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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 15 (August-1 2023) – 165 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Salmorejo is a viscous homogenate based on tomato, olive oil and breadcrumbs commercialised as a "fresh-like" pasteurised–chilled purée. Due to its penetration, dielectric heating by radiofrequency (RF) might improve pasteurisation results of conventional heating (CH). The objective was to validate the pasteurisation temperature for salmorejo processed by RF or conventional continuous heating. The main heat-induced changes include orangeness, flavour homogenisation, loss of freshness, thickening, loss of vitamin C and lipid oxidation. Both CH and RF equivalent treatments allowed a strong reduction in the total and sporulated mesophilic microorganisms and an adequate inhibition of the pectin methylesterase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase but did not inhibit the polygalacturonase enzyme. View this paper
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12 pages, 4310 KiB  
Article
A Colorimetric Sensor Enabled with Heterogeneous Nanozymes with Phosphatase-like Activity for the Residue Analysis of Methyl Parathion
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2980; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152980 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1118
Abstract
In this study, a colorimetric sensor was developed for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) using a heterogeneous nanozyme with phosphatase-like activity. Herein, this heterogeneous nanozyme (Au-pCeO2) was obtained by the modification of gold nanoparticles on porous cerium oxide nanorods, resulting [...] Read more.
In this study, a colorimetric sensor was developed for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) using a heterogeneous nanozyme with phosphatase-like activity. Herein, this heterogeneous nanozyme (Au-pCeO2) was obtained by the modification of gold nanoparticles on porous cerium oxide nanorods, resulting in synergistic hydrolysis performance for OPs. Taking methyl parathion (MP) as the target pesticide, the catalytic performance and mechanism of Au-pCeO2 were investigated. Based on the phosphatase-like Au-pCeO2, a dual-mode colorimetric sensor for MP was put forward by the analysis of the hydrolysis product via a UV-visible spectrophotometer and a smartphone. Under optimum conditions, this dual-mode strategy can be used for the on-site analysis of MP with concentrations of 5 to 200 μM. Additionally, it can be applied for MP detection in pear and lettuce samples with recoveries ranging from 85.27% to 115.87% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) not exceeding 6.20%, which can provide a simple and convenient method for OP detection in agricultural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Detection, Analysis and Risk Assessment)
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14 pages, 2485 KiB  
Article
Melatonin Postharvest Treatment in Leafy ‘Fino’ Lemon Maintains Quality and Bioactive Compounds
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2979; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152979 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1404
Abstract
Spain is a great producer of organic lemon; however, it is necessary to reduce the losses caused by post-harvest diseases. Melatonin (MEL) is a naturally occurring compound with physiological functions in fruit growth and ripening and is able to modulate postharvest ripening and [...] Read more.
Spain is a great producer of organic lemon; however, it is necessary to reduce the losses caused by post-harvest diseases. Melatonin (MEL) is a naturally occurring compound with physiological functions in fruit growth and ripening and is able to modulate postharvest ripening and senescence, most of it being concentrated in climacteric fruit. Thus, the aim of this study was to apply MEL to organic lemon fruit with stems and leaves (LEAF) and to organic lemon without those components (LEAFLESS) after harvesting and storage during 21 days at 2 °C to understand the effects of this treatment on the fruit quality. For this purpose, two experiments were carried out. First, MEL was applied at 0.01 mM, 0.1 mM and 1.0 mM by immersion for 15 min on lemon fruits, and the quality parameters and bioactive compounds of the fruit were analysed. Subsequently, a second experiment was carried out where the best concentration (1 mM) was selected and another time (15 and 30 min) was added, with the same quality parameters being analysed. As a result, we observed that all MEL treatments showed positive effects on weight loss reduction, softening (higher fruit firmness), total acidity and lower colour changes. Total phenols increased in MEL-treated lemons, both in peel and juice. For the three concentrations tested, the best efficiency was obtained with MEL at 1.0 mM, while LEAF lemons were the most effective. In conclusion, lemons containing stems and leaves (LEAF) improved preservability by using MEL at 1.0 mM with better organoleptic quality and enhanced phenolic compounds. Full article
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17 pages, 836 KiB  
Article
Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose and Gum Arabic Composite Edible Coatings Amended with Geraniol to Control Postharvest Brown Rot and Maintain Quality of Cold-Stored Plums
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2978; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152978 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
In this study, the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and gum Arabic (GA) edible coatings amended with 0.2% geraniol (GE) were evaluated for the control of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, on artificially inoculated plums (Prunus salicina Lindl., cv. Angeleno) [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and gum Arabic (GA) edible coatings amended with 0.2% geraniol (GE) were evaluated for the control of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, on artificially inoculated plums (Prunus salicina Lindl., cv. Angeleno) stored for 5 weeks at 1 °C. Brown rot is the most important pre- and postharvest fungal disease of stone fruits, causing severe economic losses worldwide. Geraniol is an important constituent of many essential oils that can be obtained as a byproduct from different industrial procedures, such as those of the juice industry. Fruit postharvest quality was also evaluated after 5 and 8 weeks of storage at 1 °C, followed by 3 days at 7 °C plus 5 days at 20 °C, simulating packinghouse, transport, and retail shelf-life conditions, respectively. HPMC coatings containing 0.2% GE reduced the incidence and severity of brown rot by 37.5 and 64.8%, respectively, compared to uncoated fruit after 5 weeks of storage at 1 °C. HPMC-coated plums, with and without GE, showed the highest level of firmness, the lowest change in external peel color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*, hue), and the lowest flesh bleeding compared to uncoated control and GA-coated samples throughout the entire storage period, which correlated with a higher gas barrier of these coatings without negatively affecting sensory quality. Furthermore, the HPMC-0.2% GE coating provided the highest gloss to coated plums, showing the potential of this coating as a safe and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional fungicides and waxes for brown rot control and quality maintenance of cold-stored plums. Full article
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23 pages, 3492 KiB  
Article
Functional, Physical, and Volatile Characterization of Chitosan/Starch Food Films Functionalized with Mango Leaf Extract
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2977; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152977 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 944
Abstract
Active packaging is one of the currently thriving methods to preserve highly perishable foods. Nonetheless, the integration of active substances into the formulation of the packaging may alter their properties—particularly mass transfer properties—and therefore, the active compounds acting. Different formulations of chitosan (CH), [...] Read more.
