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Foods, Volume 11, Issue 9 (May-1 2022) – 197 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The enzymatic coagulation of milk conventionally occurs in two phases: the casein micelles hydrolysis phase and a subsequent aggregation phase. However, currently, more and more researchers consider that aggregation consists of two sub-stages: formation of micellar aggregates to form a primary para-κ-casein network and subsequent hardening of the primary three-dimensional network. To clarify this controversy, the best-known descriptive models of rennet-induced aggregation have been reviewed, finding that more recent models could differentiate the aggregation stage from the hardening stage. This segmentation is important because it would allow better control of this type of coagulation to optimize cheese quality and yield. View this paper
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20 pages, 13955 KiB  
Article
(Not) Communicating the Environmental Friendliness of Food Packaging to Consumers—An Attribute- and Cue-Based Concept and Its Application
by Krisztina Rita Dörnyei, Anna-Sophia Bauer, Victoria Krauter and Carsten Herbes
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1371; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091371 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5203
Abstract
While consumer understanding of and preferences for environmentally friendly packaging options have been well investigated, little is known about the environmentally friendly packaging attributes communicated to consumers by suppliers via packaging cues. We thus propose a literature-based attribute-cue matrix as a tool for [...] Read more.
While consumer understanding of and preferences for environmentally friendly packaging options have been well investigated, little is known about the environmentally friendly packaging attributes communicated to consumers by suppliers via packaging cues. We thus propose a literature-based attribute-cue matrix as a tool for analyzing packaging solutions. Using a 2021 snapshot of the wafer market in nine European countries, we demonstrate the tool’s utility by analyzing the cues found that signal environmentally friendly packaging attributes. While the literature suggests that environmentally friendly packaging is increasingly used by manufacturers, our analysis of 164 wafer packages shows that communication is very limited except for information related to recyclability and disposal. This is frequently communicated via labels (e.g., recycling codes, Green Dot) and structural cues that implicitly signal reduced material use (e.g., less headspace and few packaging levels). Our attribute–cue matrix enables researchers, companies, and policymakers to analyze and improve packaging solutions across countries and product categories. Our finding that environmentally friendly packaging attributes are not being communicated to consumers underscores a pressing need for better communication strategies. Both direct on-pack and implicit communication should help consumers choose more environmentally friendly packaging. Governments are encouraged to apply our tool to identify communication gaps and adopt labeling regulations where needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers on Sustainable Food Packaging)
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10 pages, 2007 KiB  
Article
Aqueous Extracts of Lemon Basil Straw as Chemical Stimulator for Gray Oyster Mushroom Cultivation
by Pragatsawat Chanprapai, Thanaporn Wichai, Sarintip Sooksai, Sajee Noitang, Weradaj Sukaead, Winatta Sakdasri and Ruengwit Sawangkeaw
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091370 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
To reduce the burning of lemon basil straw (LBS)—the byproduct of basil seed production—we propose utilizing LBS as a replacement substrate for mushroom cultivation. LBS can stimulate both mycelial growth and percentage biological efficiency; however, the rigidity of this material limits particle size [...] Read more.
To reduce the burning of lemon basil straw (LBS)—the byproduct of basil seed production—we propose utilizing LBS as a replacement substrate for mushroom cultivation. LBS can stimulate both mycelial growth and percentage biological efficiency; however, the rigidity of this material limits particle size reduction. In this work, aqueous extractions were facilely performed without using either hazardous chemicals or complex procedures to valorize LBS as a stimulator for gray oyster mushroom cultivation. An aqueous extraction at solid-to-liquid of 50 g/L was employed. The macerated-LBS and decocted-LBS extracts were tested for mycelial growth in potato dextrose agar and sorghum grains. Following this, both aqueous extracts were applied as a wetting agent in cylindrical baglog cultivation to estimate mycelial growth, biological efficiency, and productivity. It was found that LBS extracts insignificantly enhanced the mycelia growth rate on all media, while the diluted LBS (1:1 v/v) extracts improved 1.5-fold of percentage biological efficiency. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer results indicated 9-octadecaenamide is a major component in LBS aqueous extract. Results demonstrated that the LBS extract is a good stimulator for the production of Pleurotus mushroom. Full article
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8 pages, 244 KiB  
Brief Report
Vitamin D Fortification of Milk Would Increase Vitamin D Intakes in the Australian Population, but a More Comprehensive Strategy Is Required
by Eleanor Dunlop, Anthony P. James, Judy Cunningham, Anna Rangan, Alison Daly, Mairead Kiely, Caryl A. Nowson, Paul Adorno, Paul Atyeo and Lucinda J. Black
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091369 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2079
Abstract
Low vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration < 50 nmol/L) is prevalent in Australia, ranging between 15% and 32% in the adolescent and adult populations. Vitamin D intakes are also low across the population and were recently estimated at 1.8–3.2 µg/day [...] Read more.
Low vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration < 50 nmol/L) is prevalent in Australia, ranging between 15% and 32% in the adolescent and adult populations. Vitamin D intakes are also low across the population and were recently estimated at 1.8–3.2 µg/day on average, assuming equal bioactivity of the D vitamers. In combination, these findings strongly suggest that data-driven nutrition policy is needed to increase vitamin D intake and improve status in the Australian population. Food fortification is a potential strategy. We used up-to-date vitamin D food composition data for vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3, vitamin D2, and 25(OH)D2, and nationally representative food and supplement consumption data from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey, to model a fortification scenario of 0.8 µg/100 mL vitamin D for fluid dairy milks and alternatives. Under the modelled fortification scenario, the mean vitamin D intake increased by ~2 µg/day from baseline to 4.9 µg/day from food only (7.2 µg/day including supplements). Almost all individual intakes remained substantially below 10 µg/day, which is the Estimated Average Requirement in North America. In conclusion, this modelling showed that fortification of fluid milks/alternatives with vitamin D at the current permitted level would produce a meaningful increase in vitamin D intake, which could be of potential benefit to those with a low vitamin D status. However, this initial step would be insufficient to ensure that most of the population achieves the North American EAR for vitamin D intake. This approach could be included as an effective component of a more comprehensive strategy that includes vitamin D fortification of a range of foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
17 pages, 1272 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Effects from Ultrasound Thawing, Vacuum Thawing and Microwave Thawing on the Quality Properties and Oxidation of Porcine Longissimus Lumborum
by Bo Wang, Xue Bai, Xin Du, Nan Pan, Shuo Shi and Xiufang Xia
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091368 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
The effects of vacuum thawing (VT), ultrasound thawing (UT) and microwave thawing (MT) on the quality, protein and lipid oxidation, internal temperature distribution and microstructure of porcine longissimus lumborum were compared. The results showed that a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in [...] Read more.
