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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 16 (August-2 2023) – 160 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We compared the metabolomes of fresh raw white button, crimini, portabella, lion’s mane, maitake, oyster, and shiitake mushrooms using untargeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based metabolomics. We also quantified amino acid concentrations, including L-ergothioneine, a potential antioxidant which is not synthesized by plants or animals. Among the seven mushroom varieties, more than 10,000 compounds were detected. Principal Component Analysis indicated that mushrooms of the same species, Agaricus Bisporus (white button, portabella, crimini), group similarly. The other varieties formed individual, distinct clusters. A total of 1344 (520 annotated) compounds were detected in all seven mushroom varieties. Each variety had tens to hundreds of unique-to-mushroom-variety compounds. These ranged from 29 for crimini to 854 for lion’s mane. View this paper
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11 pages, 1844 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Quality Retention during Cold Storage of Prepackaged Barramundi Meat Processed with a New Microwave-Assisted Induction Heating Technology
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3140; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163140 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 769
Abstract
Microwave-assisted induction heating (MAIH) is a composite microwave and induction heating to supply rapid and uniform heating of food. A recent study showed that the optimum MAIH heating condition for barramundi meat was 90 °C/110 s or 70 °C/130 s. This study examines [...] Read more.
Microwave-assisted induction heating (MAIH) is a composite microwave and induction heating to supply rapid and uniform heating of food. A recent study showed that the optimum MAIH heating condition for barramundi meat was 90 °C/110 s or 70 °C/130 s. This study examines whether the microwave-assisted induction heating (MAIH) technology (at 70 °C for 130 s or 90 °C for 110 s) can more effectively slow down the quality loss of barramundi meat during cold storage than the traditional boiling method (at 90 °C for 150 s). The results show that no microbial growth was observed in the three groups of heated barramundi meat samples during the 60 days of cold storage. However, the MAIH technology slowed down the increase in the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) content more significantly than the boiling method. As the cold storage time increased, though, the L* (lightness), a* (redness), and W (whiteness) values decreased, while the b* (yellowness) and color difference (ΔE) values increased in the three treatment groups. However, the MAIH technology slowed down the decrease in the L*, a*, and W values more significantly, and produced a ΔE value smaller than the boiling method. Moreover, the MAIH technology ensured higher hardness and chewiness of the barramundi meat than the boiling method. Overall, the MAIH technology slowed down the quality loss of the barramundi meat and maintained better color and texture during cold storage. Full article
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22 pages, 14540 KiB  
Article
Metallothionein–Kidney Bean Polyphenol Complexes Showed Antidiabetic Activity in Type 2 Diabetic Rats by Improving Insulin Resistance and Regulating Gut Microbiota
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3139; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163139 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that interaction between polyphenols and proteins can benefit health, but the mechanism of its antidiabetic effect has not been thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of the metallothionein (MT)–kidney bean polyphenol complex on the blood [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that interaction between polyphenols and proteins can benefit health, but the mechanism of its antidiabetic effect has not been thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of the metallothionein (MT)–kidney bean polyphenol complex on the blood glucose levels and gut microbiota of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induced by a high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin (STZ). After 7 weeks of intervention, the MT–kidney bean polyphenol complex can significantly improve the loss of body weight, the increase in blood glucose and blood lipids, and insulin resistance caused by T2DM in rats. In addition, it can effectively alleviate the damage to the pancreas and liver in rats. The MT–kidney bean polyphenol complex also significantly increased the concentrations of six short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the intestinal contents of rats, especially acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid (296.03%, 223.86%, and 148.97%, respectively). More importantly, the MT–kidney bean polyphenol complex can significantly reverse intestinal microflora dysbiosis in rats caused by T2DM, increase intestinal microorganism diversity, improve the abundance of various beneficial bacteria, and reshape the gut microbiota. In summary, the hypoglycemic effect of the MT–kidney bean polyphenol complex and its possible mechanism was expounded in terms of blood glucose level, blood lipid level, and gut microbiota, providing a new perspective on the development of the MT–kidney bean polyphenol complex as functional hypoglycemic food. Full article
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18 pages, 1253 KiB  
Perspective
Food Insecurity: Is Leagility a Potential Remedy?
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3138; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163138 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1274
Abstract
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, and Ukraine–Russian conflict, both significant geo-political and socio-economic shocks to the global food system and food insecurity has risen across the world. One potential remedy to reduce the level of food insecurity is to move from [...] Read more.
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, and Ukraine–Russian conflict, both significant geo-political and socio-economic shocks to the global food system and food insecurity has risen across the world. One potential remedy to reduce the level of food insecurity is to move from a lean just-in-time food system to one where there is more resilience through greater agility both in routine supply operations and also in the event of an emergency situation. The aim of this critical perspectives paper was to firstly reflect on the concepts of lean, agility, and ‘leagility’. Then, this study considered the ability of individual organisations and the whole food system to be resilient, adaptive, enable the elimination of waste, reduce inefficiency, and assure the consistent delivery to market requirements in terms of both volume, safety, and quality. Promoting the concept of leagility together with advocating resilient, sustainable practices that embed buffer and adaptive capacity, this paper positions that increasing digitalisation and improving business continuity planning can ensure effective operationalisation of supply chains under both normal and crisis situations, ultimately reducing the risk of food insecurity at personal, household, and community levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Insecurity: Causes, Consequences and Remedies)
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19 pages, 4141 KiB  
Article
Post-Harvest Application of Nanoparticles of Titanium Dioxide (NPs-TiO2) and Ethylene to Improve the Coloration of Detached Apple Fruit
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3137; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163137 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
In this study, we analyzed the effects of treatments with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NPs-TiO2) and ethylene on anthocyanin biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism during light exposure in ripe ‘red delicious’ apples. Both treatments led to improved anthocyanins biosynthesis in [...] Read more.
