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Vet. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2022) – 32 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) is the most common orthopaedic disease affecting the canine hindlimb. The clinical and surgical approach to CCLD has significantly evolved in the last 50 years. Currently, proximal tibial osteotomies are considered the gold standard to correct stifle instability caused by cranial cruciate ligament disease. Amongst all the techniques described up to date, tibial tuberosity advancement and tibial plateau leveling techniques are probably the most commonly performed. This case series describes the use of tibial plateau leveling techniques to treat persistent lameness, suspected to be associated with persistent stifle instability, following previously performed tibial tuberosity advancement techniques. View this paper
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Review
Impact of Routine Management Procedures on the Welfare of Suckling Piglets
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010032 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Piglets often undergo several painful treatments during the initial days of their lives. In this review, we investigate the acute (i.e., immediate), short-, and long-term implications of piglet processing on behavioral, physiological, clinical, and performance parameters, and how welfare impairments depend on performance [...] Read more.
Piglets often undergo several painful treatments during the initial days of their lives. In this review, we investigate the acute (i.e., immediate), short-, and long-term implications of piglet processing on behavioral, physiological, clinical, and performance parameters, and how welfare impairments depend on performance instead of sham procedure, alternative techniques, or the age of the piglets. Welfare indicators that have been used to determine the least distressing procedures and knowledge gaps with regard to the procedures are identified and discussed. Tail docking and especially piglet castration have been the most researched topics, whereas marking for identification has been rarely addressed. Few or no studies have investigated the effects of teeth resection and tail docking on piglets of different age groups. Additionally, results are often found to be inconsistent, highlighting the need for additional research to determine the optimal age for processing. Studies comparing different processing techniques have produced contradictory results, but ear notching, teeth clipping, hot cautery tail docking, and tearing during castration have been determined to result in increased pain. Generally, a shorter procedure duration can reduce stress, with operator training having a distinct impact on piglet welfare during processing. As such, these topics should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Improving Intensive Livestock Animal Welfare)
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Article
European Mistletoe (Viscum album) Extract Is Cytotoxic to Canine High-Grade Astrocytoma Cells In Vitro and Has Additive Effects with Mebendazole
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010031 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 969
Abstract
Malignant gliomas are associated with extremely poor clinical outcomes in both humans and dogs, and novel therapies are needed. Glioma-bearing canine patients may serve as promising preclinical models for human therapies, including complementary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Malignant gliomas are associated with extremely poor clinical outcomes in both humans and dogs, and novel therapies are needed. Glioma-bearing canine patients may serve as promising preclinical models for human therapies, including complementary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mistletoe extract (Viscum album) alone and in combination with mebendazole in an in vitro model of canine high-grade astrocytoma using the cell line SDT-3G. SDT-3G cells were exposed to a range of concentrations of mistletoe extract alone to obtain an IC50. In separate experiments, cells were exposed to mebendazole at a previously determined IC50 (0.03 µM) alone or in conjunction with varying concentrations of mistletoe extract to determine the additive effects. The IC50 for mistletoe alone was 5.644 ± 0.09 SD μg/mL. The addition of mistletoe at 5 μg/mL to mebendazole at 0.03 µM led to increased cell death compared to what would be expected for each drug separately. The cytotoxicity of mistletoe in vitro and its additive effect with mebendazole support future expanded in vitro and in vivo studies in dogs and supply early evidence that this may be a useful adjunct therapeutic agent for use in glioma-bearing dogs. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first published report of Viscum album extract in canine glioma. Full article
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Case Report
Application of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) as a Healing Aid after Extraction of Incisors in the Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis Syndrome
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010030 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 877
Abstract
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) is a stress-free, relatively safe method supporting the treatment of many different diseases. Although it is widely used in human medicine (including dentistry), in veterinary medicine, especially in the treatment of horses, there are not many scientifically described and [...] Read more.
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) is a stress-free, relatively safe method supporting the treatment of many different diseases. Although it is widely used in human medicine (including dentistry), in veterinary medicine, especially in the treatment of horses, there are not many scientifically described and documented cases of its use. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis syndrome is a disease that affects older horses and significantly reduces their quality of life. The only effective treatment for this condition is extraction of the incisors. The described case compares the recovery process of the alveolar area after extraction of incisors during the course of EOTRH syndrome without and with the use of a chamber, in horses with the same clinical picture of the disease, of the same age, and living in the same conditions. According to the authors’ knowledge, the presented case describes the use of a chamber in equine dentistry for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New insights on Veterinary Dentistry and Oral Surgery)
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Case Report
Presumptive Non-Ischemic Priapism in a Cat
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010029 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 830
Abstract
A 14-year-old neutered male British shorthair cat presented with a 21-day history of persistent erection and dysuria, along with overgrooming of the perineal region. Mild palpation induced pain and rigid corpora cavernosa with flaccid glans were observed during physical examination. Ultrasonography of the [...] Read more.
