Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2022) | Viewed by 37968

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Sciences, Animal and Veterinary Research Centre-Vila Real, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: meat products; food science, sensory analysis, fermentation; food safety
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Guest Editor
CIISA-Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da Universidade Técnica, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: food safety; traditional meat products; emergent technologies; protective starters

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The demand for meat and meat products is currently being influenced by several trends. Consumers are looking for healthier meat products containing natural ingredients as substitutes for synthetic additives. Environmental concerns have led to research on the development of biodegradable packaging and adequate shelf-life to avoid unnecessary waste. Innovation opportunities are also related to the development of "comfort foods," whereby food products that fulfil the consumers’ sensory, symbolic, and psychological expectancies are created. However, safety assurance, from both biological and chemical aspects, must frame these consumer demand trends. The development of rapid or genomic methods to predict meat and meat product safety is therefore essential.

This Special Issue aims to present research articles and reviews on meat and meat product safety and quality control. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following areas:

  • Chemical and microbial hazards;
  • Preventive measures and safety control;
  • Green technological processes applied to meat and meat products;
  • Healthier meat and meat products;
  • Use of natural ingredients as substitutes of synthetic additives in meat products;
  • Use of protective starters;
  • Biodegradable and active packages;
  • Shelf-life studies aimed at avoiding meat and meat product waste;

Development of rapid methods or genomic methods to predict meat and meat products safety.

Dr. Luís Patarata
Prof. Dr. Maria João dos Ramos Fraqueza
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • meat quality
  • meat safety
  • meat product quality
  • meat product safety
  • hazard control
  • shelf life
  • emergent technologies
  • microbiota
  • omics methods
  • biodegradable packaging
  • sensory characteristics

