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l-Lactate: Food for Thoughts, Memory and Behavior

Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
Dipartimento di Neuroscienze “Rita Levi Montalcini”, Università degli Studi di Torino, 10124 Torino, Italy
Neuroscience Institute Cavalieri Ottolenghi, 10043 Orbassano, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Fuller
Metabolites 2021, 11(8), 548;
Received: 14 July 2021 / Revised: 2 August 2021 / Accepted: 11 August 2021 / Published: 20 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroendocrine Control of Energy Metabolism)
More and more evidence shows how brain energy metabolism is the linkage between physiological and morphological synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Different types of memory are associated with differential inputs, each with specific inputs that are upstream diverse molecular cascades depending on the receptor activity. No matter how heterogeneous the response is, energy availability represents the lowest common denominator since all these mechanisms are energy consuming and the brain networks adapt their performance accordingly. Astrocytes exert a primary role in this sense by acting as an energy buffer; glycogen granules, a mechanism to store glucose, are redistributed at glance and conveyed to neurons via the Astrocyte–Neuron Lactate Shuttle (ANLS). Here, we review how different types of memory relate to the mechanisms of energy delivery in the brain. View Full-Text
Keywords: lactate; glycogen; metabolism; behavior; learning lactate; glycogen; metabolism; behavior; learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Veloz Castillo, M.F.; Magistretti, P.J.; Calì, C. l-Lactate: Food for Thoughts, Memory and Behavior. Metabolites 2021, 11, 548.

AMA Style

Veloz Castillo MF, Magistretti PJ, Calì C. l-Lactate: Food for Thoughts, Memory and Behavior. Metabolites. 2021; 11(8):548.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Veloz Castillo, María F., Pierre J. Magistretti, and Corrado Calì. 2021. "l-Lactate: Food for Thoughts, Memory and Behavior" Metabolites 11, no. 8: 548.

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