Active packaging is one of the currently thriving methods to preserve highly perishable foods. Nonetheless, the integration of active substances into the formulation of the packaging may alter their properties—particularly mass transfer properties—and therefore, the active compounds acting. Different formulations of chitosan (CH), starch (ST), and their blends (CH-ST), with the addition of mango leaf extract (MLE) have been polymerized by casting to evaluate their food preservation efficiency. A CH-ST blend with 3% MLE using 7.5 mL of the filmogenic solution proved to be the most effective formulation because of its high bioactivity (ca. 80% and 74% of inhibition growth of S. aureus and E. coli, respectively, and 40% antioxidant capacity). The formulation reduced the water solubility and water vapor permeability while increasing UV protection, properties that provide a better preservation of raspberry fruit after 13 days than the control. Moreover, a novel method of Headspace-Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry to analyze the volatile profiles of the films is employed, to study the potential modification of the food in contact with the active film. These migrated compounds were shown to be closely related to both the mango extract additions and the film’s formulation themselves, showing different fingerprints depending on the film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Materials for Food Preservation and Packaging)
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19 pages, 2882 KiB  
Review
Recent Advance of Intelligent Packaging Aided by Artificial Intelligence for Monitoring Food Freshness
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2976; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152976 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2596
Abstract
Food safety is a pressing concern for human society, as it directly impacts people’s lives, while food freshness serves as one of the most crucial indicators in ensuring food safety. There exist diverse techniques for monitoring food freshness, among which intelligent packaging based [...] Read more.
Food safety is a pressing concern for human society, as it directly impacts people’s lives, while food freshness serves as one of the most crucial indicators in ensuring food safety. There exist diverse techniques for monitoring food freshness, among which intelligent packaging based on artificial intelligence technology boasts the advantages of low cost, high efficiency, fast speed and wide applicability; however, it is currently underutilized. By analyzing the current research status of intelligent packaging both domestically and internationally, this paper provides a clear classification of intelligent packaging technology. Additionally, it outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using intelligent packaging technology for food freshness detection methods, while summarizing the latest research progress in applying artificial intelligence-based technologies to food freshness detection through intelligent packaging. Finally, the author points out the limitations of the current research, and anticipates future developments in artificial intelligence technology for assisting freshness detection in intelligent packaging. This will provide valuable insights for the future development of intelligent packaging in the field of food freshness detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Sustainable Food Packaging Materials)
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21 pages, 2380 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in the Preparation, Structure, and Biological Activities of β-Glucan from Ganoderma Species: A Review
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2975; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152975 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Ganoderma has served as a valuable food supplement and medicinal ingredient with outstanding active compounds that are essential for human protection against chronic diseases. Modern pharmacology studies have proven that Ganoderma β-d-glucan exhibits versatile biological activities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, antioxidant, [...] Read more.
Ganoderma has served as a valuable food supplement and medicinal ingredient with outstanding active compounds that are essential for human protection against chronic diseases. Modern pharmacology studies have proven that Ganoderma β-d-glucan exhibits versatile biological activities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, antioxidant, and antiviral properties, as well as gut microbiota regulation. As a promising polysaccharide, β-d-glucan is widely used in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. In recent years, the extraction, purification, structural characterization, and pharmacological activities of polysaccharides from the fruiting bodies, mycelia, spores, and fermentation broth of Ganoderma species have received wide attention from scholars globally. Unfortunately, comprehensive studies on the preparation, structure and bioactivity, toxicology, and utilization of β-d-glucans from Ganoderma species still need to be further explored, which may result in limitations in future sustainable industrial applications of β-d-glucans. Thus, this review summarizes the research progress in recent years on the physicochemical properties, structural characteristics, and bioactivity mechanisms of Ganoderma β-d-glucan, as well as its toxicological assessment and applications. This review is intended to provide a theoretical basis and reference for the development and application of β-d-glucan in the fields of pharmaceuticals, functional foods, and cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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19 pages, 1858 KiB  
Article
Identification of Potential Bioactive Peptides in Sheep Milk Kefir through Peptidomic Analysis at Different Fermentation Times
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2974; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152974 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1153
Abstract
Sheep farming is an important socioeconomic activity in most Mediterranean countries, particularly Spain, where it contributes added value to rural areas. Sheep milk is used in Spain mainly for making cheese, but it can be used also for making other dairy products, such [...] Read more.
Sheep farming is an important socioeconomic activity in most Mediterranean countries, particularly Spain, where it contributes added value to rural areas. Sheep milk is used in Spain mainly for making cheese, but it can be used also for making other dairy products, such as the lactic-alcoholic fermentation product known as kefir. Dairy products have health benefits because, among other reasons, they contain molecules with biological activity. In this work, we performed a proteomics strategy to identify the peptidome, i.e., the set of peptides contained in sheep milk kefir fermented for four different periods of time, aiming to understand changes in the pattern of digestion of milk proteins, as well as to identify potential bioactive peptides. In total, we identified 1942 peptides coming from 11 different proteins, and found that the unique peptides differed qualitatively among samples and their numbers increased along the fermentation time. These changes were supported by the increase in ethanol, lactic acid, and D-galactose concentrations, as well as proteolytic activity, as the fermentation progressed. By searching in databases, we found that 78 of the identified peptides, all belonging to caseins, had potential biological activity. Of these, 62 were not previously found in any milk kefir from other animal species. This is the first peptidomic study of sheep milk kefir comprising time-course comparison. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Proteomics/Peptidomics in Foods)
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8 pages, 756 KiB  
Communication
Cuttlefish Species Authentication: Advancing Label Control through Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as Rapid, Eco-Friendly, and Robust Approach
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2973; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152973 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
Accurate species identification, especially in the fishery sector, is critical for ensuring food safety, consumer protection and to prevent economic losses. In this study, a total of 93 individual frozen–thawed cuttlefish samples from four different species (S. officinalis, S. bertheloti, [...] Read more.
Accurate species identification, especially in the fishery sector, is critical for ensuring food safety, consumer protection and to prevent economic losses. In this study, a total of 93 individual frozen–thawed cuttlefish samples from four different species (S. officinalis, S. bertheloti, S. aculeata, and Sepiella inermis) were collected from two wholesale fish plants in Chioggia, Italy. Species identification was carried out by inspection through morphological features using dichotomic keys and then through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements. The NIRS data were collected using a handled-portable spectrophotometer, and the spectral range scanned was from 900–1680 nm. The collected spectra were processed using principal component analysis for unsupervised analysis and a support vector machine for supervised analysis to evaluate the species identification capability. The results showed that NIRS classification had a high overall accuracy of 93% in identifying the cuttlefish species. This finding highlights the robustness and effectiveness of spectral analysis as a tool for species identification, even in complex spatial contexts. The findings emphasize the potential of NIRS as a valuable tool in the field of fishery product authentication, offering a rapid and eco-friendly approach to species identification in the post-processing stages. Full article
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18 pages, 2947 KiB  
Review
Unveiling the Therapeutic Potentials of Mushroom Bioactive Compounds in Alzheimer’s Disease
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2972; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152972 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 3137
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) stands as a prevailing neurodegenerative condition (NDs), leading to the gradual deterioration of brain cells and subsequent declines in memory, thinking, behavior, and emotion. Despite the intensive research efforts and advances, an effective curative treatment for the disease has not [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) stands as a prevailing neurodegenerative condition (NDs), leading to the gradual deterioration of brain cells and subsequent declines in memory, thinking, behavior, and emotion. Despite the intensive research efforts and advances, an effective curative treatment for the disease has not yet been found. Mushrooms, esteemed globally for their exquisite flavors and abundant nutritional benefits, also hold a wealth of health-promoting compounds that contribute to improving AD health. These compounds encompass polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, terpenoids, phenols, and various other bioactive substances. Particularly noteworthy are the potent neuroprotective small molecules found in mushrooms, such as ergothioneine, erinacine, flavonoids, alkaloids, ergosterol, and melanin, which warrant dedicated scrutiny for their therapeutic potential in combating AD. This review summarizes such positive effects of mushroom bioactive compounds on AD, with a hope to contribute to the development of functional foods as an early dietary intervention for this neurodegenerative disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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15 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Pork, Chicken, Beef, and Sheep Contents in Meat Products Using Duplex Real-Time PCR
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2971; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152971 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Accurate methods for meat speciation and quantification are essential for ensuring the supply of safe and wholesome meat and composite products with animal origins to negate the potential associated hazards, aid classification of consignments at the import control system, and thwart food fraud [...] Read more.
Accurate methods for meat speciation and quantification are essential for ensuring the supply of safe and wholesome meat and composite products with animal origins to negate the potential associated hazards, aid classification of consignments at the import control system, and thwart food fraud committed for financial gain. To better enhance meat safety control and combat food fraud, this study developed two duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) systems specifically designed for chicken, pork, sheep, and beef, using single-copy, chromosomally encoded, species-specific gene sequences to accurately measure the content of each meat type in meat products. DNA extracted from the raw and boiled reference materials prepared in varying proportions (ranging from 1% to 75%) were used in the development of the duplex assay to derive calibration factors to determine the meat content in different meat products. The method was further validated using proficiency test samples and market monitoring samples. Our findings showed that this method exhibits high specificity and sensitivity, with a significant accuracy range of 0.14% to 24.07% in quantifying the four meat types in both raw and processed meat products. Validation results further confirmed the effectiveness of our method in accurately quantifying meat content. Thus, we have demonstrated the duplex qPCR assays as promising approaches for implementation in routine analysis to strengthen meat safety control systems and combat meat fraud, thereby safeguarding consumer health and trust in the meat industry. Full article
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12 pages, 512 KiB  
Article
Effect of Calcium Salts on the Firmness and Physicochemical and Sensorial Properties of Iranian Black Olive Cultivars
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2970; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152970 - 07 Aug 2023
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Black olive has become one of the most prestigious olives processed in the olive industry, and its processing has been increased recently in different countries. The firmness of black olives may be changed by the processing methods, fermentation, and solution salts. In this [...] Read more.
Black olive has become one of the most prestigious olives processed in the olive industry, and its processing has been increased recently in different countries. The firmness of black olives may be changed by the processing methods, fermentation, and solution salts. In this study, the employment of CaCl2, Ca-acetate, and Ca-lactate during the processing of some Iranian black olive cultivars, including Mari, Zard, Rowghani, Shengeh, Dakal, Dezful, and Fishomi, was evaluated in terms of physicochemical and phenolic compounds and textural attributes. The results showed that Ca-lactate improved the firmness of the Mari cultivar from 1455 to 1765 N/100 g in the pitted olive, and the same trend was obtained for the other cultivars. Ca-acetate improved the black shiny color of the Mari cultivar from 4.36 to 4.85 and the sensorial properties of the black olives, including gustatory and kinesthetic sensations, were improved by using a Ca-lactate solution. The application of calcium salts in the salt-free preservation solutions imparted neither bitterness to the olives nor discoloration. The highest amounts of acid (1.42–1.56%), fructose to mannitol ratio (1–1.2), and phenolic compounds (955–963 mg/kg) were found for the Zard cultivar. Furthermore, the residual content of oleuropein was higher when CaCl2 was employed (357 mg/kg). All of the calcium salts improved the firmness of the black olives, although the maximum firmness was observed for the Ca-lactate. Consequently, the formation of a black shiny color is related to the diffusion of phenolic compounds; however, this needs further investigation to determine which kind of phenolic compound is responsible for its black color. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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16 pages, 5022 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Characterization of a Novel Artemisia Oil Packaging Film and Its Application in Mango Preservation
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2969; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152969 - 07 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
In this work, a new food packaging film was synthesized via blending Artemisia oil (AO) into soybean protein isolate (SPI) and gelatin (Gel) for the postharvest storage of mango. The morphological architecture and mechanical properties of the films were characterized using scanning electron [...] Read more.