In this study, we analyzed the effects of treatments with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NPs-TiO2) and ethylene on anthocyanin biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism during light exposure in ripe ‘red delicious’ apples. Both treatments led to improved anthocyanins biosynthesis in detached mature apples, while the NPs-TiO2 had less impact on the fruit firmness, TSS, TA, and TSS/TA ratio. Furthermore, the effects of both treatments on the expression of anthocyanin-related enzymes and transcription factors in the apple peel were evaluated at the gene level. The differentially expressed genes induced by the two treatments were highly enriched in the photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. The expression of structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and ethylene biosynthesis was more significantly upregulated in the ethylene treatment group than in the NPs-TiO2 treatment group, and the opposite pattern was observed for the expression of genes encoding transcription factors involved in plant photomorphogenesis pathways. In addition, the ROS levels and antioxidant capacity were higher and the membrane lipid peroxidation level was lower in fruit in the NPs-TiO2 treatment group than in the ethylene treatment group. The results of this study reveal differences in the coloration mechanisms induced by NPs-TiO2 and ethylene in apples, providing new insights into improving the color and quality of fruits. Full article
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12 pages, 1949 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Different Yeast Proteins by GC-MS/O, Sensory Evaluation, and E-Nose
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3136; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163136 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
The unique odors of yeast proteins (YPs) are decisive for their application in meat substitutes. Sensory evaluation, electronic nose, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry/olfactory (GC-MS/O) were combined to characterize the aroma profiles and aroma-active compounds of YPs. The sensory evaluation results indicate that the [...] Read more.
The unique odors of yeast proteins (YPs) are decisive for their application in meat substitutes. Sensory evaluation, electronic nose, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry/olfactory (GC-MS/O) were combined to characterize the aroma profiles and aroma-active compounds of YPs. The sensory evaluation results indicate that the sweaty aroma had the strongest intensity in YP #10, followed by rice bran, sour, and plastic. The electronic nose could effectively distinguish the aroma differences among five YPs. A total of 27 aroma-active compounds in the five YPs were identified by GC-MS/O. The concentration of 2-methyl-propanoic acid (6.37 μg/kg), butanoic acid (47.46 μg/kg), 3-methyl-butanoic acid (22.50 μg/kg), and indole (943.40 μg/kg) in YP #10’s aroma was higher than that of the other YPs. The partial least squares regression method results show that o-cresol, (3S)-3,7-dimethyloct-7-en-1-ol, benzyl alcohol, octanal, 2-methyl-propanoic acid, butanoic acid, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, hexanal, heptanal, and indole were predicted as the potential aroma-active compounds significantly contributing to the aroma profiles of the five YPs. Addition experiments confirmed that the overall aroma profile intensities of the five YP samples were extended with the addition of these ten compounds, verifying their significant contributions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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16 pages, 2520 KiB  
Article
Whey Protein Hydrolysate Improved the Structure and Function of Myofibrillar Protein in Ground Pork during Repeated Freeze–Thaw Cycles
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3135; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163135 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) has made a breakthrough in inhibiting oxidative deterioration and improving the quality of meat products during storage. Based on our previous study of extracting the most antioxidant active fraction I (FI, the molecular weight < 1 kDa) from whey [...] Read more.
Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) has made a breakthrough in inhibiting oxidative deterioration and improving the quality of meat products during storage. Based on our previous study of extracting the most antioxidant active fraction I (FI, the molecular weight < 1 kDa) from whey protein hydrolysates of different molecular weights, the present study continued to delve into the effects of WPH with fraction I on the structure and function of myofibrillar proteins (MP) in ground pork during the freeze–thaw (F-T) cycles. With the number of F-T cycles raised, the total sulfhydryl content, the relative contents of α-helix, Ca2+-ATPase activity, K+-ATPase activity, solubility, emulsion activity index (EAI), and emulsion stability index (ESI) of MP gradually decreased. Conversely, the carbonyl content and the relative content of random curl showed an increasing trend. In particular, the damage to the structure and the function of MP became more pronounced after three F-T cycles. But, during F-T cycles, FI stabilized the structure of MP. Compared to the control group, the 10% FI group showed a remarkable improvement (p < 0.05) in the total sulfhydryl content, Ca2+-ATPase activity, K+-ATPase activity, solubility, EAI and ESI after multiple F-T cycles, suggesting that 10% FI could effectively inhibit protein oxidation and had the influence of preserving MP function properties. In conclusion, WPH with fraction I can be used as a potential natural antioxidant peptide for maintaining the quality of frozen processed meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Processing and Treatment on Protein Structure and Function)
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13 pages, 2555 KiB  
Article
Effects of Key Components on the Antioxidant Activity of Black Tea
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3134; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163134 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
Many components (such as tea polyphenols, catechins, theaflavins, theasinensins, thearubigins, flavonoids, gallic acid, etc.) in black tea have antioxidant activities. However, it is not clear which components have a greater influence on the antioxidant activity of black tea. In this study, the antioxidant [...] Read more.
Many components (such as tea polyphenols, catechins, theaflavins, theasinensins, thearubigins, flavonoids, gallic acid, etc.) in black tea have antioxidant activities. However, it is not clear which components have a greater influence on the antioxidant activity of black tea. In this study, the antioxidant activity and contents of tea polyphenols, catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownins, TSA, total flavonoids, amino acids, caffeine, and total soluble sugar were analyzed in 51 black teas. Principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA), and the correlation analysis method were used for data analysis. The results showed that catechins in tea polyphenols were the most important components that determine the antioxidant activity of black tea. Among them, epicatechin gallate (ECG), epi-gallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin (EC), and epi-gallocatechin (EGC) were significantly positively correlated with the antioxidant activity of black tea, and theabrownin was negatively correlated with the antioxidant activity of black tea. Furthermore, this study analyzed the correlation between the changes in catechin and its oxidized polymers with antioxidant activity during black tea fermentation; it verified that catechins were significantly positively correlated with the antioxidant activity of black tea, and theabrownin showed a negative correlation. And the antioxidant activity of catechins and their oxidation products in vitro and their correlation in black tea processing were used as validation. This study provides a comparison method for comparing the antioxidant activity of black tea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
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4 pages, 198 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Bioactive Compounds, Nutritional Quality, and Oxidative Stability of Edible Oils and By-Products of Their Extraction
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3133; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163133 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Edible oils (refined, virgin, and cold-pressed oils) are one of the most important components of the daily human diet and have a considerable influence on the proper functioning of our body [...] Full article
14 pages, 7219 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Study of Pepper Types Based on Multielement Content Combined with Chemometrics
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3132; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163132 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Different types of pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) are widely used spices that exhibit therapeutic properties in addition to nutritional properties. In order to characterize these foods in further detail, the content of macro- (Ca, K, [...] Read more.
Different types of pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) are widely used spices that exhibit therapeutic properties in addition to nutritional properties. In order to characterize these foods in further detail, the content of macro- (Ca, K, Mg, Na) and microelements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Te, Tl, V and Zn) of four pepper types was determined via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The obtained results were then evaluated using chemometric methods. The content of macroelements and microelements lies in the expected ranges for such spices but differs significantly between different types. The content of macro- and microelements is characteristic for pepper types originating from different plant species, but also based on further processing. Whilst green and black pepper are similar to each other, clearly diverse patterns are obtained for white pepper (different processing method) and cayenne pepper (different plant species). Full article
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18 pages, 2110 KiB  
Article
Microbial Dynamics during labneh Ambaris Production in Earthenware Jars
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3131; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163131 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 811
Abstract
The responses of various microbial populations to modifications in the physicochemical properties of a food matrix, as well as interactions between these populations already present, are the main factors that shape microbial dynamics in that matrix. This work focused on the study of [...] Read more.
The responses of various microbial populations to modifications in the physicochemical properties of a food matrix, as well as interactions between these populations already present, are the main factors that shape microbial dynamics in that matrix. This work focused on the study of microbial dynamics during labneh Ambaris production, a traditional Lebanese concentrated fermented goat milk made in jars during 3 months. This was assessed in two earthenware jars at a production facility. DNA metabarcoding of the ITS2 region as well as the V3–V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the fungal and bacterial communities, respectively. Viable bacterial isolates were also identified by Sanger sequencing of the V1–V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Our results showed that the dominant microorganisms identified within labneh Ambaris (Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lentilactobacillus kefiri, Lactococcus lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Pichia kudriavzevii and Starmerella sp.) settle early in the product and remain until the end of maturation with varying abundances throughout fermentation. Microbial counts increased during early fermentation stage, and remained stable during mid-fermentation, then declined during maturation. While microbial compositions were globally comparable between the two jars during mid-fermentation and maturation stages, differences between the two jars were mainly detected during early fermentation stage (D0 until D10). No significant sensorial differences were observed between the final products made in the two jars. Neither coliforms nor Enterobacteriaceae were detected in their viable state, starting D7 in both jars, suggesting the antimicrobial properties of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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15 pages, 336 KiB  
Review
Goat Meat: Production and Quality Attributes
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3130; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163130 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2955
Abstract
Goat meat could be a sustainable source of red meat. Its farming requires minimal input, is suitable for free-range farming, and produces a healthier red meat option as it is lean. Although goat meat has advantages for meat production, it still needs to [...] Read more.
Goat meat could be a sustainable source of red meat. Its farming requires minimal input, is suitable for free-range farming, and produces a healthier red meat option as it is lean. Although goat meat has advantages for meat production, it still needs to be established as a valuable part of the meat trade market. But, currently, goat meat production is less specialized; there is less intense breed selection for premium meat production, and often the animals are farmed with a multifunctional purpose, such as for their meat, fiber, and milk. The less structured goat meat industry contributes to the inconsistent quality of goat meat. This paper attempts to describe the characteristics of popular goat breeds and indigenous goats as a source of meat and the potential of various goat breeds for meat production. Additionally, this paper presents goat meat’s quality and physicochemical and sensory attributes that are relevant to understanding the unique attributes of goat meat. Much work is needed for the goat meat processing industry to develop its potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
15 pages, 2529 KiB  
Article
A Nationwide Survey and Risk Assessment of Ethyl Carbamate Exposure Due to Daily Intake of Alcoholic Beverages in the Chinese General Population
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3129; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163129 - 21 Aug 2023
Viewed by 848
Abstract
Ethyl carbamate (EC) is carcinogenic, and, in China, oral intake of EC mainly occurs as a result of the consumption of alcoholic beverages. To obtain the latest EC intake and risk analysis results for the general population in China, the China National Center [...] Read more.