A 14-year-old neutered male British shorthair cat presented with a 21-day history of persistent erection and dysuria, along with overgrooming of the perineal region. Mild palpation induced pain and rigid corpora cavernosa with flaccid glans were observed during physical examination. Ultrasonography of the penis did not detect significant blood flow in the penile cavernosal artery. The drawing of aspirate blood from cavernosal bodies for gas analysis was impossible because of the anatomically small penis size of cats. Conservative management, including topical steroid ointment, lidocaine gel, gabapentin, and diazepam, was prescribed for supportive management. The clinical signs resolved, and ultrasonographic examination of the penis revealed no abnormalities. The cat remains clinically well without recurrence during the 6 months after treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of non-ischemic priapism in a cat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Feline Internal Medicine)
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Article
Effects of a Single Opioid Dose on Gastrointestinal Motility in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): Comparisons among Morphine, Butorphanol, and Tramadol
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010028 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 811
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of single doses of butorphanol, morphine, and tramadol on gastrointestinal motility in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) using non-invasive imaging methods, such as radiographic barium follow through and ultrasonographic contraction counts. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of single doses of butorphanol, morphine, and tramadol on gastrointestinal motility in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) using non-invasive imaging methods, such as radiographic barium follow through and ultrasonographic contraction counts. Time-lapse radiographic and ultrasound examinations were performed before and after a single intramuscular dose of 5 mg kg−1 butorphanol, 10 mg kg−1 morphine, or 10 mg kg−1 tramadol. Pyloric and duodenal contraction counts by ultrasonography and radiographic repletion scores for the stomach and caecum were analysed using a mixed linear model. No significant effect was noted on ultrasound examinations of pyloric and duodenal contractions after administration of an opioid treatment. Morphine had a significant effect on the stomach and the caecum repletion scores, whereas butorphanol had a significant effect only on the caecum repletion score. Tramadol had no significant effect on the stomach or caecum repletion scores. The present findings suggest that a single dose of 5 mg kg−1 butorphanol or 10 mg kg−1 morphine temporarily slows gastrointestinal transit in healthy rabbits, preventing physiological progression of the alimentary bolus without the induction of ileus. In contrast, a single dose of 10 mg kg−1 tramadol has no such effects. Full article
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Article
Isolation, Serovar Identification, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Avibacterium paragallinarum from Chickens in China from 2019 to 2020
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010027 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 807
Abstract
Infectious coryza is an acute infectious respiratory disease in chickens that is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum (A. paragallinarum). Infectious coryza has major economic effects due to decreased egg production in growing birds and slowed growth in broilers. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Infectious coryza is an acute infectious respiratory disease in chickens that is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum (A. paragallinarum). Infectious coryza has major economic effects due to decreased egg production in growing birds and slowed growth in broilers. In this study, we isolated and identified 40 strains of A. paragallinarum from chickens that showed typical clinical signs of coryza in part of China from 2019 to 2020. Using a hemagglutination-inhibition test, 11 isolates were identified as serovar A, 10 isolates were identified as serovar B, and 19 isolates were identified as serovar C. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests showed that high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were encountered for compounds sulfamethoxine sodium and oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Especially, of the 40 A. paragallinarum isolates, 30% had an MIC value of compound sulfamethoxine sodium of 64 μg/mL, 10% of 128 μg/mL, and 15% of 256 μg/mL. For oxytetracycline hydrochloride, 85% of isolates showed MIC values of 64 μg/mL or more. Excitingly, the MIC values of β-lactamase (amoxicillin, ampicillin, and ceftiofur) were low, with 77.5%, 70%, and 92.5% of isolates having an MIC value of ≤1 μg/mL, respectively. Our results may provide a reference for the treatment of infectious coryza. Full article
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Article
Feline and Canine Cutaneous Lymphocytosis: Reactive Process or Indolent Neoplastic Disease?
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010026 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Cutaneous lymphocytosis (CL) is an uncommon and controversial lymphoproliferative disorder described in dogs and cats. CL is generally characterized by a heterogeneous clinical presentation and histological features that may overlap with epitheliotropic lymphoma. Therefore, its neoplastic or reactive nature is still debated. Here, [...] Read more.
Cutaneous lymphocytosis (CL) is an uncommon and controversial lymphoproliferative disorder described in dogs and cats. CL is generally characterized by a heterogeneous clinical presentation and histological features that may overlap with epitheliotropic lymphoma. Therefore, its neoplastic or reactive nature is still debated. Here, we describe clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and clonality features of a retrospective case series of 19 cats and 10 dogs with lesions histologically compatible with CL. In both species, alopecia, erythema, and scales were the most frequent clinical signs. Histologically, a dermal infiltrate of small to medium-sized lymphocytes, occasionally extending to the subcutis, was always identified. Conversely, when present, epitheliotropism was generally mild. In cats, the infiltrate was consistently CD3+; in dogs, a mixture of CD3+ and CD20+ lymphocytes was observed only in 4 cases. The infiltrate was polyclonal in all cats, while BCR and TCR clonal rearrangements were identified in dogs. Overall, cats had a long-term survival (median overall survival = 1080 days) regardless of the treatment received, while dogs showed a shorter and variable clinical course, with no evident associations with clinicopathological features. In conclusion, our results support a reactive nature of the disease in cats, associated with prolonged survival; despite a similar histological picture, canine CL is associated with a more heterogeneous lymphocytic infiltrate, clonality results, and response to treatment, implying a more challenging discrimination between CL and CEL in this species. A complete diagnostic workup and detailed follow-up information on a higher number of cases is warrant for dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lymphoma in Animals)
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Communication
Canine Epidermal Keratinocytes (CPEK) Grown in Monolayer Are Not Representative of Normal Canine Keratinocytes for Permeability Studies: Pilot Studies
by , and
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010025 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes (CPEK) are used as canine keratinocyte cell line. Their suitability for skin barrier studies is unknown. Measurement of transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) evaluates epithelial permeability. We compared TEER and tight junction (TJ) expression in CPEKs and normal keratinocytes (NK) [...] Read more.
Canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes (CPEK) are used as canine keratinocyte cell line. Their suitability for skin barrier studies is unknown. Measurement of transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) evaluates epithelial permeability. We compared TEER and tight junction (TJ) expression in CPEKs and normal keratinocytes (NK) harvested from biopsies of normal dogs. CPEKs and NK were grown until confluence (D0) and for 13 additional days. Slides were fixed on D0 and stained with ZO-1 and claudin-1 antibodies. Five images/antibody were taken, randomized and evaluated blindly by three investigators for intensity, staining location, granularity, and continuousness. Cell size and variability were evaluated. TEER increased overtime to 2000 Ohms/cm in NK, while remained around 100–150 Ohms/cm in CPEK. ANOVA showed significant effect of time (p < 0.0001), group (p < 0.0001) and group x time interaction (p < 0.0001) for TEER. Size of CPEKs was significantly (p < 0.0001) smaller and less variable (p = 0.0078) than NK. Intensity of claudin-1 staining was greater in CPEKs (p < 0.0001) while granularity was less in CPEKs (p = 0.0012). For ZO-1, cytoplasmic staining was greater in CPEK (p < 0.0001) while membrane continuousness of staining was greater in NK (p = 0.0002). We conclude that CPEKs grown in monolayer are not representative of NK for permeability studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Dermatology)
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Perspective
Ivermectin (IVM) Possible Side Activities and Implications in Antimicrobial Resistance and Animal Welfare: The Authors’ Perspective
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010024 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 879
Abstract
Ivermectin has a wide number of many diverse functions. Certainly, it is irreplaceable for the treatment of parasitic pathologies in both human and veterinary medicine, and the latter represents the major field of its application. It has been called the “drug for the [...] Read more.
Ivermectin has a wide number of many diverse functions. Certainly, it is irreplaceable for the treatment of parasitic pathologies in both human and veterinary medicine, and the latter represents the major field of its application. It has been called the “drug for the world’s poor” because of its role as a saviour for those living on the margins of society, in underdeveloped areas afflicted by devastating and debilitating diseases, such as Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic filariasis. It showed huge, unexpected potential as an antibacterial (Chlamydia trachomatis and mycobacteria), and it has antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. The research line described here is placed right in the middle of the investigation on the impact of this drug as an antimicrobial and an immunomodulator. Being a drug widely employed for mass administration, it is mandatory to broaden the knowledge of its possible interaction with bacterial growth and its generation of antimicrobial resistance. Equally, it is important to understand the impact of these drugs on the immune systems of animal species, e.g., horses and dogs, in which this drug is often used. More importantly, could immunomodulation and antibacterial activity promote both bacterial growth and the occurrence of resistance mechanisms? Full article
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Article
Acaricidal Efficacy of Plants from Ecuador, Ambrosia peruviana (Asteraceae) and Lepechinia mutica (Lamiaceae) against Larvae and Engorged Adult Females of the Common Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010023 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 834
Abstract
Control measures against common cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus are of the upmost importance because of considerable, deleterious impact on a farm’s economy. Due to resistance phenomena to synthetic acaricides being a constraint in affected farms, the search for plant derivatives as acaricides has [...] Read more.
Control measures against common cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus are of the upmost importance because of considerable, deleterious impact on a farm’s economy. Due to resistance phenomena to synthetic acaricides being a constraint in affected farms, the search for plant derivatives as acaricides has increased dramatically in recent years. In this work, essential oils obtained from two Ecuadorian plants, Ambrosia peruviana and Lepechinia mutica (EOAp, EOLm), traditionally used as insecticides in indigenous communities, were studied on larvae and engorged females at the parasitic stages of R. microplus. Larvae and females were treated with five (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 1%) and six concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2 and 4%), respectively, of each EOsAp/Lm. A 98–99% larval mortality was achieved with 0.5% of both EOsAp/Lm. EOAp inhibited oviposition and egg hatching up to 82% and 80%, respectively, and had an overall efficacy of 93.12%. Efficacy of EOLm was 72.84%, due to the low influence of EOLm on reproductive parameters. By steam distillation and GC-MS analysis, γ-Curcumene was identified as the main constituent (52.02%) in the EOAp and Shyobunol (10.80%) in EOLm. The results suggest that major components of both essential oils should be further studied as promissory acaricides against R. microplus. Full article
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Article
First Isolation and Multilocus Sequence Typing of Brucella canis from a Subclinically Infected Pet Dog in China
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010022 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Canine brucellosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease, is mainly caused by Brucella canis. In the present study, we isolated a Brucella strain (CD3) from a subclinically infected pet dog in Sichuan Province, Southwestern China. Classical biotyping methods and molecular biological tests (BCSP31 and [...] Read more.
Canine brucellosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease, is mainly caused by Brucella canis. In the present study, we isolated a Brucella strain (CD3) from a subclinically infected pet dog in Sichuan Province, Southwestern China. Classical biotyping methods and molecular biological tests (BCSP31 and BcSS PCR) proved that the strain belonged to B. canis. Furthermore, B. canis CD3 and another two B. canis strains (WJ5 and YA4), which were all isolated from pet dogs in Sichuan, were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Our results showed that the three B. canis strains were identified as the same sequence type (ST21). The present study is the first to report B. canis strain from a subclinically infected pet dog in China, indicating a potential threat to public health posed by subclinical infections in pet dogs. We suggest that screening for B. canis should be incorporated into routine medical examination of pet dogs and other companion animals in areas with a history of animal or human brucellosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Infectious Diseases of Companion Animals)
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Communication
Prevalence of Microsporum canis from Pet Cats in Small Animal Hospitals, Chiang Mai, Thailand
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010021 - 09 Jan 2022
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Dermatophytosis is a disease caused by dermatophytes, a group of fungi that can cause disease both in humans and animals. The important genera that are pathogenic in animals include Trichophyton and Microsporum. Microsporum canis is an important species because it can cause zoonosis [...] Read more.
