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Vet. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2022) – 73 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Dairy cattle are particularly sensitive to heat stress due to the higher metabolic rate needed for milk production. In recent decades, global warming and the increase in dairy production in warmer countries have stimulated the development of a wide range of environmental control systems for dairy farms. Despite their proven effectiveness, the associated energy and water consumption can compromise the viability of dairy farms, due to the cost and scarcity of these resources. Furthermore, most available systems were developed to take corrective measures or are not accurate enough to effectively anticipate the animals’ thermal state. This review describes and discusses three types of predictive models that can make these systems more effective in preventing heat stress. View this paper
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Review
Possible Consequences of Climate Change on Survival, Productivity and Reproductive Performance, and Welfare of Himalayan Yak (Bos grunniens)
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080449 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Yak are adapted to the extreme cold, low oxygen, and high solar radiation of the Himalaya. Traditionally, they are kept at high altitude pastures during summer, moving lower in the winter. This system is highly susceptible to climate change, which has increased ambient [...] Read more.
Yak are adapted to the extreme cold, low oxygen, and high solar radiation of the Himalaya. Traditionally, they are kept at high altitude pastures during summer, moving lower in the winter. This system is highly susceptible to climate change, which has increased ambient temperatures, altered rainfall patterns and increased the occurrence of natural disasters. Changes in temperature and precipitation reduced the yield and productivity of alpine pastures, principally because the native plant species are being replaced by less useful shrubs and weeds. The impact of climate change on yak is likely to be mediated through heat stress, increased contact with other species, especially domestic cattle, and alterations in feed availability. Yak have a very low temperature humidity index (52 vs. 72 for cattle) and a narrow thermoneutral range (5–13 °C), so climate change has potentially exposed yak to heat stress in summer and winter. Heat stress is likely to affect both reproductive performance and milk production, but we lack the data to quantify such effects. Increased contact with other species, especially domestic cattle, is likely to increase disease risk. This is likely to be exacerbated by other climate-change-associated factors, such as increases in vector-borne disease, because of increases in vector ranges, and overcrowding associated with reduced pasture availability. However, lack of baseline yak disease data means it is difficult to quantify these changes in disease risk and the few papers claiming to have identified such increases do not provide robust evidence of increased diseases. The reduction in feed availability in traditional pastures may be thought to be the most obvious impact of climate change on yak; however, it is clear that such a reduction is not solely due to climate change, with socio-economic factors likely being more important. This review has highlighted the large potential negative impact of climate change on yak, and the lack of data quantifying that impact. More research on the impact of climate change in yak is needed. Attention also needs to be paid to developing mitigating strategies, which may include changes in the traditional system such as providing shelter and supplementary feed and, in marginal areas, increased use of yak–cattle hybrids. Full article
Article
Analysis of 1840 Equine Intraocular Fluid Samples for the Presence of Anti-Leptospira Antibodies and Leptospiral DNA and the Correlation to Ophthalmologic Findings in Terms of Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU)—A Retrospective Study
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080448 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
In the equine clinic of the LMU in Munich, therapeutic vitrectomies have been routinely performed in horses for three decades. The vitreous samples obtained during vitrectomies were usually tested for anti-Leptospira antibodies and for more than 20 years also by PCR for [...] Read more.
In the equine clinic of the LMU in Munich, therapeutic vitrectomies have been routinely performed in horses for three decades. The vitreous samples obtained during vitrectomies were usually tested for anti-Leptospira antibodies and for more than 20 years also by PCR for leptospiral DNA. If the indication for surgery was ophthalmologically inconclusive, an aqueous humor was collected preoperatively and examined for evidence of leptospiral infection. In this study, medical records from 2002 to 2017 were analyzed. Records for 1387 eyes affected by equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) and 237 eyes affected by another type of uveitis met the inclusion criteria. A total of 216 samples from healthy eyes were used as controls. In 83% of intraocular samples from ERU eyes, antibody titers of 1:100 or higher were detectable by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Similarly, 83% of intraocular samples had anti-Leptospira antibodies detected by ELISA. In 72% of the intraocular specimens, leptospiral DNA was detectable by PCR. No antibodies were detectable in the samples from eyes with another type of uveitis or in the samples from healthy eyes. A PCR was positive in only one sample from a healthy eye. These results with a very high number of intraocular specimens demonstrate the great importance of an intraocular leptospiral infection for ERU. It can be concluded that for a reliable diagnosis of intraocular leptospiral infection or to reliably exclude an infection multiple tests should be applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leptospiral Infections in Animals)
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Article
Proliferation and Apoptosis of Cat (Felis catus) Male Germ Cells during Breeding and Non-Breeding Seasons
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080447 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 798
Abstract
The domestic cat (Felis catus) is a seasonal-breeding species whose reproductive period starts when the day length increases. Since the existing information on cat spermatogenesis is limited and somewhat contradictory, in the present study, germ cell proliferation and apoptosis in feral [...] Read more.
The domestic cat (Felis catus) is a seasonal-breeding species whose reproductive period starts when the day length increases. Since the existing information on cat spermatogenesis is limited and somewhat contradictory, in the present study, germ cell proliferation and apoptosis in feral adult tomcats orchiectomized during reproductive (reproductive group, RG; February–July) and non-reproductive (non-reproductive group, NRG; November and December) seasons were compared. Cross-sections taken from the middle third of the left testis were chemically fixed and embedded in paraffin wax. Histological sections were processed for the immunohistochemical detection of proliferating germ cells (PCNA) and for the identification of apoptotic cells (TUNEL method). The percentage of PCNA-positive spermatogonia was higher in the RG than in the NRG. On the contrary, germ cell apoptosis was higher in the NRG than in the RG. Our results confirm that cat spermatogenesis is modulated on a seasonal basis and suggests that spermatogenesis control involves changes in germ cell proliferation and apoptosis according to a common paradigm of seasonally breeding species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics)
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Case Report
Surgical Treatment of a Retropharyngeal Abscess in a Japanese Black Cow
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080446 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
A 17-month-old Japanese Black cow presented with inappetence, wheezing, dysphagia, and drooling. Radiography and ultrasonography revealed an oval, dorsal, pharyngeal mass, with an internal horizontal line demarcating the radiolucent area from the radio-opaque area. Upper airway endoscopy revealed pus-like deposits in the dorsal [...] Read more.
A 17-month-old Japanese Black cow presented with inappetence, wheezing, dysphagia, and drooling. Radiography and ultrasonography revealed an oval, dorsal, pharyngeal mass, with an internal horizontal line demarcating the radiolucent area from the radio-opaque area. Upper airway endoscopy revealed pus-like deposits in the dorsal nasal passage, hyperemia, and edema in the dorsal pharynx, leading to swelling and airway obstruction. Manual palpation, after sedation, revealed a thickened mass surface, which was difficult to rupture with manual pressure. After inserting a linear sonographic probe through the mouth to establish the vascularity surrounding the mass and to identify a relatively thin-walled area, a trocar was pierced into the mass under endoscopic guidance, and the opening was enlarged manually. The mass was filled with stale pus-like material, which was removed manually. The abscess cavity was washed using saline and povidone–iodine. Day 1 post-surgery, dysphagia and wheezing disappeared. Day 16 post-surgery, endoscopy showed significant improvement in the airway patency. One year postoperatively, the owner reported that the cow had an uneventful recovery. For deep abscesses, such as bovine pharyngeal abscesses, it is important to perform a preoperative transoral Doppler ultrasonography to assess the vascularity and thickness of the abscess wall for safe trocar insertion and abscess drainage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Imaging of Head and Neck in Ruminants)
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Article
Ex-Vivo Evaluation of “First Tip Closing” Radiofrequency Vessel Sealing Devices for Swine Small Intestinal Transection
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080445 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1176
Abstract
This study compared burst pressure (BP), number of activations, and histological assessment of ex vivo swine small intestine loops transected by stapler, a single fulcrum radiofrequency vessel sealing (RFVS) device, and the newly-developed jaws RFVS. Fifty (n = 50) 20 cm long [...] Read more.
This study compared burst pressure (BP), number of activations, and histological assessment of ex vivo swine small intestine loops transected by stapler, a single fulcrum radiofrequency vessel sealing (RFVS) device, and the newly-developed jaws RFVS. Fifty (n = 50) 20 cm long jejunal loops were randomly assigned to be transected with RFVS devices and linear stapler (Caiman5, Caiman Maryland, Caiman12, Ligasure Atlas, and Stapler group as control respectively). Caiman5, Caiman12 and stapler required only one activation to complete the sealing. The mean BP in Caiman5 and Caiman Maryland groups were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the S group as control and the other RFVS devices studied. RFVS Caiman12 and Ligasure Atlas produced mean BP values that were close to the Control and did not differ between them. The lumen was totally closed in the Caiman12 and Ligasure Atlas groups. The findings of this investigation were promising; we discovered that Caiman12 and Ligasure Atlas produce comparable mechanical capabilities as well as stapled intestinal closure, however Caiman12 need a single activation to complete the transection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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Article
Nested PCR Detection of Pythium sp. from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Canine Tissue Sections
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080444 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Pythium insidiosum is an infectious oomycete affecting dogs that develop the cutaneous or gastrointestinal form of pythiosis with a poor prognosis. If left untreated, pythiosis may be fatal. This organism is not a true fungus because its cell wall and cell membrane lack [...] Read more.
Pythium insidiosum is an infectious oomycete affecting dogs that develop the cutaneous or gastrointestinal form of pythiosis with a poor prognosis. If left untreated, pythiosis may be fatal. This organism is not a true fungus because its cell wall and cell membrane lack chitin and ergosterol, respectively, requiring specific treatment. Identifying the organism is challenging, as a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain poorly stain the P. insidiosum hyphae and cannot be differentiated conclusively from other fungal or fungal-like organisms (such as Lagenidium sp.) morphologically. Our study aimed to develop a nested PCR to detect P. insidiosum and compare it with the traditional histopathologic detection of hyphae. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue scrolls from 26 dogs with lesions suggesting the P. insidiosum infection were assessed histologically, and DNA was extracted from the FFPE tissue sections for nested PCR. Agreement between the histologic stains, (H&E), periodic acid–Schiff (PAS), and/or Grocott methenamine silver (GMS) and the nested PCR occurred in 18/26 cases. Hyphae consistent with Pythium sp. were identified via histopathology in 57.7% of the samples, whereas the nested PCR detected P. insidiosum in 76.9% of samples, aiding in the sensitivity of the diagnosis of pythiosis in dogs. Using this combination of techniques, we report 20 canine cases of pythiosis over 18 years in Indiana and Kentucky, an unexpectedly high incidence for temperate climatic regions. Using a combination of histopathology evaluation and nested PCR is recommended to aid in the accurate diagnosis of pythiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Cytopathology in Companion Animals)
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Article
First Report of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematomacacae’ in Laboratory-Kept Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Maintained in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080443 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Health monitoring programs in animals used as experimental models are essential, since only disease-free subjects are considered suitable for research purposes. In laboratory-kept animals, hemoplasmas have been described as an important confounding variable. Different hemoplasma species have been detected infecting non-human primates (NHP) [...] Read more.