In this work, a new food packaging film was synthesized via blending Artemisia oil (AO) into soybean protein isolate (SPI) and gelatin (Gel) for the postharvest storage of mango. The morphological architecture and mechanical properties of the films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and other technologies. The results show that the prepared films had relatively flat surfaces with good mechanical properties. AO enhanced the light-blocking ability of the film, increased the hydrophobicity, and affected the moisture content and water solubility of the film to a certain extent. Furthermore, the antioxidant performance and antifungal (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) capacity of the films increased with higher AO concentration due to the presence of the active components contained in AO. During mango storage applications, the films showed good freshness retention properties. The above results indicate that SPI–Gel films containing AO have excellent physicochemical and application properties and have great potential in the field of food packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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15 pages, 2871 KiB  
Article
Spoilage Monitoring and Early Warning for Apples in Storage Using Gas Sensors and Chemometrics
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2968; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152968 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1770
Abstract
In the process of storage and cold chain logistics, apples are prone to physical bumps or microbial infection, which easily leads to spoilage in the micro-environment, resulting in widespread infection and serious post-harvest economic losses. Thus, development of methods for monitoring apple spoilage [...] Read more.
In the process of storage and cold chain logistics, apples are prone to physical bumps or microbial infection, which easily leads to spoilage in the micro-environment, resulting in widespread infection and serious post-harvest economic losses. Thus, development of methods for monitoring apple spoilage and providing early warning of spoilage has become the focus for post-harvest loss reduction. Thus, in this study, a spoilage monitoring and early warning system was developed by measuring volatile component production during apple spoilage combined with chemometric analysis. An apple spoilage monitoring prototype was designed to include a gas monitoring array capable of measuring volatile organic compounds, such as CO2, O2 and C2H4, integrated with the temperature and humidity sensor. The sensor information from a simulated apple warehouse was obtained by the prototype, and a multi-factor fusion early warning model of apple spoilage was established based on various modeling methods. Simulated annealing–partial least squares (SA-PLS) was the optimal model with the correlation coefficient of prediction set (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.936 and 0.828, respectively. The real-time evaluation of the spoilage was successfully obtained by loading an optimal monitoring and warning model into the microcontroller. An apple remote monitoring and early warning platform was built to visualize the apple warehouse’s sensors data and spoilage level. The results demonstrated that the prototype based on characteristic gas sensor array could effectively monitor and warn apple spoilage. Full article
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17 pages, 5240 KiB  
Article
Microbial Diversity of Anaerobic-Fermented Coffee and Potential for Inhibiting Ochratoxin-Produced Aspergillus niger
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2967; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152967 - 06 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
Coffee flavor considerably depends on the fermentation process, with contributing factors including fermentation temperature, oxygen concentration, and microbial diversity. Efficient controlling of the fermentation can improve the quality of coffee beverages. Therefore, several studies on coffee fermentation processes have been conducted in various [...] Read more.
Coffee flavor considerably depends on the fermentation process, with contributing factors including fermentation temperature, oxygen concentration, and microbial diversity. Efficient controlling of the fermentation can improve the quality of coffee beverages. Therefore, several studies on coffee fermentation processes have been conducted in various regions. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial diversity of coffee beans undergoing anaerobic fermentation at various temperatures (4 °C or 37 °C) and fermentation durations (12 h or 36 h) using full-length 16S rRNA sequencing. This analysis aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the fermented metabolites against ochratoxin-producing Aspergillus niger. From our results, Acetobacter was identified as the dominant microbial community at higher fermentation temperatures, whereas Leuconostoc and Gluconobacter were the dominant genera at lower temperatures. However, at lower temperatures, changes in microbial communities were relatively slow. This study expands our knowledge of the microbial diversity involved in the anaerobic fermentation of coffee beans in Taiwan. The findings of this study can be used in future research to cultivate microorganisms linked to the quality and improve the quality of coffee beverages through fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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13 pages, 1774 KiB  
Article
Modeling and De-Noising for Nondestructive Detection of Total Soluble Solid Content of Pomelo by Using Visible/Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2966; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152966 - 06 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1012
Abstract
The flavor of Pomelo is highly variable and difficult to determine without peeling the fruit. The quality of pomelo flavor is due largely to the total soluble solid content (TSSC) in the fruit and there is a commercial need for a quick but [...] Read more.
The flavor of Pomelo is highly variable and difficult to determine without peeling the fruit. The quality of pomelo flavor is due largely to the total soluble solid content (TSSC) in the fruit and there is a commercial need for a quick but nondestructive TSSC detection method for the industrial grading of pomelo. Due to the large size and thick mesocarp of pomelo, determining the internal quality of a pomelo fruit in a nondestructive manner is difficult, and the detection accuracy is further complicated by the noise typically generated by the common methods for the internal quality detection of other fruits. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the optimal method to accurately detect pomelo TSSC and find a de-noising model which reduces the influence of noise on the optimal method’s results. After developing a full-transmission visible/near infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy sampling method, the confirming experimental results showed that the optimal pomelo TSSC detection model was Savitzky Golay + standard normal variate + competitive adaptive reweighted sampling + partial least squares regression. The R2 and RMSE of the calibration set for pomelo TSSC detection were 0.8097 and 0.8508, respectively, and the R2 and RMSE of the validation set for pomelo TSSC detection were 0.8053 and 0.8888, respectively. Both reference and dark de-noising are important for pomelo internal quality detection and should be calibrated frequently to compensate for time drift. This study found that large sensor response translation noise can be reduced with an artificial horizontal shift. Data supplementation is efficient for improving the adaption of the detection model for batch differences in pomelo samples. Using this optimized de-noising model to compensate for time drift, sensor response translation, and batch differences, the developed detection method is capable of satisfying the requirements of the industry (TSSC detection R2 was equal or larger than 0.9, RMSE was less than 1). These results indicate that full-transmission VIS/NIR spectroscopy can be exploited to realize the nondestructive detection of pomelo TSSC on an industrial scale, and that the methodologies used in this study can be immediately implemented in real-world production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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30 pages, 1954 KiB  
Review
The Impacts of Acidophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria on Food and Human Health: A Review of the Current Knowledge
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2965; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152965 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
The need to improve the safety/quality of food and the health of the hosts has resulted in increasing worldwide interest in acidophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the food, livestock as well as health industries. In addition to the use of acidophilic LAB [...] Read more.
