Next Issue
Volume 10, January
Previous Issue
Volume 9, November
 
 

Vet. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 56 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The arrival of a puppy to its new owner is always a very special moment. Because most people consider a dog as a family member, it is like when a child is born. This joyful happening should not be shadowed by any worries, emotional or financial concerns, and especially not with such hidden health issues that can lead to suffering and early death of the pet, as well as to repeated veterinary visits, including potentially risky and expensive cardiac surgeries. Transparent communication from the breeders and veterinarians to the new owner candidates, along with careful cardiac auscultation at the first vaccination, should be sufficient to prevent such tragedies. In the study carried out by Drs. Vos and Szatmári, owners who happened to buy a dog with congenital heart disease were interviewed. The article describes their concerning findings. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
The Role and Application of Exosomes and Their Cargos in Reproductive Diseases: A Systematic Review
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120706 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 779
Abstract
In recent years, the incidence of the reproductive diseases is increasing year-by-year, leading to abortion or fetal arrest, which seriously affects the reproductive health of human beings and the reproductive efficiency of animals. Exosomes are phospholipid bilayer vesicles that are widely distributed in [...] Read more.
In recent years, the incidence of the reproductive diseases is increasing year-by-year, leading to abortion or fetal arrest, which seriously affects the reproductive health of human beings and the reproductive efficiency of animals. Exosomes are phospholipid bilayer vesicles that are widely distributed in living organisms and released by the cells of various organs and tissues. Exosomes contain proteins, RNA, lipids, and other components and are important carriers of information transfer between cells, which play a variety of physiological and pathological regulatory functions. More and more studies have found that exosomes and their connotations play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of diseases. A systematic review was conducted in this manuscript and then highlights our knowledge about the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of exosomes to reproductive diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, premature ovarian failure (POF), preeclampsia, polycystic, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, and prostate gland cancer. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Captive Giant Pandas: A Reservoir of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Virulence-Associated Genes
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120705 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 940
Abstract
Recent studies showed that Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from captive giant pandas have serious resistance to antibiotics and carry various antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARGs or virulence-associated genes (VAGs) carried by antibiotic-resistant E. coli are considered as a potential [...] Read more.
Recent studies showed that Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from captive giant pandas have serious resistance to antibiotics and carry various antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARGs or virulence-associated genes (VAGs) carried by antibiotic-resistant E. coli are considered as a potential health threat to giant pandas, humans, other animals and the environment. In this study, we screened ARGs and VAGs in 84 antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains isolated from clinically healthy captive giant pandas, identified the association between ARGs and VAGs and analyzed the phylogenetic clustering of E. coli isolates. Our results showed that the most prevalent ARG in E. coli strains isolated from giant pandas is blaTEM (100.00%, 84/84), while the most prevalent VAG is fimC (91.67%, 77/84). There was a significant positive association among 30 pairs of ARGs, of which the strongest was observed for sul1/tetC (OR, 133.33). A significant positive association was demonstrated among 14 pairs of VAGs, and the strongest was observed for fyuA/iroN (OR, 294.40). A positive association was also observed among 45 pairs of ARGs and VAGs, of which the strongest was sul1/eaeA (OR, 23.06). The association of ARGs and mobile gene elements (MGEs) was further analyzed, and the strongest was found for flor and intI1 (OR, 79.86). The result of phylogenetic clustering showed that the most prevalent group was group B2 (67.86%, 57/84), followed by group A (16.67%, 14/84), group D (9.52%, 8/84) and group B1 (5.95%, 5/84). This study implied that antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolated from captive giant pandas is a reservoir of ARGs and VAGs, and significant associations exist among ARGs, VAGs and MGEs. Monitoring ARGs, VAGs and MGEs carried by E. coli from giant pandas is beneficial for controlling the development of antimicrobial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Activin A Reduces Porcine Granulosa Cells Apoptosis via ERβ-Dependent ROS Modulation
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120704 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Unfavorable conditions compromise animal reproduction by altering the ovarian granulosa cells’ follicular dynamics and normal physiological function (GCs), eventually resulting in oxidative damage and cell apoptosis. Activin is produced in the GCs and plays a vital role in folliculogenesis. This study investigated the [...] Read more.
Unfavorable conditions compromise animal reproduction by altering the ovarian granulosa cells’ follicular dynamics and normal physiological function (GCs), eventually resulting in oxidative damage and cell apoptosis. Activin is produced in the GCs and plays a vital role in folliculogenesis. This study investigated the effects of activin A (ACT-A) treatment in vitro on the apoptosis of porcine GCs and the underlying molecular mechanism. We found that ACT-A could attenuate the apoptosis of the GCs and enhance the synthesis of estrogen (E2). ACT-A also enhanced FSH-induced estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) expression, inhibiting ERβ aggravated intracellular accumulation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. The E2 levels in the culture medium, the mRNA expression pattern of the apoptosis-related genes (CASPASE 3, BCL2, and BAX), steroidogenesis-related gene (CYP19A1), and cell viability were analyzed to confirm the results. In summary, this study indicated the protective role of ACT-A in apoptosis by attenuating the ROS accumulation through ERβ. These results aim to enhance the follicular functions and improve animal reproductive performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Reproductive Control in the Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Canine Mammary Tumor Cell Lines Derived from Metastatic Foci Show Increased RAD51 Expression but Diminished Radioresistance via p21 Inhibition
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120703 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Due to the high incidence of mammary tumors in dogs, it is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of these tumors in veterinary medicine. Radiation therapy is often used to treat mammary tumors that target DNA lesions. RAD51 is a key molecule that repairs [...] Read more.
Due to the high incidence of mammary tumors in dogs, it is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of these tumors in veterinary medicine. Radiation therapy is often used to treat mammary tumors that target DNA lesions. RAD51 is a key molecule that repairs DNA damage via homologous recombination. We examined the relationship between RAD51 expression and radiosensitivity in mammary tumor cell lines. CHMp and CHMm from the same individual were selected based on the differences in RAD51 expression. The radiosensitivity of both cell lines was examined using MTT and scratch assays; CHMm, which has high RAD51 expression, showed higher sensitivity to radiation than CHMp. However, the nuclear focus of RAD51 during DNA repair was formed normally in CHMp, but not in most of CHMm. Since irradiation resulted in the suppression of cell cycle progression in CHMp, the expression of p21, a cell cycle regulatory factor, was detected in CHMp after 15 Gy irradiation but not in CHMm. These results indicate that functional expression is more important than the quantitative expression of RAD51 in canine mammary tumor cells in response to DNA damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomic Stability and DNA Damage Repair in Small Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Primary Ovarian Leiomyoma in a White Tiger (Panthera tigris)
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120702 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Ovarian leiomyomas are very rare in domestic cats and occasionally mentioned in studies reporting general pathological findings and neoplasm occurrence in non-domestic large felids. This report describes a case of ovarian leiomyoma in a 22-year-old white tiger (Panthera tiger), treated with [...] Read more.
Ovarian leiomyomas are very rare in domestic cats and occasionally mentioned in studies reporting general pathological findings and neoplasm occurrence in non-domestic large felids. This report describes a case of ovarian leiomyoma in a 22-year-old white tiger (Panthera tiger), treated with deslorelin implants, detailing pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Gross examination revealed a markedly enlarged, firm, whitish right ovary with a multinodular appearance. On a cut surface, multiple brown-fluid-filled cysts interspersed with solid grey-to-white areas were observed. On histopathological examination, the ovary was enlarged and replaced by a densely cellular neoplasm composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles, or occasionally in a herringbone pattern, embedded in a large stroma of collagenous connective tissue. Neoplastic cells showed mild nuclear atypia and pleomorphism and low mitotic rate. Immunohistochemistry confirmed smooth muscle origin of the neoplasm, and cells were positive for vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and caldesmon. A low rate (<1%) of Ki-67-positive cells was observed. Although rare, ovarian leiomyoma should be considered when a mass is present in the ovary of a tiger with reproductive failure. Because cancer of the reproductive system impacts on species conservation by affecting reproduction, regular health monitoring is warranted to support wildlife conservation. Finally, the adverse effects associated with long-term treatment with synthetic GnRH analogues as contraceptives in non-domestic felids are worthy of future investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Feline Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Growth Performance, Survival, Blood Chemistry, and Immune Gene Expression of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Fed Probiotic-Supplemented Diets
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120701 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 801
Abstract
The channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) farming industry is the largest and one of the oldest aquaculture industries in the United States. Despite being an established industry, production issues stemming from disease outbreaks remain problematic for producers. Supplementing fish diets with probiotics [...] Read more.
The channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) farming industry is the largest and one of the oldest aquaculture industries in the United States. Despite being an established industry, production issues stemming from disease outbreaks remain problematic for producers. Supplementing fish diets with probiotics to enhance the immune system and growth potential is one approach to mitigating disease. Although considerable laboratory data demonstrate efficacy, these results do not always translate to natural modes of disease transmission. Hence, the present work was conducted in the laboratory but incorporated flow-through water from large catfish pond production systems, allowing for natural exposure to pathogens. Two feeding trials were conducted in an 18-tank aquaria system housing two different sizes, 34.8 ± 12.5 g and 0.36 ± 0.03 g, of channel catfish. Channel catfish in the first trial were fed three experimental diets over six weeks. Commercial diets were top-coated with two selected spore-forming Bacillus spp. probiotics, Bacillus velezensis AP193 (1 × 106 CFU g−1) and BiOWiSH (3.6 × 104 CFU g−1), or a basal diet that contained no dietary additive. In the second eight-week trial, diets were top-coated with BiOWiSH at three concentrations (1.8, 3.6, and 7.3 × 104 CFU g−1), along with one basal diet (no probiotic). At the completion of these studies, growth performance, survival, hematocrit, blood chemistry, and immune expression of interleukin 1β (il1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (tnf-α), interleukin-8 (il8), transforming-growth factor β1 (tgf-β1), and toll-like receptor 9 (tlr9) were evaluated using qPCR. Trial results revealed no differences (p > 0.05) among treatments concerning growth, survival, or hematological parameters. For immune gene expression, interesting trends were discerned, with substantial downregulation observed in B. velezensis AP193-fed fish for il1β, tnf-α, and tlr9 expression within splenic tissue, compared to that of the basal and BiOWiSH diets (p < 0.05). However, the results were not statistically significant for anterior kidney tissue in the first trial. In the second trial, varied levels of probiotic inclusion revealed no significant impact of BiOWiSH’s products on the expression of il1β, tnf-α, il8, and tgf-β1 in both spleen and kidney tissue at any rate of probiotic inclusion (p > 0.05). Based on these findings, more research on utilizing probiotics in flow-through systems with natural infection conditions is crucial to ensure consistency from a controlled laboratory scale to real-world practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approach to Reducing and Preventing Fish Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Intracardiac Porcupine Quill Migration in a Dog: Multimodality Imaging Findings and Surgical Management
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120700 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 612
Abstract
The porcupine is a nocturnal quill-bearing rodent common throughout Italy. When threatened, it defends itself by erecting its quills, rattling its tail, and running sideways or backyard into predators. The quills are released upon contact with assailants and tend to migrate into several [...] Read more.