Dermatophytosis is a disease caused by dermatophytes, a group of fungi that can cause disease both in humans and animals. The important genera that are pathogenic in animals include Trichophyton and Microsporum. Microsporum canis is an important species because it can cause zoonosis and is commonly found in domestic animals. Cats, which live very close to humans, may expose humans to this pathogen. This research focused on the epidemiology of M. canis found in cats. Hair samples were collected via the Mackenzie technique from cats with and without skin lesions, preliminarily examined with 10% KOH preparation, and cultured for fungal identification. Samples were confirmed with molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction, gel electrophoresis, and sequencing. Samples were collected from 138 cats located in 93 households, 43 from cats with skin lesions (31.16%) and 95 from cats without skin lesions (68.84%). Eighteen cats with lesions (13.04%) and ten cats without lesions (7.2%) were found to carry M. canis. In eleven of the eighteen cats both with skin lesions and positive for M. canis (61.11%), the pathogen was found both at the site of the lesion and at other sites in the body. Because the pathogen can be found in the hair of cats with and without skin lesions, owners, keepers, veterinarians, and others who come into contact with these animals are at risk of infection if they are not aware or do not take precautions after contact with them. Full article
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Article
The Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Black Baladi Kids Fed Diets with Graded Quantities of Sweet Lupin Grain (Lupinus angustifolius)
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010020 - 09 Jan 2022
Viewed by 424
Abstract
A study was conducted to examine how lupin grains (LUPs) feeding affected nutritional intake, digestibility, growth, and carcass characteristics in kids. A total of 24 growing black kids (initial body weight (BW) = 16.4 ± 0.49 kg) were allocated to one of three [...] Read more.
A study was conducted to examine how lupin grains (LUPs) feeding affected nutritional intake, digestibility, growth, and carcass characteristics in kids. A total of 24 growing black kids (initial body weight (BW) = 16.4 ± 0.49 kg) were allocated to one of three diets at random. Lupin was included in the diet at a rate of 0 (control; CON), 100 (LUP100), or 200 g/kg (LUP200) of total dry matter (DM). The trial lasted for 91 days divided into 7 and 84 days to be used for adaptation and data collection, respectively. Feed intake was evaluated daily throughout the study. At the commencement and the end of the study, each kid’s body weight was measured to determine its average daily gain (ADG). On day 70, 5 kids were chosen at random from each group to investigate nutrient in vivo digestibility and N balance. At the end of the study, all of the kids were slaughtered to examine carcass features. Nutrient intakes (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and ether extract) were higher (p ≤ 0.01) in LUP-containing diets than in the CON diet. The average daily gain was greater (p ≤ 0.03) in diets containing lupin grains than in the CON diet. Cost of gain ($US/kg growth) was lower (p = 0.004) in kids fed diets containing lupin than the CON diet. Dry matter and CP digestibility rates were greater (p ≤ 0.03) in lupin diets. Retained N was higher (p = 0.04) in lupin-containing diets than in the CON diet. Cold carcass weight was higher (p < 0.05) for kids consuming the LUP100 diet than the CON diet. In lupin diets, carcass cut weights were higher (p < 0.05). Results of the current study indicate that feeding black kids diets containing lupin grains at 100 or 200 g/kg DM basis is cost effective and would increase profitability. Full article
Case Report
The First Report of Elaphostrongylus cervi Infection in Two Imported Wapitis (Cervus canadensis) in Slovenia
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010019 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 515
Abstract
This study describes two female wapitis (Cervus canadensis) with neurological signs associated with an Elaphostrongylus cervi (E. cervi) infection. The original host of the nematode parasite is the Eurasian red deer (Cervus elaphus), although other cervids and [...] Read more.
This study describes two female wapitis (Cervus canadensis) with neurological signs associated with an Elaphostrongylus cervi (E. cervi) infection. The original host of the nematode parasite is the Eurasian red deer (Cervus elaphus), although other cervids and small ruminants may also be affected. The two wapitis imported from Canada were kept in an enclosure with the Slovenian red deer herd. After developing debilitating neurological signs, the wapitis were euthanized and examined for possible causes. A histopathological examination of the brain of the first wapiti revealed severe diffuse perivascular meningoencephalitis with chronic vasculitis, and some cross-sections of nematodes were found in the leptomeninges. A necropsy of the second wapiti revealed severe pachymeningitis and leptomeningitis, where several adult nematode parasites were found. E. cervi was confirmed by molecular methods. The prevalence of E. cervi in the European red deer population is high, but no study has been conducted to assess its prevalence in Slovenia. This was the first confirmation of E. cervi in Slovenia and the first infection with this parasite described in Europe in a wapiti. Elaphostrongylus cervi should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in Europe for all ruminants grazing on pastures frequented by red deer and showing neurological clinical signs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasitic Infections in Wild Animals)
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Article
Microendoscopic Dorsal Laminectomy for Multi-Level Cervical Intervertebral Disc Protrusions in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010018 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and clinical outcomes of microendoscopic dorsal laminectomy for multi-level cervical intervertebral disc protrusions in dogs. Eight client-owned dogs diagnosed with multi-level cervical intervertebral disc protrusions using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and clinical outcomes of microendoscopic dorsal laminectomy for multi-level cervical intervertebral disc protrusions in dogs. Eight client-owned dogs diagnosed with multi-level cervical intervertebral disc protrusions using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included in this retrospective case series. Microendoscopic dorsal laminectomies (MEL) were performed with an integrated endoscopic system to the cranial and caudal vertebrae of the affected intervertebral joints. Pre- and post-operative neurological status, operation time, intra-operative complications, and postoperative complications were reviewed. Post-operative CT images were obtained to measure the dimensions of laminectomy and compared to those of planned laminectomy. Full endoscopic procedures were feasible in 7 dogs (87.5%) and the laminectomy dimensions were in agreement with pre-operative planning. In all dogs, major intra- and postoperative complications did not occur. Conversion to open surgery was required in one case. Short-term postoperative clinical deterioration was found in two dogs. Long-term clinical outcomes were good and comparable to those reported in previous studies of open dorsal laminectomies. MEL is a promising minimally invasive approach to multi-level cervical dorsal laminectomy for intervertebral disc protrusions. This technique may improve postoperative discomfort compared to the open approach. Further studies are needed to directly compare outcomes between these two approaches. Full article
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Review
Effective Veterinary Clinical Teaching in a Variety of Teaching Settings
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010017 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 545
Abstract
This review explores different modalities for clinical teaching of veterinary learners globally. Effective clinical teaching aims to prepare graduates for a successful career in clinical practice. Unfortunately, there is scant literature concerning clinical teaching in veterinary medicine. Our intent for this review is [...] Read more.