The need to improve the safety/quality of food and the health of the hosts has resulted in increasing worldwide interest in acidophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the food, livestock as well as health industries. In addition to the use of acidophilic LAB with probiotic potential for food fermentation and preservation, their application in the natural disposal of acidic wastes polluting the environment is also being investigated. Considering this new benefit that has been assigned to probiotic microorganisms in recent years, the acceleration in efforts to identify new, efficient, promising probiotic acidophilic LAB is not surprising. One of these effots is to determine both the beneficial and harmful compounds synthesized by acidophilic LAB. Moreover, microorganisms are of concern due to their possible hemolytic, DNase, gelatinase and mucinolytic activities, and the presence of virulence/antibiotic genes. Hence, it is argued that acidophilic LAB should be evaluated for these parameters before their use in the health/food/livestock industry. However, this issue has not yet been fully discussed in the literature. Thus, this review pays attention to the less-known aspects of acidophilic LAB and the compounds they release, clarifying critical unanswered questions, and discussing their health benefits and safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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12 pages, 1726 KiB  
Article
Effect of Adding Fermented Proso Millet Bran Dietary Fiber on Micro-Structural, Physicochemical, and Digestive Properties of Gluten-Free Proso Millet-Based Dough and Cake
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2964; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152964 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
The increasing demand for functional foods has pushed the food industry to produce fiber-enriched products. In this study, rheological, microstructural, physicochemical, and functional characteristics were investigated for whole proso millet dough and cake, fortified with fermented proso millet bran dietary fiber flour (F-DF). [...] Read more.
The increasing demand for functional foods has pushed the food industry to produce fiber-enriched products. In this study, rheological, microstructural, physicochemical, and functional characteristics were investigated for whole proso millet dough and cake, fortified with fermented proso millet bran dietary fiber flour (F-DF). Results showed that proso millet flour is less absorbent and stable than the control group. Adding proso millet flour and F-DF reduced the elasticity of the dough and increased its hardness, but had no significant effect on viscosity, cohesion, and resilience. The microstructure analysis exhibited an unformed continuous network formation in proso millet dough. Analyses suggested that proso millet flour combined with the fermented dietary fiber group had significantly higher total phenol content (0.46 GAE mg/g), DPPH• scavenging activity (66.84%), and ABTS•+ scavenging activity (87.01%) than did the other group. In addition, F-DF led to a significant reduction in the predicted released glucose contents of reformulated cakes. In summary, cakes prepared with the involvement of whole proso millet flour and F-DF exhibited less adverse sensory impact and possessed the potential to decrease postprandial blood glucose levels resulting purely from cake consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Dietary Fiber and Gut Microbiota Regulation)
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21 pages, 4571 KiB  
Article
Effect of Herbal Feed Additives on Goat Milk Volatile Flavor Compounds
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2963; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152963 - 05 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1153
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of herbal supplements administered to goats on sensory quality and volatile flavor compounds in their milk. The experiment was conducted on sixty Polish white improved goats randomly allocated into five feeding groups (four [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of herbal supplements administered to goats on sensory quality and volatile flavor compounds in their milk. The experiment was conducted on sixty Polish white improved goats randomly allocated into five feeding groups (four experimental and one control) of twelve goats each. The trial lasted 12 weeks. The experimental animals received supplements containing a mixture of seven or nine different species of herbs at 20 or 40 g/animal/day. The control group received feed without any herbal supplements. Milk obtained from experimental and control groups of animals was characterized by a low content of aroma compounds, with only 11 chemical compounds being identified. Decanoic methyl ester, methylo 2-heptanone and methylo-butanoic methyl ester had the highest share in the total variability of the tested aroma compounds (PCA). During the sensory evaluation, the smell and taste of most of the samples were similar (p > 0.05). However, the addition of herbal feed supplements lowered the concentration of Caproic acid (C6:0), Caprylic acid (C8:0) and Capric acid (C10:0), which caused a significant reduction in the goaty smell of milk. The obtained results indicate that the studied herbal supplements can reduce the intensity of goaty smell and allow goat milk production without modification of other sensory features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Animal-Derived Non-Cow Milk and Milk Products)
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18 pages, 331 KiB  
Review
Novel Approaches to Improve Meat Products’ Healthy Characteristics: A Review on Lipids, Salts, and Nitrites
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2962; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152962 - 05 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2747
Abstract
Meat products are a staple of many diets around the world, but they have been subject to criticism due to their potential negative impact on human health. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in developing novel approaches to improve the [...] Read more.
Meat products are a staple of many diets around the world, but they have been subject to criticism due to their potential negative impact on human health. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in developing novel approaches to improve the healthy characteristics of meat products, with a particular focus on reducing the levels of harmful salts, lipids, and nitrites. This review aims to provide an overview of the latest research on the various methods being developed to address these issues, including the use of alternative salts, lipid-reducing techniques, and natural nitrite alternatives. By exploring these innovative approaches, we can gain a better understanding of the potential for improving the nutritional value of meat products, while also meeting the demands of consumers who are increasingly concerned about their health and well-being. Full article
14 pages, 3786 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Pallet Covers Performance for Produce Protection in Cold Chain Logistics for Chard, Cucumbers and Carrots
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2961; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152961 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 750
Abstract
Cold chain disruption and refrigeration failures are common issues in the logistics of perishable food products. In these cases, the use of pallet covers should be very useful, delaying the increase of product temperatures inside the pallets until cooling conditions are restored. However, [...] Read more.
Cold chain disruption and refrigeration failures are common issues in the logistics of perishable food products. In these cases, the use of pallet covers should be very useful, delaying the increase of product temperatures inside the pallets until cooling conditions are restored. However, there are no studies about the performance of pallet covers in these types of situations, which could persist for hours. This paper evaluates the performance of three different types of cold chain covers versus having no cover for three different types of vegetables (chard, cucumbers, and carrots). A refrigeration failure during the cold chain was simulated. The three covers presented an improvement in temperature loss compared to the no-cover situation, with the average time for the temperature to increase from 4 to 10 °C with a cover being a range of 214 to 506 min, while for no cover, from 162 to 211 min. Relative humidity (RH) always presented improved preservation with a cover than with no cover, except for one case. The correlation between the thermal images and sensor temperatures was also studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Food Cold Chain Techniques and Traceability System)
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23 pages, 2427 KiB  
Article
Herbal Extracts of Ginseng and Maqui Berry Show Only Minimal Effects on an In Vitro Model of Early Fracture Repair of Smokers
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2960; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152960 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Smoking is a major risk factor for delayed fracture healing, affecting several aspects of early fracture repair, including inflammation, osteogenesis, and angiogenesis. Panax ginseng (GE) and maqui berry extract (MBE) were shown in our previous studies to reduce smoke-induced cellular damage in late [...] Read more.