The effects of vacuum thawing (VT), ultrasound thawing (UT) and microwave thawing (MT) on the quality, protein and lipid oxidation, internal temperature distribution and microstructure of porcine longissimus lumborum were compared. The results showed that a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in quality compared with those of fresh meat (FM) occurred for all of the thawing samples, especially for the MT samples. Changes in quality of the VT and UT samples were less significant than those of the MT samples. The increases in carbonyl content and TBARS value indicated that proteins and lipids in the thawing samples were oxidized. The decreases in uniform degrees of internal temperature distributions of muscles from the thawing samples were analysed by infrared thermography. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the myofibril arrangements of thawing samples were looser than those of the FM samples with compact and ordered structure, which was proven by the obvious increase in the myofibril gap value of the thawing samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Affecting Flavour, Taste and Colour of Meat)
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17 pages, 3671 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Multiple W1/O/W2 Emulsions Processing for Suitable Stability and Encapsulation Efficiency
by Manuel Felix, Antonio Guerrero and Cecilio Carrera-Sánchez
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091367 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Double emulsions are a type of multiple emulsions, which can be defined as a multicompartmentalized system where the droplets are dispersed into the continuous phase containing other emulsions. Although double food-grade emulsions have been manufactured, there is a lack of scientific background related [...] Read more.
Double emulsions are a type of multiple emulsions, which can be defined as a multicompartmentalized system where the droplets are dispersed into the continuous phase containing other emulsions. Although double food-grade emulsions have been manufactured, there is a lack of scientific background related to the influence of different processing conditions. This work analyses the influence of processing variables in (W1/O/W2) double emulsions: passes through the valve homogenizer, pressure applied, lipophilic emulsifier concentration, the ratio between the continuous phase (W2) and the primary emulsion (W1/O), and the incorporation of xanthan gum (XG) as a stabilizer. The results obtained show that these emulsions can be obtained after selecting suitable processing conditions, making them easily scalable in industrial processes. In terms of droplet size distribution, the input of higher energy to the system (20 MPa) during emulsification processing led to emulsions with smaller droplet sizes (D3,2). However, more monodispersed emulsions were achieved when the lowest pressure (5 MPa) was used. As for the number of passes, the optimal (emulsions more monodispersed and smaller droplet sizes) was found around 2–3 passes, regardless of the valve homogenizer pressure. However, emulsions processed at 20 MPa involved lower encapsulation efficiency (EE) than emulsions processed at 5 MPa (87.3 ± 2.3 vs. 96.1 ± 1.8, respectively). The addition of XG led to more structured emulsions, and consequently, their kinetic stability increased. The results obtained indicated that a correct formulation of these W1/O/W2 double emulsions allowed the optimal encapsulation of both hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds. Thus, the development of food matrices, in the form of multiple emulsions, would allow the encapsulation of bioactive compounds, which would result in the development of novelty food products. Full article
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9 pages, 622 KiB  
Article
Assessing Acerola Powder as Substitute for Ascorbic Acid as a Bread Improver
by Maria Franco, Mayara Belorio and Manuel Gómez
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091366 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3892
Abstract
Bread is one of the most widely consumed products in the world. The use of oxidants is common in bread production, but consumers are demanding products with less additives. Acerola is the fruit with the highest ascorbic acid content and, once dried, it [...] Read more.
Bread is one of the most widely consumed products in the world. The use of oxidants is common in bread production, but consumers are demanding products with less additives. Acerola is the fruit with the highest ascorbic acid content and, once dried, it can be used as an oxidant in baking. The use of acerola powder in bread making and its effect on bread quality is studied in this article and compared with the addition of ascorbic acid. For this purpose, flour properties and dough behaviour were analysed with a farinograph and an alveograph. Breads were elaborated with white wheat flour and wholemeal flour; specific volume, loaf height, weight loss, texture, colour, and cell structure were analysed. Acerola powder had similar effects to ascorbic acid: it increased the alveographic strength and the tenacity of the doughs without reducing extensibility; it incremented dough development time (DDT) and dough softening; it increased the specific volume of white wheat breads, and it reduced the hardness of white and wholemeal breads, without significant changes in crust or crumb colour. Therefore, acerola powder can be a natural alternative to the use of ascorbic acid as an improver in bread making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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15 pages, 1962 KiB  
Article
Impact of COVID-19 Vaccination Status and Confidence on Dietary Practices among Chinese Residents
by Zhongyu Li, Yidi Ma, Shanshan Huo, Yalei Ke and Ai Zhao
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091365 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Healthy diets promote immune functions and have been shown to reduce COVID-19 severity. In 2021, COVID-19 vaccines have become available to the general public. However, whether vaccination status could affect individual and populational health behaviors is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Healthy diets promote immune functions and have been shown to reduce COVID-19 severity. In 2021, COVID-19 vaccines have become available to the general public. However, whether vaccination status could affect individual and populational health behaviors is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of vaccination status and confidence on dietary practices. An online survey was conducted in August 2021. We collected data on dietary intake, diversity and behaviors, vaccination status and confidence and socio-demographic characteristics. Among the 5107 responses received, a total of 4873 study participants were included in the final analysis. Most of our participants aged between 18 and 45 years and 82% of them were fully vaccinated against COVID-19. Household level dietary diversity was found to be higher among people who were fully vaccinated (β = 0.321, 95%CI: 0.024 to 0.618) or who were more confident in the protectiveness of the vaccine (β for tertile 3 comparing with lowest tertile = 0.544, 95%CI: 0.407, 0.682). Vaccination promoted the intake of seafood, but it was also positively associated with the consumption of sugar, preserved, fried and barbequed foods and reduced vegetable intake. Higher vaccination confidence was associated with increased consumption of seafood, bean, fruits and vegetables and reduced fat intake. Changes in dietary behaviors compared with early 2021 (when vaccination was not common) were observed and differed by vaccination status and confidence level. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccination status and confidence had varied, and possibly negative, impacts on dietary intake and behaviors. Our results suggest that vaccination status and confidence might be significant influencing factors affecting people’s health behaviors and highlight that healthy eating should be consistently promoted to prevent poor dietary practices during global health crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Consumption Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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13 pages, 1349 KiB  
Article
Effects of Drying Methods and Temperatures on the Quality of Chestnut Flours
by Veronica Conti, Patrizia Salusti, Marco Romi and Claudio Cantini
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091364 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
The demand for chestnut flour is growing because of its use in gluten-free products. Previous studies have correlated the quality of chestnut flours to the drying temperature and technology applied. This work is a novel study on the role of the traditional drying [...] Read more.