This review explores different modalities for clinical teaching of veterinary learners globally. Effective clinical teaching aims to prepare graduates for a successful career in clinical practice. Unfortunately, there is scant literature concerning clinical teaching in veterinary medicine. Our intent for this review is to stimulate and/or facilitate discussion and/or research in this important area. We discuss the different forms that veterinary clinical teaching can take, depending on their setting, which can be university-based clinical activities, work-based in commercial clinical practices, or in a traditional academic setting with little to no real-time exposure to clients and patients. We suggest that each of these modalities has a place in clinical teaching of veterinary learners at any point in the curriculum but that a mix of these approaches will likely provide an improved experience for the learner. Further, we discuss strategies to improve clinical teaching in these different settings. Potential strategies related to the teaching skills of clinical instructors could include training in delivery of clinical teaching in a variety of learning settings, and instructors’ official recognition, including opportunities for career progression. Potential strategies to improve clinical teaching in different teaching settings would vary with the learning settings. For example, in traditional academic settings, case-based learning with incorporation of simulation models is one proposed strategy. The involvement of learners in ‘teach-others’ is a strategy for both traditional academic and clinical settings. Finally, clearly addressing Day One competencies is required in any clinical teaching setting. Full article
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Article
Tibial Plateau Leveling Following Tibial Tuberosity Advancement: A Case Series
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010016 - 01 Jan 2022
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Persistent stifle instability is a recognized complication following tibial tuberosity advancement techniques (TTAT). The aim of this study is to report the feasibility and outcome of tibial plateau leveling techniques (TPLT) to treat dogs with persistent lameness, suspected to be secondary to persistent [...] Read more.
Persistent stifle instability is a recognized complication following tibial tuberosity advancement techniques (TTAT). The aim of this study is to report the feasibility and outcome of tibial plateau leveling techniques (TPLT) to treat dogs with persistent lameness, suspected to be secondary to persistent stifle instability, following (TTAT). Medical records of dogs presented for persistent lameness after TTAT were reviewed. Preoperative data included orthopedic examination, lameness score and radiographs. Inclusion criteria included performance of a surgery to address persistent lameness and suspected instability. Short-term follow up data included orthopedic examination and radiographs of the stifle. Long-term follow up was based on postoperative Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD) questionnaire. Seven dogs were included in the study. Mean subjective preoperative lameness score was 3 ± 1.53. Mean preoperative patellar ligament angle relative to the tibial plateau (PLATP) was 94° and mean tibial plateau angle (TPA) was 28°. Six dogs had tibial plateau leveling osteotomy and one had modified cranial closing wedge ostectomy. Mean postoperative PLATP was 79° and mean TPA was 5°. Mean subjective lameness score at follow up was 0.57 ± 0.49. Minor complications were present in 2 dogs and major complication in 1 dog. Mean LOAD questionnaire score was 6.6/52. TPLT can be performed after TTAT and may improve clinical function and stability in these cases in which persistent instability is suspected. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Feed Digestibility between Ponies, Standardbreds and Andalusian Horses Fed Three Different Diets
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010015 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 651
Abstract
Ponies and some horse breeds such as Andalusians exhibit an ‘easy keeper’ phenotype and tend to become obese more readily than other breeds such as Standardbreds. Various hypotheses have been proposed, including differences in appetite or metabolic efficiency. This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Ponies and some horse breeds such as Andalusians exhibit an ‘easy keeper’ phenotype and tend to become obese more readily than other breeds such as Standardbreds. Various hypotheses have been proposed, including differences in appetite or metabolic efficiency. This study aimed to investigate the effect of breed on nutrient digestibility. Ponies, Standardbreds and Andalusian horses were adapted to consuming either a control fibre-based diet (n = 9), a hypercaloric cereal-rich diet (n = 12) or a hypercaloric fat-rich diet (n = 12) over 20 weeks. Total faecal collection was performed over 24 h to determine apparent total tract digestibility of gross energy, dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), starch, crude protein and crude fat. There was no effect of breed on apparent digestibility for any of the nutrients studied (all p > 0.05). However, there was a significant effect of diet, with animals consuming the cereal-rich or fat-rich diets demonstrating higher digestibility of gross energy, DM, NDF and crude protein compared with those consuming the control diet (all p < 0.05). Animals adapted to the cereal-rich diet demonstrated higher digestibility of starch (p < 0.001) and animals adapted to the fat-rich diet demonstrated higher digestibility of fat (p < 0.001). This study found that horses and ponies had similar nutrient digestibility when adapted to the same diets and management conditions. Limitations included the relatively small number of animals from each breed per diet group and the short period of total faecal collection. The tendency towards increased adiposity in ponies and Andalusian-type horse breeds is more likely to reflect differences in metabolism, rather than differences in feed digestibility. Full article
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Article
Antibiotic Use in Relation with Psychological Profiles of Farmers of a French Pig Cooperative
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010014 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 809
Abstract
(1) Background: We focus on the psychological factors that influence pig farmers’ antibiotic use, which is not exclusively determined by the technical, health and structural factors of livestock farming. (2) Methods: We visited farming sites and asked 91 pig farmers about various psychosocial [...] Read more.