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 937 KiB  
Article
Digestibility of Meat Mineral and Proteins from Broilers Fed with Graded Levels of Chlorella vulgaris
by Marija Boskovic Cabrol, Joana C. Martins, Leonardo P. Malhão, Cristina M. Alfaia, José A. M. Prates, André M. Almeida, Madalena Lordelo and Anabela Raymundo
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091345 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2776
Abstract
The incorporation of sustainable protein sources in animal feeding is a growing trend. So far, no study has investigated in vitro digestion of meat, from broilers fed microalgae, in a human model. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of incorporating Chlorella vulgaris [...] Read more.
The incorporation of sustainable protein sources in animal feeding is a growing trend. So far, no study has investigated in vitro digestion of meat, from broilers fed microalgae, in a human model. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of incorporating Chlorella vulgaris in the broilers diet on human protein digestibility, and mineral bioaccessibility. The study used 240 male Ross 308 broilers randomly allocated to groups fed a control diet or a diet where soybean meal was replaced with 10% (CV10%), 15% (CV15%), or 20% (CV15%) of C. vulgaris for 40 days. The microalga supplementation increased the protein and lowered the fat content in the muscle. Results on the percentages of amino acids highlighted that arginine and threonine proportions increased and lysine and cysteine proportions decreased with microalga inclusion. CV15% and CV20% meat had higher amount of K, Ca, Mg, P, and Fe in raw breasts, improving the nutrient composition of the meat. Cooking caused a decrease in Na and K and an increase in other minerals. CV20% had higher bioaccessibility of K, Ca, Mg, P, and Mg, compared to the control. Replacing soybean meal in broiler feed with higher concentrations of C. vugaris could improve the digestibility of meat protein and minerals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
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11 pages, 260 KiB  
Article
Effect of Differentiated Relative Humidity of Air on the Quality of Traditional Speciality Guaranteed “Krakowska Sucha Staropolska” Sausage
by Marta Chmiel, Lech Adamczak, Dorota Pietrzak, Tomasz Florowski and Anna Florowska
Foods 2022, 11(6), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11060811 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of air relative humidity (RH: 60 and 80%) during the drying process of “krakowska sucha staropolska” (KSS) sausages on selected quality characteristics. The composition and production process of KSS sausages complied the requirements [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of air relative humidity (RH: 60 and 80%) during the drying process of “krakowska sucha staropolska” (KSS) sausages on selected quality characteristics. The composition and production process of KSS sausages complied the requirements of traditional specialities guaranteed. It was found that the use of lower RH of drying air allowed a time reduction of 20%. Lowering the RH of air during the drying process did not affect the cross-sectional colour and odour of the sausages, colour components, TBARS values, protein, fat and salt content. However, the acceleration of the drying process resulted in very dried outer layers and less dry interior of KSS sausages. As a result, the sausages had lower scores in the sensory evaluation of hardness and overall acceptability. For this reason, shortening the drying process of sausages by using air with lower relative humidity is not recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
14 pages, 661 KiB  
Article
Nitrite-Free Implications on Consumer Acceptance and the Behavior of Pathogens in Cured Pork Loins
by Luis Patarata, Filipa Carvalho and Maria João Fraqueza
Foods 2022, 11(6), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11060796 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2329
Abstract
Cured pork loins are valued products due to their particular sensory characteristics. These products are usually prepared with nitrite to guarantee adequate color and pathogen control. The use of nitrite in meat products has been criticized due to its potential contribution to carcinogenic [...] Read more.
Cured pork loins are valued products due to their particular sensory characteristics. These products are usually prepared with nitrite to guarantee adequate color and pathogen control. The use of nitrite in meat products has been criticized due to its potential contribution to carcinogenic N-nitroso-compound formation. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of eliminating nitrite from the manufacturing of cured loins made with wine- and water-based marinades on the color evaluation of consumers and on the behavior of Clostridium sporogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella. The use of nitrite in processing cured loins resulted in a color considered adequate by more than 50% of the consumers. When nitrite was not used, the color was described mainly as weak. The hedonic evaluation of cured loins did not reflect the color evaluation. The samples with a weak and an adequate color had similar hedonic evaluations. The present work did not allow us to infer the potential interest in injecting S. xylosus into meat to prepare cured loins. The use of nitrite did not affect the survival of Cl. sporogenes, L. monocytogenes, or Salmonella. The reduction in the aw was the primary determinant influencing pathogen survival. The production of nitrite-free cured loins seems possible once the control of pathogens can be achieved. However, the product will have a weaker color. Consumers appreciate sensory aspects other than color, which, combined with the positive impact of the “additive-free” claim, can support the possibility of producing cured loins without nitrite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
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15 pages, 2159 KiB  
Article
The Risk of Salt Reduction in Dry-Cured Sausage Assessed by the Influence on Water Activity and the Survival of Salmonella
by Luis Patarata, Liliana Fernandes, José António Silva and Maria João Fraqueza
Foods 2022, 11(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030444 - 02 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
Water activity (aw) is the main hurdle for microbial control in dry-cured sausages. The aw can be influenced by drying or adding electrolytes or humectants. Dry-cured meat products are partially dried, which, together with added salt, results in safe aw values. Currently, there [...] Read more.
Water activity (aw) is the main hurdle for microbial control in dry-cured sausages. The aw can be influenced by drying or adding electrolytes or humectants. Dry-cured meat products are partially dried, which, together with added salt, results in safe aw values. Currently, there is a trend to reduce salt in meat products, which can compromise the preservation process. The present work aims to evaluate the influences of added salt levels (1% or 3%) and the use or omission of phosphates and wine on the aw of a dry-cured sausage, and to evaluate the possibility of estimating the aw from the moisture loss and the behavior of Salmonella during dry-cured sausage (chouriço) processing. There was a strong relationship between moisture and aw, regardless of the salt level and the presence of phosphates or wine. Predicting aw from moisture loss is possible using the Boltzmann sigmoid function. The salt level strongly influences Salmonella behavior, mainly through aw reduction. An increase in aw by 0.01 units reduced the odds of achieving a 5-log reduction in Salmonella counts to half. Increasing added salt from 1% to 3% increased the odds of achieving a 5-log Salmonella reduction 7.5-fold. The current trend to reduce salt in foods must be carefully approached if applied to cured meat products, as it has substantial consequences on aw evolution and Salmonella survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
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15 pages, 4184 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Potential of Plastic Films Incorporated with Sage Extract on Chicken Meat
by N. Aziman, M. Jawaid, N. A. Abdul Mutalib, N. L. Yusof, A. H. Nadrah, U. K. Nazatul, V. V. Tverezovskiy, O. A. Tverezovskaya, H. Fouad, R. M. Braganca, P. W. Baker, S. Selbie and A. Ali
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2812; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112812 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2747
Abstract
The function of packaging is crucial in the maintenance of fresh meat product quality. This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six films added with coatings 2379L/220 and 2379L/221 (containing sage extracts) to inhibit Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, [...] Read more.