The demand for chestnut flour is growing because of its use in gluten-free products. Previous studies have correlated the quality of chestnut flours to the drying temperature and technology applied. This work is a novel study on the role of the traditional drying method with a wood fire in a “metato” building for flour compared with a food dryer at 40 °C or 70 °C. The contents of antioxidants, total polyphenols and sugars were determined as well as the presence of toxic volatiles or aflatoxins. The flour, resulting from the traditional method, presented lower polyphenol content and antioxidant power compared to the others. The content of the sugars was similar to the flours obtained after drying with hot air, both at 40 °C and 70 °C. The toxic volatile molecules, furfural, guaiacol, and o-cresol, were found. There was no correlation between the aflatoxin content and the presence of damage in chestnut fruits. The traditional method should not be abandoned since it confers a pleasant smoky taste to the product, but it is necessary to regulate the level and steadiness of temperature. Future research needs to be directed to the quantification of harmful volatile compounds and their correlation with the quantity of smoke emitted by the wood fire. Full article
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14 pages, 2084 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Evaluation of Probiotic Property, Hypoglycemic Ability and Antioxidant Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria
by Hongyu Wang and Liang Li
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091363 - 8 May 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3364
Abstract
Taking lactic acid bacteria is an important strategy to alleviate or prevent diabetes, but the candidate strains with good genetic stability and excellent functions still need to be supplemented. In this study, the hypoglycemic ability (α-amylase, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4), probiotic property [...] Read more.
Taking lactic acid bacteria is an important strategy to alleviate or prevent diabetes, but the candidate strains with good genetic stability and excellent functions still need to be supplemented. In this study, the hypoglycemic ability (α-amylase, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4), probiotic property and antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria were comprehensively evaluated by a principal component analysis (PCA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results showed that Lactobacillus paracasei(L. paracasei) had a higher survival rate (82.78%) in gastric juice and good tolerance to bile salt, and can be colonized in HT-29 cells. L. paracasei had a remarkable inhibitive activity of α-amylase (82.21%), α-glucosidase (84.29%) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (42.51%). L. paracasei had better scavenging activity of free radicals, total antioxidant activity (FRAP) and superoxide dismutase activity. According to the scores of the PCA, L. paracasei had the best hypoglycemic ability, and Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) had the highest probiotic property. According to AHP, L. paracasei was the best potential hypoglycemic probiotic; furthermore, L. lactis showed the highest comprehensive performance except Lactobacillus. All lactic acid bacteria in this test had good safety. L. paracasei is expected to become a new potential hypoglycemic strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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15 pages, 1225 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of Benzophenone Derivatives in Packaged Cereal-Based Foods by Solid–Liquid Extraction and Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry
by Yu-Fang Huang, Jun-Jie Huang and Xuan-Rui Liu
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091362 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3652
Abstract
We established and validated a sensitive multi-residue analytical method for identifying benzophenone (BP) and nine BP derivatives (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone [BP-1], 2,2′,4,4′-tetrahydroxydroxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone, 2,2′-dihydroxy 4-methoxy benzophenone, 2-hydroxybenzophenone [2-OHBP], 4-hydroxybenzophenone, 4-methylbenzophenone [4-MBP], methyl-2-benzoylbenzoate, and 4-benzoylbiphenyl). Solid–liquid extraction pretreatment and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) [...] Read more.
We established and validated a sensitive multi-residue analytical method for identifying benzophenone (BP) and nine BP derivatives (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone [BP-1], 2,2′,4,4′-tetrahydroxydroxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzophenone, 2,2′-dihydroxy 4-methoxy benzophenone, 2-hydroxybenzophenone [2-OHBP], 4-hydroxybenzophenone, 4-methylbenzophenone [4-MBP], methyl-2-benzoylbenzoate, and 4-benzoylbiphenyl). Solid–liquid extraction pretreatment and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) were employed in an analysis of 85 packaged cereal-based food samples (25 pastry, 50 rice, and 10 noodle samples). The method had satisfactory linearity (R2 ≥ 0.995), low limits of detection (pastry: 0.02–4.2 ng/g; rice and noodle: 0.02–2 ng/g), and favorable precision, with within-run and between-run coefficient of variation ranges of 1–29% and 1–28%, respectively. BP and 4-MBP were detected in 100% of the pastry samples, and BP-1 and 2-OHBP were found in 76% and 56% of the pastry samples, respectively. BP and 2-OHBP were found in 92% and 38% of the rice samples, respectively. BP was found in 50% of the noodle samples. BP contributed the most to the total level of BPs in pastries, with significantly higher mean ± standard deviation (range) levels for pastries (26.8 ± 32.6 [1.8–115.4] ng/g) than rice (1.2 ± 2.0 [0.4–13.4] ng/g) and noodles (0.7 ± 0.7 [0.4–1.9] ng/g); p < 0.0001). The trace levels of 4-MBP identified in the samples demonstrate the need for the development of analytical methods with high sensitivity and specificity; the proposed method satisfies this need. Full article
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13 pages, 1954 KiB  
Article
By-Product Revalorization: Cava Lees Can Improve the Fermentation Process and Change the Volatile Profile of Bread
by Alba Martín-Garcia, Montserrat Riu-Aumatell and Elvira López-Tamames
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091361 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
Wine lees are a by-product that represents a 25% of the total winery waste. Although lees are rich in antioxidant compounds and dietary fiber, they have no added value and are considered a residue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Wine lees are a by-product that represents a 25% of the total winery waste. Although lees are rich in antioxidant compounds and dietary fiber, they have no added value and are considered a residue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cava lees (0 and 5% w/w) on microbial populations during sourdough and bread fermentation and the volatile fraction of the final bread. The results showed that 5% Cava lees promoted the growth of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast in short fermentations (bread) but did not improve microbial growth in long fermentations (sourdough). Regarding volatile compounds, the addition of Cava lees increased the concentration of volatiles typically found in those products. Also, some compounds reported in sparkling wines were also identified in samples with Cava lees adsorbed on their surface. To sum up, the addition of Cava lees to sourdough and, especially, bread formulation may be a new strategy to revalorize such by-product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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17 pages, 2414 KiB  
Article
Functional Properties and Preservative Effect of P-Hydroxybenzoic Acid Grafted Chitosan Films on Fresh-Cut Jackfruit
by Zhiguo Jiang, Jiaolong Wang, Dong Xiang and Zhengke Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091360 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
In the present study, p-hydroxybenzoic acid-grafted chitosan (PA-g-CS) conjugates with different grafting degrees were synthesized by a free radical-regulated grafting approach. The conjugates were further developed into films by casting, and their characteristics and preservative effects on fresh-cut jackfruit were evaluated. Compared to [...] Read more.