(1) Background: We focus on the psychological factors that influence pig farmers’ antibiotic use, which is not exclusively determined by the technical, health and structural factors of livestock farming. (2) Methods: We visited farming sites and asked 91 pig farmers about various psychosocial dimensions that could be considered relevant in explaining antibiotic use. (3) Results: The results indicate the existence of three livestock-farmer sub-profiles, each of which is associated with distinct psychological characteristics and antibiotic use levels. (4) Conclusions: We discuss the implications of antibiotic use for livestock in terms of communication and support. Full article
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Review
Stenting of Malignant Urinary Tract Obstructions in Humans and Companion Animals
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010013 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Urine retention secondary to neoplastic obstructions of the upper and lower urinary tracts is a life-threatening condition in both humans and companion animals. Stents can be placed to temporarily or permanently open obstructed urinary tract lumens and are often able to be placed [...] Read more.
Urine retention secondary to neoplastic obstructions of the upper and lower urinary tracts is a life-threatening condition in both humans and companion animals. Stents can be placed to temporarily or permanently open obstructed urinary tract lumens and are often able to be placed using minimally invasive techniques with guidance via ultrasonography or fluoroscopy. The literature for these techniques is vast for humans and growing for companion animals. The below review provides a discussion of the principles of stenting and types of ureteral and urethral stents, as well as the techniques for placing these stents in humans and companion animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Comparative Oncology and Veterinary Cancer Surveillance)
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Article
Prevalence, Risk Factors, Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella in Northeast Tunisia Broiler Flocks
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010012 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 616
Abstract
This study was conducted in northeastern Tunisia to estimate both the prevalence and the risk factors of Salmonella in broiler flocks as well as to characterize the isolated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella strains. In the present study, a total number of 124 farms were [...] Read more.
This study was conducted in northeastern Tunisia to estimate both the prevalence and the risk factors of Salmonella in broiler flocks as well as to characterize the isolated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella strains. In the present study, a total number of 124 farms were sampled; Salmonella isolates were identified by the alternative technique VIDAS Easy Salmonella. The susceptibility of Salmonella isolates was assessed against 21 antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method on Mueller–Hinton agar using antimicrobial discs. Some antimicrobial resistance genes were identified using PCR. The prevalence rate of Salmonella infection, in the sampled farms, was estimated at 19.9% (64/322). Moreover, a total number of 13 different serotypes were identified. High rate of resistance was identified against nalidixic acid (82.85%), amoxicillin (81.25%), streptomycin (75%), and ciprofloxacin (75%). Alarming level of resistance to ertapenem (12.5%) was noticed. A total of 87.5% (56/64) of isolated strains were recognized as MDR. Three MDR strains were extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producers and three MDR strains were cephalosporinase-producers. The blaCTX-M gene was amplified in all the three ESBL strains. The qnrB gene was not amplified in fluoroquinolones-resistant strains. The tetA and tetB genes were amplified in 5% (2/40) and 2.5% (1/40) of tetracycline-resistant strains, respectively. The dfrA1 gene was amplified in five of the 20 trimethoprim-resistant strains. The mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4, and mcr-5 genes were not amplified in any of the phenotypically colistin-resistant strains. In terms of integrase genes int1 and int2, only gene class 2 was amplified in 11% (7/64) of analyzed strains. Risk factors, such as the poor level of cleaning and disinfection, the lack of antimicrobial treatment at the start of the breeding, and a crawl space duration lower than 15 days, were associated with high Salmonella infection in birds. These data should be considered when preparing salmonellosis control programs in Tunisian broiler flocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Animals)
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Article
Integrating Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking to Analyse the Potential Mechanism of action of Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R. Br. in the Treatment of Bovine Hoof Disease
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010011 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 809
Abstract
Based on network pharmacological analysis and molecular docking techniques, the main components of M. cordata for the treatment of bovine relevant active compounds in M. cordata were searched for through previous research bases and literature databases, and then screened to identify candidate compounds [...] Read more.
Based on network pharmacological analysis and molecular docking techniques, the main components of M. cordata for the treatment of bovine relevant active compounds in M. cordata were searched for through previous research bases and literature databases, and then screened to identify candidate compounds based on physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic parameters, bioavailability, and drug-like criteria. Target genes associated with hoof disease were obtained from the GeneCards database. Compound−target, compound−target−pathway−disease visualization networks, and protein−protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed by Cytoscape. Gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed in R language. Molecular docking analysis was done using AutoDockTools. The visual network analysis showed that four active compounds, sanguinarine, chelerythrine, allocryptopine and protopine, were associated with the 10 target genes/proteins (SRC, MAPK3, MTOR, ESR1, PIK3CA, BCL2L1, JAK2, GSK3B, MAPK1, and AR) obtained from the screen. The enrichment analysis indicated that the cAMP, PI3K-Akt, and ErbB signaling pathways may be key signaling pathways in network pharmacology. The molecular docking results showed that sanguinarine, chelerythrine, allocryptopine, and protopine bound well to MAPK3 and JAK2. A comprehensive bioinformatics-based network topology strategy and molecular docking study has elucidated the multi-component synergistic mechanism of action of M. cordata in the treatment of bovine hoof disease, offering the possibility of developing M. cordata as a new source of drugs for hoof disease treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Comparison between Histological Features and Strain Elastographic Characteristics in Canine Mammary Carcinomas
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010009 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Elastography is a sonographic technique that provides a noninvasive evaluation of the stiffness of a lesion. The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of strain elastography, the most accessible modality in clinical practice, to discriminate between different histological types of [...] Read more.