The porcupine is a nocturnal quill-bearing rodent common throughout Italy. When threatened, it defends itself by erecting its quills, rattling its tail, and running sideways or backyard into predators. The quills are released upon contact with assailants and tend to migrate into several body tissues or cavities due to the unique inverted cuticles (crenate) directed downwards to the quill base (a sort of “harpoon effect”). Intracardiac migration of porcupine quills has been reported in a few dogs with severe clinical signs. This case report describes a single porcupine quill [Hystrix cristata, (HC)] migration through the heart in a dog and the use of multimodality imaging for the diagnosis and surgical approach. A 4-year-old 25 kg female mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of recurrent fever. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination showed a linear, hyperechoic foreign body traversing the interventricular septum from the heart base to the cardiac apex. Computed tomography and transesophageal echocardiography confirmed the presence of a single structure resembling a quill; a later esophageal endoscopy showed no anatomical alterations or mucosal injuries. Following median sternotomy and after accurate localization by intraoperative ultrasound, the quill was successfully removed. The dog had a good recovery without evidence of severe cardiac injury secondary to an intracardiac quill. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the identification of an intracardiac HC quill by ultrasonography and CT and its successful removal by ultrasound guide has not been previously reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Cervical Vertebral Stenotic Myelopathy in a Nelore Calf
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120699 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 594
Abstract
This paper aims to report clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and pathological features in a case of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy (CVSM) affecting a 4-month-old Nelore calf for the first time. During physical examination, the calf could stand if assisted when lifting by the tail [...] Read more.
This paper aims to report clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and pathological features in a case of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy (CVSM) affecting a 4-month-old Nelore calf for the first time. During physical examination, the calf could stand if assisted when lifting by the tail but fallen to the ground when trying to walk. Attempts to flex and extend the neck to the right side failed. Radiographs findings consisted of reduced intervertebral spaces, and misalignments between the endplates, more evident between the C3 and C4 vertebrae, resulting in narrowing of the spinal canal and compression of the spinal cord. Grossly, C4 showed cranial articular surface malformation, abnormal metaphyseal growth plate development, reduced vertebral body size and deformity. Histologically, C4 showed an abnormal vertebral bone development characterized by moderate replacement of trabecular bone by fibrous tissues, multifocal areas of dystrophic hyaline cartilage development, and cartilaginous growth failure along the metaphyseal growth plate. Cervical spinal cord within the stenotic vertebral canal showed swollen neurons with central chromatolysis, areas of Wallerian degeneration, and necrotic debris. In contrast with the well-known Wobbler syndrome in horses, the etiology of CVSM in cattle remains undetermined, and further genetic and pathological studies must be conducted to elucidate it. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Particulate Cell Wall Materials of Lactobacillus acidophilus as Vaccine Adjuvant
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120698 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 588
Abstract
We evaluated Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) for adjuvant application in animal vaccines. LA particles (LAPs) are made by treating LA with purification processes and high-pressure homogenization (HPH). We found that LAPs treated with HPH with trehalose and emulsifiers had an average particle size of [...] Read more.
We evaluated Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) for adjuvant application in animal vaccines. LA particles (LAPs) are made by treating LA with purification processes and high-pressure homogenization (HPH). We found that LAPs treated with HPH with trehalose and emulsifiers had an average particle size of 179 nm, considerably smaller than LAPs without additives. First, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of LAPs using a murine model with ovalbumin antigens, revealing that LAPs, especially in a five-fold concentration, could induce a considerable antibody response compared with other current adjuvants. In poultry vaccination tests using inactivated Newcastle disease virus, LAPs alone could induce a similar antibody response compared to commercial water-in-oil (W/O) adjuvant ISA70, a commercial adjuvant, at weeks 4 and 6; however, they declined faster than ISA70 at weeks 8 and 10. LAPs added to conventional adjuvant materials, such as mineral oil-based O/W emulsions, showed similar adjuvanticity to ISA70. LA-H5-C, composed of carbomer, emulsifiers and trehalose showed no significant body weight change in acute toxicity compared to other adjuvants including ISA70, making formulated LAPs a potential candidate for use as a veterinary vaccine adjuvant. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Proteomics Evaluation of Semen of Clinically Healthy Beagle-Breed Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120697 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 608
Abstract
The objectives of the present work were to evaluate the semen of dogs by means of proteomics methods and to compare with proteomics results of the blood of the animals, in order to increase available knowledge on the topic and present relevant reference [...] Read more.
The objectives of the present work were to evaluate the semen of dogs by means of proteomics methods and to compare with proteomics results of the blood of the animals, in order to increase available knowledge on the topic and present relevant reference values for semen samples. Semen samples were collected from five Beagle-breed dogs. Reproductive assessment of the animals by means of clinical, ultrasonographic and seminological examinations confirmed their reproductive health. The sperm-rich fraction and the prostatic fraction of semen were processed for proteomics evaluation. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed by means of a LTQ Orbitrap Elite system. The technology combines high separation capacity and strong qualitative ability of proteins in biological samples that require deep proteome coverage. Protein classification was performed based on their functional annotations using Gene Ontology (GO). In blood plasma, semen sperm-rich fraction, and semen prostatic fraction, 59, 42 and 43 proteins, respectively, were detected. Two proteins were identified simultaneously in plasma and the semen sperm-rich fraction, 11 proteins in plasma and the semen prostatic fraction, and three proteins in the semen sperm-rich and prostatic fractions. In semen samples, most proteins were related to cell organization and biogenesis, metabolic processes or transport of ions and molecules. Most proteins were located in the cell membrane, the cytosol or the nucleus. Finally, most proteins performed functions related to binding or enzyme regulation. There were no differences between the semen sperm-rich fraction and prostatic fractions in terms of the clustering of proteins. In conclusion, a baseline reference for proteins in the semen of Beagle-breed dogs is provided. These proteins are involved mostly in supporting spermatozoan maturation, survival and motility, enhancing the reproductive performance of male animals. There appears potential for the proteomics examination of semen to become a tool in semen evaluation. This analysis may potentially identify biomarkers for reproductive disorders. This can be particularly useful in stud animals, also given its advantage as a non-invasive method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sperm Biotechnology in Animals Reproduction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sexual Dimorphic Innate Immune Response to a Viral–Bacterial Respiratory Disease Challenge in Beef Calves
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120696 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
The potential for sexually dimorphic innate immune responses to respiratory disease was evaluated, where eight steers and seven heifers (280 ± 4 kg) were subjected to a viral–bacterial respiratory disease challenge utilizing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1; intranasal; 1 × 108 PFU/nostril) and Mannheimia [...] Read more.