In the present study, p-hydroxybenzoic acid-grafted chitosan (PA-g-CS) conjugates with different grafting degrees were synthesized by a free radical-regulated grafting approach. The conjugates were further developed into films by casting, and their characteristics and preservative effects on fresh-cut jackfruit were evaluated. Compared to the CS film, the PA-g-CS film showed comprehensive performance improvements, including enhancements of water solubility, anti-ultraviolet capacity, antioxidation, and antibacterial activity. Moreover, compared with CS film, some appreciable and favorable changes of physical properties were observed in the PA-g-CS films, which included water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, surface morphology, moisture content, and mechanical intensity. Furthermore, compared to CS alone, the application of PA-g-CS films to fresh-cut jackfruit exerted a beneficial effect on the quality of products, as indicated by the inhibition of weight loss, softening, and membrane damage, the maintenance of soluble solids and ascorbic acids contents, as well as a reduced bacterial count and a higher sensory score. Among these PA-g-CS films, the best preservation effect was achieved with the highest degree of grafting (PA-g-CS III). The results suggested that the PA-g-CS film has the potential to be explored as a new type of packaging material for the preservation of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Full article
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13 pages, 912 KiB  
Article
Consumers’ Understanding of Ultra-Processed Foods
by Juliana Sarmiento-Santos, Melissa B. N. Souza, Lydia S. Araujo, Juliana M. V. Pion, Rosemary A. Carvalho and Fernanda M. Vanin
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1359; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091359 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5754
Abstract
Food classification systems have been proposed to improve food quality criteria. Among these systems, “processing level” has been used as a criterion. NOVA classification, as the denotation “ultra-processed” food (UPF), has been widely used in different countries. However, even though some studies have [...] Read more.
Food classification systems have been proposed to improve food quality criteria. Among these systems, “processing level” has been used as a criterion. NOVA classification, as the denotation “ultra-processed” food (UPF), has been widely used in different countries. However, even though some studies have pointed out some controversial aspects, no study has evaluated its comprehension by the population where it is used as reference. Therefore, this study explored the understanding of the term UPF for Brazilian consumers, where this denotation has been used in the last 8 years. A questionnaire was used, with questions referring to different aspects of self-assessment of knowledge about UPF. Altogether, 939 valid participants completed the questionnaire, and 81.9% of them declared to know the term UPF. For 78.2%, a better definition for UPF should be “foods that have gone through many processes in industry”. Finally, it was concluded that the term UPF is still confusing for most Brazilians, indicating the risk of use and the urgent necessity to improve the classifications systems and consequently consumer understanding. Only when all parties interested in healthy food work together could this problem be solved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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15 pages, 3316 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ultrasonic Induction on the Main Physiological and Biochemical Indicators and γ–Aminobutyric Acid Content of Maize during Germination
by Liangchen Zhang, Nan Hao, Wenjuan Li, Baiqing Zhang, Taiyuan Shi, Mengxi Xie and Miao Yu
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1358; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091358 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5232
Abstract
Research on the nutrient content of cereal grains during germination is becoming a hot topic; however, studies on germinated maize are still scarce. This study aimed to provide a technical reference and theoretical basis for the development of functional maize health foods and [...] Read more.
Research on the nutrient content of cereal grains during germination is becoming a hot topic; however, studies on germinated maize are still scarce. This study aimed to provide a technical reference and theoretical basis for the development of functional maize health foods and to expand the application of ultrasonic technology in the production of germinated grains. In this study, the germination rate of maize was used as the evaluation index, and the ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic temperature, and induction time were selected as the influencing factors in orthogonal experiments to determine the optimal process parameters for ultrasonic induction of maize germination (ultrasonic frequency of 45 kHz, ultrasonic temperature of 30 °C, and ultrasonic induction time of 30 min). Based on this process, the effects of ultrasonic induction on the main physiological, biochemical, and γ–aminobutyric acid contents of maize during germination were investigated. The results showed that the respiration of the ultrasonic treated maize was significantly enhanced during germination, resulting in a 27% increase in sprout length, as well as a 4.03% higher dry matter consumption rate, and a 2.11% higher starch consumption rate. Furthermore, the reducing sugar content of germinated maize increased by 22.83%, soluble protein content increased by 22.52%, and γ–aminobutyric acid content increased by 30.55% after ultrasonic induction treatment. Throughout the germination process, the glutamate acid decarboxylase activity of the ultrasonically treated maize was higher than that of the control group, indicating that ultrasonication can promote maize germination, accelerate the germination process, and shorten the enrichment time of γ–aminobutyric acid in germinated maize. The results of this study can be applied to the production of γ–aminobutyric acid enrichment in germinated maize. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontier Research on the Processing Quality of Cereal and Oil Food)
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18 pages, 5326 KiB  
Article
Higher Yield and Polyphenol Content in Olive Pomace Extracts Using 2-Methyloxolane as Bio-Based Solvent
by Christian Cravotto, Anne Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier, Ombéline Claux, Vincent Rapinel, Valérie Tomao, Panagiotis Stathopoulos, Alexios Leandros Skaltsounis, Silvia Tabasso, Laurence Jacques and Farid Chemat
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091357 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2626
Abstract
Despite its severe toxicity and negative environmental impact, hexane remain the solvent of choice for the extraction of vegetable oils. This is in contrast with the constantly growing demand for sustainable and green extraction processes. In recent years a variety of alternatives to [...] Read more.
Despite its severe toxicity and negative environmental impact, hexane remain the solvent of choice for the extraction of vegetable oils. This is in contrast with the constantly growing demand for sustainable and green extraction processes. In recent years a variety of alternatives to hexane have been reported, among them 2-methyloxolane (2-MeOx), which has emerged as a promising bio-based alternative. This study evaluates the possibility of replacing hexane, in the extraction of olive pomace (OP), with 2-MeOx, both dry and saturated with water (4.5%), the latter of which is called 2-MeOx 95.5%. The three solvents have been compared in terms of extraction yield and quality, as well as the lipid and polyphenol profiles of the extracts. The work concluded that both dry 2-MeOx and 2-MeOx 95.5% can replace hexane in OP extraction, resulting in higher yields and extracts richer in phenolic compounds. This study should open the road to further semi-industrial scale investigations toward more sustainable production processes. Full article
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12 pages, 2801 KiB  
Article
CsCuAOs and CsAMADH1 Are Required for Putrescine-Derived γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Tea
by Kexin Zhang, Yu Duan, Yu Cao, Yiwen Chen, Zhongwei Zou, Fang Li, Qiang Shen, Xiaowei Yang, Yuanchun Ma, Wanping Fang and Xujun Zhu
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091356 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Polyamines are a potential source of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in plants under abiotic stress. However, studies on GABA enrichment in tea mostly focus on the GABA shunt, while the correlation between polyamine degradation and GABA formation in tea is largely unknown. In this [...] Read more.