Elastography is a sonographic technique that provides a noninvasive evaluation of the stiffness of a lesion. The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of strain elastography, the most accessible modality in clinical practice, to discriminate between different histological types of malignant mammary neoplasms in the canine species, which can provide complementary information in real time to the diagnosis and thus help in the choice of surgical technique. A total of 34 females with 56 mammary carcinomas were selected and classified into three histological groups according to their aggressiveness. The histological and elastographic characteristics of these malignant tumors were analyzed and compared to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of strain elastography. Visual score presented a sensitivity of 88.0%, specificity of 58.1%, and accuracy of 71.43% in distinguishing the most aggressive group of carcinomas. The strain ratio had a sensitivity of 84.0%, specificity of 61.1%, and accuracy of 69.64%. On the other hand, intratumoral strain ratio obtained a sensitivity of 71.40% and specificity of 61.90% when intratumoral fibrosis was taken as reference, with an accuracy of 66.07%. Similarly, peritumoral strain ratio was also positively related to fibrosis in the periphery of lesions (p ≤ 0.001), with a sensitivity of 93.80%, specificity of 77.50% and an accuracy of 92.87%. In conclusion, accuracy of this elastographic modality can be a useful method to differentiate more aggressive histological types. Therefore, it represents an additional diagnostic technique useful in the daily clinic thanks to the short time required for the examination, which allows real-time visualization and immediate interpretation of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumors in Pets: New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Tools)
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Communication
Investigation on the Effect of Dose, Frequency and Duration of Allergen Exposure on Development of Staphylococcal Infections in a Chronic Model of Canine Atopic Dermatitis
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010008 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is chronic and frequently complicated by Staphylococcal infections. Understanding the role of allergen dose, frequency and duration of exposure in triggering infections requires a model. Most models elicit acute inflammation and do not mimic real-life disease. Here we describe [...] Read more.
Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is chronic and frequently complicated by Staphylococcal infections. Understanding the role of allergen dose, frequency and duration of exposure in triggering infections requires a model. Most models elicit acute inflammation and do not mimic real-life disease. Here we describe the effects of allergen exposures on development of infections in a model of chronic CAD. Diagnosis of pyoderma was based on clinical signs and consistent cytology. Study 1 evaluated the role of duration of exposure keeping the daily dose constant (25 mg/day). The one-week protocol involved three exposures, 3 days in a row. The one-month protocol involved twice-weekly challenges for 4 weeks. The three-month protocol involved twice-weekly challenges for 12 weeks. Study 2 evaluated different daily doses while keeping constant the total weekly dose (25 mg) and duration (3 weeks). Low-dose used 5 mg/day for 5 days, each week. High-dose used 12.5 mg/day twice-weekly. In Study 1, the longer the exposure, the more dogs developed pyoderma (6/9 in the three-month study, 2/9 in the one-month and 0 in the one-week). In Study 2, low-dose daily exposure caused more infections (5/8) than high-dose infrequent exposure (0/8). It is concluded that low-grade, daily exposure for a long time is most relevant for development of staphylococcal infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Dermatology)
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Brief Report
Molecular Detection of Nosema spp. in Honey in Bulgaria
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010010 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is related to screening genetic material of various organisms in environmental samples. Honey represents a natural source of exogenous DNA, which allows for the detection of different honey bee pathogens and parasites. In the present study, we extracted DNA [...] Read more.
Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is related to screening genetic material of various organisms in environmental samples. Honey represents a natural source of exogenous DNA, which allows for the detection of different honey bee pathogens and parasites. In the present study, we extracted DNA from 20 honey samples from different regions in Bulgaria and tested for the presence of DNA of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, as well as Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Only Nosema ceranae was detected, showing up in 30% of all samples, which confirms the widespread prevalence of this pathogen. All positive samples were found in plain regions of the country, while this pathogen was not detected in mountainous parts. None of the samples gave positive amplifications for the Nosema apis and Varroa mite. The obtained results from this study confirm previous observations that eDNA contained in honey is a potent source for effective biomonitoring of actual diseases in the honey bee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Advances in Bee Health and Diseases)
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Article
Effectiveness of a Nanohydroxyapatite-Based Hydrogel on Alveolar Bone Regeneration in Post-Extraction Sockets of Dogs with Naturally Occurring Periodontitis
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010007 - 26 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Pathological mandibular fracture after dental extraction usually occurs in dogs with moderate to severe periodontitis. A nanohydroxyapatite-based hydrogel (HAP hydrogel) was developed to diminish the limitations of hydroxyapatite for post-extraction socket preservation (PSP). However, the effect of the HAP hydrogel in dogs has [...] Read more.