The function of packaging is crucial in the maintenance of fresh meat product quality. This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six films added with coatings 2379L/220 and 2379L/221 (containing sage extracts) to inhibit Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, which showed that two of the six films had a significant effect. Additionally, the effects of the films on refrigerated skinless chicken breast meat were evaluated based on microbiological content, colour, weight loss, texture and pH. Four of the six films were examined could extend the storability of refrigerated chicken breast fillets for up to seven days. All six treated films improved the pH, colour stability, weight loss, and texture of the chicken fillets. Therefore, these findings suggested that the coatings containing sage extracts having different viscosities (2379L/220 and 2379L/221) were effective as antimicrobial adhesives in food packaging films and can be commercially applied in prolonging the storage of chicken breast meat without affecting their quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
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12 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
In-Plant Intervention Validation of a Novel Ozone Generation Technology (Bio-Safe) Compared to Lactic Acid in Variety Meats
by David A. Vargas, Diego E. Casas, Daniela R. Chávez-Velado, Reagan L. Jiménez, Gabriela K. Betancourt-Barszcz, Emile Randazzo, Dan Lynn, Alejandro Echeverry, Mindy M. Brashears, Marcos X. Sánchez-Plata and Markus F. Miller
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2106; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092106 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
The objective of this experiment was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of an aqueous ozone intervention and a lactic acid solution on natural microbiota of variety meats in a commercial beef processing plant. EZ-Reach™ swabs were used to collect 100 cm2 area [...] Read more.
The objective of this experiment was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of an aqueous ozone intervention and a lactic acid solution on natural microbiota of variety meats in a commercial beef processing plant. EZ-Reach™ swabs were used to collect 100 cm2 area samples before and after ozone and lactic acid intervention application for three different offals (head, heart, and liver). Each repetition included 54 samples per variety meat and antimicrobial for a total of 162 samples per repetition. Enumeration of total aerobic bacteria (APC) and Escherichia coli (EC) was performed on each sample. Microbial counts for both microorganisms evaluated were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) after lactic acid immersion (2–5%) and ozone intervention for all variety meats, with the exception of ozone intervention in EC counts of the heart samples. APC after lactic acid intervention was reduced on average by 1.73, 1.66, and 1.50 Log CFU/sample in the head, heart, and liver, respectively, while after ozone intervention, counts were reduced on average by 1.66, 0.52, and 1.20 Log CFU/sample. EC counts after lactic acid intervention were reduced on average by 0.96, 0.79, and 1.00 Log CFU/sample in the head, heart, and liver, respectively, while after ozone intervention, counts were reduced on average by 0.75, 0.62, and 1.25 Log CFU/sample. The aqueous ozone antimicrobial scheme proved to be a promising intervention for the in-plant reduction of indicator levels in variety meats, specifically heads, hearts, and livers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
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10 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
Impact of Packaging Film and Beef Trimmings on Ground Beef Shelf Life
by Hunter R. Smith, Barney S. Wilborn, Anna Grace Parnell, Tristan M. Reyes, Madison P. Wagoner, Laura E. Yoder, Eugene Blythe, Don R. Mulvaney, Soren P. Rodning, Mary K. Mullenix, Tom Bonner and Jason T. Sawyer
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1923; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081923 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2573
Abstract
Fresh beef storage in the retail setting can be presented in a variety of packaging methods, and identifying an alternative such as vacuum packaging to current traditional methods could potentially increase shelf life and reduce meat waste. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Fresh beef storage in the retail setting can be presented in a variety of packaging methods, and identifying an alternative such as vacuum packaging to current traditional methods could potentially increase shelf life and reduce meat waste. The objective of this study was to identify the influence of packaging film and lean trimming sources on fresh ground beef surface color during a simulated retail display period. There were no differences (p > 0.05) in surface color redness (a*), yellowness (b*), chroma, or hue angle regardless of packaging film or lean trimmings. However, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were greater (p < 0.05) for packages containing a greater percentage of CULL beef trimmings regardless of packaging film. In addition, pH values of ground beef packages did not differ (p > 0.05) among packaging film or lean trimming blends. Visual color did not differ (p > 0.05) throughout the simulated retail display period regardless of beef trimmings or packaging film. Microbial spoilage organisms were greater (p < 0.05) after the simulated display period. These results suggest that ground beef presented in a simulated retail setting using an alternative packaging platform, such as vacuum packaging, is plausible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
16 pages, 2299 KiB  
Article
Effect of Herbal Addition on the Microbiological, Oxidative Stability and Sensory Quality of Minced Poultry Meat
by Danuta Jaworska, Elżbieta Rosiak, Eliza Kostyra, Katarzyna Jaszczyk, Monika Wroniszewska and Wiesław Przybylski
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071537 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3371
Abstract
The study aimed to assess the effect of herbal additions with antioxidant properties (pepper, thyme and oregano) on the microbiological and oxidative stability as well as the sensory quality of minced poultry meat. Meatballs treatments without additives and treatments with the addition of [...] Read more.
The study aimed to assess the effect of herbal additions with antioxidant properties (pepper, thyme and oregano) on the microbiological and oxidative stability as well as the sensory quality of minced poultry meat. Meatballs treatments without additives and treatments with the addition of three types of spices in two forms—dry spices and industrial extracts were examined. Popular seasoning additives of oregano (Origanum vulgare), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and black pepper (Piper nigrum) at 0.3% of dry herbal or 0.003% as industrial extract were added to minced meat. The microbiological, chemical and sensory tests were performed at specified times and storage temperature. Based on the studied criteria, products maintained constant and adequate quality by up to 10 days while stored in 4 °C. In the case of all tested samples, the overall sensory quality began to deteriorate after 10 days of storage. The preservative role of herbs and extracts in meat products during processing and storage was observed. Oregano and black pepper in both forms maintained good microbial quality and showed their inhibitory effects on the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. It was observed that dried herbs revealed a stronger antioxidant effect than additives in the form of extracts. The studied dried herbs played an antioxidant, antimicrobial and preservative role in meat products during processing and storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
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12 pages, 1345 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Effectiveness of Disinfectants Used in Meat-Processing Facilities to Control Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridioides difficile Spores
by Siobhán McSharry, Leonard Koolman, Paul Whyte and Declan Bolton
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061436 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4769
Abstract
Spore-forming bacteria are a major concern for the food industry as they cause both spoilage and food safety issues. Moreover, as they are more resistant than vegetative cells, their removal from the food processing environment may be difficult to achieve. This study investigated [...] Read more.
Spore-forming bacteria are a major concern for the food industry as they cause both spoilage and food safety issues. Moreover, as they are more resistant than vegetative cells, their removal from the food processing environment may be difficult to achieve. This study investigated the efficacy of the ten most commonly used disinfectant agents (assigned 1–10), used at the recommended concentrations in the meat industry, for their ability to eliminate Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridioides difficile spores. Test-tube based suspension assays suggested that disinfectants 2 (10% v/v preparation of a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (10–30%), acetic acid (1–10%) and peracetic acid (1–10%)), 7 (4% w/v preparation of a mixture of peroxymonosulphate (30–50%), sulphamic acid (1–10%) and troclosene sodium (1–10%)) and 10 (2% v/v preparation of a mixture of glutaraldehyde (10–30%), benzalkonium chloride (1–10%)) were the most effective formulations. D-values for these ranged from 2.1 to 8.4 min at 20 °C for the target spores. Based on these findings, it is recommended that these disinfectants are used to control Clostridium spores in the meat plant environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
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Review