Polyamines are a potential source of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in plants under abiotic stress. However, studies on GABA enrichment in tea mostly focus on the GABA shunt, while the correlation between polyamine degradation and GABA formation in tea is largely unknown. In this study, tea plants responded to exogenous putrescine, resulting in a significant increase in GABA content, while the glutamate level did not change. At the same time, five copper-containing amine oxidase (CuAO) and eight aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) genes involved in the putrescine-derived GABA pathway were identified from the Tea Plant Information Archive. Expression analysis indicated that CsCuAO1, CsCuAO3 as well as CsAMADH1 were induced to play an important function in response to exogenous putrescine. Thus, the three genes were cloned and the catalytic efficiency of soluble recombinant proteins was determined. CsCuAOs and CsAMADH1 exhibited indispensable functions in the GABA production from putrescine in vitro. Subcellular localization assays indicated that CsAMADH1 was localized in plastid, while both CsCuAO1 and CsCuAO3 were localized in peroxisome. In addition, the synergistic effects of CsCuAOs and CsAMADH1 were investigated by a transient co-expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana. Our data suggest that these three genes regulate the accumulation of GABA in tea by participating in the polyamine degradation pathway and improve the content of GABA in tea to a certain extent. The results will greatly contribute to the production of GABA tea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tea Product: Processing, Extraction, Quality and Health)
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15 pages, 4103 KiB  
Article
Two Novel Antihypertensive Peptides Identified in Millet Bran Glutelin-2 Hydrolysates: Purification, In Silico Characterization, Molecular Docking with ACE and Stability in Various Food Processing Conditions
by Yajun Zheng, Xueying Wang, Min Guo, Xiaoting Yan, Yongliang Zhuang, Yue Sun and Junru Li
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091355 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2239
Abstract
The addition of food-derived antihypertensive peptides to the diet is considered a reasonable antihypertension strategy. However, data about the stability of antihypertensive peptides in different food processing conditions are limited. In this study, through Sephadex G-15 gel chromatography and RP-HPLC separation, UPLC–ESI–MS/MS analysis [...] Read more.
The addition of food-derived antihypertensive peptides to the diet is considered a reasonable antihypertension strategy. However, data about the stability of antihypertensive peptides in different food processing conditions are limited. In this study, through Sephadex G-15 gel chromatography and RP-HPLC separation, UPLC–ESI–MS/MS analysis and in silico screening, two novel ACE-inhibitory peptides, Pro-Leu-Leu-Lys (IC50: 549.87 μmol/L) and Pro-Pro-Met-Trp-Pro-Phe-Val (IC50: 364.62 μmol/L), were identified in millet bran glutelin-2 hydrolysates. The inhibition of angiotensin-I converting enzyme and the potential safety of PLLK and PPMWPFV were studied using molecular docking and in silico prediction, respectively. The results demonstrated that PLLK and PPMWPFV could non-competitively bind to one and seven binding sites of ACE through short hydrogen bonds, respectively. Both PLLK and PPMWPFV were resistant to different pH values (2.0–10.0), pasteurization conditions, addition of Na+, Mg2+ or K+ and simulated gastrointestinal digestion. However, PLLK and PPMWPFV were unstable upon heat treatment at 100 °C for more than 20 min or treatment with Fe3+ or Zn2+. In fact, treatment with Fe3+ or Zn2+ induced the formation of PLLK–iron or PLLK–zinc chelates and reduced the ACE-inhibitory activity of PLLK. These results indicate that peptides derived from millet bran could be added to foods as antihypertension agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Anti-chronic Disease of Food Active Components)
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10 pages, 1564 KiB  
Article
Content Variations in Oleocanthalic Acid and Other Phenolic Compounds in Extra-Virgin Olive Oil during Storage
by Jasmine Esposito Salsano, Maria Digiacomo, Doretta Cuffaro, Simone Bertini and Marco Macchia
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091354 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
The health benefits of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) are strictly linked to the presence of phenolic compounds, which exhibit numerous nutraceutical properties. In EVOO, the most important class of phenolic compounds is represented by secoiridoids (oleacein and oleocanthal). EVOO is constantly subjected to [...] Read more.
The health benefits of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) are strictly linked to the presence of phenolic compounds, which exhibit numerous nutraceutical properties. In EVOO, the most important class of phenolic compounds is represented by secoiridoids (oleacein and oleocanthal). EVOO is constantly subjected to degradation processes, including hydrolytic and oxidative reactions that influence its phenolic composition. In particular, the hydrolytic reactions determine the transformation of oleocanthal and oleacein into the corresponding phenyl-alcohols, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol. Furthermore, oleocanthal by oxidation processes can be converted to oleocanthalic acid. In this study, we evaluated the phenolic composition of three EVOO samples kept at different storage conditions for 15 months, focusing on the variation of oleocanthalic acid content. Specifically, the samples were stored at 4 °C in darkness and at 25 °C with light exposure. The results of our analyses highlighted that in EVOOs exposed to light and maintained at 25 °C, the degradation was more marked than in EVOO stored in dark and at 4 °C, due to the greater influence of external factors on storage conditions. Although chemical–physical characteristics of EVOOs are slightly different depending on provenience and treatment time, the results of this study reveal that storage conditions are fundamental to controlling phenol concentration. Full article
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19 pages, 7299 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Analysis, α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activities and Acute Toxicity Studies of Extracts from Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Bark, a Valuable Agro-Industrial By-Product
by Nassima Laaraj, Mohamed Bouhrim, Loubna Kharchoufa, Salima Tiji, Hasnae Bendaha, Mohamed Addi, Samantha Drouet, Christophe Hano, Jose Manuel Lorenzo, Mohamed Bnouham and Mostafa Mimouni
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091353 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2959
Abstract
Punica granatum is a tree of the Punicaceae family which is widespread all over the world with several types of varieties. Its fruit juice is highly prized, whereas the bark, rich in in phytochemicals such as flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, phenolic acids, and fatty [...] Read more.
