulsive loading conditions, high amplitude vibrations and large local deformations. In this paper, we further develop the approach presented in previous works to detect damage of water-impacting structures. Specifically, we provide a set of experimental tests on a flexible plastic cylinder impacting the water after a 50 cm free fall. The cylindrical specimen is artificially damaged in a known position. Strain measurements are performed through a set of nine fiber Bragg gratings distributed along the circumference of a cylinder section. We show that strain sensors can be used as reference sensors, for structure displacements reconstruction, and control sensors, for damage detection purposes, and the computation of the difference between measured and expected deformation may allow damage detection. Moreover, we investigate how exchanging control and reference sensors in the same sensor arrangement affect damage detection and localization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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19 pages, 1309 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Dynamic Fluid-Structure Interaction with Elastic Structure–Rigid Obstacle Contact
by Othman Yakhlef and Cornel Marius Murea
Fluids 2021, 6(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6020051 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
An implicit scheme by partitioned procedures is proposed to solve a dynamic fluid–structure interaction problem in the case when the structure displacements are limited by a rigid obstacle. For the fluid equations (Sokes or Navier–Stokes), the fictitious domain method with penalization was used. [...] Read more.
An implicit scheme by partitioned procedures is proposed to solve a dynamic fluid–structure interaction problem in the case when the structure displacements are limited by a rigid obstacle. For the fluid equations (Sokes or Navier–Stokes), the fictitious domain method with penalization was used. The equality of the fluid and structure velocities at the interface was obtained using the penalization technique. The surface forces at the fluid–structure interface were computed using the fluid solution in the structure domain. A quadratic optimization problem with linear inequalities constraints was solved to obtain the structure displacements. Numerical results are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Structure Interaction: Methods and Applications)
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