Smoking is a major risk factor for delayed fracture healing, affecting several aspects of early fracture repair, including inflammation, osteogenesis, and angiogenesis. Panax ginseng (GE) and maqui berry extract (MBE) were shown in our previous studies to reduce smoke-induced cellular damage in late bone-healing in vitro models. We aimed here to analyze their effects on the early fracture repair of smokers in a 3D co-culture model of fracture hematomas and endothelial cells. Both extracts did not alter the cellular viability at concentrations of up to 100 µg/mL. In early fracture repair in vitro, they were unable to reduce smoking-induced inflammation and induce osteo- or chondrogenicity. Regarding angiogenesis, smoking-induced stress in HUVECs could not be counteracted by both extracts. Furthermore, smoking-impaired tube formation was not restored by GE but was harmed by MBE. However, GE promoted angiogenesis initiation under smoking conditions via the Angpt/Tie2 axis. To summarize, cigarette smoking strikingly affected early fracture healing processes in vitro, but herbal extracts at the applied doses had only a limited effect. Since both extracts were shown before to be very effective in later stages of fracture healing, our data suggest that their early use immediately after fracture does not appear to negatively impact later beneficial effects. Full article
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20 pages, 2564 KiB  
Article
Potential of the Oxidized Form of the Oleuropein Aglycon to Monitor the Oil Quality Evolution of Commercial Extra-Virgin Olive Oils
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2959; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152959 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 733
Abstract
The quality of commercially available extra-virgin olive oils (VOOs) of different chemical compositions was evaluated as a function of storage (12 months), simulating market storage conditions, to find reliable and early markers of the virgin olive oil (VOOs) quality status in the market. [...] Read more.
The quality of commercially available extra-virgin olive oils (VOOs) of different chemical compositions was evaluated as a function of storage (12 months), simulating market storage conditions, to find reliable and early markers of the virgin olive oil (VOOs) quality status in the market. By applying a D-optimal design using the Most Descriptive Compound (MDC) algorithm, 20 virgin olive oils were selected. The initial concentrations of oleic acid, hydrophilic phenols, and α-tocopherol in the 20 VOOs ranged from 58.2 to 80.5%, 186.7 to 1003.2 mg/kg, and 170.7–300.6 mg/kg, respectively. K270, ∆K, (E, E)-2.4-decadienal and (E)-2-decenal, and the oxidative form of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA-OX) reflected the VOO quality status well, with 3,4-DHPEA-EA-OX being the most relevant and quick index for simple monitoring of the “extra-virgin” commercial shelf-life category. Its HPLC-DAD evaluation is easy because of the different wavelength absorbances of the oxidized and non-oxidized form (3,4-DHPEA-EA), respectively, at 347 and 278 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Research on Olive Oil Quality, Production and Consumption)
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20 pages, 1944 KiB  
Article
Protective Effect of Long-Term Fermented Soybeans with Abundant Bacillus subtilis on Glucose and Bone Metabolism and Memory Function in Ovariectomized Rats: Modulation of the Gut Microbiota
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2958; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152958 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
We investigated the effects of different types of long-term fermented soybeans (traditionally made doenjang; TMD) on glucose and bone metabolism and memory function in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The rats were categorized into six groups: Control, cooked unfermented soybeans (CSB), and four TMDs based [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of different types of long-term fermented soybeans (traditionally made doenjang; TMD) on glucose and bone metabolism and memory function in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The rats were categorized into six groups: Control, cooked unfermented soybeans (CSB), and four TMDs based on Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and biogenic amine contents analyzed previously: high B. subtilis (HS) and high biogenic amines (HA; HSHA), low B. subtilis (LS) and HA (LSHA), HS and low biogenic amines (LA; HSLA), and LS and LA (LSLA). The rats in the CSB and TMD groups fed orally had a 4% high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Rats in the Control (OVX rats) and Normal-control (Sham-operated rats) groups did not consume CSB or TMD, although macronutrient contents were the same in all groups. Uterine weight and serum 17β-estradiol concentrations were much lower in the Control than the Normal-control group, but CSB and TMD intake did not alter them regardless of B. subtilis and biogenic amine contents. HOMA-IR, a measure of insulin resistance, decreased with TMD with high B. subtilis (HSLA and HSHA) compared to the Control group. In OGTT and IPGTT, serum glucose concentrations at each time point were higher in the Control than in the Normal-control, and HSLA and HSHA lowered them. Memory function was preserved with HSHA and HSLA administration. Bone mineral density decline measured by DEXA analysis was prevented in the HSHA and HSLA groups. Bone metabolism changes were associated with decreased osteoclastic activity, parathyroid hormone levels, and osteoclastic activity-related parameters. Micro-CT results demonstrated that TMD, especially HSLA and HSHA, preserved bone structure in OVX rats. TMD also modulated the fecal bacterial community, increasing Lactobacillus, Ligalactobacillus, and Bacillus. In conclusion, through gut microbiota modulation, TMD, particularly with high B. subtilis content, acts as a synbiotic to benefit glucose, bone, and memory function in OVX rats. Further research is needed to make specific recommendations for B. subtilis-rich TMD for menopausal women. Full article
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12 pages, 4106 KiB  
Article
Application of Hyperspectral Imaging as a Nondestructive Technology for Identifying Tomato Maturity and Quantitatively Predicting Lycopene Content
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2957; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152957 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 951
Abstract
Maturity is a crucial indicator in assessing the quality of tomatoes, and it is closely related to lycopene content. Using hyperspectral imaging, this study aimed to monitor tomato maturity and predict its lycopene content at different maturity stages. Standard normal variable (SNV) transformation [...] Read more.