Punica granatum is a tree of the Punicaceae family which is widespread all over the world with several types of varieties. Its fruit juice is highly prized, whereas the bark, rich in in phytochemicals such as flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, phenolic acids, and fatty acids, is regarded an agro-industrial waste. It is utilized in traditional medicine for its medicinal properties in the treatment and prevention of a variety of ailments. This study aims to extract and to separate the phytochemical compounds from the bark of P. granatum, to identify them and to study the inhibitory effect of its extracts against antidiabetic activity. First, we carried out successive hot extractions with solvents (chloroform, acetone, methanol, and water) of increasing polarity by the Soxhlet. Then, using both qualitative and quantitative phytochemical investigation, we were able to identify groups of chemicals that were present in all extracts. We identified the majority of the molecular structures of chemicals found in each extract using HPLC-DAD analysis. The inhibition against both intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase enzymes by P. granatum extracts was used to evaluate their potential antidiabetic effect in vitro. Our results demonstrated the great potential of the acetone extract. Ellagic acid, (−)-catechin, vanillin and vanillic acid were proposed as the most active compounds by the correlation analysis, and their actions were confirmed through the calculation of their IC50 and the determination of their inhibition mechanisms by molecular modelling. To summarize, these results showed that P. granatum bark, a natural agro-industrial by-product, may constitute a promising option for antidiabetic therapeutic therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agro-Food Waste as Source of Nutraceuticals)
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26 pages, 1318 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Astaxanthin Recovery in the Downstream Process of Haematococcus pluvialis
by Inga K. Koopmann, Simone Möller, Clemens Elle, Stefan Hindersin, Annemarie Kramer and Antje Labes
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091352 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3581
Abstract
Astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis is a valuable metabolite applied in a wide range of products. Its extraction depends on a sophisticated series of downstream process steps, including harvesting, disruption, drying, and extraction, of which some are dependent on each other. To determine [...] Read more.
Astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis is a valuable metabolite applied in a wide range of products. Its extraction depends on a sophisticated series of downstream process steps, including harvesting, disruption, drying, and extraction, of which some are dependent on each other. To determine the processes that yield maximum astaxanthin recovery, bead milling, high-pressure homogenization, and no disruption of H. pluvialis biomass were coupled with spray-drying, vacuum-drying, and freeze-drying in all possible combinations. Eventually, astaxanthin was extracted using supercritical CO2. Optimal conditions for spray-drying were evaluated through the design of experiments and standard least squares regression (feed rate: 5.8 mL/min, spray gas flow: 400 NL/h, inlet temperature: 180 °C). Maximal astaxanthin recoveries were yielded using high-pressure homogenization and lyophilization (85.4%). All combinations of milling or high-pressure homogenization and lyophilization or spray-drying resulted in similar recoveries. Bead milling and spray-drying repeated with a larger spray-dryer resulted in similar astaxanthin recoveries compared with the laboratory scale. Smaller astaxanthin recoveries after the extraction of vacuum-dried biomass were mainly attributed to textural changes. Evaluation of these results in an economic context led to a recommendation for bead milling and spray-drying prior to supercritical CO2 extraction to achieve the maximum astaxanthin recoveries. Full article
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18 pages, 348 KiB  
Review
A Review on Recent Sensing Methods for Determining Formaldehyde in Agri-Food Chain: A Comparison with the Conventional Analytical Approaches
by Luigi Fappiano, Fabiana Carriera, Alessia Iannone, Ivan Notardonato and Pasquale Avino
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091351 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3148
Abstract
Formaldehyde, the simplest molecule of the aldehyde group, is a gaseous compound at room temperature and pressure, is colorless, and has a strong, pungent odor. It is soluble in water, ethanol, and diethyl ether and is used in solution or polymerized form. Its [...] Read more.
Formaldehyde, the simplest molecule of the aldehyde group, is a gaseous compound at room temperature and pressure, is colorless, and has a strong, pungent odor. It is soluble in water, ethanol, and diethyl ether and is used in solution or polymerized form. Its maximum daily dosage established by the EPA is 0.2 μg g−1 of body weight whereas that established by the WHO is between 1.5 and 14 mg g−1: it is in category 1A of carcinogens by IARC. From an analytical point of view, formaldehyde is traditionally analyzed by HPLC with UV-Vis detection. Nowadays, the need to analyze this compound quickly and in situ is increasing. This work proposes a critical review of methods for analyzing formaldehyde in food using sensing methods. A search carried out on the Scopus database documented more than 50 papers published in the last 5 years. The increase in interest in the recognition of the presence of formaldehyde in food has occurred in recent years, above all due to an awareness of the damage it can cause to human health. This paper focuses on some new sensors by analyzing their performance and comparing them with various no-sensing methods but focusing on the determination of formaldehyde in food products. The sensors reported are of various types, but they all share a good LOD, good accuracy, and a reduced analysis time. Some of them are also biodegradable and others have a very low cost, many are portable and easy to use, therefore usable for the recognition of food adulterations on site. Full article
13 pages, 2640 KiB  
Article
Sensory Description and Consumer Hedonic Perception of Ultra-High Temperature (UHT) Milk
by Yufang Su, Houyin Wang, Ziyan Wu, Lei Zhao, Wenqiang Huang, Bolin Shi, Jian He, Sisi Wang and Kui Zhong
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091350 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5726
Abstract
Sensory characteristics of products play an essential role on the consumer’ s acceptability, preference and consuming behavior choice. The sensory profiles and consumer hedonic perception for 14 UHT milk products using sensory quantitatively descriptive analysis and a 9-point hedonic scale were investigated in [...] Read more.
Sensory characteristics of products play an essential role on the consumer’ s acceptability, preference and consuming behavior choice. The sensory profiles and consumer hedonic perception for 14 UHT milk products using sensory quantitatively descriptive analysis and a 9-point hedonic scale were investigated in this study. There were significant differences in the sensory attributes intensity and liking scores among the organic whole milk, ordinary whole milk, low-fat milk, and skimmed milk (p < 0.05). Skimmed milk samples had lowest intensity scores of typical milk aroma, taste flavor and texture attributes, as well as had the lowest overall liking scores. Whole milk samples had higher sensory intensity scores than low-fat milk samples, even though no significant differences of overall liking scores were observed between whole milk and low-fat milk. Furthermore, the relationship between the sensory attribute and overall liking was demonstrated according to correlation analysis and partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis. Overall liking increased significantly with the increasing of sweet, after milk aroma, protein-like, mellow and thick, while decreased significantly with the enhancement of cowy, cooked and whey (p < 0.05). These findings presented a potential strategy for identifying the key sensory attributes responsible for liking score differences among different kinds of UHT milk products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Perception: Taste, Smell and Flavour)
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14 pages, 722 KiB  
Article
Consumer Attitudes towards Food Preservation Methods
by Paulina Guzik, Andrzej Szymkowiak, Piotr Kulawik and Marzena Zając
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091349 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3535
Abstract
The development and scope of using various food preservation methods depends on the level of consumers’ acceptance. Despite their advantages, in the case of negative attitudes, producers may limit their use if it determines the level of sales. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
The development and scope of using various food preservation methods depends on the level of consumers’ acceptance. Despite their advantages, in the case of negative attitudes, producers may limit their use if it determines the level of sales. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of seven different food processing methods and to identify influencing factors, such as education as well as living area and, at the same time, to consider whether consumers verify this type of information on the labels. Additionally, the study included the possibility of influencing consumer attitudes by using alternative names for preservation methods, on the example of microwave treatment. The results showed that conventional heat treatments were the most preferred preservation methods, whereas preservatives, irradiation, radio waves and microwaves were the least favored, suggesting that consumers dislike methods connected with “waves” to a similar extent as their dislike for preservatives. The control factors proved to significantly modify the evaluation of the methods. The analysis of alternative names for microwave treatment showed that “dielectric heating” was significantly better perceived. These research findings are important as the basis for understanding consumer attitudes. Implications for business and directions of future research are also indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice—Volume II)
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14 pages, 2642 KiB  
Article
A High-Luminescence Biomimetic Nanosensor Based on N, S-GQDs-Embedded Zinc-Based Metal–Organic Framework@Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Sensitive Detection of Octopamine in Fermented Foods
by Ying Guo, Guanqing Yuan, Xuelian Hu, Jinni Zhang and Guozhen Fang
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1348; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091348 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
In this study, a novel fluorescent molecularly imprinted nanosensor (N, S-GQDs@ZIF-8@MIP) based on the nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots decorated zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 was constructed for the detection of octopamine (OA). Herein, ZIF-8 with a large surface area was introduced as [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel fluorescent molecularly imprinted nanosensor (N, S-GQDs@ZIF-8@MIP) based on the nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots decorated zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 was constructed for the detection of octopamine (OA). Herein, ZIF-8 with a large surface area was introduced as a supporter of the sensing system, which effectively shortened the response time of the sensor. Meanwhile, high green luminescent N, S-GQDs and a maximum emission wavelength of 520 nm under 460 nm excitation and a 12.5% quantum yield were modified on the surface of ZIF-8 as a signal tag that can convert the interactions between the sensor and OA into detectable fluorescent signals. Finally, N, S-GQDs@ZIF-8@MIP was acquired through the surface molecular imprinting method. Due to the synergy of N, S-GQDs, ZIF-8, and MIP, the obtained sensor not only demonstrated higher selectivity and sensitivity than N, S-GQDs@ZIF-8@NIP, but also displayed faster fluorescence response than N, S-GQDs@MIP. Under optimal conditions, the developed sensor presented a favorable linear relationship in the range of 0.1–10 mg L−1 with a detection limit of 0.062 mg L−1. Additionally, the proposed N, S-GQDs@ZIF-8@MIP strategy was effectively applied to the detection of OA in fermented samples, and the obtained results had a satisfactory correlation with those of HPLC. Full article
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42 pages, 1003 KiB  
Review
Cereal and Confectionary Packaging: Assessment of Sustainability and Environmental Impact with a Special Focus on Greenhouse Gas Emissions
by Victoria Krauter, Anna-Sophia Bauer, Maria Milousi, Krisztina Rita Dörnyei, Greg Ganczewski, Kärt Leppik, Jan Krepil and Theodoros Varzakas
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091347 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5338
Abstract
The usefulness of food packaging is often questioned in the public debate about (ecological) sustainability. While worldwide packaging-related CO2 emissions are accountable for approximately 5% of emissions, specific packaging solutions can reach significantly higher values depending on use case and product group. [...] Read more.
The usefulness of food packaging is often questioned in the public debate about (ecological) sustainability. While worldwide packaging-related CO2 emissions are accountable for approximately 5% of emissions, specific packaging solutions can reach significantly higher values depending on use case and product group. Unlike other groups, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and life cycle assessment (LCA) of cereal and confectionary products have not been the focus of comprehensive reviews so far. Consequently, the present review first contextualizes packaging, sustainability and related LCA methods and then depicts how cereal and confectionary packaging has been presented in different LCA studies. The results reveal that only a few studies sufficiently include (primary, secondary and tertiary) packaging in LCAs and when they do, the focus is mainly on the direct (e.g., material used) rather than indirect environmental impacts (e.g., food losses and waste) of the like. In addition, it is shown that the packaging of cereals and confectionary contributes on average 9.18% to GHG emissions of the entire food packaging system. Finally, recommendations on how to improve packaging sustainability, how to better include packaging in LCAs and how to reflect this in management-related activities are displayed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers on Sustainable Food Packaging)
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16 pages, 3063 KiB  
Article
Antioxidative Activity Evaluation of High Purity and Micronized Tartary Buckwheat Flavonoids Prepared by Antisolvent Recrystallization
by Yanjie Liu, Xiaoyu Sui, Xiuhua Zhao, Siying Wang and Qilei Yang
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1346; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091346 - 5 May 2022
Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Tartary buckwheat, a healthy food, is associated with a reduced risk of certain human chronic diseases. However, the bioactive component flavonoids in Tartary buckwheat have poor solubility and low absorption in vivo. To improve these points, 60.00% Tartary buckwheat total flavonoids (TFs) were [...] Read more.
Tartary buckwheat, a healthy food, is associated with a reduced risk of certain human chronic diseases. However, the bioactive component flavonoids in Tartary buckwheat have poor solubility and low absorption in vivo. To improve these points, 60.00% Tartary buckwheat total flavonoids (TFs) were obtained by ethanol refluxing method, which were purified and micronized by antisolvent recrystallization (ASR) using methanol as a solvent and deionized water as an antisolvent. By using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionized mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), the main flavonoid in pure flavonoids (PF) were rutin (RU), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (KA) and quercetin (QU); the content of TF is 99.81% after purification. It is more worthy of our attention that micronized flavonoids contribute more to antioxidant activity because of good solubility. These results provide a theoretical reference for the micronization of other flavonoids. Full article
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17 pages, 937 KiB  
Article
Digestibility of Meat Mineral and Proteins from Broilers Fed with Graded Levels of Chlorella vulgaris
by Marija Boskovic Cabrol, Joana C. Martins, Leonardo P. Malhão, Cristina M. Alfaia, José A. M. Prates, André M. Almeida, Madalena Lordelo and Anabela Raymundo
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091345 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2915
Abstract
The incorporation of sustainable protein sources in animal feeding is a growing trend. So far, no study has investigated in vitro digestion of meat, from broilers fed microalgae, in a human model. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of incorporating Chlorella vulgaris [...] Read more.
The incorporation of sustainable protein sources in animal feeding is a growing trend. So far, no study has investigated in vitro digestion of meat, from broilers fed microalgae, in a human model. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of incorporating Chlorella vulgaris in the broilers diet on human protein digestibility, and mineral bioaccessibility. The study used 240 male Ross 308 broilers randomly allocated to groups fed a control diet or a diet where soybean meal was replaced with 10% (CV10%), 15% (CV15%), or 20% (CV15%) of C. vulgaris for 40 days. The microalga supplementation increased the protein and lowered the fat content in the muscle. Results on the percentages of amino acids highlighted that arginine and threonine proportions increased and lysine and cysteine proportions decreased with microalga inclusion. CV15% and CV20% meat had higher amount of K, Ca, Mg, P, and Fe in raw breasts, improving the nutrient composition of the meat. Cooking caused a decrease in Na and K and an increase in other minerals. CV20% had higher bioaccessibility of K, Ca, Mg, P, and Mg, compared to the control. Replacing soybean meal in broiler feed with higher concentrations of C. vugaris could improve the digestibility of meat protein and minerals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
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15 pages, 1710 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of Physicochemical Properties, Functional Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity during Spontaneous Fermentation of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (Qinghai–Tibet Plateau) Natural Vinegar
by Qingchao Gao, Yangbo Song, Ying Liang, Yahui Li, Yingjiu Chang, Rong Ma, Xiaohai Cao and Shulin Wang
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091344 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2662
Abstract
Functional fermented fruit drinks are known worldwide for their health-promoting potential. Black wolfberry (BW) has high nutritional value, and its relative product development can be enriched through fermentation technology, so that its market might be broadened. Total acid, sugars, proteins, enzymes, anthocyanins, flavonoids, [...] Read more.
Functional fermented fruit drinks are known worldwide for their health-promoting potential. Black wolfberry (BW) has high nutritional value, and its relative product development can be enriched through fermentation technology, so that its market might be broadened. Total acid, sugars, proteins, enzymes, anthocyanins, flavonoids, polyphenols, organic acids and DPPH free radical scavenging ability (DPPH) were tracked and determined by colorimetric method and HPLC during spontaneous fermentation of BW vinegar. The antioxidant capacity in vitro of BW vinegar was evaluated based on the dynamics of antioxidant contents and DPPH. The results showed that total acid continuously increased during fermentation, yet total sugar and reducing sugar shared a similar decreasing trend. The composition of samples differed in terms of total anthocyanins, total flavonoid, total polyphenol, total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), amylase, organic acids and DPPH through spontaneous fermentation. Functional compounds including total polyphenol, total flavonoid and three organic acids (γ-aminobutyric acid, lactic acid and gallic acid) played the main roles in antioxidation. Unexpectedly, SOD and ascorbic acid as antioxidants did not correlate with DPPH, but they were rich in the final products at 754.35 U/mL and 3.39 mg/mL, respectively. Generally, the quality of BW vinegar has been improved based on analyzing dynamics on functional compounds, organic acids and antioxidant capacity, which proves that BW vinegar obtained by spontaneous fermentation should be a potential source of fermented food with antioxidant effects for consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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14 pages, 2213 KiB  
Article
Variation in the Content and Composition of Tocols in a Wheat Population
by Karolina Tremmel-Bede, Marietta Szentmiklóssy, Anna-Maija Lampi, Vieno Piironen, Peter R. Shewry, Gyula Vida, Sándor Tömösközi, Ildikó Karsai, László Láng, Zoltán Bedő and Marianna Rakszegi
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091343 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
Wheat is a well-known source of B vitamins but also contains significant amounts of vitamin E and related tocols, which have a number of positive health benefits. However, there are no reports on increasing the tocol content of wheat. A prerequisite for increasing [...] Read more.
Wheat is a well-known source of B vitamins but also contains significant amounts of vitamin E and related tocols, which have a number of positive health benefits. However, there are no reports on increasing the tocol content of wheat. A prerequisite for increasing the tocol content is the identification of variation in its amount within wheat and related cereals. We therefore determined the tocol content and composition in the grain of 230 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of a diverse biparental wheat population (Mv Toborzó/Tommi), showing variation in the total content from 13.69 to 45.18 μg/g d.m. The total content also showed transgressive segregation in the population. The effect of the genotype on the variance components of tocols was studied, and the broad-sense heritability was calculated to be 0.71. The lines were also grouped based on their tocol content and analyzed for their chemical composition and breadmaking quality. The high heritability value and the wide variation found in the total amount indicate that increasing the content of tocols is a possible breeding strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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18 pages, 1261 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Study of Probiotic, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities among Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains
by Gabriella Siesto, Rocchina Pietrafesa, Vittoria Infantino, Channmuny Thanh, Ilaria Pappalardo, Patrizia Romano and Angela Capece
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1342; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091342 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3214
Abstract
Nowadays, the interest toward products containing probiotics is growing due to their potential health benefits to the host and the research is focusing on search of new probiotic microorganisms. The present work was focused on the characterization of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the interest toward products containing probiotics is growing due to their potential health benefits to the host and the research is focusing on search of new probiotic microorganisms. The present work was focused on the characterization of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from different food matrixes, with the goal to select strains with probiotic or health-beneficial potential. A preliminary screening performed on fifty S. cerevisiae indigenous strains, in comparison to a commercial probiotic strain, allowed to individuate the most suitable ones for potential probiotic aptitude. Fourteen selected strains were tested for survival ability in the gastrointestinal tract and finally, the strains characterized for the most important probiotic features were analyzed for health-beneficial traits, such as the content of glucan, antioxidant and potential anti-inflammatory activities. Three strains, 4LBI-3, LL-1, TA4-10, showing better attributes compared to the commercial probiotic S.cerevisiae var. boulardii strain, were characterized by interesting health-beneficial traits, such as high content of glucan, high antioxidant and potential anti-inflammatory activities. Our results suggest that some of the tested S. cerevisiae strains have potential as probiotics and candidate for different applications, such as dietary supplements, and starter for the production of functional foods or as probiotic to be used therapeutically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeasts as a Tool to Improve Health Quality in Food Industry)
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