Ethyl carbamate (EC) is carcinogenic, and, in China, oral intake of EC mainly occurs as a result of the consumption of alcoholic beverages. To obtain the latest EC intake and risk analysis results for the general population in China, the China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment (CFSA) conducted the sixth total diet study (TDS) as a platform to analyze EC contents and exposure due to the intake of alcoholic beverages. A total of 100 sites in 24 provinces were involved in the collection and preparation of alcohol mixture samples for the sixth TDS. There were 261 different types of alcohol collected across the country, based on local dietary menus and consumption survey results. Ultimately, each province prepared a mixed sample by mixing their respective samples according to the percentage of local consumption. The EC levels of these twenty-four mixed samples were determined using our well-validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The values ranged from 1.0 μg/kg to 33.8 μg/kg, with 10.1 μg/kg being the mean. China’s EC daily intake ranged from 0.001 ng/kg bw/d to 24.56 ng/kg bw/d, with a mean of 3.23 ng/kg bw/d. According to the margin of exposure (MOE), virtually safe dose (VSD), and T25 risk assessments of the carcinogenicity of EC, the mean lifetime cancer risk for the Chinese population was 9.8 × 104, 1.5 × 10−7, and 8.6 × 10−8, respectively. These data show that the carcinogenicity of EC in the general Chinese population due to alcoholic intake is essentially minimal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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19 pages, 2317 KiB  
Review
Potential Impact of Combined Inhibition by Bacteriocins and Chemical Substances of Foodborne Pathogenic and Spoilage Bacteria: A Review
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3128; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163128 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
In recent years, food safety caused by foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria has become a major public health problem worldwide. Bacteriocins are a kind of antibacterial peptide synthesized by microbial ribosomes, and are widely used as food preservatives. However, when used individually bacteriocins [...] Read more.
In recent years, food safety caused by foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria has become a major public health problem worldwide. Bacteriocins are a kind of antibacterial peptide synthesized by microbial ribosomes, and are widely used as food preservatives. However, when used individually bacteriocins may have limitations such as high cost of isolation and purification, narrow inhibitory spectrum, easy degradation by enzymes, and vulnerability to complex food environments. Numerous studies have demonstrated that co-treatment with bacteriocins and a variety of chemical substances can have synergistic antibacterial effects on spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens, effectively prolonging the shelf life of food and ensuring food safety. Therefore, this paper systematically summarizes the synergistic bacteriostatic strategies of bacteriocins in combination with chemical substances such as essential oils, plant extracts, and organic acids. The impacts of bacteriocins when used individually and in combination with other chemical substances on different food substrates are clarified, and bacteriocin–chemical substance compositions that enhance antibacterial effectiveness and reduce the potential negative effects of chemical preservatives are highlighted and discussed. Combined treatments involving bacteriocins and different kinds of chemical substances are expected to be a promising new antibacterial method and to become widely used in both the food industry and biological medicine. Full article
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2 pages, 160 KiB  
Editorial
Delivery Systems to Enhance Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Bioactive Factors: Structure, Property, and Food Applications
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3127; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163127 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 764
Abstract
Incorporating bioactive factors to strengthen food nutrition is important for functional food development [...] Full article
25 pages, 6858 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Quality Analysis of Different Colors of Medicinal and Edible Honeysuckle
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3126; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163126 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Honeysuckle (the dried flower bud or opening flower of Lonicera japonica Thunb.), a medicinal and edible substance, has is greatly popular among consumers for its remarkable health effects, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, due to the influences of processing methods, [...] Read more.
Honeysuckle (the dried flower bud or opening flower of Lonicera japonica Thunb.), a medicinal and edible substance, has is greatly popular among consumers for its remarkable health effects, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, due to the influences of processing methods, storage conditions, and other factors, honeysuckles show different colors which can directly reflect the quality and the price on the market. In order to comprehensively compare the quality of different colors, 55 batches of honeysuckle samples were collected and analyzed. Their color parameters, chlorophyll content (chl), total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity (AA), main active compounds, and metabolites were measured. As a result, the initial green-white (GW) samples, a kind of highest-quality honeysuckle, had the smallest a* value, largest h*, chl, TPC, TFC, and AA values, and highest content of chlorogenic acid and cynaroside. There was a significant difference between GW samples and a series of discolored samples. As the color darkened or lightened, the quality gradually decreased. The yellow-brown (YB) samples were of the worst quality and were no longer available for clinical and health purposes. A series of differential metabolites, such as quercetin-7-O-glucoside and secologanoside, could be used as important references to evaluate the quality of differently colored samples. The metabolic profile of honeysuckle provided new insights into the process of color change and laid a foundation for further honeysuckle quality control. The correlation results showed that the a* and h* values significantly affect the abovementioned quality indicators and the 10 main active compounds. In other words, the color difference could directly reflect the quality and clinical efficacy. Multiple regression analysis was carried out using combined L*, a*, and b* values to predict the quality of honeysuckle. This is the first time the quality of different color honeysuckle samples on the post-harvest link has been systematically compared and a demonstration of medicinal and edible substances with different colors has been provided. Full article
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17 pages, 4529 KiB  
Article
Dry Fractionation and Gluten-Free Sourdough Bread Baking from Quinoa and Sorghum
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3125; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163125 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 892
Abstract
The roller milling of sorghum and quinoa seeds into flour fractions (coarse, middle, and fine) was investigated, chemically analysed, and applied in the baking of gluten-free sourdough bread. The gap settings were adjusted to 0, 5, 8, and 10 for quinoa, and 3, [...] Read more.
The roller milling of sorghum and quinoa seeds into flour fractions (coarse, middle, and fine) was investigated, chemically analysed, and applied in the baking of gluten-free sourdough bread. The gap settings were adjusted to 0, 5, 8, and 10 for quinoa, and 3, 5, and 7 for sorghum. The fine fractions reached values of up to about 41% (gap 8) for quinoa and around 20% for sorghum (gap 5). SEM pictographs illustrated the clear separation of each fraction with the chemical analysis showing high contents of protein, TDF (total dietary fibre), and IDF (insoluble dietary fibre) in the coarse fraction. Up to 77% starch content was obtained in the fine fraction with significant amounts of SDF (soluble dietary fibre), which has good health benefits. Increasing the dough moisture up to 90% helped in decreasing the bread crumb firmness, while low Avrami parameters and RVA pasting behaviour indicated a slow bread-staling rate for both sourdough breads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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12 pages, 1550 KiB  
Article
Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Encoded by Glu-A3 on Gluten and Chinese Fresh Noodle Quality
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3124; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163124 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 719
Abstract
Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) account for 40% of the total wheat grain gluten protein fraction, which plays a significant role in the formation of noodle processing quality. The goal of this study was to clarify the effects of the major LMW-GS encoded by [...] Read more.
Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) account for 40% of the total wheat grain gluten protein fraction, which plays a significant role in the formation of noodle processing quality. The goal of this study was to clarify the effects of the major LMW-GS encoded by Glu-A3 on gluten and Chinese fresh noodle (CFN) quality. Four near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used as materials in this study, respectively carrying alleles Glu-A3a, Glu-A3b, Glu-A3c, and Glu-A3e, against the background of wheat variety Xiaoyan 22. The grain protein and its component contents and the gluten content, gluten index, farinograph properties, cooking quality, and textural quality of CFN were investigated. The results show that the ratios of glutenin to gliadin (Glu/Gli) in the NILs ranked them as Glu-A3b > Glu-A3c/Glu-A3a > Glu-A3e, and the unextractable polymeric protein content (UPP%), gluten index (GI), and farinograph quality in the NILs ranked them as Glu-A3b > Glu-A3c > Glu-A3a/Glu-A3e. Compared to Glu-A3b and Glu-A3a, the NILs carrying alleles Glu-A3c and Glu-A3e had better cooking and texture properties in CFN. All these findings suggest that the introduction of alleles Glu-A3c or Glu-A3e is an efficient method for quality improvement in CFN, which provides an excellent subunit selection for improving CFN quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal: Storage, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes)
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12 pages, 1367 KiB  
Article
Application of GC–TOF/MS and GC×GC–TOF/MS to Discriminate Coffee Products in Three States (Bean, Powder, and Brew)
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3123; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163123 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
The volatiles in coffee play an important part in the overall flavor profile. In this study, GC–TOF/MS and GC×GC–TOF/MS were used to detect the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in coffee samples of three different brands at three states (bean, powder, and brew). The [...] Read more.
The volatiles in coffee play an important part in the overall flavor profile. In this study, GC–TOF/MS and GC×GC–TOF/MS were used to detect the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in coffee samples of three different brands at three states (bean, powder, and brew). The differences between the two methods in characterizing VOCs were analyzed using the Venn diagram and PCA (principal component analysis). The important aroma-contributing compounds were further compared and analyzed. The results of the venn diagrams of different coffee samples showed that most VOCs existed in 2–3 kinds of coffee. The PCA of VOCs in different coffee samples showed that the VOCs detected by GC–TOF/MS could distinguish the coffee samples in the different states. GC×GC–TOF/MS was suitable for the further identification and differentiation of the different brands of coffee samples. In addition, pyridine, pyrrole, alcohols, and phenols greatly contributed to distinguishing coffee in three states, and alcohols greatly contributed to distinguishing the three brands of coffee. Full article
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14 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Hazelnut Spread Based on Total or Partial Substitution of Palm Oil
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163122 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Palm oil is widely used in the manufacturing of hazelnut-based spreads due to its unique fatty acid and triacylglycerol profile and, thus, its crystallization behaviour, which makes it suitable for use in fat-based spreadable products. An interesting solution that enables the replacement of [...] Read more.
Palm oil is widely used in the manufacturing of hazelnut-based spreads due to its unique fatty acid and triacylglycerol profile and, thus, its crystallization behaviour, which makes it suitable for use in fat-based spreadable products. An interesting solution that enables the replacement of palm oil is given by oleogels made with high nutritional quality oil. In this study, the influence of the replacement of palm oil with different glycerol monostearate/olive oil-based oleogels, as well as the influence of the different amounts of GMS employed in oleogel preparation, on the oil binding capacity, spreadability, and rheological and sensory parameters of hazelnut cocoa spreads was investigated. A design of experiment (DoE) approach, with the adoption of the D-optimal design, was used to plan the cocoa hazelnut spread formulations, with the aim being to identify the optimal formulation with desirable quality parameters in terms of Casson’s viscosity, spreadability, and oil binding capacity. The resulting optimized formulation was identified in a spread characterized by a total replacement of palm oil with an oleogel made of 95% olive oil and 5% GMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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20 pages, 1614 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Lycopene for Food Preservation and Shelf-Life Extension
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3121; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163121 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the safety of additives used to extend the shelf-life of food products. As a result, lycopene, a natural phytochemical compound, has attracted attention, as it has been demonstrated to be a potential alternative to [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the safety of additives used to extend the shelf-life of food products. As a result, lycopene, a natural phytochemical compound, has attracted attention, as it has been demonstrated to be a potential alternative to traditional artificial antioxidants, with significant health benefits when applied to food preservation. Based on this, this review introduces the specific forms of lycopene currently used as an antioxidant in foods, both in its naturally occurring forms in fruits and vegetables and in artificially added forms involving technologies such as composite coating, active film packaging, emulsion, and microcapsules. In addition, it also provides a comprehensive summary of the effects and progress of lycopene in the preservation of different types of food products, such as meat, seafood, oil, dairy products, fruits, and vegetables, in the last decade. At last, it also points out the limitations of lycopene, including its insolubility in water, dark color, and high sensitivity to heat or light, as well as the potential solutions to load lycopene on suitable carriers, such as combining lycopene with antimicrobial substances or other actives, in order to broaden its applications as an antioxidant in future foods. Full article
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23 pages, 979 KiB  
Review
Authentication of Cocoa Products Based on Profiling and Fingerprinting Approaches: Assessment of Geographical, Varietal, Agricultural and Processing Features
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3120; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163120 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1451
Abstract
Cocoa and its derivative products, especially chocolate, are highly appreciated by consumers for their exceptional organoleptic qualities, thus being often considered delicacies. They are also regarded as superfoods due to their nutritional and health properties. Cocoa is susceptible to adulteration to obtain illicit [...] Read more.
Cocoa and its derivative products, especially chocolate, are highly appreciated by consumers for their exceptional organoleptic qualities, thus being often considered delicacies. They are also regarded as superfoods due to their nutritional and health properties. Cocoa is susceptible to adulteration to obtain illicit economic benefits, so strategies capable of authenticating its attributes are needed. Features such as cocoa variety, origin, fair trade, and organic production are increasingly important in our society, so they need to be guaranteed. Most of the methods dealing with food authentication rely on profiling and fingerprinting approaches. The compositional profiles of natural components –such as polyphenols, biogenic amines, amino acids, volatile organic compounds, and fatty acids– are the source of information to address these issues. As for fingerprinting, analytical techniques, such as chromatography, infrared, Raman, and mass spectrometry, generate rich fingerprints containing dozens of features to be used for discrimination purposes. In the two cases, the data generated are complex, so chemometric methods are usually applied to extract the underlying information. In this review, we present the state of the art of cocoa and chocolate authentication, highlighting the pros and cons of the different approaches. Besides, the relevance of the proposed methods in quality control and the novel trends for sample analysis are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Fraud and Food Authenticity across the Food Supply Chain)
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19 pages, 1845 KiB  
Review
Advances in Genetic Tools and Their Application in Streptococcus thermophilus
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3119; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163119 - 19 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1556
Abstract
Streptococcus thermophilus is a traditional starter. Nowadays, key aspects of S. thermophilus physiology have been revealed concerning the phenotypic traits relevant for industrial applications, including sugar metabolism, protein hydrolysis, and the production of important metabolites that affect the sensory properties of fermented foods [...] Read more.
Streptococcus thermophilus is a traditional starter. Nowadays, key aspects of S. thermophilus physiology have been revealed concerning the phenotypic traits relevant for industrial applications, including sugar metabolism, protein hydrolysis, and the production of important metabolites that affect the sensory properties of fermented foods as well as the original cooperation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Moreover, significant advances have been made in the synthetic biology toolbox of S. thermophilus based on technological advances in the genome and its sequencing and synthesis. In this review, we discuss the recently developed toolbox for S. thermophilus, including gene expression toolsets (promoters, terminators, plasmids, etc.) and genome editing tools. It can be used for both functionalized foods and therapeutic molecules for consumers. The availability of new molecular tools, including the genome editing toolbox, has facilitated the engineering of physiological studies of S. thermophilus and the generation of strains with improved technical and functional characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: Selection, Cultivation, Evaluation and Application)
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14 pages, 802 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Nutritional Characteristics and Willingness to Pay of Consumers for Dry-Cured Sausages (Salchichón) Made with Textured Seed Oils
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3118; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163118 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
The consumption of processed meat products beyond recommended limits has been associated with serious health conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. In an effort to create healthier options, the meat industry is exploring alternatives to animal fat in processed meats. This study [...] Read more.
The consumption of processed meat products beyond recommended limits has been associated with serious health conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. In an effort to create healthier options, the meat industry is exploring alternatives to animal fat in processed meats. This study focuses on replacing animal fat in dry-cured sausages (Salchichón) with textured chia, poppy, melon, and pumpkin oils. The research aims to evaluate the physical and nutritional changes resulting from this substitution and assess consumer acceptance through sensory analysis. The use of seed oils led to slight color changes and comparable texture, except for cohesiveness. The incorporation of textured seed oils resulted in reduced fat content, increased proportions of ashes and protein, and decreased energy value. The fatty acid composition showed lower proportions of saturated fatty acids and increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sensory analysis revealed that the control sample with pork fat received the highest ratings for appearance, texture, and taste, while samples with higher seed oil percentages scored lower due to color, cohesiveness, and specific flavors from the seed oils. Despite these variations, consumers demonstrated a high level of acceptability for all samples. Choice analysis results indicated that higher prices had a negative impact on consumer willingness to purchase, while the use of the 100% Iberian pig breed and animal welfare labels positively influenced purchasing attitudes. Regarding the presence of a pumpkin seed oil label in the product, a negative willingness to pay was reported. However, significant individual variation was reported for this attribute, indicating the existence of consumer segments with more positive attitudes toward these innovative dry-cured sausages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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15 pages, 3856 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Electrostatic Spray Drying, Spray Drying, and Freeze Drying for Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG Dehydration
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3117; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163117 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Spray drying (SD) is extensively used to encapsulate lactic acid bacteria in large-scale industrial applications; however, bacteria combat several harms that reduce their viability. In this study, a novel technique called electrostatic spray drying (ESD) was used to explore the benefits and disadvantages [...] Read more.
Spray drying (SD) is extensively used to encapsulate lactic acid bacteria in large-scale industrial applications; however, bacteria combat several harms that reduce their viability. In this study, a novel technique called electrostatic spray drying (ESD) was used to explore the benefits and disadvantages of using electrostatic charge and lower temperatures in the system. Freeze drying (FD) was used as a reference. The effect of different encapsulation agents, like maltodextrin, arabic gum, and skim milk, on the viability of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was investigated. The initial cell concentration, particle size distribution, aspect ratio, sphericity, scanning-electron-microscopy images, moisture content, water activity, glass transition, rehydration abilities, and survival during storage were compared. Skim milk was proven to be the best protectant for LGG, regardless of the drying process or storage time. A huge reduction in cell numbers (4.49 ± 0.06 log CFU/g) was observed with maltodextrin using SD; meanwhile, it was protected with minimum loss (8.64 ± 0.62 log CFU/g) with ESD. In general, ESD preserved more LGG cells during processing compared to SD, and provided better stability than FD and SD during storage, regardless of the applied voltage. The ESD product analysis demonstrated an efficient LGG preservation, close to FD; therefore, ESD presented to be a promising and scalable substitute for SD and FD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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13 pages, 3097 KiB  
Article
Sucrose Concentration and Fermentation Temperature Impact the Sensory Characteristics and Liking of Kombucha
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3116; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163116 - 19 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1680
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage consumed for its probiotics and functional properties. It has a unique sensory profile driven by the properties of tea polyphenols and fermentation products, including organic acids. Fermentation temperature and sucrose content affect the fermentation process and the [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage consumed for its probiotics and functional properties. It has a unique sensory profile driven by the properties of tea polyphenols and fermentation products, including organic acids. Fermentation temperature and sucrose content affect the fermentation process and the production of organic acids; yet less is known about their impacts on the sensory profile and consumer acceptance. Thus, we aimed to examine the impact of sucrose concentration and fermentation temperature on sensory attributes and liking. For this study, kombucha tea was fermented at three different concentrations of sucrose and fermented at two temperatures for 11 days. Fermentation was monitored by pH, brix, and titratable acidity, and consumers (n = 111) evaluated the kombucha for sensory attributes and overall liking. The fermentation temperature resulted in significant differences in titratable acidity, with higher temperatures producing more organic acids, resulting in higher astringency, and suppressed sweetness. The lower fermentation was reported as significantly more liked, with no difference in liking between the 7.5% and 10% sucrose kombucha samples. Fermentation temperature had the greatest impact on the sensory profile rather than sucrose concentration, which had a greater effect on the fermentation rate and production organic acids. Full article
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14 pages, 6586 KiB  
Article
Tremella Polysaccharide Has Potential to Retard Wheat Starch Gel System Retrogradation and Mechanism Research
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3115; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163115 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 745
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of adding different concentrations of TP (tremella polysaccharide) on the water distribution, rheological, thermal, microstructure, and retrogradation properties of WS (wheat starch) gels. The results showed that the starch aging increased during storage, and the addition of TP [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of adding different concentrations of TP (tremella polysaccharide) on the water distribution, rheological, thermal, microstructure, and retrogradation properties of WS (wheat starch) gels. The results showed that the starch aging increased during storage, and the addition of TP reduced the rate of change of the elastic modulus of the starch gel and delayed the short-term aging of WS. In the same storage period, the hardness value of the gel decreased and the texture became softer with the increase in the mass fraction of TP. TP increased the T0 (starting temperature) of the system and decreased the enthalpy of retrogradation (ΔHr). No new groups were formed after the retrogradation of the compound system, the hydrogen bonding force increased with the increase in polysaccharide, and the relative crystallinity and the degree of ordering of the system decreased. The addition of TP increased the content of bound water and immobile water, decreased the content of free water, and increased the gel water-holding capacity, indicating that it could effectively inhibit the long-term retrogradation of WS. The findings provide new theoretical insights for the production of starch-based foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Modifications, Properties, and Functions)
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18 pages, 16315 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Sensory Properties of Poppy Sherbet by Turkish Consumers and Changes in Quality Properties during Storage Process
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3114; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163114 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 881
Abstract
Poppy is an important edible plant containing bioactive components. This study aimed to produce good-tasting poppy sherbet by determining the content using a response surface methodology (RSM). At the same time, bioactive components, phenolic compounds, and color properties were investigated in optimum poppy [...] Read more.
Poppy is an important edible plant containing bioactive components. This study aimed to produce good-tasting poppy sherbet by determining the content using a response surface methodology (RSM). At the same time, bioactive components, phenolic compounds, and color properties were investigated in optimum poppy sherbet during storage; 0.26 g of dried corn poppy flowers, 0.15 g of citric acid, and 4.29 g of sucrose values were the most promising, achieving high scores for color, smell, taste, and general acceptance from sensory properties (sensory score of 8.55 for color; 7.19 for smell; 8.38 for taste; 7.98 for general acceptability). A total of nine polyphenols were detected in the optimum poppy sherbet sample; gallic acid was the most common. There was no statistically significant difference between the samples stored on the 0th and 30th days regarding gallic acid content (23.886 ± 0.164 μg/mL, 23.403 ± 0.343 μg/mL) and protocatechuic acid (1.146 ± 0.048 μg/mL, 1.047 ± 0.038 μg/mL). Total flavonoid contents (TFC), total phenolic contents (TPC), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), DPPH (e free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl), total monomeric anthocyanin (TAC), and color values were found to decrease as the storage period increased. It was considered that a highly palatable and rich bioactive component product could be obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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17 pages, 6240 KiB  
Article
Prediction and Visual Analysis of Food Safety Risk Based on TabNet-GRA
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3113; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163113 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Food safety risk prediction is crucial for timely hazard detection and effective control. This study proposes a novel risk prediction method for food safety called TabNet-GRA, which combines a specialized deep learning architecture for tabular data (TabNet) with a grey relational analysis (GRA) [...] Read more.
Food safety risk prediction is crucial for timely hazard detection and effective control. This study proposes a novel risk prediction method for food safety called TabNet-GRA, which combines a specialized deep learning architecture for tabular data (TabNet) with a grey relational analysis (GRA) to predict food safety risk. Initially, this study employed a GRA to derive comprehensive risk values from fused detection data. Subsequently, a food safety risk prediction model was constructed based on TabNet, and training was performed using the detection data as inputs and the comprehensive risk values calculated via the GRA as the expected outputs. Comparative experiments with six typical models demonstrated the superior fitting ability of the TabNet-based prediction model. Moreover, a food safety risk prediction and visualization system (FSRvis system) was designed and implemented based on TabNet-GRA to facilitate risk prediction and visual analysis. A case study in which our method was applied to a dataset of cooked meat products from a Chinese province further validated the effectiveness of the TabNet-GRA method and the FSRvis system. The method can be applied to targeted risk assessment, hazard identification, and early warning systems to strengthen decision making and safeguard public health by proactively addressing food safety risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Risk Assessment and Control of Food Hazards)
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30 pages, 3748 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Textural and Sensory Characteristics of Wheat Bread Using a Chickpea Sourdough Fermented with a Selected Autochthonous Microorganism
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3112; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163112 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
A traditional Greek sourdough, based on the fermentation of chickpea flour by an autochthonous culture, was evaluated as a wheat bread improver. The dominant indigenous microflora (Clostridium perfringens isolates) was identified by 16S rDNA analysis, and a selected strain (C. perfringens [...] Read more.
A traditional Greek sourdough, based on the fermentation of chickpea flour by an autochthonous culture, was evaluated as a wheat bread improver. The dominant indigenous microflora (Clostridium perfringens isolates) was identified by 16S rDNA analysis, and a selected strain (C. perfringens CP8) was employed to ferment chickpea flour to obtain a standardized starter culture (sourdough) for breadmaking. In accordance with toxin-typed strain identification, all isolates lacked the cpe gene; thus, there is no concern for a health hazard. Loaf-specific volumes increased with the addition of liquid, freeze-dried, and freeze-dried/maltodextrin sourdoughs compared to control bread leavened by baker’s yeast only. Following storage (4 days/25 °C), the amylopectin retrogradation and crumb hardness changes (texture profile analysis) revealed a lower degree of staling for the sourdough-fortified breads. Modifications in the protein secondary structure of fortified doughs and breads were revealed by FTIR analysis. High amounts of organic acids were also found in the sourdough-supplemented breads; butyric and isobutyric acids seemed to be responsible for the characteristic ‘butter-like’ flavor of these products (sensory analysis). Overall, the addition of liquid or freeze-dried chickpea sourdough in wheat bread formulations can improve the specific volume, textural characteristics, and sensorial properties of loaves, along with extending bread shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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11 pages, 2037 KiB  
Article
Effect of Wort Boiling System and Hopping Regime on Wort and Beer Stale-Flavor Aldehydes
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3111; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163111 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 842
Abstract
The main factor responsible for the sensory aging of beer is the increase in off-flavor aldehydes during beer storage. In pilot brews (200 L) of pale lager beer with different hopping regimes and wort boiling systems, 15 carbonyls were monitored using the GC-MS [...] Read more.
The main factor responsible for the sensory aging of beer is the increase in off-flavor aldehydes during beer storage. In pilot brews (200 L) of pale lager beer with different hopping regimes and wort boiling systems, 15 carbonyls were monitored using the GC-MS method. Factor analysis revealed several groups of aldehydes with similar behavior during wort boiling. The concentration of most of them decreased with atmospheric wort boiling and increased with the time and energy-saving pressurized boiling system. Wort clarification was a critical step because of the increase in carbonyl concentration, with the level of most carbonyls being higher in the final wort compared to sweet wort. The hopping regimes only affected the level of 3-methylbutan-2-one in the wort. The concentration of carbonyls decreased significantly (30–90%) during fermentation, except for trans-2-butenal, which increased by 59% on average, likely due to the release from imine complex. The concentration of free aldehydes in the fresh beers was similar for all variants used, but the pressurized wort boiling system could result in lower sensory stability of the beer due to the release of aldehydes from inactive complexes formed during fermentation. This aspect requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
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