Maturity is a crucial indicator in assessing the quality of tomatoes, and it is closely related to lycopene content. Using hyperspectral imaging, this study aimed to monitor tomato maturity and predict its lycopene content at different maturity stages. Standard normal variable (SNV) transformation was applied to preprocess the hyperspectral data. Then, using competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), the characteristic wavelengths were selected to simplify the calibration models. Based on the full and characteristic wavelengths, a support vector classifier (SVC) model was developed to determine tomato maturity qualitatively. The results demonstrated that the classification accuracy using the characteristic wavelength led to the obtention of better results with an accuracy of 95.83%. In addition, the support vector regression (SVR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were utilized to predict lycopene content. With a coefficient of determination for prediction (R2P) of 0.9652 and a root mean square error for prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0166 mg/kg, the SVR model exhibited the best quantitative prediction capacity based on the characteristic wavelengths. Following this, a visual distribution map was created to evaluate the lycopene content in tomato fruit intuitively. The results demonstrated the viability of hyperspectral imaging for detecting tomato maturity and quantitatively predicting the lycopene content during storage. Full article
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11 pages, 1480 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in RTE Meat Products of Quevedo (Ecuador)
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2956; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152956 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 967
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis and can be a problem in areas where meat products are sold at unregulated storage temperatures. In this work, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes was determined in the five most widely traded meat products [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis and can be a problem in areas where meat products are sold at unregulated storage temperatures. In this work, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes was determined in the five most widely traded meat products in the province of Quevedo (Ecuador): bacon, “chorizo paisa”, grilled hamburger meat, mortadella, and salami. A total of 1000 samples of these products were analyzed in two seasons of the year (dry season/rainy season). All L. monocytogenes isolates were confirmed by PCR with primers designed for the iap gene. Furthermore, the positive samples were quantified for L. monocytogenes. Of the 1000 meat products analyzed, 163 were positive for L. monocytogenes (16.3%). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the two seasons in different meat products was as follows: 22.5% in mortadella, 19% in hamburger meat, 15% in bacon, 14.5% in chorizo paisa and 10.5% in salami. In addition, the concentration of L. monocytogenes in most of the positive samples was in the range of 4–6 log CFU/g or even higher. The results show the need for improvements in the hygienic measures and meat storage temperatures in Quevedo (Ecuador) to avoid risks of foodborne listeriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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19 pages, 1977 KiB  
Article
Development and Characterization of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Films Based on Potato Starch Incorporating Viola odorata Extract to Improve the Oxidative and Microbiological Quality of Chicken Fillets during Refrigerated Storage
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2955; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152955 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1298
Abstract
In this research, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of active films based on potato starch containing Viola odorata extract (VOE) were investigated both in vitro and in chicken fillets. The VOE was added to the starch film formulation at 0, 1, 2, and 3% [...] Read more.
In this research, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of active films based on potato starch containing Viola odorata extract (VOE) were investigated both in vitro and in chicken fillets. The VOE was added to the starch film formulation at 0, 1, 2, and 3% (w/v). The results showed that by increasing the extract level, the total phenol content and antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium improved remarkably. The results of the meat tests indicated the significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of active films containing different levels of VOE in chicken fillets, and a direct relationship was observed between the concentration of the extract and the functional activity of the films, so with the increase in the concentration of the extract in the films, the rate of lipid oxidation and growth of microorganisms in the chicken fillets decreased significantly during the storage period, and less volatile nitrogen bases, metmyoglobin, and oxidation products were produced in the fillets. In general, the results of this research demonstrated that an active film based on potato starch containing VOE (especially 2 and 3% levels) has the ability to extend the oxidative and microbiological shelf life of chicken fillets during cold storage for at least eight days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging: Biodegradable, Active and Intelligent)
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17 pages, 3766 KiB  
Article
DSC Phase Transition Profiles Analyzed by Control Charts to Determine Markers for the Authenticity and Deterioration of Flaxseed Oil during Storage
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2954; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152954 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
An approach of implementing X-bar and R control charts as a statistical control tool to monitor the changes in the melting profile of fresh and stored flaxseed oils by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used. Phase transition melting profiles were collected after 0, [...] Read more.
An approach of implementing X-bar and R control charts as a statistical control tool to monitor the changes in the melting profile of fresh and stored flaxseed oils by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used. Phase transition melting profiles were collected after 0, 2, 4, and 6 months of storing flaxseed oils, originating from five different cultivars. Four peaks at around −36, −30, −25, and −12 °C were identified using the deconvolution analysis procedure, which enabled the data to be collected at peak temperature (T), peak height (h), the peak area (A), and the percentages of the area (P A), as well as the ratio calculated from these parameters. Control charts obtained for the second peak of the melting profile showed a significant decrease of peak height (h2) from 0.50 to 0.39 W/g and the percentage of the area (P A2) from 50 to 38%, within the storage time (p ≤ 0.05); thus, they were considered to be indicators of oil deterioration. Strong negative correlations of the unstable parameters of DSC with chemical indicators of the oils’ oxidative stability (PV, p-AV, TOTOX) were found. For DSC parameters, related to the first peak (h1, A1) and the third peak (h3, A3), changes were statistically not significant within storage (p > 0.05); thus, they can be used as markers of flaxseed oil authenticity. The study demonstrated that X-bar and R control charts could effectively monitor changes in the specific peaks and calculated ratios from the DSC melting profile of fresh and stored flaxseed oils, serving as reliable indicators of oil deterioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Oil: Processing, Chemical Contents and Nutritional Effects)
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14 pages, 3083 KiB  
Article
The Role of Green Tea on the Regulation of Gut Microbes and Prevention of High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Mice
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2953; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152953 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 5951
Abstract
Green tea is a popular non-alcoholic beverage consumed worldwide and has been shown to be beneficial for human health. However, further exploration is needed to fully understand its function in reducing obesity and regulating gut microbes. Here, we investigated the modulatory effects of [...] Read more.