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28 pages, 6477 KiB  
Review
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Meat: Formation, Isolation, Risk Assessment, and Inhibitory Effect of Plant Extracts
by Hafiz Rehan Nadeem, Saeed Akhtar, Tariq Ismail, Piero Sestili, Jose Manuel Lorenzo, Muhammad Modassar Ali Nawaz Ranjha, Leonie Jooste, Christophe Hano and Rana Muhammad Aadil
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071466 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 10254
Abstract
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are potent carcinogenic compounds induced by the Maillard reaction in well-done cooked meats. Free amino acids, protein, creatinine, reducing sugars and nucleosides are major precursors involved in the production of polar and non-polar HAAs. The variety and yield of [...] Read more.
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are potent carcinogenic compounds induced by the Maillard reaction in well-done cooked meats. Free amino acids, protein, creatinine, reducing sugars and nucleosides are major precursors involved in the production of polar and non-polar HAAs. The variety and yield of HAAs are linked with various factors such as meat type, heating time and temperature, cooking method and equipment, fresh meat storage time, raw material and additives, precursor’s presence, water activity, and pH level. For the isolation and identification of HAAs, advanced chromatography and spectroscopy techniques have been employed. These potent mutagens are the etiology of several types of human cancers at the ng/g level and are 100- to 2000-fold stronger than that of aflatoxins and benzopyrene, respectively. This review summarizes previous studies on the formation and types of potent mutagenic and/or carcinogenic HAAs in cooked meats. Furthermore, occurrence, risk assessment, and factors affecting HAA formation are discussed in detail. Additionally, sample extraction procedure and quantification techniques to determine these compounds are analyzed and described. Finally, an overview is presented on the promising strategy to mitigate the risk of HAAs by natural compounds and the effect of plant extracts containing antioxidants to reduce or inhibit the formation of these carcinogenic substances in cooked meats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
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