The potential for sexually dimorphic innate immune responses to respiratory disease was evaluated, where eight steers and seven heifers (280 ± 4 kg) were subjected to a viral–bacterial respiratory disease challenge utilizing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1; intranasal; 1 × 108 PFU/nostril) and Mannheimia haemolytica (MH; intratracheal; 1.3 × 107 CFU/head) administered 72 h later. Body temperature was lesser in heifers than steers (p < 0.01). There was a sex × time interaction (p = 0.05) for white blood cells where heifers had reduced concentrations compared with steers at −72 and 0 h but greater concentrations from 36 to 60 h post-MH. Concentrations of neutrophils were lesser in heifers compared to steers from 0 to 4 h, and from 8 to 12 h (p = 0.03). Lymphocytes were greater in heifers compared to steers at 12 h and from 36 to 60 h post-MH (p < 0.01). The neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was lesser in heifers compared to steers from 2 to 24 h and at 48 h post-MH (p < 0.01). Monocytes were greater in heifers compared to steers from 24 to 60 h post-MH (p < 0.01), while eosinophils were greater in heifers compared to steers at 48 and 60 h (p < 0.01). Serum IL-4 was lesser in heifers compared to steers at 0 h and from 2 to 72 h post-MH challenge (p = 0.02). Non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were lesser (p < 0.01) in heifers compared to steers from 2 to 4 h post-MH challenge. Urea nitrogen concentrations were greater (p < 0.01) in heifers than steers at 36 h post-MH challenge. Data from this study reveal distinct differences in the acute phase response following a respiratory disease challenge where steers produced an early response, while the response in heifers appeared to be delayed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management of Bovine Respiratory Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Mechanism of Important Components in Canine Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120695 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 762
Abstract
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potential treatment for many intestinal diseases. In dogs, FMT has been shown to have positive regulation effects in treating Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis, acute diarrhea (AD), and acute hemorrhagic [...] Read more.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a potential treatment for many intestinal diseases. In dogs, FMT has been shown to have positive regulation effects in treating Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis, acute diarrhea (AD), and acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS). FMT involves transplanting the functional components of a donor’s feces into the gastrointestinal tract of the recipient. The effective components of FMT not only include commensal bacteria, but also include viruses, fungi, bacterial metabolites, and immunoglobulin A (IgA) from the donor feces. By affecting microbiota and regulating host immunity, these components can help the recipient to restore their microbial community, improve their intestinal barrier, and induce anti-inflammation in their intestines, thereby affecting the development of diseases. In addition to the above components, mucin proteins and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) may be functional ingredients in FMT as well. In addition to the abovementioned indications, FMT is also thought to be useful in treating some other diseases in dogs. Consequently, when preparing FMT fecal material, it is important to preserve the functional components involved. Meanwhile, appropriate fecal material delivery methods should be chosen according to the mechanisms these components act by in FMT. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Granulomatous Inflammation and Pericarditis Induced by Silk Granuloma Related to Previous Surgical Ligation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in a Dog
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120694 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Surgical ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus is regarded as a standard treatment approach with a low complication rate if performed by experienced surgeons, and it has been performed successfully for decades in dogs. However, there are no reports describing the clinical symptoms [...] Read more.
Surgical ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus is regarded as a standard treatment approach with a low complication rate if performed by experienced surgeons, and it has been performed successfully for decades in dogs. However, there are no reports describing the clinical symptoms related to granulomatous inflammation after the surgical ligation of the patent ductus arteriosus. This report describes the clinical symptoms caused by granulomatous inflammation and subacute pericarditis in a dog that had undergone the surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus 2 years previously. Exploratory thoracotomy was performed for subtotal pericardiectomy, and a biopsy was performed to obtain specimens for histopathological examination and culture tests. The clinical symptoms were relieved after surgery. The persistent leukocytosis improved with steroid administration. This case illustrates that the granulomatous inflammatory response associated with silk suture granuloma is a rare postoperative complication of ductal ligation. In such cases, pericardiectomy can help relieve the clinical symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Genetic Analysis of Torque Teno Canis Virus Identified in Republic of Korea
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120693 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Torque teno canis virus (TTCaV) is an approximately 2.8 kb circular single-stranded DNA virus known to cause infections in dogs. However, its incidence in Republic of Korea remains unknown. In this study, 135 dog fecal samples were collected to determine TTCaV infection status [...] Read more.
Torque teno canis virus (TTCaV) is an approximately 2.8 kb circular single-stranded DNA virus known to cause infections in dogs. However, its incidence in Republic of Korea remains unknown. In this study, 135 dog fecal samples were collected to determine TTCaV infection status in Republic of Korea. Based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, 13 of 135 (9.6%) dogs tested positive for TTCaV. Three full-length genome sequences (GenBank IDs: MZ503910, MZ503911, and MZ503912) were obtained from the positive specimens. Phylogenetic tree construction and sequence identity, similarity plot, and recombination analyses were performed using these three full-length genomic sequences. Among the three full-length genomes, MZ503912 was determined to be a recombinant virus based on analysis with the reference TTCaV strains. This novel virus strain might have been generated by recombination between TTCaV strain KX827768 discovered in China and MZ503910 discovered in Republic of Korea. This is the first report to determine the incidence, genetic variation, and recombination of TTCaV in dogs in Republic of Korea. Further studies are needed to elucidate TTCaV pathogenesis in dogs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Multimodal Assessment of Bottlenose Dolphin Auditory Nuclei Using 7-Tesla MRI, Immunohistochemistry and Stereology
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120692 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1565
Abstract
The importance of assessing neurochemical processes in the cetacean brain as a tool for monitoring their cognitive health and to indirectly model human neurodegenerative conditions is increasingly evident, although available data are largely semiquantitative. High-resolution MRI for post-mortem brains and stereology allow for [...] Read more.