Green tea is a popular non-alcoholic beverage consumed worldwide and has been shown to be beneficial for human health. However, further exploration is needed to fully understand its function in reducing obesity and regulating gut microbes. Here, we investigated the modulatory effects of green tea and its functional components on high-fat diet (HF)-induced metabolic alterations and gut microbiota in obese mice. Our results showed that 1%, 2%, and 4% of green tea promotes weight loss, with the 2% and 4% groups exhibiting distinct gut microflora clusters compared to the HF group. These results were comparable to those observed in the tea polyphenols (TPP)-treated group, suggesting the TPP in green tea plays a crucial role in body weight control and gut microbiota regulation. Additionally, 32 bacteria were identified as potential obesity markers via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The 16SrDNA gene is a chromosomal gene present in all bacterial species, highly conserved in structure and function, that can reflect the differences between different taxa. The 16S rRNA-based analysis revealed that Akkermansia, a gut-beneficial bacteria, significantly increased in the TPP group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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16 pages, 1610 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Profiles of Yoom Noon Rice from Royal Initiative of Southern Thailand: A Comparison of White Rice, Brown Rice, and Germinated Brown Rice
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2952; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152952 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
For long-term food sustainability and security, it is crucial to recognize and preserve Indigenous rice varieties and their diversity. Yoom Noon is one of the non-glutinous rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties being conserved as part of the Phanang Basin Area Development Project, [...] Read more.
For long-term food sustainability and security, it is crucial to recognize and preserve Indigenous rice varieties and their diversity. Yoom Noon is one of the non-glutinous rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties being conserved as part of the Phanang Basin Area Development Project, which is administered by the Royal Initiative of Nakhon Si Thammarat in Southern Thailand. The goal of this research was to compare the nutritional profiles of Yoom Noon white rice, brown rice, and germinated brown rice. The results indicated that carbohydrate content was found to be the most plentiful macronutrient in all processed Yoom Noon rice types, accounting for 67.1 to 81.5% of the total. White rice had the highest carbohydrate content (p < 0.05), followed by brown rice and germinated brown rice. Brown rice had more protein and fat than white rice (p < 0.05). The maximum protein, dietary fiber, and ash content were found in germinated brown rice, followed by brown rice and white rice (p < 0.05). White rice had the highest amylose content, around 24% (p < 0.05), followed by brown rice (22%), and germinated brown rice (20%). Mg levels in all white, brown, and germinated brown rice ranged from 6.59 to 10.59 mg/100 g, which was shown to be the highest among the minerals studied (p < 0.05). Zn (4.10–6.18 mg/100 g) was the second most abundant mineral, followed by Fe (3.45–4.92 mg/100 g), K (2.61–3.81 mg/100 g), Mn (1.20–4.48 mg/100 g), Ca (1.14–1.66 mg/100 g), and Cu (0.16–0.23 mg/100 g). Se was not found in any processed Yoom Noon rice. Overall, brown rice had the highest content of macro- and micronutrients (p < 0.05). In all processed rice, thiamin was found in the highest amount (56–85 mg/100 g), followed by pyridoxine (18–44 g/100 g) and nicotinamide (4–45 g/100 g) (p < 0.05). Riboflavin was not identified in any of the three types of processed Yoom Noon rice. Individual vitamin concentrations varied among processed rice, with germinated brown rice having the highest thiamine content by around 1.5 and 1.3 folds compared to white and brown rice, respectively. The GABA level was the highest in germinated rice (585 mg/kg), which was around three times higher than in brown rice (p < 0.05), whereas GABA was not detectable in white rice. The greatest total extractable flavonoid level was found in brown rice (495 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/100 g), followed by germinated brown rice (232 mg RE/100 g), while white rice had no detectable total extractable flavonoid. Brown rice had the highest phytic acid level (11.2 mg/100 g), which was 1.2 times higher than germinated brown rice (p < 0.05). However, phytic acid was not detected in white rice. White rice (10.25 mg/100 g) and brown rice (10.04 mg/100 g) had the highest non-significant rapidly available glucose (RAG) values, while germinated brown rice had the lowest (5.33 mg/100 g). In contrast, germinated brown rice had the highest slowly available glucose (SAG) value (9.19 mg/100 g), followed by brown rice (3.58 mg/100 g) and white rice (1.61 mg/100 g) (p < 0.05). Full article
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14 pages, 3685 KiB  
Article
Multivariate Profiling of Metabolites and Volatile Organic Compounds in Citrus depressa Hayata Fruits from Kagoshima, Okinawa, and Taiwan
Foods 2023, 12(15), 2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12152951 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 856
Abstract
Citrus depressa Hayata is a small-fruit citrus species; it is indigenous to Kagoshima, Okinawa, and Taiwan. The metabolites and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that affect the flavor of its fruits have not been investigated based on geographical origin. In the present study, we [...] Read more.
Citrus depressa Hayata is a small-fruit citrus species; it is indigenous to Kagoshima, Okinawa, and Taiwan. The metabolites and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that affect the flavor of its fruits have not been investigated based on geographical origin. In the present study, we investigated the metabolite and VOC profiles of 18 C. depressa cultivation lines from these regions. Multivariate analysis revealed differences in the metabolites of C. depressa based on its cultivation origins; variations in sugar, sugar alcohol, and amino acid contents were also observed. Fruits from Kagoshima and Okinawa had higher galactinol, trehalose, xylose, glucose, and sucrose intensities than fruits from Taiwan (log2-fold change; 2.65–3.44, 1.68–2.13, 1.37–2.01, 1.33–1.57, and 1.07–1.43, respectively), whereas the Taiwanese lines contained higher leucine, isoleucine, serine, and alanine. In contrast to the Taiwanese Nantou line, other cultivation lines had comparable total VOC contents, and the VOCs of all lines were dominated by limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene. Accordingly, the highest VOC intensities were recorded in the Nantou line, which was followed by Shikunin sweet (Kagoshima) and Taoyuan (Taiwan) (log10 normalize concentration; 5.11, 3.08, and 3.01, respectively). Moreover, multivariate analysis plots elucidated the difference in the VOCs of Ishikunibu (Okinawa), Shikunin sweet, and Taoyuan and between those of most Kagoshima and Okinawa cultivation lines. These results suggest that both the cultivation line and origin influence the metabolites and VOCs of C. depressa, thus possibly affecting its flavor quality; the data provide a valuable insight for utilizing C. depressa of different cultivation lines and origins to produce foods and beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Identification and Characterization of Aroma Compounds in Food)
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