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Metabolites, Volume 11, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 96 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Maternal risk factors such as high body mass index and age are used to predict complications in pregnancy. However, many women who are not considered to be high-risk based on these factors still develop complications such as gestational diabetes or hypertensive disorders. Further, their baby may be born preterm or small/large for gestational age. We studied whether metabolites in maternal blood could be used to improve the prediction of these disorders. We built prediction models in a UK cohort from Bradford and performed validation in a different cohort from Cambridge. We found that including metabolomic markers in the models improved the prediction of pregnancy complications over the maternal risk factors, particularly gestational diabetes and large size for gestational age. View this paper
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18 pages, 3064 KiB  
Article
PRM-MS Quantitative Analysis of Isomeric N-Glycopeptides Derived from Human Serum Haptoglobin of Patients with Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080563 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2678
Abstract
Currently, surveillance strategies have inadequate performance for cirrhosis and early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The glycosylation of serum haptoglobin has shown to have significant differences between cirrhosis and HCC, thus can be used for diagnosis. We performed a comprehensive liquid chromatography—parallel reaction [...] Read more.
Currently, surveillance strategies have inadequate performance for cirrhosis and early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The glycosylation of serum haptoglobin has shown to have significant differences between cirrhosis and HCC, thus can be used for diagnosis. We performed a comprehensive liquid chromatography—parallel reaction monitoring—mass spectrometry (LC-PRM-MS) approach, where a targeted parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) strategy was coupled to a powerful LC system, to study the site-specific isomerism of haptoglobin (Hp) extracted from cirrhosis and HCC patients. We found that our strategy was able to identify a large number of isomeric N-glycopeptides, mainly located in the Hp glycosylation site Asn207. Four N-glycopeptides were found to have significant changes in abundance between cirrhosis and HCC samples (p < 0.05). Strategic combinations of the significant N-glycopeptides, either with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) or themselves, better estimate the areas under the curve (AUC) of their respective receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves with respect to AFP. The combination of AFP with the isomeric sialylated fucosylated N-glycopeptides Asn207 + 5-6-1-2 and Asn207 + 5-6-1-3, resulted with an AUC value of 0.98, while the AUC value for AFP alone was 0.85. When comparing cirrhosis vs. early HCC, the isomeric N-glycopeptide Asn207 + 5-6-0-1 better estimated AUC with respect to AFP (AUCAFP = 0.81, and AUCAsn207 + 5-6-0-1 = 0.88, respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Analysis for Biomarker Discovery)
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20 pages, 9102 KiB  
Article
2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Regulates the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells by Modulating Cholesterol Homeostasis and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080562 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2842
Abstract
Cholesterol metabolism affects endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and modulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our previous study demonstrated that 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) attenuated EMT by blocking the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling pathway and activating ER stress in MDA-MB-231 cells. To further assess the detailed mechanisms [...] Read more.
Cholesterol metabolism affects endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and modulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our previous study demonstrated that 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) attenuated EMT by blocking the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling pathway and activating ER stress in MDA-MB-231 cells. To further assess the detailed mechanisms between cholesterol metabolism, ER stress, and EMT, LXR-623 (an agonist of LXRα) and simvastatin were used to increase and decrease cholesterol efflux and synthesis, respectively. Here, we found that high HP-β-CD concentrations could locally increase cholesterol levels in the ER by decreasing LXRα expression and increasing Hydroxymethylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) expression in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells, which triggered ER stress and inhibited EMT. Meanwhile, tunicamycin-induced ER stress blocked the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. However, low HP-β-CD concentrations can decrease the level of membrane cholesterol, enhance the TGF-β receptor I levels in lipid rafts, which helped to activate TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, inhibit ER stress and elevate EMT. Based on our findings, the use of high HP-β-CD concentration can lead to cholesterol accumulation in the ER, thereby inducing ER stress, which directly suppresses TGF-β pathway-induced EMT. However, HP-β-CD is proposed to deplete membrane cholesterol at low concentrations and concurrently inhibit ER stress and induce EMT by promoting the TGF-β signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Cancer)
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27 pages, 5108 KiB  
Review
Cytoskeletal Arrest: An Anoxia Tolerance Mechanism
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080561 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3194
Abstract
Polymerization of actin filaments and microtubules constitutes a ubiquitous demand for cellular adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP). In anoxia-tolerant animals, ATP consumption is minimized during overwintering conditions, but little is known about the role of cell structure in anoxia tolerance. Studies of overwintering [...] Read more.
Polymerization of actin filaments and microtubules constitutes a ubiquitous demand for cellular adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP). In anoxia-tolerant animals, ATP consumption is minimized during overwintering conditions, but little is known about the role of cell structure in anoxia tolerance. Studies of overwintering mammals have revealed that microtubule stability in neurites is reduced at low temperature, resulting in withdrawal of neurites and reduced abundance of excitatory synapses. Literature for turtles is consistent with a similar downregulation of peripheral cytoskeletal activity in brain and liver during anoxic overwintering. Downregulation of actin dynamics, as well as modification to microtubule organization, may play vital roles in facilitating anoxia tolerance. Mitochondrial calcium release occurs during anoxia in turtle neurons, and subsequent activation of calcium-binding proteins likely regulates cytoskeletal stability. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation can lead to catastrophic cytoskeletal damage during overwintering and ROS production can be regulated by the dynamics of mitochondrial interconnectivity. Therefore, suppression of ROS formation is likely an important aspect of cytoskeletal arrest. Furthermore, gasotransmitters can regulate ROS levels, as well as cytoskeletal contractility and rearrangement. In this review we will explore the energetic costs of cytoskeletal activity, the cellular mechanisms regulating it, and the potential for cytoskeletal arrest being an important mechanism permitting long-term anoxia survival in anoxia-tolerant species, such as the western painted turtle and goldfish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Strategies in Hypoxia)
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9 pages, 984 KiB  
Communication
Multi-Modal Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Uveal Melanoma
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080560 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2870
Abstract
Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI), was used to obtain images of lipids and metabolite distribution in formalin fixed and embedded in paraffin (FFPE) whole eye sections containing primary uveal melanomas (UM). Using this technique, it was possible to obtain [...] Read more.
Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI), was used to obtain images of lipids and metabolite distribution in formalin fixed and embedded in paraffin (FFPE) whole eye sections containing primary uveal melanomas (UM). Using this technique, it was possible to obtain images of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) type lipid distribution that highlighted the tumour regions. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry images (LA-ICP-MS) performed on UM sections showed increases in copper within the tumour periphery and intratumoural zinc in tissue from patients with poor prognosis. These preliminary data indicate that multi-modal MSI has the potential to provide insights into the role of trace metals and cancer metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Metabolomics)
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9 pages, 1107 KiB  
Article
Fiber-Rich Barley Increases Butyric Acid-Producing Bacteria in the Human Gut Microbiota
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080559 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3210
Abstract
Butyric acid produced in the intestine by butyric acid-producing bacteria (BAPB) is known to suppress excessive inflammatory response and may prevent chronic disease development. We evaluated whether fiber-rich barley intake increases BAPB in the gut and concomitantly butyric acid in feces. Eighteen healthy [...] Read more.
Butyric acid produced in the intestine by butyric acid-producing bacteria (BAPB) is known to suppress excessive inflammatory response and may prevent chronic disease development. We evaluated whether fiber-rich barley intake increases BAPB in the gut and concomitantly butyric acid in feces. Eighteen healthy adults received granola containing functional barley (BARLEYmax®) once daily for four weeks. Fecal DNA before intake, after intake, and one month after intake was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to assess microbial diversity, microbial composition at the order level, and the proportion of BAPB. Fecal butyric acid concentration was also measured. There were no significant differences in diversities and microbial composition between samples. The proportion of BAPB increased significantly after the intake (from 5.9% to 8.2%). However, one month after stopping the intake, the proportion of BAPB returned to the original value (5.4%). Fecal butyric acid concentration increased significantly from 0.99 mg/g feces before intake to 1.43 mg/g after intake (p = 0.028), which decreased significantly to 0.87 mg/g after stopping intake (p = 0.008). As BAPB produce butyric acid by degrading dietary fiber, functional barley may act as a prebiotic, increasing BAPB and consequently butyric acid in the intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota Metabolites in Health and Disease)
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25 pages, 1546 KiB  
Review
Unravelling Plant Responses to Stress—The Importance of Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080558 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5396
Abstract
Climate change and an increasing population, present a massive global challenge with respect to environmentally sustainable nutritious food production. Crop yield enhancements, through breeding, are decreasing, whilst agricultural intensification is constrained by emerging, re-emerging, and endemic pests and pathogens, accounting for ~30% of [...] Read more.
Climate change and an increasing population, present a massive global challenge with respect to environmentally sustainable nutritious food production. Crop yield enhancements, through breeding, are decreasing, whilst agricultural intensification is constrained by emerging, re-emerging, and endemic pests and pathogens, accounting for ~30% of global crop losses, as well as mounting abiotic stress pressures, due to climate change. Metabolomics approaches have previously contributed to our knowledge within the fields of molecular plant pathology and plant–insect interactions. However, these remain incredibly challenging targets, due to the vast diversity in metabolite volatility and polarity, heterogeneous mixtures of pathogen and plant cells, as well as rapid rates of metabolite turn-over. Unravelling the systematic biochemical responses of plants to various individual and combined stresses, involves monitoring signaling compounds, secondary messengers, phytohormones, and defensive and protective chemicals. This demands both targeted and untargeted metabolomics approaches, as well as a range of enzymatic assays, protein assays, and proteomic and transcriptomic technologies. In this review, we focus upon the technical and biological challenges of measuring the metabolome associated with plant stress. We illustrate the challenges, with relevant examples from bacterial and fungal molecular pathologies, plant–insect interactions, and abiotic and combined stress in the environment. We also discuss future prospects from both the perspective of key innovative metabolomic technologies and their deployment in breeding for stress resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Plant Defence)
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12 pages, 706 KiB  
Article
Significance of Metabolite Ratios in the Interpretation of Segmental Hair Testing Results—Differentiation of Single from Chronic Morphine Use in a Case Series
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080557 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2154
Abstract
In morphine intoxication cases, forensic toxicologists are frequently confronted with the question of if the individual was opioid-tolerant or opioid-naïve, which can be investigated by hair analysis. However, interpretation of results can be challenging. Here, we report on hair testing for morphine and [...] Read more.
In morphine intoxication cases, forensic toxicologists are frequently confronted with the question of if the individual was opioid-tolerant or opioid-naïve, which can be investigated by hair analysis. However, interpretation of results can be challenging. Here, we report on hair testing for morphine and its metabolite hydromorphone following morphine intoxication without tolerance and upon chronic use. Two consecutive hair samples were collected after a non-fatal intoxication. Analysis comprised short hair segments and their initial wash water solutions. In the intoxications, morphine and hydromorphone levels were 3.3 to 56 pg/mg and at maximum 9.8 pg/mg, respectively. Both levels and hydromorphone to morphine ratios were significantly lower compared to chronic morphine use. In the non-fatal intoxication, the highest hydromorphone to morphine ratio was obtained in the segment corresponding to the time of intoxication. Morphine ratios of wash to hair were significantly higher in the intoxications compared to chronic use, being indicative of sweat/sebum contamination. We recommend including the analysis of hydromorphone and the initial wash solution in cases of morphine intoxications. Our study demonstrates that hydromorphone to morphine ratios can help in distinguishing single from chronic morphine use and in estimating the period of exposure when a consecutive hair sample can be collected in survived intoxications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolite Analysis in Forensic Toxicology)
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19 pages, 3409 KiB  
Article
Targeting Metabolic Reprogramming to Improve Breast Cancer Treatment: An In Vitro Evaluation of Selected Metabolic Inhibitors Using a Metabolomic Approach
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080556 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
Characteristic metabolic adaptations are recognized as a cancer hallmark. Breast cancer, like other cancer types, displays cellular respiratory switches—in particular, the Warburg effect—and important fluctuations in the glutamine and choline metabolisms. This cancer remains a world health issue mainly due to the side [...] Read more.