The importance of assessing neurochemical processes in the cetacean brain as a tool for monitoring their cognitive health and to indirectly model human neurodegenerative conditions is increasingly evident, although available data are largely semiquantitative. High-resolution MRI for post-mortem brains and stereology allow for quantitative assessments of the cetacean brain. In this study, we scanned two brains of bottlenose dolphins in a 7-Tesla (7T) MR scanner and assessed the connectivity of the inferior colliculi and ventral cochlear nuclei using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Serial thick sections were investigated stereologically in one of the dolphins to generate rigorous quantitative estimates of identifiable cell types according to their morphology and expression of molecular markers, yielding reliable cell counts with most coefficients of error <10%. Fibronectin immunoreactivity in the dolphin resembled the pattern in a human chronic traumatic encephalopathy brain, suggesting that neurochemical compensation for insults such as hypoxia may constitute a noxious response in humans, while being physiological in dolphins. These data contribute to a growing body of knowledge on the morphological and neurochemical properties of the dolphin brain and highlight a stereological and neuroimaging workflow that may enable quantitative and translational assessment of pathological processes in the dolphin brain in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurodegenerative Diseases: What Can We Find Out in the Animal Brain?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Vaccination against Glässer’s Disease in a Farm Suffering from Polyserositis in Weaned Pigs
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120691 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Polyserositis mostly affects 4–8 weeks old piglets and is usually caused by Glaesserella parasuis, and/or Streptococcus suis, and/or Mycoplasma hyorhinis. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and etiology of polyserositis in a tricky pig herd. The concurrent effect of vaccination for Glässer [...] Read more.
Polyserositis mostly affects 4–8 weeks old piglets and is usually caused by Glaesserella parasuis, and/or Streptococcus suis, and/or Mycoplasma hyorhinis. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and etiology of polyserositis in a tricky pig herd. The concurrent effect of vaccination for Glässer’s disease was also assessed. A total of 46 sows and 387 piglets were herein investigated, subdivided into three groups based on their immune status (i.e., vaccination of sows and piglets). All the piglets found spontaneously dead between the 2nd and 16th week of age were recorded and necropsied. Whenever polyserositis was diagnosed, biomolecular investigations were carried out to detect the above-mentioned pathogens. Mycoplasma hyorhinis was detected most frequently (n = 23), often as the only causative agent (n = 15), whereas S. suis was observed in 8 cases (6 as the only pathogen). Moreover, Glaesserella parasuis was demonstrated in 6 piglets, always in combination with Mycoplasma hyorhinis and/or Streptococcus suis. Vaccination did not significantly affect mortality rates. Overall, our data indicate that polyserositis is likely caused by an intricate puzzle of pathogens, even when dealing with a small herd and during a short time span. That makes it challenging to achieve the correct diagnosis and to properly manage this health issue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Resistance of Field-Isolated Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus to Interferon and Neutralizing Antibody
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120690 - 11 Dec 2022
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), belonging to the genogroup G2b, has higher pathogenicity and mortality than classical PEDV, belonging to the genogroup G1a. To understand the pathogenesis of the G2b PEDV, we examined the resistance of the G2b PEDV to interferon (IFN) [...] Read more.
Variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), belonging to the genogroup G2b, has higher pathogenicity and mortality than classical PEDV, belonging to the genogroup G1a. To understand the pathogenesis of the G2b PEDV, we examined the resistance of the G2b PEDV to interferon (IFN) and neutralizing antibodies, which are important for controlling PEDV infection. We found that the G2b PEDV showed higher resistance to IFN than G1a PEDV. The G1a PEDV could replicate in IFN-deficient Vero cells, but not in IFN-releasing porcine alveolar macrophages, whereas the G2b PEDV showed similar infectivity in both types of cells. We also found that G2b PEDV was not effectively blocked by neutralizing antibodies, unlike G1a PEDV, suggesting differences in the antigenicity of the two strains. These results provide an understanding of the occurrence of variant PEDV and its pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Investigating a Prognostic Factor for Canine Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Analysis of Different Histological Grading Systems and the Role of PIVKA-II
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120689 - 10 Dec 2022
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in dogs is uncommon and often associated with a good prognosis, although some cases prove to be aggressive. In human oncology HCC is often very aggressive and diagnostic methods and prognostic factors are widely used to predict its biological [...] Read more.
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in dogs is uncommon and often associated with a good prognosis, although some cases prove to be aggressive. In human oncology HCC is often very aggressive and diagnostic methods and prognostic factors are widely used to predict its biological behaviour. These include the expression of PIVKA-II. Methods: in order to identify a prognostic factor for canine HCC, we applied different methods of histological grading and investigated PIVKA-II expression in 22 HCC of dogs treated surgically and followed clinically for at least 2 years. Results: Nineteen patients analysed have passed the observation period without tumour recurrence, while 3 died following the development of metastases. PIVKA-II was positive in 15/22 cases without correlation with prognosis or tumoural grading even if a trend of PIVKA-II negativity in low WHO grades as well as increased number of PIVKA-II positive cases in higher WHO grades weres observed. Conclusions: This work showed that, PIVKA-II cannot be considered either as a marker of malignancy or as a prognostic marker for canine HCC. The poor prognosis depends usually on the clinical presentation. Thus prognostic parameters in canine HCC able to predict its aggressive behaviour through histological examination are still missing. The most promising method, limited to our study, seems to be the WHO histological grading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Pathology of Cancers in Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Estrus Detection in a Dairy Herd Using an Electronic Nose by Direct Sampling on the Perineal Region
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120688 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Estrus detection is very important for the profitability of dairy herds. Different automatic systems for estrus detection have been developed over the last decades. Our study aimed to assess the ability of the electronic nose (EN) MENT-EGAS prototype to detect estrus, based on [...] Read more.