Health monitoring programs in animals used as experimental models are essential, since only disease-free subjects are considered suitable for research purposes. In laboratory-kept animals, hemoplasmas have been described as an important confounding variable. Different hemoplasma species have been detected infecting non-human primates (NHP) from Brazil. However, the occurrence of hemoplasma species in laboratory-kept NHP in Brazil has not-yet been assessed. Accordingly, this study aimed (i) to screen laboratory-kept rhesus monkeys for hemoplasmas, (ii) to verify if any of the hemoplasma-positive animals demonstrate hematological abnormalities, and (iii) to assess the genotype diversity of hemoplasma species in NHP from Brazil. Five out of eight (62.5%; 95% CI: 3.05–8.63) rhesus monkeys tested positive for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. by PCR. Sequencing, phylogenetic, distance, and genotype diversity analyses of partial 16S rRNA gene demonstrate that rhesus monkeys were infected by ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematomacacae’ (formerly ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque’). Assessments of partial 16S rRNA diversity of hemoplasma species in NHP suggest that at least four genetically diverse groups may occur in Brazil. Although no hematological abnormalities were demonstrated in rhesus monkeys evaluated herein, future studies are needed to elucidate the influence of ‘Ca. M. haematomacacae’ as a confounding variable on research studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Case Report
Malignant Catarrhal Fever in Sardinia (Italy): A Case Report
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080442 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Using a multidisciplinary approach, this report describes a clinical case of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) occurring in a calf, which shared the pasture with sheep on a farm located in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We confirmed the conventional clinico-histopathological features of MCF, [...] Read more.
Using a multidisciplinary approach, this report describes a clinical case of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) occurring in a calf, which shared the pasture with sheep on a farm located in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We confirmed the conventional clinico-histopathological features of MCF, as well was the presence of Ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) DNA in several tissues, employing histological and virological investigations. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that this Sardinian OvHV-2 strain is genetically similar to all the other Italian strains. By Real Time PCR examinations of blood samples collected across Sardinia’s sheep population, which is considered the most important reservoir species, we discovered an OvHV-2 prevalence ranging from 20 to 30 percent. Despite the high prevalence of OvHV-2 in the Sardinian sheep population, clinical disease in bovine remains sporadic; further investigations are needed to understand the risk factors that regulate this epidemiological aspect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
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Article
The Myers–Briggs Personality Types of Veterinary Students and Their Animal Ethical Profiles in Comparison to Criminal Justice Students in Slovenia
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080441 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Personality types are related to trustworthy, reliable, and competent communication, especially when dealing with clients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Myers–Briggs (MBTI) indicator could be used to detect differences in the personality preferences of students at the [...] Read more.
Personality types are related to trustworthy, reliable, and competent communication, especially when dealing with clients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Myers–Briggs (MBTI) indicator could be used to detect differences in the personality preferences of students at the Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana (VS) compared to students at the Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security, University of Maribor (CJS). Our aim was to profile the two cohorts of students in Slovenia, to compare profiles of students from the social and natural sciences with similar personality traits, and to compare them with published results. CJS are considered well-established, well-studied, non-science ombudsman profiles of students in Slovenia for whom care and safety will play important roles in their future work, similar to VS. Views of people’s duties to animals and the implications for animal care, safety, and welfare are also very important, especially for VS. For this reason, we tested the ethical viewpoints of the two cohorts of students using an interactive web-based program. Our results show that both VS and CJS had different MBTI types, with ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging) preferences predominating, followed by INFJ (Introverted, Intuitive, Feeling, and Judging) in VS and ESTJ (Extraverted, Observant, Thinking, and Judging) in CJS. Between the two cohorts, the ratio between ISFJ and INFJ was statistically different. In the animal ethics study, the utilitarian viewpoint was most prevalent and statistically higher in VS compared to CJS, where the animal rights perspective was most prevalent. Compared to previous profile studies, some differences were found that could be related to the COVID-19 pandemic and/or the different generations of students. Overall, this study highlights the importance of personality traits for better communication, work, and animal research in veterinary science as well as criminal justice. Full article
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Article
Molecular Characterization of ASFV and Differential Diagnosis of Erysipelothrix in ASFV-Infected Pigs in Pig Production Regions in Cameroon
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080440 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 550
Abstract
African swine fever and swine erysipelas are two devastating diseases with similar manifestations ravaging the domestic pig industry. Only a single phylogenetic study has been carried out in Cameroon, and neither an extensive genotyping aimed at identifying the different serotypes nor has an [...] Read more.
African swine fever and swine erysipelas are two devastating diseases with similar manifestations ravaging the domestic pig industry. Only a single phylogenetic study has been carried out in Cameroon, and neither an extensive genotyping aimed at identifying the different serotypes nor has an appropriate differential diagnosis of different species of Erysipelothrix has been effected in ASF-infected animals. Of the 377 blood or tissue samples randomly collected from pig farms and slaughter slabs from January to August 2020, 120 were positive for ASFV (by PCR), giving a prevalence of 31.83%. Intragenomic resolution through sequencing divulged the presence of genotypes I, and Ia, two variants with 19 (ABNAAAACBNABTDBNAFA) and six (ABNAFA) tandem repeat sequences (TRS), serotype IV, and a single GGAATATATA repeat. The sole presence of E. tonsillarum (avirulent species) and not E. rhusiopathiae (virulent species) indicates that the severity observed during the 2020 ASF outbreak in the sampled regions was exclusively due to ASFV genotype I infection. Such characterisations are necessary for designing effective control measures and future potential vaccine candidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Animal Diseases in Agricultural Production Systems)
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Review
Importance of Antioxidant Supplementation during In Vitro Maturation of Mammalian Oocytes
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080439 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
The in vitro embryo production (IVEP) technique is widely used in the field of reproductive biology. In vitro maturation (IVM) is the first and most critical step of IVEP, during which, the oocyte is matured in an artificial maturation medium under strict laboratory [...] Read more.