Pathological mandibular fracture after dental extraction usually occurs in dogs with moderate to severe periodontitis. A nanohydroxyapatite-based hydrogel (HAP hydrogel) was developed to diminish the limitations of hydroxyapatite for post-extraction socket preservation (PSP). However, the effect of the HAP hydrogel in dogs has still not been widely investigated. Moreover, there are few studies on PSP in dogs suffering from clinical periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HAP hydrogel for PSP in dogs with periodontitis. In five dogs with periodontitis, the first molar (309 and 409) of each hemimandible was extracted. Consequently, all the ten sockets were filled with HAP-hydrogel. Intraoral radiography was performed on the day of operation and 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post operation. The Kruskal–Wallis test and paired t-test were adopted for alveolar bone regeneration analysis. The results demonstrated that the radiographic grading, bone height measurement, and bone regeneration analysis were positively significant at all follow-up times compared to the day of operation. Moreover, the scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy imaging after immersion showed a homogeneous distribution of apatite formation on the hydrogel surface. Our investigation suggested that the HAP hydrogel effectively enhances socket regeneration in dogs with periodontitis and can be applied as a bone substitute for PSP in veterinary dentistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New insights on Veterinary Dentistry and Oral Surgery)
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Article
MyD88 Mediates Colitis- and RANKL-Induced Microfold Cell Differentiation
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010006 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 986
Abstract
Intestinal microfold (M) cells are critical for sampling antigens in the gut and initiating the intestinal mucosal immune response. In this study, we found that the oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and Salmonella infection induced colitis. In the process, the expression [...] Read more.
Intestinal microfold (M) cells are critical for sampling antigens in the gut and initiating the intestinal mucosal immune response. In this study, we found that the oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and Salmonella infection induced colitis. In the process, the expression levels of M cell differentiation-related genes were synchronized with the kinetics of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, MyD88−/− mice exhibited significantly lower expression levels of M cell differentiation-related genes. However, DSS induced colitis in MyD88−/− mice but failed to promote the transcription of M cell differentiation related genes. Furthermore, the receptor activator of the Nuclear Factor-κB ligand (RANKL) upregulated the transcription of M cell differentiation related genes in murine intestinal organoids prepared from both WT and MyD88−/− mice. Meanwhile, fewer changes in M cell differentiation related genes were found in MyD88−/− mice as compared to WT mice. Hence, we concluded that myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an essential molecule for colitis- and RANKL-related differentiation of M cells. Full article
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Case Report
Disseminated Toxoplasma gondii Infection in an Adult Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010005 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 898
Abstract
An adult female osprey (Pandion haliaetus) was found weak and unable to fly in Auburn, Alabama in August 2019. The bird was captured and submitted to the Southeastern Raptor Center of the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine for evaluation. On [...] Read more.
An adult female osprey (Pandion haliaetus) was found weak and unable to fly in Auburn, Alabama in August 2019. The bird was captured and submitted to the Southeastern Raptor Center of the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine for evaluation. On presentation, the bird was thin with a body condition score of approximately 1.5 out of 5. The bird died during the examination and was submitted for necropsy. At the necropsy, there was a severe loss of muscle mass over the body, and the keel was prominent. The liver and spleen were moderately enlarged with pale tan to red foci randomly scattered throughout the parenchyma. A histopathologic observation revealed multifocal to coalescing areas of necrosis and hemorrhage with intralesional protozoans in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidney, sciatic nerve, esophagus, cerebrum, heart, and proventriculus. Immunohistochemistry using anti-Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies showed a strong positive labeling of the parasite. Semi-nested PCR, specific for the B1 gene of T. gondii, successfully identified T. gondii. This is the first confirmed case of T. gondii infection in an osprey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Article
Characterization of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase 1 of Echinococcus multilocularis
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010004 - 23 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Glycolysis is one of the important ways by which Echinococcus multilocularis acquires energy. Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) plays an important role in this process, but it is not fully characterized in E. multilocularis yet. The results of genome-wide analysis showed that the Echinococcus [...] Read more.
Glycolysis is one of the important ways by which Echinococcus multilocularis acquires energy. Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) plays an important role in this process, but it is not fully characterized in E. multilocularis yet. The results of genome-wide analysis showed that the Echinococcus species contained four fba genes (FBA1-4), all of which had the domain of FBA I and multiple conserved active sites. EmFBA1 was mainly located in the germinal layer and the posterior of the protoscolex. The enzyme activity of EmFBA1 was 67.42 U/mg with Km and Vmax of 1.75 mM and 0.5 mmol/min, respectively. EmFBA1 was only susceptible to Fe3+ but not to the other four ions (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+), and its enzyme activity was remarkably lost in the presence of 0.5 mM Fe3+. The current study reveals the biochemical characters of EmFBA1 and is informative for further investigation of its role in the glycolysis in E. multilocularis. Full article
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Case Report
Multiple Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma (Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma) with Extradural Involvement in a 7-Year-Old Labrador Retriever
Vet. Sci. 2022, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9010003 - 23 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
A 7-year-old castrated male Labrador retriever was referred for evaluation of progressive hind limb paresis of 4 weeks’ duration. On computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examination, masses were found in several regions including the lung, right kidney, and peritoneum. Additionally, an extradural [...] Read more.
A 7-year-old castrated male Labrador retriever was referred for evaluation of progressive hind limb paresis of 4 weeks’ duration. On computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examination, masses were found in several regions including the lung, right kidney, and peritoneum. Additionally, an extradural mass at the region of T13–L1 was identified, which is assumed to related to the chief complaint, progressive hind limb paresis. With the consent of the owner, a dorsal laminectomy was performed to remove the mass and surrounding tissues for the palliation of the hind limb paresis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical examination revealed the mass to be consistent with an undifferentiated (high-grade) pleomorphic sarcoma. The patient presented with recurrence of the hind limb paresis, respiratory discomfort, and urinary incontinence. The owner declined treatment and the dog was euthanized. Systemic metastasis was confirmed on postmortem microscopic examination. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report describing multiple undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma with extradural involvement developing into the vertebral canal through the intervertebral space, resulting in spinal damage, in a dog. Full article
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