Estrus detection is very important for the profitability of dairy herds. Different automatic systems for estrus detection have been developed over the last decades. Our study aimed to assess the ability of the electronic nose (EN) MENT-EGAS prototype to detect estrus, based on odor release from the perineal headspace in dairy cattle by direct sampling. The study was performed in an Italian dairy farm using 35 multiparous Holstein–Friesian cows. The cows were divided into three groups: group I included 10 lactating 5-month pregnant cows, group II included 19 lactating cycling cows, and group III included 6 cows that were artificially inseminated 18 days before the trial. Odors from the perineal headspace were collected using the MENT-EGAS prototype. In group I, odors were collected once a day for 5 consecutive days. In group II, odors were collected twice daily from day 18 until day 1 of the reproductive cycle. In group III, odors were also collected twice daily from the presumable day 18 of gestation until day 22. Principal component analyses (PCA) of the perineal headspace samples were performed. PCA in group I revealed no significant discrimination. PCA in group II revealed clear discrimination between proestrus and estrus, and between estrus and metestrus but no significant discrimination was obtained between proestrus and metestrus. PCA in group III revealed that in four cows the results were similar to group I and in two cows the results were similar to group II. On day 40 of the presumable pregnancy, the ultrasound examination revealed that only the four cows were pregnant and the other two cows were regularly cycling. On the basis of our findings, we conclude that it is possible to accurately detect estrus in dairy cattle from directly collected odor samples using the MENT-EGAS prototype. This represents the first study of estrus detection using an EN detection by direct sampling. EN technologies, such as MENT-EGAS, could be applied in the future in dairy cattle farms as a precise, non-invasive method for estrus detection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Bacterial Contamination of the Surgical Site at the Time of Elective Caesarean Section in Belgian Blue Cows—Part 1: Identified by Bacterial Culture
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120687 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1256
Abstract
To improve the efficacy of preoperative antibiotics used in elective caesarean section (CS), we aimed to identify the bacteria contaminating the surgical site during this surgery. A study was conducted on 76 Belgian Blue cows. Bacteriology was performed on cotton swab sampled from [...] Read more.
To improve the efficacy of preoperative antibiotics used in elective caesarean section (CS), we aimed to identify the bacteria contaminating the surgical site during this surgery. A study was conducted on 76 Belgian Blue cows. Bacteriology was performed on cotton swab sampled from the visceral and parietal peritoneum of each cow during the CS. Most of samples showed a negative culture (55/76; 72.37%), 19/76 (25%) were positive (p < 0.0001) and two samples were contaminated. In total, 32 isolates belonging to 18 species were identified. Most of them are aerobic (17/18; 94.44%) and half of them were gram-negative (G-). The most encountered bacteria were Acinetobacter sp. (6/32; 18.75%), Pseudomonas sp. (4/32; 12.5%), Aerococcus viridans (4/32; 12.5%), Psychrobacter sp. (3/32; 9.37%), and Escherichia coli (2/32; 6.25%). Among the identified isolates, 31/32 (96.87%) were aerobic and 1/32 (3.12%) was anaerobic (p = 0.0001). Furthermore, 20/32 (62.50%) strains were G− while 12/32 (37.5%) were gram-positive (G+) (p = 0.012). In fact, most of cultured strains were aerobic G− (20/32), 11/32 were aerobic G+ and 1/32 is anaerobic G+ (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, most of samples showed a negative bacteriology; however, aerobic G− strains were the most identified in positive swabs. Therefore, preoperative antibiotics should be aimed against these bacteria. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of the Influence of Coprophagic Behavior on the Digestibility of Dietary Nutrients and Fecal Fermentation Products in Adult Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120686 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 620
Abstract
Coprophagia is a common and undesirable behavior observed in dogs; however, little is known about its causes or possible consequences when analysis of the animal’s feces is needed for experimental purposes. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of coprophagy on digestibility, fecal pH, [...] Read more.
Coprophagia is a common and undesirable behavior observed in dogs; however, little is known about its causes or possible consequences when analysis of the animal’s feces is needed for experimental purposes. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of coprophagy on digestibility, fecal pH, and fermentative metabolites. Twelve healthy dogs with a mean age of 3.50 ± 1.45 years were included and divided into two groups: coprophagic (COP) and non-coprophagic (NCOP). The study lasted 30 days, the last 6 days being used to collect feces for the analysis of the apparent digestibility of coefficients (ADC), fecal pH, and the concentration of short- and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, and fecal lactic acid. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS software. No differences were observed for most variables, except for the ADC of nitrogen-free extract (NFE), which presented the highest average for the COP. This result should be interpreted with caution, as the NFE is estimated from calculations and was not determined in the laboratory; in addition, the results represent not only starch and sugars but also some parts referring to fibers. Therefore, coprophagy seemed not to influence the fecal variables analyzed. Full article
Communication
Investigation on Descriptive Epidemiology, Geographical Distribution, and Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. in Bovine from Romania
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120685 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Bovine echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution, causing significant economic losses in the affected animals and important public health concerns. The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence and geographical distribution of cystic echinococcosis, and molecular characterization of [...] Read more.