The in vitro embryo production (IVEP) technique is widely used in the field of reproductive biology. In vitro maturation (IVM) is the first and most critical step of IVEP, during which, the oocyte is matured in an artificial maturation medium under strict laboratory conditions. Despite all of the progress in the field of IVEP, the quality of in vitro matured oocytes remains inferior to that of those matured in vivo. The accumulation of substantial amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within oocytes during IVM has been regarded as one of the main factors altering oocyte quality. One of the most promising approaches to overcome ROS accumulation within oocytes is the supplementation of oocyte IVM medium with antioxidants. In this article, we discuss recent advancements depicting the adverse effects of ROS on mammalian oocytes. We also discuss the potential use of antioxidants and their effect on both oocyte quality and IVM rate. Full article
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Review
Use of Phages to Treat Antimicrobial-Resistant Salmonella Infections in Poultry
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080438 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Salmonellosis is one of the most common bacterial infections that impacts both human health and poultry production. Although antibiotics are usually recommended for treating Salmonella infections, their misuse results in the evolution and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. To minimize the health and [...] Read more.
Salmonellosis is one of the most common bacterial infections that impacts both human health and poultry production. Although antibiotics are usually recommended for treating Salmonella infections, their misuse results in the evolution and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. To minimize the health and economic burdens associated with antimicrobial resistance, a novel antibacterial strategy that can obliterate pathogens without any adverse effects on humans and animals is urgently required. Therefore, therapeutic supplementation of phages has gained renewed attention because of their unique ability to lyse specific hosts, cost-effective production, environmentally-friendly properties, and other potential advantages over antibiotics. In addition, the safety and efficacy of phage therapy for controlling poultry-associated Salmonella have already been proven through experimental studies. Phages can be applied at every stage of poultry production, processing, and distribution through different modes of application. Despite having a few limitations, the optimized and regulated use of phage cocktails may prove to be an effective option to combat infections caused by MDR pathogens in the post-antibiotic era. This article mainly focuses on the occurrence of salmonellosis in poultry and its reduction with the aid of bacteriophages. We particularly discuss the prevalence of Salmonella infections in poultry and poultry products; review the trends in antibiotic resistance; and summarize the application, challenges, and prospects of phage therapy in the poultry industry. Full article
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Article
The Epidemiological Situation of the Managed Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Colonies in the Italian Region Emilia-Romagna
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080437 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 599
Abstract
The recent decades witnessed the collapse of honey bee colonies at a global level. The major drivers of this collapse include both individual and synergic pathogen actions, threatening the colonies’ survival. The need to define the epidemiological pattern of the pathogens that are [...] Read more.
The recent decades witnessed the collapse of honey bee colonies at a global level. The major drivers of this collapse include both individual and synergic pathogen actions, threatening the colonies’ survival. The need to define the epidemiological pattern of the pathogens that are involved has led to the establishment of monitoring programs in many countries, Italy included. In this framework, the health status of managed honey bees in the Emilia–Romagna region (northern Italy) was assessed, throughout the year 2021, on workers from 31 apiaries to investigate the presence of major known and emerging honey bee pathogens. The prevalence and abundance of DWV, KBV, ABPV, CBPV, Nosema ceranae, and trypanosomatids (Lotmaria passim, Crithidia mellificae, Crithidia bombi) were assessed by molecular methods. The most prevalent pathogen was DWV, followed by CBPV and N. ceranae. Trypanosomatids were not found in any of the samples. Pathogens had different peaks in abundance over the months, showing seasonal trends that were related to the dynamics of both bee colonies and Varroa destructor infestation. For some of the pathogens, a weak but significant correlation was observed between abundance and geographical longitude. The information obtained in this study increases our understanding of the epidemiological situation of bee colonies in Emilia–Romagna and helps us to implement better disease prevention and improved territorial management of honey bee health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Advances in Bee Health and Diseases)
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Article
Records of Human Deaths from Echinococcosis in Brazil, 1995–2016
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080436 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 996
Abstract
Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease relevant to public health in many countries, on all continents except Antarctica. The objective of the study is to describe the registered cases and mortality from echinococcosis in Brazil, from 1995 to 2016. The records of two national [...] Read more.
Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease relevant to public health in many countries, on all continents except Antarctica. The objective of the study is to describe the registered cases and mortality from echinococcosis in Brazil, from 1995 to 2016. The records of two national databases, the Hospital Information System (HIS) and the Mortality Information System (MIS), were accessed during the period of 1995–2016. Demographic, epidemiological, and health care data related to the occurrence of disease and deaths attributed to echinococcosis in Brazil are described. The results showed that 7955 records of hospitalizations were documented in the HIS, during the study period, with 185 deaths from echinococcosis, and 113 records of deaths were documented in the MIS Deaths in every state of Brazil in the period. When comparing between states, the HIS showed great variability in mortality rates, possibly indicating heterogeneity in diagnosis and in the quality of health care received by patients. Less severe cases that do not require specialized care are not recorded by the information systems, thus the true burden of the disease could be underrepresented in the country. A change in the coding of disease records in the HIS in the late 1990s, (the integration of echinococcosis cases with other pathologies), led to the loss of specificity of the records. The records showed a wide geographic distribution of deaths from echinococcosis, reinforcing the need to expand the notification of the disease in Brazil. Currently, notification of cases is compulsory in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echinococcosis)
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Editorial
Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080435 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
In the past few years, the concept of “gut health” has established itself as a norm in the scientific literature and animal production [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals)
Article
Breeding Dairy Cattle for Female Fertility and Production in the Age of Genomics
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080434 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Phenotypic and genetic changes for female fertility and production traits in the Israeli Holstein population over the last three decades were studied in order to determine if long term selection has resulted in reduced heritability and negative genetic correlations. Annual means for conception [...] Read more.
Phenotypic and genetic changes for female fertility and production traits in the Israeli Holstein population over the last three decades were studied in order to determine if long term selection has resulted in reduced heritability and negative genetic correlations. Annual means for conception status, defined as the inverse of the number of inseminations to conception in percent, decreased from 55.6 for cows born in 1983 to 46.5 for cows born in 2018. Mean estimated breeding values increased by 1.8% for cow born in 1981 to cows born in 2018. Phenotypic records from 1988 to 2016 for the nine Israeli breeding index traits were divided into three time periods for multi-trait REML analysis by the individual animal model. For all traits, heritabilities increased or stayed the same for the later time periods. Heritability for conception status was 0.05. The first parity genetic correlation between conception status and protein yield was −0.38. Heritabilities decreased with the increase in parity for protein but remained the same for conception status. Realized genetic trends were greater than expected for cows born from 2008 through 2016 for somatic cell score, conception status and herd-life, and lower than expected for the production traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Reproductive Traits in Farm Animal)
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Review
Inheritance of Monogenic Hereditary Skin Disease and Related Canine Breeds
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080433 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 584
Abstract
The plasticity of the genome is an evolutionary factor in all animal species, including canines, but it can also be the origin of diseases caused by hereditary genetic mutation. Genetic changes, or mutations, that give rise to a pathology in most cases result [...] Read more.
The plasticity of the genome is an evolutionary factor in all animal species, including canines, but it can also be the origin of diseases caused by hereditary genetic mutation. Genetic changes, or mutations, that give rise to a pathology in most cases result from recessive alleles that are normally found with minority allelic frequency. The use of genetic improvement increases the consanguinity within canine breeds and, on many occasions, also increases the frequency of these recessive alleles, increasing the prevalence of these pathologies. This prevalence has been known for a long time, but mutations differ according to the canine breed. These genetic diseases, including skin diseases, or genodermatosis, which is narrowly defined as monogenic hereditary dermatosis. In this review, we focus on genodermatosis sensu estricto, i.e., monogenic, and hereditary dermatosis, in addition to the clinical features, diagnosis, pathogeny, and treatment. Specifically, this review analyzes epidermolytic and non-epidermolytic ichthyosis, junctional epidermolysis bullosa, nasal parakeratosis, mucinosis, dermoid sinus, among others, in canine breeds, such as Golden Retriever, German Pointer, Australian Shepherd, American Bulldog, Great Dane, Jack Russell Terrier, Labrador Retriever, Shar-Pei, and Rhodesian Ridgeback. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
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Communication
Development of a Protocol for Biomechanical Gait Analysis in Asian Elephants Using the Triaxial Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080432 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Gait analysis is a method of gathering quantitative information to assist in determining the cause of abnormal gait for the purpose of making treatment decisions in veterinary medicine. Recent technology has offered the wearable wireless sensor of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) for [...] Read more.
Gait analysis is a method of gathering quantitative information to assist in determining the cause of abnormal gait for the purpose of making treatment decisions in veterinary medicine. Recent technology has offered the wearable wireless sensor of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) for determining gait parameters. This study proposed the use of a triaxial IMU, comprising an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and a magnetometer, for detecting three-dimensional limb segment motion (XYZ axis) during the gait cycle in Asian elephants. A new algorithm was developed to estimate the kinematic parameter that represents each limb segment of the forelimbs and hindlimbs while walking at a comfortable speed. For future use, this study aimed to create a new prototype of the IMU with a configuration that is tailored to the elephant and apply machine learning in an effort to achieve greater precision. Full article
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Article
Transjugular Patent Ductus Arteriosus Occlusion in Seven Dogs Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080431 - 14 Aug 2022
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Although vascular plugs for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) have been validated in dogs, studies are lacking on its use as a first-choice device with a transjugular approach. The present case series describes the transvenous right jugular embolization of PDA using [...] Read more.
Although vascular plugs for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) have been validated in dogs, studies are lacking on its use as a first-choice device with a transjugular approach. The present case series describes the transvenous right jugular embolization of PDA using an Amplatzer Vascular Plug II in seven dogs of different ages, breeds, and body weights. Complete closure of the PDA was demonstrated in all cases. All dogs showed significant hemodynamic reduction of pulmonary overcirculation and left heart size after the procedure and at following echocardiographic check-ups. Transjugular PDA occlusion using an Amplatzer Vascular Plug II can thus be considered as a safe alternative to the arterial or venous femoral approach using an Amplatzer canine ductal occluder (ACDO), particularly in puppies with small femoral vessels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Right Heart Diseases in Veterinary Science)
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Article
Characterization of Biofilm Producing Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bulk Tank Milk
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080430 - 13 Aug 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are considered less virulent as they do not produce a large number of toxic enzymes and toxins; however, they have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of bovine mastitis. In particular, the ability to form biofilms appears to be [...] Read more.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are considered less virulent as they do not produce a large number of toxic enzymes and toxins; however, they have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of bovine mastitis. In particular, the ability to form biofilms appears to be an important factor in CoNS pathogenicity, and it contributes more resistance to antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenic potential by assessing the biofilm-forming ability of CoNS isolated from normal bulk tank milk using the biofilm formation assay and to analyze the biofilm-associated resistance to antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. One hundred and twenty-seven (78.4%) among 162 CoNS showed the ability of biofilm formation, and all species showed a significantly high ability of biofilm formation (p < 0.05). Although the prevalence of weak biofilm formers (39.1% to 80.0%) was significantly higher than that of other biofilm formers in all species (p < 0.05), the prevalence of strong biofilm formers was significantly higher in Staphylococcus haemolyticus (36.4%), Staphylococcus chromogenes (24.6%), and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (21.7%) (p < 0.05). Also, 4 (11.4%) among 35 non-biofilm formers did not harbor any biofilm-associated genes, whereas all 54 strong or moderate biofilm formers harbored 1 or more of these genes. The prevalence of MDR was significantly higher in biofilm formers (73.2%) than in non-formers (20.0%) (p < 0.05). Moreover, the distribution of MDR in strong or moderate biofilm formers was 81.5%, which was significantly higher than in weak (67.1%) and non-formers (20.0%) (p < 0.05). Our results indicated that various CoNS isolated from bulk tank milk, not from bovine with mastitis, have already showed a high ability to form biofilms, while also displaying a high prevalence of MDR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistant Staphylococci in Animals)
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Review
Overview of the Current Literature on the Most Common Neurological Diseases in Dogs with a Particular Focus on Rehabilitation
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080429 - 13 Aug 2022
Viewed by 617
Abstract
Intervertebral disc herniation, degenerative myelopathy, fibrocartilaginous embolism and polyradiculoneuritis often affect dogs; and physiotherapy may improve the patient’s quality of life and/or reduce recovery times. The aim of this review was to evaluate the current scientific outcomes on these four neurological diseases and [...] Read more.
Intervertebral disc herniation, degenerative myelopathy, fibrocartilaginous embolism and polyradiculoneuritis often affect dogs; and physiotherapy may improve the patient’s quality of life and/or reduce recovery times. The aim of this review was to evaluate the current scientific outcomes on these four neurological diseases and on their physiotherapy approaches. From the analysis of the published articles, it emerged that intervertebral disc herniation can be treated, with different rates of success, through a conservative or a surgical approach followed by physiotherapy. The literature is generally oriented toward the efficacy of the rehabilitation approach in this specific canine disease, often proposing intensive post-surgery physiotherapy for the most severe conditions with the absence of deep pain perception. When degenerative myelopathy, fibrocartilaginous embolism or polyradiculoneuritis occur, the existing literature supports the use of a physiotherapeutic approach: allowing a delay in the onset and worsening of the clinical signs in degenerative myelopathy, physical improvement, and, sometimes, complete remission during fibrocartilaginous embolism or acute idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis. However, papers on rehabilitation in dogs affected by polyradiculoneuritis are currently limited to single clinical cases and further blinded, controlled, prospective studies are still advisable for all four neurological diseases. Full article
Article
Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Spirulina platensis on the Reproductive Performance of Female Mink
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080428 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of providing Spirulina platensis (Spirulina) on reproductive performance of female mink. A total of 100 adult brown female mink (Mustela vison) were randomly and equally allocated to control group (C group), [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of providing Spirulina platensis (Spirulina) on reproductive performance of female mink. A total of 100 adult brown female mink (Mustela vison) were randomly and equally allocated to control group (C group), in which mink were fed basal diet and Spirulina group (Sp group), where mink received basal diet supplemented with 100 mg of Spirulina/kg of body weight. The experiment lasted 5 months, starting from 1 month prior to mating till kit weaning. Weight gain during pre-mating period was higher in Sp group compared to C group (p < 0.001). Sp group remained heavier until the onset of lactation. Subsequently, mink of Sp group lost more weight than C group (p < 0.001) but without an adverse effect on kit survival. A tendency for a higher whelping rate was detected in Sp group (93.61%) compared to C group (81.25%) (p = 0.07). Litter size, as well as weight of kits at weaning, did not differ between groups (p > 0.10). Finally, Sp group weaned numerically more kits compared to C group. Results obtained here showed that Spirulina treated animals tended to an increased whelping rate. Full article
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Article
Survival Time after Surgical Debulking and Temozolomide Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Canine Intracranial Gliomas
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080427 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 739
Abstract
Intracranial gliomas are associated with a poor prognosis, and the most appropriate treatment is yet to be defined. The objectives of this retrospective study are to report the time to progression and survival times of a group of dogs with histologically confirmed intracranial [...] Read more.
Intracranial gliomas are associated with a poor prognosis, and the most appropriate treatment is yet to be defined. The objectives of this retrospective study are to report the time to progression and survival times of a group of dogs with histologically confirmed intracranial gliomas treated with surgical debulking and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy. All cases treated in a single referral veterinary hospital from 2014 to 2021 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria comprised a histopathological diagnosis of intracranial glioma, adjunctive chemotherapy, and follow-up until death. Cases were excluded if the owner declined chemotherapy or there was insufficient follow-up information in the clinical records. Fourteen client-owned dogs were included with a median time to progression (MTP) of 156 days (95% CI 133–320 days) and median survival time (MST) of 240 days (95% CI 149–465 days). Temozolomide was the first-line adjuvant chemotherapy but changed to another chemotherapy agent (lomustine, toceranib phosphate, or melphalan) when tumour relapse was either suspected by clinical signs or confirmed by advanced imaging. Of the fourteen dogs, three underwent two surgical resections and one, three surgeries. Survival times (ST) were 241, 428, and 468 days for three dogs treated twice surgically and 780 days for the dog treated surgically three times. Survival times for dogs operated once was 181 days. One case was euthanized after developing aspiration pneumonia, and all other cases after progression of clinical signs due to suspected or confirmed tumour relapse. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that debulking surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy are well-tolerated options in dogs with intracranial gliomas in which surgery is a possibility and should be considered a potential treatment option. Repeated surgery may be considered for selected cases. Full article
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Article
Longitudinal Testing of Leptospira Antibodies in Horses Located near a Leptospirosis Outbreak in Alpacas
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080426 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 464
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine if horses located near an outbreak of leptospirosis in alpacas had Leptospira titres indicative of a previous or current infection and, if so, to determine the magnitude in change of titres over time. Further, the [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to determine if horses located near an outbreak of leptospirosis in alpacas had Leptospira titres indicative of a previous or current infection and, if so, to determine the magnitude in change of titres over time. Further, the objective was to determine if horses with high titre results were shedding Leptospira in their urine. Blood samples were collected from twelve horses located on or next to the farm with the outbreak in alpacas, on day zero and at four subsequent time points (two, four, six and nine weeks). The microscopic agglutination test was used to test sera for five serovars endemic in New Zealand: Ballum, Copenhageni, Hardjo, Pomona and Tarassovi. A reciprocal MAT titre cut-off of ≥1:100 was used to determine positive horses. Seven out of twelve horses (58%) were positive to at least one serovar during one of the time points. Two horses recorded titres of ≥1600, one for both Pomona and Copenhageni and the other for Hardjo, and these two horses were both PCR positive for Leptospira in their urine samples. For five out of seven horses, the titres either remained the same or changed by one dilution across the sampling time points. The study confirmed endemic exposure to five endemic Leptospira serovars in New Zealand in a group of horses located near a confirmed leptospirosis outbreak in alpacas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leptospiral Infections in Animals)
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Article
Epidemiological Survey of Four Reproductive Disorder Associated Viruses of Sows in Hunan Province during 2019–2021
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080425 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Porcine reproductive disorders have been considered as the major factors that threaten pig industries worldwide. In this study, 407 aborted-fetus samples were obtained from 89 pig farms in Hunan province, to investigate the prevalence of four viruses associated with porcine reproductive disease, including [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive disorders have been considered as the major factors that threaten pig industries worldwide. In this study, 407 aborted-fetus samples were obtained from 89 pig farms in Hunan province, to investigate the prevalence of four viruses associated with porcine reproductive disease, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), pseudorabies virus (PRV), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Meanwhile, the target gene sequences of representative PRRSV (ORF5), PCV2 (ORF2), CSFV (E2), and PRV (gE) strains were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. The results showed that the positive rates of PRRSV, PCV2, PRV, and CSFV among the collected samples were 26.29% (107/407), 52.83% (215/407), 6.39% (26/407), and 12.29% (50/407), respectively. Moreover, co-infection with two and three pathogens were frequently identified, with PCV2/PRRSV, PRRSV/CSFV, PRRSV/PRV, PCV2/CSFV, PCV2/PRV, and PRRSV/PCV2/CSFV mix infection rates of 9.09%, 3.19%, 2.95%, 3.69%, 2.21%, and 0.49%, respectively. Moreover, ORF5-based phylogenetic analysis showed that 9, 4, and 24 of 37 PRRSV strains belonged to the PRRSV2 lineages 1, 5, and 8, respectively. ORF2-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that PCV2d and PCV2b were prevalent in Hunan province, with the proportions of 87.5% (21/24) and 12.5% (3/24), respectively. An E2-based phylogenetic tree showed that all 13 CSFV strains were clustered with 2.1 subgenotypes, these isolates were composed of 2.1b (10/13) and 2.1c (3/13) sub-subgenotypes. A gE-based phylogenetic tree showed that all six PRV strains belonged to the genotype II, which were genetically closer to variant PRV strains. Collectively, the present study provides the latest information on the epidemiology and genotype diversity of four viruses in sows with reproductive diseases in Hunan province, China, which would contribute to developing effective strategies for disease control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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Article
Morphological Structure of the Aortic Wall in Deep Diving Cetacean Species: Evidence for Diving Adaptation
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080424 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 697
Abstract
This study analyses the aortic wall structure in nine cetacean species with deep diving habits belonging to four Odontoceti families: Ziphiidae, Kogiidae, Physteridae, and Delphinidae. Samples of ascending, thoracic and abdominal aorta were processed for histological and morphometric studies. The elastic component was [...] Read more.
This study analyses the aortic wall structure in nine cetacean species with deep diving habits belonging to four Odontoceti families: Ziphiidae, Kogiidae, Physteridae, and Delphinidae. Samples of ascending, thoracic and abdominal aorta were processed for histological and morphometric studies. The elastic component was higher in the proximal aortic segments, and the muscular elements increased distally in all cases. Morphometric analyses showed that all families presented a decrease in the thickness of the arterial wall and the tunica media along the aorta. The reduction was dramatic between ascending and thoracic aorta in the Physeteridae specimens; meanwhile, the other three families showed a more uniform decrease between the ascending, thoracic and abdominal aorta. The decline was not correlated with a reduced elastic or lamellar unit thickness but with a loss of lamellar units. The organization of the elements in the aortic wall did not show essential modifications between the four families, resembling the structure described previously in the shallow and intermediate diving dolphins. Our findings support that the difference in the morphometric characteristics of the different segments in the aortic wall is likely related to the diving habit more than the absolutes values of any other parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Article
Histological Study of Glandular Variability in the Skin of the Natterjack Toad—Epidalea calamita (Laurenti, 1768)—Used in Spanish Historical Ethnoveterinary Medicine and Ethnomedicine
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080423 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Common toads have been used since ancient times for remedies and thus constitute excellent biological material for pharmacological and natural product research. According to the results of a previous analysis of the therapeutic use of amphibians in Spain, we decided to carry out [...] Read more.
