Special Issue "Resistant Staphylococci in Animals"

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 9057

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Bryan Markey
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Veterinary Medicine, Room 036, Veterinary Sciences Building, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
Interests: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosisin cattle; Chlamydia abortus infection of sheep; methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals
Assoc. Prof. Finola Leonard
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Sciences Centre, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
Interests: antimicrobial use and resistance; pig health; MRSA; bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Veterinary practitioners are encountering staphylococcal resistance with increasing regularity in the animals under their care.  These cases present significant challenges in terms of obtaining successful treatment outcomes and dealing with potential zoonotic transmission.  Methicillin resistance associated with the mec gene, carried on the mobile genetic element staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec), is an important antimicrobial resistance mechanism in staphylococci. This gene is responsible for production of an altered penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) that provides resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillins, potentiated penicillins, and most cephalosporins and carbapenems.  Of particular concern in veterinary medicine and public health is the emergence and spread in animals of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP).

In this Special Issue, we will present articles dealing with antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies coagulans and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), the infections that these important bacteria cause in veterinary species, and their public health importance. 

Assoc. Prof. Bryan Markey
Assoc. Prof. Finola Leonard
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Staphylococci
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • methicillin-resistance
  • MRSA
  • MRSP
  • mec gene

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Risk Factors for Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus Species Isolated from Dogs with Superficial Pyoderma and Their Owners
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(7), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9070306 - 21 Jun 2022
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Abstract
The microbial communities on the skin of dogs include several species of bacteria, which contribute to skin health and disease. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, cultured at high frequency from the skin of dogs, is an opportunistic pathogen causing superficial pyoderma. Effective treatment against S. [...] Read more.
The microbial communities on the skin of dogs include several species of bacteria, which contribute to skin health and disease. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, cultured at high frequency from the skin of dogs, is an opportunistic pathogen causing superficial pyoderma. Effective treatment against S. pseudintermedius infections is an important issue in veterinary medicine. However, multiple antibiotic-resistant mechanisms gradually developed by bacteria make treatment more challenging nowadays. Drug-resistant genes may have the chance to be transferred from infected dogs to other staphylococci in humans. The objective of this survey is to investigate the bacterial species that cause canine superficial pyoderma and characterize the antibiotic-resistant profiles and drug-resistant genes of isolated S. pseudintermedius. In addition, the possible risk factors causing S. pseudintermedius colonizing owners were also evaluated by a questionnaire survey. Sixty-five bacteria were isolated from dogs with superficial pyoderma, which included 47 S. pseudintermedius (72.3%), 12 other staphylococci (18.5%), 4 other Gram-positive bacteria (6.2%) and 2 Gram-negative bacteria (3.1%). Strains containing mecA and blaZ genes showed multiple-drug resistance characteristics. Dogs that received antimicrobial treatment within a recent month were at significantly higher risk of MRSP infections. Only five S. pseudintermedius strains (8.33%) were isolated from 60 samples of owners. Risk factor analysis indicated there was no significant association between S. pseudintermedius isolated from dogs and owners, but the “Keeping three or more dogs” and “Dogs can lick the owner’s face” have high odds ratios of 3.503 and 5.712, respectively. MRSP isolates belonged to three different dru types, including dt11y (29.41%), dt11a (47.06%) and dt10cp (23.53%). In conclusion, the major pathogen of canine superficial pyoderma is found to be S. pseudintermedius in Taiwan, and isolates which are mecA- or blaZ-positive are generally more resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Although S. pseudintermedius isolated from the owners might be transferred from their dogs, definite risk factors should be examined in the future study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistant Staphylococci in Animals)
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Article
The SCCmec Types and Antimicrobial Resistance among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Species Isolated from Dogs with Superficial Pyoderma
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8050085 - 13 May 2021
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Abstract
This study characterizes clinical methicillin-resistant staphylococcal (MRS) isolates obtained from superficial pyoderma infections in dogs. Our interest was to determine the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type and the antimicrobial susceptibility among MRS isolates from clinical cases. Skin swabs were collected [...] Read more.
This study characterizes clinical methicillin-resistant staphylococcal (MRS) isolates obtained from superficial pyoderma infections in dogs. Our interest was to determine the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type and the antimicrobial susceptibility among MRS isolates from clinical cases. Skin swabs were collected and cultured. Staphylococcus species were identified and characterized with biochemical tests and MALDI-TOF-MS and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. mecA detection and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were achieved by PCR. Of the 65 clinical samples, 56 (86.2%) staphylococcal infections were identified. Twelve (21%) of 56 isolates were MRS infections. All MRS isolates were multidrug resistant. The ccrC and class-C2 mec, which were SCCmec type V, were the most prevalent (66.7%) among the 12 MRS isolates. The predominant SCCmec type V was found in S. aureus, S. intermedius group, S. lentus, S. xylosus, and S. arlettae. Treatment failure is a concern with the emergence of highly resistant MRS in dogs associated with superficial pyoderma. The detection of type V SCCmec MRS has previously been reported among veterinarians and dog owners but not in Northern Thailand. These infections serve as a reminder to improve infection prevention and control measures including reducing environmental contamination and potential zoonotic exposures to MRS. In addition, educational awareness of these risks in small animal hospitals needs to be increased among veterinary hospital staff, clients, and patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistant Staphylococci in Animals)
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Article
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Poultry Species in Algeria: Long-Term Study on Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020054 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2313
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a well-known pathogen with a serious impact on human and veterinary public health. To determine antibiotic resistance of MRSA in poultry, 4248 nasal swabs were collected from 840 poultry farms in 18 different Wilayas (provinces) of Algeria. Swabs [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a well-known pathogen with a serious impact on human and veterinary public health. To determine antibiotic resistance of MRSA in poultry, 4248 nasal swabs were collected from 840 poultry farms in 18 different Wilayas (provinces) of Algeria. Swabs were collected between 2011 and 2018 from breeding hens, laying hens, broilers, and turkeys. Identification was carried out by the classical culture methods, and the disc diffusion test was used to determine the antibiotic resistance patterns. S. aureus was isolated from 477 (56.8%) farms, and flock prevalence was 52.8%, 48.8%, 48.4%, and 75.6% in breeding hens, laying hens, broilers, and turkeys, respectively. MRSA was isolated from 252 (30%) farms and flock prevalence was 22%, 33.5%, 27.4%, and 36%, respectively. As expected, all MRSA isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and oxacillin. High levels of resistance were found for tetracycline (82.5%), erythromycin (70.6%), clindamycin (68.6%), and ciprofloxacin (50%). Almost all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (100%) and mupirocin and rifampicin (99.2%), followed by chloramphenicol (82.3%), and gentamicin (76%). This moderate proportion of MRSA in poultry poses a considerable risk to public health. The results of this study highlight the need for control programs that encompass primary animal production and the food chain to mitigate contamination and spread of MRSA in the poultry industry of Algeria, and consequently to humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistant Staphylococci in Animals)
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Review

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Review
The Complex Diseases of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Canines: Where to Next?
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8010011 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3299
Abstract
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a pathogenic bacterium of concern within the veterinary sector and is involved in numerous infections in canines, including topical infections such as canine pyoderma and otitis externa, as well as systemic infections within the urinary, respiratory and reproductive tract. The [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a pathogenic bacterium of concern within the veterinary sector and is involved in numerous infections in canines, including topical infections such as canine pyoderma and otitis externa, as well as systemic infections within the urinary, respiratory and reproductive tract. The high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) within such infections is a growing concern. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the involvement of S. pseudintermedius in canine disease pathology to gain better insight into novel treatment avenues. Here, we review the literature focused on S. pseudintermedius infection in multiple anatomic locations in dogs and the role of MRSP in treatment outcomes at these niches. Multiple novel treatment avenues for MRSP have been pioneered in recent years and these are discussed with a specific focus on vaccines and phage therapy as potential therapeutic options. Whilst both undertakings are in their infancy, phage therapy is versatile and has shown high success in both animal and human medical use. It is clear that further research is required to combat the growing problems associated with MRSP in canines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistant Staphylococci in Animals)
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