Bovine echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution, causing significant economic losses in the affected animals and important public health concerns. The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence and geographical distribution of cystic echinococcosis, and molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. from slaughtered cattle in Romania. In the period 2020–2021, a total of 2693 cattle (aged 2–21 years) slaughtered from the breeds Bruna de Maramureș, Bălțată Românească, and a mixed breed were examined to identify hydatid cysts. Cysts were identified in 66 cattle (2.45%). The predominant location of hydatid cysts was the lungs. Most cysts were non-fertile. By age categories, hydatidosis was reported in the age categories 2–12 years (6/2341; 0.25%), 13–16 years (11/244; 4.5%), 17–20 years (41/85; 48.23%), and over 21 years (8/23; 34.78%). Following the PCR analysis of 10 samples from the lungs (protoscoleces/proliferative membrane/hydatid liquid), DNA fragments were identified in 5 samples. Following sequencing, the identified species was Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.). The study results indicate that the disease is still present in several of the investigated regions of Romania, highlighting a potential public health risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echinococcosis)
Article
Phytochemical Profile of Foeniculum vulgare Subsp. piperitum Essential Oils and Evaluation of Acaricidal Efficacy against Varroa destructor in Apis mellifera by In Vitro and Semi-Field Fumigation Tests
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120684 - 09 Dec 2022
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Varroatosis is an important parasitic disease of Apis mellifera caused by the mite Varroa destructor (V. destructor). The parasite is able to transmit numerous pathogens to honeybees which can lead to colony collapse. In recent years, the effectiveness of authorized drug products [...] Read more.
Varroatosis is an important parasitic disease of Apis mellifera caused by the mite Varroa destructor (V. destructor). The parasite is able to transmit numerous pathogens to honeybees which can lead to colony collapse. In recent years, the effectiveness of authorized drug products has decreased due to increasing resistance phenomena. Therefore, the search for alternatives to commercially available drugs is mandatory. In this context, essential oils (EOs) prove to be a promising choice to be studied for their known acaricide properties. In this research work, the acaricide activity of EO vapours isolated from the epigeal part (whole plant) of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare sbps. piperitum) and its three fractions (leaves, achenes and flowers) against V. destructor was evaluated. The effectiveness of fumigation was studied using two methods. The first involved prolonged exposure of mites to oil vapour for variable times. After exposure, the five mites in each replicate were placed in a Petri dish with an Apis mellifera larva. Mortality, due to chronic toxicity phenomena, was assessed after 48 h. The second method aimed to translate the results obtained from the in vitro test into a semi-field experiment. Therefore, two-level cages were set up. In the lower compartment of the cage, a material releasing oil vapours was placed; in the upper compartment, Varroa-infested honeybees were set. The results of the first method showed that the increase in mortality was directly proportional to exposure time and concentration. The whole plant returned 68% mortality at the highest concentration (2 mg/mL) and highest exposure time (48 h control), while the leaves, achenes and flowers returned 64%, 52% and 56% mortality, respectively. In the semi-field experiment, a concentration up to 20 times higher than the one used in the in vitro study was required for the whole plant to achieve a similar mite drop of >50%. The results of the study show that in vitro tests should only be used for preliminary screening of EO activity. In vitro tests should be followed by semi-field tests, which are essential to identify the threshold of toxicity to bees and the effective dose to be used in field studies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Assessing Bone Health Status and Eggshell Quality of Laying Hens at the End of a Production Cycle in Response to Inclusion of a Hybrid Rye to a Wheat–Corn Diet
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120683 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether there are negative effects of the partial replacement of white corn with rye along with xylanase supplementation on overall bone quality, eggshell mineralization, and mechanical strength in laying hens. From the 26th week of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether there are negative effects of the partial replacement of white corn with rye along with xylanase supplementation on overall bone quality, eggshell mineralization, and mechanical strength in laying hens. From the 26th week of life, ISA Brown laying hens were fed either a wheat–corn diet or a diet containing 25% rye, with or without xylanase. The experimental period lasted for 25 weeks, until birds reached their 50th week of age, after which bone and eggshell quality indices were assessed. Eggshell thickness and eggshell Ca content of eggs from rye-fed hens were improved by xylanase supplementation. No differences in the mechanical properties of the eggshells were observed between treatments, except for the diet-dependent changes in egg deformation. Rye inclusion had no effect on the mechanical properties of bone. Xylanase supplementation, irrespective of the diet, had a positive effect on bone strength and increased tibia Ca content, as well as the content of several microelements. Hence, hybrid rye combined with wheat can replace 25% of corn in layer diets without compromising shell quality or bone mineral content. Xylanase supplementation in these diets is recommended since its inclusion improves both bone strength and quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Poultry Nutrition)
Communication
Plasma Chymase Activity Reflects the Change in Hemodynamics Observed after the Surgical Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120682 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Chymase is a protease stored in mast cell granules that produces angiotensin II (ANG II) from angiotensin I (ANG I) and is associated with tissue injury, inflammation, and remodeling, especially involving the cardiovascular system. As cardiovascular events occur, chymase is activated by degranulation [...] Read more.
Chymase is a protease stored in mast cell granules that produces angiotensin II (ANG II) from angiotensin I (ANG I) and is associated with tissue injury, inflammation, and remodeling, especially involving the cardiovascular system. As cardiovascular events occur, chymase is activated by degranulation to the extracellular matrix. Although chymase has been suggested to be associated with cardiovascular disease progression, there are not enough reports in veterinary medicine. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common congenital cardiac disease in veterinary medicine. Almost all cases of PDA can be treated surgically to prevent the development of congestive heart disease and/or pulmonary hypertension. The aims of the present study were to measure chymase activity before and after PDA occlusions, and to investigate the relationships between the congestive and hemodynamic states of PDA and chymase activity. In the present study, 17 puppies diagnosed with PDA were included and all puppies completely recovered to the level of healthy dogs. Chymase activity significantly decreased at 2 months after the operation, along with the echocardiography parameters of congestion. Therefore, plasma chymase activity may be useful as a novel predictor for understanding the hemodynamics of PDA in veterinary medicine. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Breeding Season on Haemosporidian Infections in Domestic Chickens
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120681 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Reproduction is believed to contribute to the frequently observed seasonal cycles in parasite loads in many organisms, as an investment in reproduction by the host could result in a higher susceptibility to parasites. In this study, we examined the impact of breeding season [...] Read more.