Common toads have been used since ancient times for remedies and thus constitute excellent biological material for pharmacological and natural product research. According to the results of a previous analysis of the therapeutic use of amphibians in Spain, we decided to carry out a histological study that provides a complementary view of their ethnopharmacology, through the natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita). This species possesses a characteristic integument, where the parotoid glands stand out, and it has been used in different ethnoveterinary and ethnomedical practices. This histological study of their glandular variability allow us to understand the stages through which the animal synthesises and stores a heterogeneous glandular content according to the areas of the body and the functional moment of the glands. To study tegumentary cytology, a high-resolution, plastic embedding, semi-thin (1 micron) section method was applied. Up to 20 skin patches sampled from the dorsal and ventral sides were processed from the two adult specimens collected, which were roadkill. Serous/venom glands display a genetic and biochemical complexity, leading to a cocktail that remains stored (and perhaps changes over time) until extrusion, but mucous glands, working continuously to produce a surface protection layer, also produce a set of active protein (and other) substances that dissolve into mucous material, making a biologically active covering. This study provides a better understanding of the use of traditional remedies in ethnoveterinary medicine. Full article
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Review
On the Infectious Causes of Neonatal Piglet Diarrhoea—A Review
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080422 - 10 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1265
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on the relationship between presumptive infectious agents and neonatal porcine diarrhoea (NPD). The literature provides information on the rationale for this causation, including the first mention, main understandings gained with respect to, e.g., [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on the relationship between presumptive infectious agents and neonatal porcine diarrhoea (NPD). The literature provides information on the rationale for this causation, including the first mention, main understandings gained with respect to, e.g., pathogenesis, and the knowledge to date on the specific relationships. Further, surveys on the presence and relative importance of these pathogens in NPD are included and the methodology used to identify the causation are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Findings on Long-Known Pathogens in Pigs)
Article
Pilot Study: Assessing the Expression of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase and Peripheral Leukocyte Ratios in Canine Oral Malignant Melanoma
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080421 - 09 Aug 2022
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Measurement of blood biomarkers such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and peripheral leukocyte ratios have been shown to be of prognostic value in human melanoma patients. Previous veterinary studies have demonstrated that changes in these values are detectable in multiple canine cancer patients. However, [...] Read more.
Measurement of blood biomarkers such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and peripheral leukocyte ratios have been shown to be of prognostic value in human melanoma patients. Previous veterinary studies have demonstrated that changes in these values are detectable in multiple canine cancer patients. However, to the authors’ knowledge, no studies have yet demonstrated an increase in LDH in canine oral malignant melanoma patients, nor has the effect of metastasis on LDH levels been explored. This retrospective pilot study included 18 dogs, of which 10 were healthy controls, 5 OMM patients with metastasis and 3 without metastasis. Serum LDH was measured and pre-treatment peripheral leucocyte ratios were calculated. LDH was measurable within all patient groups and a statistically significant difference in LDH levels was detected between patients with OMM and healthy controls (p < 0.05); however, no significant difference was detected between patients with or without metastatic disease. This study suggests that serum LDH levels are significantly increased in dogs with OMM compared to healthy controls, paving the way for further research to investigate the prognostic value of this biomarker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Understanding Spontaneously Occurring Melanoma in Animals)
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Article
Ultrasonographic Detected Adrenomegaly in Clinically Ill Cats: A Retrospective Study
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(8), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9080420 - 09 Aug 2022
Viewed by 696
Abstract
This retrospective study aimed to assess the prevalence of ultrasonographic detected adrenomegaly in clinically ill cats, evaluating the final established diagnosis, describe adrenal ultrasound findings and if the adrenomegaly was suspected or incidental. Abdominal ultrasonography reports of cats presenting to a veterinary teaching [...] Read more.
This retrospective study aimed to assess the prevalence of ultrasonographic detected adrenomegaly in clinically ill cats, evaluating the final established diagnosis, describe adrenal ultrasound findings and if the adrenomegaly was suspected or incidental. Abdominal ultrasonography reports of cats presenting to a veterinary teaching hospital between October 2018 and February 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Cats showing adrenomegaly (one or both glands having a dorsoventral axis >4.8 mm) were selected and medical records respectively evaluated. Nine-hundred and eighty-three ultrasonographical reports were selected, of which, 68 (7%) disclosed adrenomegaly. European/Domestic Short-Hair (62/68; 91%) male (44/68; 65%) castrated (35/44; 80%) cats were overrepresented. Adrenomegaly was an incidental finding in 62/68 (91%) cats while in 6/68 (9%) it was identified in the context of investigating a potential adrenal disease. Concerning established diagnosis, chronic kidney disease was overrepresented (25/68; 37%), followed by endocrinopathies (20/68; 29%). Adrenomegaly was bilateral in 53% (36/68) of cases. In unilateral cases (32/68; 47%), it was more prevalent on the left side (23/32; 72%), with a normal-sized contralateral adrenal gland. Left adrenal demonstrated a larger size and a tendency to oval shape. This study assesses the prevalence of adrenomegaly in clinically ill cats, reinforcing it can be an incidental ultrasound finding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Internal Medicine)
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