Characteristic metabolic adaptations are recognized as a cancer hallmark. Breast cancer, like other cancer types, displays cellular respiratory switches—in particular, the Warburg effect—and important fluctuations in the glutamine and choline metabolisms. This cancer remains a world health issue mainly due to the side effects associated with chemotherapy, which force a reduction in the administered dose or even a complete discontinuation of the treatment. For example, Doxorubicin is efficient to treat breast cancer but unfortunately induces severe cardiotoxicity. In the present in vitro study, selected metabolic inhibitors were evaluated alone or in combination as potential treatments against breast cancer. In addition, the same inhibitors were used to possibly potentiate the effects of Doxorubicin. As a result, the combination of CB-839 (glutaminase inhibitor) and Oxamate (lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor) and the combination of CB-839/Oxamate/D609 (a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibitor) caused significant cell mortality in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, two breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, all inhibitors were able to improve the efficacy of Doxorubicin on the same cell lines. Those findings are quite encouraging with respect to the clinical goal of reducing the exposure of patients to Doxorubicin and, subsequently, the severity of the associated cardiotoxicity, while keeping the same treatment efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR-Based Metabolomics: Investigating Biomarkers in Cancer Metabolism)
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10 pages, 505 KiB  
Article
Metabolomic Profile of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080555 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by structural deterioration of the aortic wall, leading to aortic dilation and rupture. The aim was to compare 183 low molecular weight metabolites in AAA patients and aorta-healthy controls and to explore if low molecular weight metabolites [...] Read more.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by structural deterioration of the aortic wall, leading to aortic dilation and rupture. The aim was to compare 183 low molecular weight metabolites in AAA patients and aorta-healthy controls and to explore if low molecular weight metabolites are linked to AAA growth. Blood samples were collected from male AAA patients with fast (mean 3.3 mm/year; range 1.3–9.4 mm/year; n = 39) and slow growth (0.2 mm/year; range −2.6–1.1 mm/year; n = 40), and from controls with non-aneurysmal aortas (n = 79). Targeted analysis of 183 metabolites in plasma was performed with AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. The samples were measured on a QTRAP 4500 coupled to an Agilent 1260 series HPLC. The levels of only four amino acids (histidine, asparagine, leucine, isoleucine) and four phosphatidylcholines (PC.ae.C34.3, PC.aa.C34.2, PC.ae.C38.0, lysoPC.a.C18.2) were found to be significantly lower (p < 0.05) after adjustment for confounders among the AAA patients compared with the controls. There were no differences in the metabolites distinguishing the AAA patients with slow or fast growth from the controls, or distinguishing the patients with slow growth from those with fast growth. The current study describes novel significant alterations in amino acids and phosphatidylcholines metabolism associated with AAA occurrence, but no associations were found with AAA growth rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipid Metabolism)
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16 pages, 3420 KiB  
Article
A Robust Method for Sample Preparation of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour for LC/MS Untargeted Metabolomics
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080554 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
Gastrointestinal stromal tumour has already been well explored at the genome level; however, little is known about metabolic processes occurring in the sarcoma. Sample preparation is a crucial step in untargeted metabolomics workflow, highly affecting the metabolome coverage and the quality of the [...] Read more.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumour has already been well explored at the genome level; however, little is known about metabolic processes occurring in the sarcoma. Sample preparation is a crucial step in untargeted metabolomics workflow, highly affecting the metabolome coverage and the quality of the results. In this study, four liquid-liquid extraction methods for the isolation of endogenous compounds from gastrointestinal stromal tumours were compared and evaluated. The protocols covered two-step or stepwise extraction with methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) or dichloromethane. The extracts were subjected to LC-MS analysis by the application of reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography to enable the separation and detection of both polar and nonpolar analytes. The extraction methods were compared in terms of efficiency (total number of detected metabolites) and reproducibility. The method was based on the stepwise extraction with MTBE, methanol, and water proved to be the most reproducible, and thus, its robustness to fluctuations in experimental conditions was assessed employing Plackett–Burman design and hierarchical modelling. While most studied factors had no effect on the metabolite abundance, the highest coefficient value was observed for the volume of MTBE added during extraction. Herein, we demonstrate the application and the feasibility of the selected protocol for the analysis of gastrointestinal stromal tumour samples. The method selected could be considered as a reference for the best characterization of underlying molecular changes associated with complex tissue extracts of GIST. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Tissue Metabolomics)
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13 pages, 1506 KiB  
Article
Acute Administration of Exogenous Lactate Increases Carbohydrate Metabolism during Exercise in Mice
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080553 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2711
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous lactate administration before exercise on energy substrate utilization during exercise. Mice were divided into exercise control (EX) and exercise with lactate intake (EXLA) groups; saline/lactate was administered 30 min before exercise. Respiratory gas was [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous lactate administration before exercise on energy substrate utilization during exercise. Mice were divided into exercise control (EX) and exercise with lactate intake (EXLA) groups; saline/lactate was administered 30 min before exercise. Respiratory gas was measured during moderate intensity treadmill exercise (30 min). Immediately after exercise, blood, liver, and skeletal muscle samples were collected and mRNA levels of energy metabolism-related and metabolic factors were analyzed. At 16–30 min of exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.045) and carbohydrate oxidation level (p = 0.014) were significantly higher in the EXLA than in the EX group. Immediately after exercise, the muscle and liver glycogen content and blood glucose level of the EXLA group were lower than those of the EX group. In addition, muscle mRNA levels of HK2 (hexokinase 2; p = 0.009), a carbohydrate oxidation-related factor, were higher in the EXLA than in the EX group, whereas the expression of PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4; p = 0.001), CS (citrate synthase; p = 0.045), and CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36; p = 0.002), factors related to oxidative metabolism, was higher in the EX than in the EXLA group. These results suggest that lactate can be used in various research fields to promote carbohydrate metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Metabolism)
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20 pages, 1783 KiB  
Article
A Metabolomic Analysis of the Sex-Dependent Hispanic Paradox
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080552 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2335
Abstract
In Mexican Americans, metabolic conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), are not necessarily associated with an increase in mortality; this is the so-called Hispanic paradox. In this cross-sectional analysis, we used a metabolomic analysis to look at the mechanisms behind [...] Read more.
In Mexican Americans, metabolic conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), are not necessarily associated with an increase in mortality; this is the so-called Hispanic paradox. In this cross-sectional analysis, we used a metabolomic analysis to look at the mechanisms behind the Hispanic paradox. To do this, we examined dietary intake and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) in men and women and their effects on serum metabolomic fingerprints in 70 Mexican Americans (26 men, 44 women). Although having different BMI values, the participants had many similar anthropometric and biochemical parameters, such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, which supported the paradox in these subjects. Plasma metabolomic phenotypes were measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A two-way ANOVA assessing sex, BMI, and the metabolome revealed 23 significant metabolites, such as 2-pyrrolidinone (p = 0.007), TMAO (p = 0.014), 2-aminoadipic acid (p = 0.019), and kynurenine (p = 0.032). Pathway and enrichment analyses discovered several significant metabolic pathways between men and women, including lysine degradation, tyrosine metabolism, and branch-chained amino acid (BCAA) degradation and biosynthesis. A log-transformed OPLS-DA model was employed and demonstrated a difference due to BMI in the metabolomes of both sexes. When stratified for caloric intake (<2200 kcal/d vs. >2200 kcal/d), a separate OPLS-DA model showed clear separation in men, while females remained relatively unchanged. After accounting for caloric intake and BMI status, the female metabolome showed substantial resistance to alteration. Therefore, we provide a better understanding of the Mexican-American metabolome, which may help demonstrate how this population—particularly women—possesses a longer life expectancy despite several comorbidities, and reveal the underlying mechanisms of the Hispanic paradox. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Clinical Metabolic Research)
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18 pages, 1065 KiB  
Review
Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children with Obesity, Preventive Diagnostics and Possible Interventions
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080551 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2796
Abstract
The increasing burden of obesity plays an essential role in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The effects of obesity on the cardiovascular system have also been demonstrated in childhood, where prevention is even more important. Obesity is associated with hormonal changes and vascular [...] Read more.
The increasing burden of obesity plays an essential role in increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The effects of obesity on the cardiovascular system have also been demonstrated in childhood, where prevention is even more important. Obesity is associated with hormonal changes and vascular dysfunction, which eventually lead to hypertension, hyperinsulinemia, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia and cardiac dysfunction—all associated with increased cardiovascular risk, leading to potential cardiovascular events in early adulthood. Several preventive strategies are being implemented to reduce the cardiovascular burden in children. This paper presents a comprehensive review of obesity-associated cardiovascular morbidity with the preventive diagnostic workup at our hospital and possible interventions in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Profiling of Cardiovascular Disease)
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15 pages, 2189 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Phytoestrogens in Medicago sativa L. and Grazing Beef Cattle
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080550 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
Phytoestrogens are plant-produced bioactive secondary metabolites known to play an integral role in plant defense that frequently accumulate in times of stress and/or microbial infection. Phytoestrogens typically belong to two distinct chemical classes; flavonoids (isoflavones) and non-flavonoids (lignans and coumestans). Upon consumption by [...] Read more.
Phytoestrogens are plant-produced bioactive secondary metabolites known to play an integral role in plant defense that frequently accumulate in times of stress and/or microbial infection. Phytoestrogens typically belong to two distinct chemical classes; flavonoids (isoflavones) and non-flavonoids (lignans and coumestans). Upon consumption by livestock, high concentrations of phytoestrogens can cause long-term disruption in reproduction due to structural similarities with mammalian estrogens and their tendency to bind estrogen receptors. Wide variation in phytoestrogen concentration has been reported in pasture legumes and corresponding silage or hay. Lucerne is a common perennial pasture legume in temperate climates, but information on phytoestrogen production or accumulation in grazing livestock is currently limited. Therefore, metabolic profiling using UHPLC-MS-QToF was performed to identify and quantitate key phytoestrogens in both fresh and dried lucerne fodder from replicated field or controlled glasshouse environments. Phytoestrogens were also profiled in the blood plasma of Angus cattle grazing field-grown lucerne. Results revealed that phytoestrogens varied quantitatively and qualitatively among selected lucerne cultivars grown under glasshouse conditions. Fresh lucerne samples contained higher concentrations of coumestans and other phytoestrogenic isoflavones than did dried samples for all cultivars profiled, with several exceeding desirable threshold levels for grazing cattle. Coumestans and isoflavones profiled in plasma of Angus heifers grazing lucerne increased significantly over a 21-day sampling period following experimental initiation. Currently, threshold concentrations for phytoestrogens in plasma are unreported. However, total phytoestrogen concentration exceeded 300 mg·kg−1 in fresh and 180 mg·kg−1 in dried samples of selected cultivars, suggesting that certain genotypes may upregulate phytoestrogen production, while others may prove suitable sources of fodder for grazing livestock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Metabolomics II)
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14 pages, 912 KiB  
Article
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Proteome Changes Profoundly in Milk
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080549 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) are detectable viable in milk and other dairy products. The molecular mechanisms allowing the adaptation of MAP in these products are still poorly understood. To obtain information about respective adaptation of MAP in milk, we differentially analyzed the [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) are detectable viable in milk and other dairy products. The molecular mechanisms allowing the adaptation of MAP in these products are still poorly understood. To obtain information about respective adaptation of MAP in milk, we differentially analyzed the proteomes of MAP cultivated for 48 h in either milk at 37 °C or 4 °C or Middlebrook 7H9 broth as a control. From a total of 2197 MAP proteins identified, 242 proteins were at least fivefold higher in abundance in milk. MAP responded to the nutritional shortage in milk with upregulation of 32% of proteins with function in metabolism and 17% in fatty acid metabolism/synthesis. Additionally, MAP upregulated clusters of 19% proteins with roles in stress responses and immune evasion, 19% in transcription/translation, and 13% in bacterial cell wall synthesis. Dut, MmpL4_1, and RecA were only detected in MAP incubated in milk, pointing to very important roles of these proteins for MAP coping with a stressful environment. Dut is essential and plays an exclusive role for growth, MmpL4_1 for virulence through secretion of specific lipids, and RecA for SOS response of mycobacteria. Further, 35 candidates with stable expression in all conditions were detected, which could serve as targets for detection. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD027444. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Omics Methods in Dairy Research)
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20 pages, 1164 KiB  
Review
l-Lactate: Food for Thoughts, Memory and Behavior
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080548 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3769
Abstract
More and more evidence shows how brain energy metabolism is the linkage between physiological and morphological synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Different types of memory are associated with differential inputs, each with specific inputs that are upstream diverse molecular cascades depending on the [...] Read more.
More and more evidence shows how brain energy metabolism is the linkage between physiological and morphological synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Different types of memory are associated with differential inputs, each with specific inputs that are upstream diverse molecular cascades depending on the receptor activity. No matter how heterogeneous the response is, energy availability represents the lowest common denominator since all these mechanisms are energy consuming and the brain networks adapt their performance accordingly. Astrocytes exert a primary role in this sense by acting as an energy buffer; glycogen granules, a mechanism to store glucose, are redistributed at glance and conveyed to neurons via the Astrocyte–Neuron Lactate Shuttle (ANLS). Here, we review how different types of memory relate to the mechanisms of energy delivery in the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroendocrine Control of Energy Metabolism)
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15 pages, 948 KiB  
Article
Uncoupling Thermotolerance and Growth Performance in Chinook Salmon: Blood Biochemistry and Immune Capacity
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080547 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3499
Abstract
Ocean warming and extreme sea surface temperature anomalies are threatening wild and domesticated fish stocks in various regions. Understanding mechanisms for thermotolerance and processes associated with divergent growth performance is key to the future success of aquaculture and fisheries management. Herein, we exposed [...] Read more.
Ocean warming and extreme sea surface temperature anomalies are threatening wild and domesticated fish stocks in various regions. Understanding mechanisms for thermotolerance and processes associated with divergent growth performance is key to the future success of aquaculture and fisheries management. Herein, we exposed Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to environmentally relevant water temperatures (19–20 °C) approaching their upper physiological limit for three months and sought to identify blood biomarkers associated with thermal stress and resilience. In parallel, blood biochemical associations with growth performance were also investigated. Temperature stress-activated leukocyte apoptosis induced a minor immune response, and influenced blood ion profiles indicative of osmoregulatory perturbation, regardless of how well fish grew. Conversely, fish displaying poor growth performance irrespective of temperature exhibited numerous biomarker shifts including haematology indices, cellular-based enzyme activities, and blood clinical chemistries associated with malnutrition and disturbances in energy metabolism, endocrine functioning, immunocompetence, redox status, and osmoregulation. Findings provide insight into mechanisms of stress tolerance and compromised growth potential. Biochemical phenotypes associated with growth performance and health can potentially be used to improve selective breeding strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Metabolism)
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18 pages, 846 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Metabolomic Biomarkers for the Intake of Sugar-Sweetened and Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080546 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3553
Abstract
Intake of added sugars (AS) is challenging to assess compared with total dietary sugar because of the lack of reliable assessment methods. The reliance on self-reported dietary data in observational studies is often cited as biased, with evidence of AS intake in relation [...] Read more.
Intake of added sugars (AS) is challenging to assess compared with total dietary sugar because of the lack of reliable assessment methods. The reliance on self-reported dietary data in observational studies is often cited as biased, with evidence of AS intake in relation to health outcomes rated as low to moderate quality. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major source of AS. A regular and high intake of SSBs is associated with an overall poor diet, weight gain, and cardiometabolic risks. An elevated intake of low-calorie sweetened beverages (LCSBs), often regarded as healthier alternatives to SSBs, is also increasingly associated with increased risk for metabolic dysfunction. In this review, we systematically collate evidence and provide perspectives on the use of metabolomics for the discovery of candidate biomarkers associated with the intake of SSBs and LCSBs. We searched the Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases until the end of December 2020. Seventeen articles fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We evaluated specificity and validity of the identified biomarkers following Guidelines for Biomarker of Food Intake Reviews (BFIRev). We report that the 13C:12C carbon isotope ratio (δ13C), particularly, the δ13C of alanine is the most robust, sensitive, and specific biomarker of SSBs intake. Acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, and steviol glucuronide showed moderate validity for predicting the short-term intake of LCSBs. More evidence is required to evaluate the validity of other panels of metabolites associated with the intake of SSBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics Meets Epidemiology)
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20 pages, 798 KiB  
Article
Maternal Plasma Metabolic Profile Demarcates a Role for Neuroinflammation in Non-Typical Development of Children
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080545 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3319
Abstract
Maternal and cord plasma metabolomics were used to elucidate biological pathways associated with increased diagnosis risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Metabolome-wide associations were assessed in both maternal and umbilical cord plasma in relation to diagnoses of ASD and other non-typical development (Non-TD) [...] Read more.
Maternal and cord plasma metabolomics were used to elucidate biological pathways associated with increased diagnosis risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Metabolome-wide associations were assessed in both maternal and umbilical cord plasma in relation to diagnoses of ASD and other non-typical development (Non-TD) compared to typical development (TD) in the Markers of Autism risk in Babies: Learning Early Signs (MARBLES) cohort study of children born to mothers who already have at least one child with ASD. Analyses were stratified by sample matrix type, machine mode, and annotation confidence level. Dimensionality reduction techniques were used [i.e, principal component analysis (PCA) and random subset weighted quantile sum regression (WQSRS)] to minimize the high multiple comparison burden. With WQSRS, a metabolite mixture obtained from the negative mode of maternal plasma decreased the odds of Non-TD compared to TD. These metabolites, all related to the prostaglandin pathway, underscored the relevance of neuroinflammation status. No other significant findings were observed. Dimensionality reduction strategies provided confirming evidence that a set of maternal plasma metabolites are important in distinguishing Non-TD compared to TD diagnosis. A lower risk for Non-TD was linked to anti-inflammatory elements, thereby linking neuroinflammation to detrimental brain function consistent with studies ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics of Autism Spectrum Disorder)
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20 pages, 2157 KiB  
Article
“Fuel for the Damage Induced”: Untargeted Metabolomics in Elite Rugby Union Match Play
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080544 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3934
Abstract
The metabolic perturbations caused by competitive rugby are not well characterized. Our aim is to utilize untargeted metabolomics to develop appropriate interventions, based on the metabolic fluctuations that occur in response to this collision-based team sport. Seven members of an English Premiership rugby [...] Read more.
The metabolic perturbations caused by competitive rugby are not well characterized. Our aim is to utilize untargeted metabolomics to develop appropriate interventions, based on the metabolic fluctuations that occur in response to this collision-based team sport. Seven members of an English Premiership rugby squad consented to provide blood, urine, and saliva samples daily, over a competitive week including gameday (GD), with physical demands and dietary intake also recorded. Sample collection, processing and statistical analysis were performed in accordance with best practice set out by the metabolomics standards initiative employing 700 MHz NMR spectroscopy. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis were employed to reveal the acute energy needs of this high intensity sport are met via glycolysis, the TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis. The recovery period after cessation of match play and prior to training recommencing sees a re-entry to gluconeogenesis, coupled with markers of oxidative stress, structural protein degradation, and reduced fatty acid metabolism. This novel insight leads us to propose that effective recovery from muscle damaging collisions is dependent upon the availability of glucose. An adjustment in the periodisation of carbohydrate to increase GD+1 provision may prevent the oxidation of amino acids which may also be crucial to allay markers of structural tissue degradation. Should we expand the ‘Fuel for the work required’ paradigm in collision-based team sports to include ‘Fuel for the damage induced’? Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Metabonomics Volume 2)
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13 pages, 317 KiB  
Review
Acyl-Coenzyme A: Cholesterol Acyltransferase (ACAT) in Cholesterol Metabolism: From Its Discovery to Clinical Trials and the Genomics Era
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080543 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4339
Abstract
The purification and cloning of the acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) enzymes and the sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT) genes has opened new areas of interest in cholesterol metabolism given their profound effects on foam cell biology and intestinal lipid absorption. The generation [...] Read more.
The purification and cloning of the acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) enzymes and the sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT) genes has opened new areas of interest in cholesterol metabolism given their profound effects on foam cell biology and intestinal lipid absorption. The generation of mouse models deficient in Soat1 or Soat2 confirmed the importance of their gene products on cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein physiology. Although these studies supported clinical trials which used non-selective ACAT inhibitors, these trials did not report benefits, and one showed an increased risk. Early genetic studies have implicated common variants in both genes with human traits, including lipoprotein levels, coronary artery disease, and Alzheimer’s disease; however, modern genome-wide association studies have not replicated these associations. In contrast, the common SOAT1 variants are most reproducibly associated with testosterone levels. Full article
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13 pages, 2240 KiB  
Article
A Mediation Approach to Discovering Causal Relationships between the Metabolome and DNA Methylation in Type 1 Diabetes
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080542 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
Environmental factors including viruses, diet, and the metabolome have been linked with the appearance of islet autoimmunity (IA) that precedes development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We measured global DNA methylation (DNAm) and untargeted metabolomics prior to IA and at the time of [...] Read more.
Environmental factors including viruses, diet, and the metabolome have been linked with the appearance of islet autoimmunity (IA) that precedes development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We measured global DNA methylation (DNAm) and untargeted metabolomics prior to IA and at the time of seroconversion to IA in 92 IA cases and 91 controls from the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY). Causal mediation models were used to identify seven DNAm probe-metabolite pairs in which the metabolite measured at IA mediated the protective effect of the DNAm probe measured prior to IA against IA risk. These pairs included five DNAm probes mediated by histidine (a metabolite known to affect T1D risk), one probe (cg01604946) mediated by phostidyl choline p-32:0 or o-32:1, and one probe (cg00390143) mediated by sphingomyelin d34:2. The top 100 DNAm probes were over-represented in six reactome pathways at the FDR <0.1 level (q = 0.071), including transport of small molecules and inositol phosphate metabolism. While the causal pathways in our mediation models require further investigation to better understand the biological mechanisms, we identified seven methylation sites that may improve our understanding of epigenetic protection against T1D as mediated by the metabolome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics Meets Epidemiology)
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27 pages, 1570 KiB  
Article
Using Porcine Jejunum Ex Vivo to Study Absorption and Biotransformation of Natural Products in Plant Extracts: Pueraria lobata as a Case Study
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080541 - 14 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2585
Abstract
Herbal preparations (HPs) used in folk medicine are complex mixtures of natural products (NPs). Their efficacy in vivo after ingestion depends on the uptake of the active ingredient, and, in some cases, their metabolites, in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, correlating bioactivities measured in [...] Read more.
Herbal preparations (HPs) used in folk medicine are complex mixtures of natural products (NPs). Their efficacy in vivo after ingestion depends on the uptake of the active ingredient, and, in some cases, their metabolites, in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, correlating bioactivities measured in vitro and efficacy in vivo is a challenge. An extract of Pueraria lobata rich in different types of isoflavones was used to evaluate the capacity of viable porcine small intestine ex vivo to elucidate the absorption of HP constituents, and, in some cases, their metabolites. The identification and transport of permeants across the jejunum was monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), combining targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling approaches. It was observed that the C-glycoside isoflavones were stable and crossed the intestinal membrane, while various O-glycoside isoflavones were metabolized into their corresponding aglycones, which were then absorbed. These results are consistent with human data, highlighting the potential of using this approach. A thorough investigation of the impact of absorption and biotransformation was obtained without in vivo studies. The combination of qualitative untargeted and quantitative targeted LC-MS methods effectively monitored a large number of NPs and their metabolites, which is essential for research on HPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Metabolism of Bioactive Compounds)
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14 pages, 3298 KiB  
Article
Plasma Metabolomics in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Abdominal Radiation Exposure
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080540 - 13 Aug 2021
Viewed by 2014
Abstract
The acute radiation syndrome is defined in large part by radiation injury in the hematopoietic and gastrointestinal (GI) systems. To identify new pathways involved in radiation-induced GI injury, this study assessed dose- and time-dependent changes in plasma metabolites in a nonhuman primate model [...] Read more.
The acute radiation syndrome is defined in large part by radiation injury in the hematopoietic and gastrointestinal (GI) systems. To identify new pathways involved in radiation-induced GI injury, this study assessed dose- and time-dependent changes in plasma metabolites in a nonhuman primate model of whole abdominal irradiation. Male and female adult Rhesus monkeys were exposed to 6 MV photons to the abdomen at doses ranging between 8 and 14 Gy. At time points from 1 to 60 days after irradiation, plasma samples were collected and subjected to untargeted metabolomics. With the limited sample size of females, different discovery times after irradiation between males and females were observed in metabolomics pattern. Detailed analyses are restricted to only males for the discovery power. Radiation caused an increase in fatty acid oxidation and circulating levels of corticosteroids which may be an indication of physiological stress, and amino acids, indicative of a cellular repair response. The largest changes were observed at days 9 and 10 post-irradiation, with most returning to baseline at day 30. In addition, dysregulated metabolites involved in amino acid pathways, which might indicate changes in the microbiome, were detected. In conclusion, abdominal irradiation in a nonhuman primate model caused a plasma metabolome profile indicative of GI injury. These results point to pathways that may be targeted for intervention or used as early indicators of GI radiation injury. Moreover, our results suggest that effects are sex-specific and that interventions may need to be tailored accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Analysis of Plasma)
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14 pages, 2009 KiB  
Article
Tailored Polymer-Based Selective Extraction of Lipid Mediators from Biological Samples
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080539 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2510
Abstract
Lipid mediators, small molecules involved in regulating inflammation and its resolution, are a class of lipids of wide interest as their levels in blood and tissues may be used to monitor health and disease states or the effect of new treatments. These molecules [...] Read more.
Lipid mediators, small molecules involved in regulating inflammation and its resolution, are a class of lipids of wide interest as their levels in blood and tissues may be used to monitor health and disease states or the effect of new treatments. These molecules are present at low levels in biological samples, and an enrichment step is often needed for their detection. We describe a rapid and selective method that uses new low-cost molecularly imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted (NIP) polymeric sorbents for the extraction of lipid mediators from plasma and tissue samples. The extraction process was carried out in solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, manually packed with the sorbents. After extraction, lipid mediators were quantified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MSMS). Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were evaluated to achieve optimal recovery and to reduce non-specific interactions. Preliminary tests showed that MIPs, designed using the prostaglandin biosynthetic precursor arachidonic acid, could effectively enrich prostaglandins and structurally related molecules. However, for other lipid mediators, MIP and NIP displayed comparable recoveries. Under optimized conditions, the recoveries of synthetic standards ranged from 62% to 100%. This new extraction method was applied to the determination of the lipid mediators concentration in human plasma and mouse tissues and compared to other methods based on commercially available cartridges. In general, the methods showed comparable performances. In terms of structural specificity, our newly synthesized materials accomplished better retention of prostaglandins (PGs), hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDoHE), HEPE, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE), hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) compounds, while the commercially available Strata-X showed a higher recovery for dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (diHETrEs). In summary, our results suggest that this new material can be successfully implemented for the extraction of lipid mediators from biological samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass Spectrometry-Based Lipidomics)
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12 pages, 1477 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Outcomes of Anaplerotic Dodecanedioic Acid Supplementation in Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (VLCAD) Deficient Fibroblasts
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080538 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2896
Abstract
Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD, OMIM 609575) is associated with energy deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction and may lead to rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy. Under physiological conditions, there is a fine balance between the utilization of different carbon nutrients to maintain the Krebs cycle. [...] Read more.
Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD, OMIM 609575) is associated with energy deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction and may lead to rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy. Under physiological conditions, there is a fine balance between the utilization of different carbon nutrients to maintain the Krebs cycle. The maintenance of steady pools of Krebs cycle intermediates is critical formitochondrial energy homeostasis especially in high-energy demanding organs such as muscle and heart. Even-chain dicarboxylic acids are established as alternative energy carbon sources that replenish the Krebs cycle by bypassing a defective β-oxidation pathway. Despite this, even-chain dicarboxylic acids are eliminated in the urine of VLCAD-affected individuals. In this study, we explore dodecanedioic acid (C12; DODA) supplementation and investigate its metabolic effect on Krebs cycle intermediates, glucose uptake, and acylcarnitine profiles in VLCAD-deficient fibroblasts. Our findings indicate that DODA supplementation replenishes the Krebs cycle by increasing the succinate pool, attenuates glycolytic flux, and reduces levels of toxic very long-chain acylcarnitines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inherited Metabolic Disease)
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24 pages, 13122 KiB  
Article
Detection of Lung Cancer via Blood Plasma and 1H-NMR Metabolomics: Validation by a Semi-Targeted and Quantitative Approach Using a Protein-Binding Competitor
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080537 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2818
Abstract
Metabolite profiling of blood plasma, by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, offers great potential for early cancer diagnosis and unraveling disruptions in cancer metabolism. Despite the essential attempts to standardize pre-analytical and external conditions, such as pH or temperature, the [...] Read more.
Metabolite profiling of blood plasma, by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, offers great potential for early cancer diagnosis and unraveling disruptions in cancer metabolism. Despite the essential attempts to standardize pre-analytical and external conditions, such as pH or temperature, the donor-intrinsic plasma protein concentration is highly overlooked. However, this is of utmost importance, since several metabolites bind to these proteins, resulting in an underestimation of signal intensities. This paper describes a novel 1H-NMR approach to avoid metabolite binding by adding 4 mM trimethylsilyl-2,2,3,3-tetradeuteropropionic acid (TSP) as a strong binding competitor. In addition, it is demonstrated, for the first time, that maleic acid is a reliable internal standard to quantify the human plasma metabolites without the need for protein precipitation. Metabolite spiking is further used to identify the peaks of 62 plasma metabolites and to divide the 1H-NMR spectrum into 237 well-defined integration regions, representing these 62 metabolites. A supervised multivariate classification model, trained using the intensities of these integration regions (areas under the peaks), was able to differentiate between lung cancer patients and healthy controls in a large patient cohort (n = 160), with a specificity, sensitivity, and area under the curve of 93%, 85%, and 0.95, respectively. The robustness of the classification model is shown by validation in an independent patient cohort (n = 72). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR-Based Metabolomics: Investigating Biomarkers in Cancer Metabolism)
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13 pages, 1475 KiB  
Review
Trefoil Factor Family Member 2: From a High-Fat-Induced Gene to a Potential Obesity Therapy Target
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080536 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
Obesity has its epidemiological patterns continuously increasing. With controlling both diet and exercise being the main approaches to manage the energy metabolism balance, a high-fat (HF) diet is of particular importance. Indeed, lipids have a low satiety potential but a high caloric density. [...] Read more.
Obesity has its epidemiological patterns continuously increasing. With controlling both diet and exercise being the main approaches to manage the energy metabolism balance, a high-fat (HF) diet is of particular importance. Indeed, lipids have a low satiety potential but a high caloric density. Thus, focusing on pharmacologically targetable pathways remains an approach with promising therapeutic potential. Within this context, trefoil factor family member 2 (Tff2) has been characterized as specifically induced by HF diet rather than low-fat diet. TFF2 has also been linked to diverse neurological mechanisms and metabolic patterns suggesting its role in energy balance. The hypothesis is that TFF2 would be a HF diet-induced signal that regulates metabolism with a focus on lipids. Within this review, we put the spotlight on key findings highlighting this line of thought. Importantly, the hypothetical mechanisms pointed highlight TFF2 as an important contributor to obesity development via increasing lipids intestinal absorption and anabolism. Therefore, an outlook for future experimental activities and evaluation of the therapeutic potential of TFF2 inhibition is given. Indeed, its knockdown or downregulation would contribute to an antiobesity phenotype. We believe this work represents an addition to our understanding of the lipidic molecular implications in obesity, which will contribute to develop therapies aiming to manage the lipidic metabolic pathways including the absorption, storage and metabolism via targeting TFF2-related pathways. We briefly discuss important relevant concepts for both basic and clinical researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic Health and Weight II)
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15 pages, 1925 KiB  
Article
Four Weeks of Probiotic Supplementation Alters the Metabolic Perturbations Induced by Marathon Running: Insight from Metabolomics
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080535 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4753
Abstract
Few data are available that describe how probiotics influence systemic metabolism during endurance exercise. Metabolomic profiling of endurance athletes will elucidate mechanisms by which probiotics may confer benefits to the athlete. In this study, twenty-four runners (20 male, 4 female) were block randomised [...] Read more.
Few data are available that describe how probiotics influence systemic metabolism during endurance exercise. Metabolomic profiling of endurance athletes will elucidate mechanisms by which probiotics may confer benefits to the athlete. In this study, twenty-four runners (20 male, 4 female) were block randomised into two groups using a double-blind matched-pairs design according to their most recent Marathon performance. Runners were assigned to 28-days of supplementation with a multi-strain probiotic (PRO) or a placebo (PLB). Following 28-days of supplementation, runners performed a competitive track Marathon race. Venous blood samples and muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were collected on the morning of the race and immediately post-race. Samples were subsequently analysed by untargeted 1H-NMR metabolomics. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified a greater difference in the post-Marathon serum metabolome in the PLB group vs. PRO. Univariate tests identified 17 non-overlapped metabolites in PLB, whereas only seven were identified in PRO. By building a PLS-DA model of two components, we revealed combinations of metabolites able to discriminate between PLB and PRO post-Marathon. PCA of muscle biopsies demonstrated no discernible difference post-Marathon between treatment groups. In conclusion, 28-days of probiotic supplementation alters the metabolic perturbations induced by a Marathon. Such findings may be related to maintaining the integrity of the gut during endurance exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Metabonomics Volume 2)
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30 pages, 2667 KiB  
Review
Metabolic Phenotypes in Asthmatic Adults: Relationship with Inflammatory and Clinical Phenotypes and Prognostic Implications
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080534 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3321
Abstract
Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease that affects individuals of all ages. It has a high prevalence and is associated with high morbidity and considerable levels of mortality. However, asthma is not a single disease, and multiple subtypes or phenotypes (clinical, inflammatory or [...] Read more.
Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease that affects individuals of all ages. It has a high prevalence and is associated with high morbidity and considerable levels of mortality. However, asthma is not a single disease, and multiple subtypes or phenotypes (clinical, inflammatory or combinations thereof) can be detected, namely in aggregated clusters. Most studies have characterised asthma phenotypes and clusters of phenotypes using mainly clinical and inflammatory parameters. These studies are important because they may have clinical and prognostic implications and may also help to tailor personalised treatment approaches. In addition, various metabolomics studies have helped to further define the metabolic features of asthma, using electronic noses or targeted and untargeted approaches. Besides discriminating between asthma and a healthy state, metabolomics can detect the metabolic signatures associated with some asthma subtypes, namely eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic phenotypes or the obese asthma phenotype, and this may prove very useful in point-of-care application. Furthermore, metabolomics also discriminates between asthma and other “phenotypes” of chronic obstructive airway diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or Asthma–COPD Overlap (ACO). However, there are still various aspects that need to be more thoroughly investigated in the context of asthma phenotypes in adequately designed, homogeneous, multicentre studies, using adequate tools and integrating metabolomics into a multiple-level approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in the Identification of Biomarkers of Asthma)
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