Reproduction is believed to contribute to the frequently observed seasonal cycles in parasite loads in many organisms, as an investment in reproduction by the host could result in a higher susceptibility to parasites. In this study, we examined the impact of breeding season on haemosporidian infection in free-range chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We sampled a total of 122 chickens (66 chickens during the breeding season of April 2017 and 56 chickens during the non-breeding season of January 2017) to test for haemosporidian infections. The result showed that 56 out of 66 chickens examined during the breeding season tested positive for parasites (84.8% parasite prevalence), whereas 39 out of 56 chickens tested positive for parasites during the non-breeding season (69.6% parasite prevalence). Moreover, among the 11 Leucocytozoon lineages and 2 Plasmodium lineages identified, the parasite lineages that infected chickens during the breeding season were more diversified than those that affected chickens during the non-breeding season. This study indicated that chickens have a higher incidence of haemosporidian infection and a greater diversity of haemosporidian parasite lineages during the breeding season relative to the non-breeding season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Gastric Hyperplastic Polyp Causing Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage and Severe Anemia in a Dog
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120680 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 662
Abstract
An 11-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu was referred for lethargy and melena. The hematocrit level was 18.8% (normal range: 36–56%), indicating severe anemia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a round-to-oval-shaped mass in the stomach. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an intraluminal mass (17 × 12 × [...] Read more.
An 11-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu was referred for lethargy and melena. The hematocrit level was 18.8% (normal range: 36–56%), indicating severe anemia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a round-to-oval-shaped mass in the stomach. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an intraluminal mass (17 × 12 × 15 mm) cranial to the pyloric antrum. After obtaining informed consent from the owner, exploratory laparotomy and subsequent gastrostomy were performed, showing an ulcerated mass potentially responsible for the severe anemia. A lump of hair was firmly attached to the ulcerated surface of the mass. After complete removal of the mass, the anemia resolved spontaneously. Histological examination revealed that the mass was a gastric hyperplastic polyp. At the 6-month follow-up, the dog was healthy with a normal hematocrit level. Gastric hyperplastic polyps are tumor-like lesions arising from the mucosal surface of the stomach, and projecting into the lumen. They can appear in any part of the stomach, and are usually found incidentally during gastric endoscopy or necropsy. The clinical signs include chronic occult blood loss, abdominal pain, and gastric tract obstruction. Gastric polyps causing acute blood loss anemia have rarely been reported in human medicine. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a gastric hyperplastic polyp that caused severe anemia because of acute blood loss in a dog. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Detection of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in Environmental Samples from Ibadan, Oyo State, South West Nigeria
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120679 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Environmental contamination with parasite eggs poses a serious risk to public health. This study aimed to assess the presence of taeniid eggs and, in particular, E. granulosus s.l., in environmental samples in the city of Ibadan, South West Nigeria. To this purpose, soil [...] Read more.
Environmental contamination with parasite eggs poses a serious risk to public health. This study aimed to assess the presence of taeniid eggs and, in particular, E. granulosus s.l., in environmental samples in the city of Ibadan, South West Nigeria. To this purpose, soil (n = 200), fecal (n = 200) and water samples (n = 50) were examined by microscopic observation and the multiplex PCR method. The influence of specific environmental factors on E. granulosus s.l. egg dispersion was also evaluated. Taeniid eggs were microscopically found in 11.5%, 25.5% and 8.0% of soil, fecal and water samples, respectively. PCR analyses evidenced the presence of E. granulosus s.l. in 8.0%, 24.0% and 2.0% of soil, fecal and water samples, respectively. The proximity to slaughterhouses, the level of urbanisation and the local government area of belonging did not seem to affect E. granulosus s.l. egg dissemination patterns. Our results have clearly demonstrated that both urban and semi-urban areas of the city of Ibadan in Nigeria are highly contaminated by taeniid eggs and we recommend the adoption of appropriate measures to control E. granulosus s.l. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echinococcosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Information Provided by Breeders and Referring Veterinarians about the Presence and Meaning of a Murmur to Owners of Newly Purchased Puppies with a Later Confirmed Congenital Heart Disease
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120678 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Background: A recent study revealed that only 10% of puppies diagnosed with a congenital heart disease were referred for murmur investigation to a veterinary cardiology specialist while the puppies were in the breeders’ possession. Whether the new owners had been informed about [...] Read more.
Background: A recent study revealed that only 10% of puppies diagnosed with a congenital heart disease were referred for murmur investigation to a veterinary cardiology specialist while the puppies were in the breeders’ possession. Whether the new owners had been informed about the presence of a murmur before purchasing a puppy was not investigated. Methods: New owners whose dogs were diagnosed with a congenital heart disease at the authors’ institution in a 1-year period received a questionnaire during the consult after cardiac auscultation but before performing an echocardiogram. The main study aims were to reveal whether the breeders had informed the new owners about the presence of a murmur before purchasing the puppy, and whether the owners would have still chosen to buy that specific puppy if they had known about a potentially present congenital heart disease. Results: Of the 60 interviewed owners, 72% would have refrained from buying the puppy if they had known about the presence of a congenital heart disease. However, only 23% of them were informed about the presence of a cardiac murmur before purchase. Conclusions: Most owners would have chosen to buy a healthy puppy without a heart disease if they had been informed. Full article
Case Report
Concurrent Chorioptic Mange and Dermatophytosis in Dairy Goats: A Case Report
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(12), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9120677 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 719
Abstract
A concurrent chorioptic mange and dermatophytosis outbreak occurred in a goat flock in northwestern Italy. Sanitation of the flock was obtained following pour-on eprinomectin application at a dose of 1 mg/kg; enilconazole was used for environmental disinfection against dermatophyte spores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop