Next Article in Journal
Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children with Obesity, Preventive Diagnostics and Possible Interventions
Previous Article in Journal
l-Lactate: Food for Thoughts, Memory and Behavior

A Metabolomic Analysis of the Sex-Dependent Hispanic Paradox

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Amedeo Lonardo
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 552;
Received: 17 May 2021 / Revised: 13 August 2021 / Accepted: 17 August 2021 / Published: 20 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology and Clinical Metabolic Research)
In Mexican Americans, metabolic conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), are not necessarily associated with an increase in mortality; this is the so-called Hispanic paradox. In this cross-sectional analysis, we used a metabolomic analysis to look at the mechanisms behind the Hispanic paradox. To do this, we examined dietary intake and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) in men and women and their effects on serum metabolomic fingerprints in 70 Mexican Americans (26 men, 44 women). Although having different BMI values, the participants had many similar anthropometric and biochemical parameters, such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, which supported the paradox in these subjects. Plasma metabolomic phenotypes were measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A two-way ANOVA assessing sex, BMI, and the metabolome revealed 23 significant metabolites, such as 2-pyrrolidinone (p = 0.007), TMAO (p = 0.014), 2-aminoadipic acid (p = 0.019), and kynurenine (p = 0.032). Pathway and enrichment analyses discovered several significant metabolic pathways between men and women, including lysine degradation, tyrosine metabolism, and branch-chained amino acid (BCAA) degradation and biosynthesis. A log-transformed OPLS-DA model was employed and demonstrated a difference due to BMI in the metabolomes of both sexes. When stratified for caloric intake (<2200 kcal/d vs. >2200 kcal/d), a separate OPLS-DA model showed clear separation in men, while females remained relatively unchanged. After accounting for caloric intake and BMI status, the female metabolome showed substantial resistance to alteration. Therefore, we provide a better understanding of the Mexican-American metabolome, which may help demonstrate how this population—particularly women—possesses a longer life expectancy despite several comorbidities, and reveal the underlying mechanisms of the Hispanic paradox. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; macronutrient intake; micronutrient intake; LC-MS/MS; metabolomics; Hispanic paradox obesity; macronutrient intake; micronutrient intake; LC-MS/MS; metabolomics; Hispanic paradox
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Patterson, J.; Shi, X.; Bresette, W.; Eghlimi, R.; Atlas, S.; Farr, K.; Vega-López, S.; Gu, H. A Metabolomic Analysis of the Sex-Dependent Hispanic Paradox. Metabolites 2021, 11, 552.

AMA Style

Patterson J, Shi X, Bresette W, Eghlimi R, Atlas S, Farr K, Vega-López S, Gu H. A Metabolomic Analysis of the Sex-Dependent Hispanic Paradox. Metabolites. 2021; 11(8):552.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patterson, Jeffrey, Xiaojian Shi, William Bresette, Ryan Eghlimi, Sarah Atlas, Kristin Farr, Sonia Vega-López, and Haiwei Gu. 2021. "A Metabolomic Analysis of the Sex-Dependent Hispanic Paradox" Metabolites 11, no. 8: 552.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop