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J. Intell., Volume 10, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 57 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Under the meta-reasoning model, giving up decisions reflects an adaptive metacognitive strategy, where individuals opt out of answering to minimise errors and resource costs. However, do individuals systematically vary in this behaviour, and if so, which variables does it relate to? We examined the factor stability in giving up tendencies across three cognitive tasks, and its relationship with on-task confidence, cognitive ability, decision-making styles, and academic performance. Our results suggest systematic individual differences in giving up, with all giving up tendencies defining one factor. This factor also appears to be adaptive, correlating positively with cognitive ability, rational decision making, and academic performance. Our findings provide a foundation for further research into giving up within meta-reasoning theory. View this paper
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19 pages, 354 KiB  
Article
Intelligence Process vs. Content and Academic Performance: A Trip through a House of Mirrors
by Phillip L. Ackerman
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040128 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2775
Abstract
The main purpose of modern intelligence tests has been to predict individual differences in academic performance, first of children, then adolescents, and later extending to adults. From the earliest Binet–Simon scales to current times, most one-on-one omnibus intelligence assessments include both process subtests [...] Read more.
The main purpose of modern intelligence tests has been to predict individual differences in academic performance, first of children, then adolescents, and later extending to adults. From the earliest Binet–Simon scales to current times, most one-on-one omnibus intelligence assessments include both process subtests (e.g., memory, reasoning) and content subtests (e.g., vocabulary, information). As somewhat parallel developments, intelligence theorists have argued about the primacy of the process components or the content components reflecting intelligence, with many modern researchers proposing that process constructs like working memory are the fundamental determinant of individual differences in intelligence. To address whether there is an adequate basis for re-configuring intelligence assessments from content or mixed content and process measures to all-process measures, the question to be answered in this paper is whether intellectual process assessments are more or less valid predictors of academic success, in comparison to content measures. A brief review of the history of intelligence assessment is provided with respect to these issues, and a number of problems and limitations of process measures is discussed. In the final analysis, there is insufficient justification for using process-only measures to the exclusion of content measures, and the limited data available point to the idea that content-dominated measures are more highly predictive of academic success than are process measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Human Intelligence—State of the Art in the 2020s)
28 pages, 1498 KiB  
Article
Students Can (Mostly) Recognize Effective Learning, So Why Do They Not Do It?
by Stephany Duany Rea, Lisi Wang, Katherine Muenks and Veronica X. Yan
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040127 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 9195
Abstract
Cognitive psychology research has emphasized that the strategies that are effective and efficient for fostering long-term retention (e.g., interleaved study, retrieval practice) are often not recognized as effective by students and are infrequently used. In the present studies, we use a mixed-methods approach [...] Read more.
Cognitive psychology research has emphasized that the strategies that are effective and efficient for fostering long-term retention (e.g., interleaved study, retrieval practice) are often not recognized as effective by students and are infrequently used. In the present studies, we use a mixed-methods approach and challenge the rhetoric that students are entirely unaware of effective learning strategies. We show that whether being asked to describe strategies used by poor-, average-, and high-performing students (Study 1) or being asked to judge vignettes of students using different strategies (Study 2), participants are generally readily able to identify effective strategies: they were able to recognize the efficacy of explanation, pretesting, interpolated retrieval practice, and even some interleaving. Despite their knowledge of these effective strategies, they were still unlikely to report using these strategies themselves. In Studies 2 and 3, we also explore the reasons why students might not use the strategies that they know are effective. Our findings suggest that interventions to improve learners’ strategy use might focus less on teaching them about what is effective and more on increasing self-efficacy, reducing the perceived costs, and establishing better habits. Full article
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15 pages, 840 KiB  
Article
The Relationships of Creative Coping and College Students’ Achievement Emotions and Academic Stress: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital
by Chenxin Xu and Qing Wang
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040126 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3997
Abstract
Creative coping is the use of creativity as a positive strategy when facing stress. The existing empirical investigation of creative coping is scarce, particularly in the field of educational psychology. The present study aims to explore the relationships of college students’ creative coping [...] Read more.
Creative coping is the use of creativity as a positive strategy when facing stress. The existing empirical investigation of creative coping is scarce, particularly in the field of educational psychology. The present study aims to explore the relationships of college students’ creative coping and their achievement emotions and academic stress as well as the underlying mechanism. The sample included 780 Chinese college students. The Creative Coping Scale, Positive Psychological Capital Questionnaire, Learning Stress Inventory for College Students, and the short version of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire were used. Statistical results showed that creative coping was positively related with students’ positive achievement emotions and negatively related with negative achievement emotions, but insignificantly with academic stress. Moreover, psychological capital played a mediating role in the relationship between creative coping and achievement emotions and in the relationship between creative coping and academic stress with a suppression effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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25 pages, 3623 KiB  
Article
Playful Testing of Executive Functions with Yellow-Red: Tablet-Based Battery for Children between 6 and 11
by Ricardo Rosas, Victoria Espinoza, Camila Martínez and Catalina Santa-Cruz
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040125 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3739
Abstract
Executive functions are psychological processes of great importance for proper functioning in various areas of human development, including academic performance. For this reason, from both clinical and educational perspectives, there is great interest in how they are assessed. This article describes the development [...] Read more.
Executive functions are psychological processes of great importance for proper functioning in various areas of human development, including academic performance. For this reason, from both clinical and educational perspectives, there is great interest in how they are assessed. This article describes the development and standardization process of Yellow-Red, an instrument for directly assessing executive functions in children between 6 and 11 years of age in a playful format using digital support. The test was based on a three-factor model of executive functioning: inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Yellow-Red comprises six subtests: cognitive inhibition, behavioral inhibition, auditory working memory, visual working memory, cognitive flexibility, and a global assessment test of executive functions. The test was administered to 245 boys and girls between 6 and 11 years of age. Along with the Yellow-Red subtests, gold standard tests were applied for each of the executive functions assessed. The test’s psychometric properties are powerful in both reliability and validity evidence. The reliability indices are all greater than 0.8. As evidence of convergent validity, correlations were established between the tests, and the tests considered gold standards. All correlations were significant, with values ranging between 0.42 and 0.73. On the other hand, the factor structure of the test was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. Although it is possible to demonstrate the progressive differentiation of the factor structure with age, it was only possible to find two factors at older ages, one for inhibition/flexibility and one for working memory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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27 pages, 3903 KiB  
Article
Predication of Writing Originality Based on Computational Linguistics
by Liping Yang, Tao Xin, Sheng Zhang and Yunye Yu
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040124 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Existing assessment methods of writing originality have been criticized for depending heavily on subjective scoring methods. This study attempted to investigate the use of topic analysis and semantic networks in assessing writing originality. Written material was collected from a Chinese language test administered [...] Read more.
Existing assessment methods of writing originality have been criticized for depending heavily on subjective scoring methods. This study attempted to investigate the use of topic analysis and semantic networks in assessing writing originality. Written material was collected from a Chinese language test administered to eighth-grade students. Two steps were performed: 1. Latent topics of essays in each writing task were identified, and essays on the same topic were treated as a refined reference group, within which an essay was to be evaluated; 2. A group of features was developed, including four categories, i.e., path distance, semantic differences, centrality, and similarity of the network drawn from each text response, which were used to quantify the differences among essays. The results show that writing originality scoring is not only related to the intrinsic characteristics of the text, but is also affected by the reference group in which it is to be evaluated. This study proves that computational linguistic features can be a predictor of originality in Chinese writing. Each feature type of the four categories can predict originality, although the effect varies across various topics. Furthermore, the feature analysis provided evidence and insights to human raters for originality scoring. Full article
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16 pages, 1395 KiB  
Systematic Review
Types of Intelligence and Academic Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Raquel Lozano-Blasco, Alberto Quílez-Robres, Pablo Usán, Carlos Salavera and Raquel Casanovas-López
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040123 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6530
Abstract
The concept of intelligence has been extensively studied, undergoing an evolution from a unitary concept to a more elaborate and complex multidimensional one. In addition, several research studies have focused their efforts for decades on the study of intelligence as a predictor of [...] Read more.
The concept of intelligence has been extensively studied, undergoing an evolution from a unitary concept to a more elaborate and complex multidimensional one. In addition, several research studies have focused their efforts for decades on the study of intelligence as a predictor of academic performance of students at different educational stages, being a stable and highly relevant predictor along with other variables such as executive functions, social context, culture or parental guardianship. Thus, the present study, based on a systematic review and meta-analysis, includes 27 studies with a total sample of 42,061 individuals. The main objective was to analyse the relationship between intelligence and academic performance using different predictive models that include moderating variables such as country of origin, type of intelligence, gender and age. The findings of this research highlight the significant, positive and moderate relationship between intelligence and academic performance (r = 0.367; p < 0.001), highlighting the predictive capacity on school performance when the type of intelligence (general and implicit; 35%) or the country of origin (45%) is taken as a moderating variable, with the explanatory models on age or sex not being significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that intelligence, in addition to being a good predictor of academic performance, is influenced depending on the type of intelligence or theoretical model taken as a reference, and also depending on the country or culture of origin. Full article
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20 pages, 1336 KiB  
Article
Do Domain Knowledge and Retrieval Practice Predict Students’ Study Order Decisions?
by Addison L. Babineau, Amber E. Witherby, Robert Ariel, Michael A. Pelch and Sarah K. Tauber
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040122 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
Learning complex concepts is necessary for student success, but it is often challenging. Learning such concepts can be influenced by students’ study order choices during learning to switch to a new category (interleaved study order) or stay within the same category (blocked study [...] Read more.
Learning complex concepts is necessary for student success, but it is often challenging. Learning such concepts can be influenced by students’ study order choices during learning to switch to a new category (interleaved study order) or stay within the same category (blocked study order). Students often prefer stay decisions during learning and make relatively few switch decisions; however, an open question is whether students’ switch decisions are related to their level of prior knowledge in the domain and the learning strategy they use (retrieval practice versus study). To examine these relationships, we recruited undergraduate students from an introductory geology course. Prior to the course modules on rock classification, students self-rated their knowledge, took a prior knowledge test, classified rock exemplars by completing study or retrieval practice trials, and made study order choices. Students then completed assignments and attended lectures in their geology course on igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Next, students self-rated their knowledge, took a new prior knowledge test, completed study or retrieval practice trials, made study order decisions, took final classification tests, and self-reported beliefs about study order choices. Even though students’ knowledge increased after course modules on rock identification, and most students believed that domain knowledge impacts study decisions, prior knowledge did not predict students’ switch decisions. In contrast, students who completed retrieval practice trials made substantially more switch decisions (i.e., interleaved study) than did students who completed study trials. Full article
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19 pages, 2545 KiB  
Article
Alpha Suppression Is Associated with the Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) State Whereas Alpha Expression Is Associated with Knowing That One Does Not Know
by Edmund Qian-Long Shen, David Friedman, Paul Alexander Bloom and Janet Metcalfe
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040121 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state is a spontaneously occurring metacognitive state that indicates that the answer to a query is almost, but not quite, at hand, i.e., that resolution is imminent. Since the time of William James, a distinctive feeling of nagging frustration has [...] Read more.
The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state is a spontaneously occurring metacognitive state that indicates that the answer to a query is almost, but not quite, at hand, i.e., that resolution is imminent. Since the time of William James, a distinctive feeling of nagging frustration has been observed to be associated with TOT states. On a more positive note, TOT states are also associated with intense goal-directed curiosity and with a strong desire to know that translates into successful mental action. The present study showed that prior to the presentation of resolving feedback to verbal queries—if the individual was in a TOT state—alpha suppression was in evidence in the EEG. This alpha suppression appears to be a marker of a spontaneously occurring, conscious, and highly motivating goal-directed internal metacognitive state. At the same time, alpha expression in the same time period was associated with the feeling of not knowing, indicating a more discursive state. Both alpha and alpha suppression were observed broadly across centro-parietal scalp electrodes and disappeared immediately upon presentation of the resolving feedback. Analyses indicated that the occurrence of alpha suppression was associated with participants’ verbal affirmations of being in a TOT state, which is also related to subsequent expression of a late positivity when feedback is provided, and to enhanced memory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metareasoning: Theoretical and Methodological Developments)
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19 pages, 1552 KiB  
Article
The Revision and Application of Aurora in China: Based on Successful Intelligence
by Li Cheng, Jinglu Yan, Xiaochen Ma, Xiaoyu Chen and Zhengkui Liu
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040120 - 6 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1940
Abstract
Aurora Battery is a corresponding test of successful intelligence. This study aims to examine the factorial structure of the Chinese version of Aurora Battery and to investigate its internal consistency and validity, as well as to discover the developmental features of Chinese students. [...] Read more.
Aurora Battery is a corresponding test of successful intelligence. This study aims to examine the factorial structure of the Chinese version of Aurora Battery and to investigate its internal consistency and validity, as well as to discover the developmental features of Chinese students. A total number of 2007 students were recruited from 13 schools across eastern, central, and western China, ranging from 4th to 8th grade (mean age = 12.29 years) and among them, 43.9% are girls. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the factorial structure. Among the tested models, a second-order factor model, in which the three ability factors serve as indicators of a general factor, provided an acceptable model fit to the data. Moreover, measurement invariance across gender and grades were supported, which suggests the mean scores of analytical, creative, and practical abilities are comparable in this research. The criterion-related validity analysis suggests that the battery and its three subscales have good criterion validity. The scale reliability analysis shows that the Cronbach’s alpha and the McDonald’s omega value of the whole test were .84 and .87, respectively, indicating the scale’s internal reliability is good. For ability differences among grades, students’ analytical and practical abilities increase across all grades, while creativity presents an upward trend from grade 4 to 6, followed by a downward trend from grade 6 to 7, and an increase from grade 7 to 8. Female students outperform male students on both analytical and creative ability, while with no obvious difference on practical abilities. Full article
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10 pages, 649 KiB  
Article
Darkness within: The Internal Mechanism between Dark Triad and Malevolent Creativity
by Zhenni Gao, Xinuo Qiao, Xiaobo Xu and Ning Hao
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040119 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3810
Abstract
The Dark Triad has been found to be associated with malevolent creativity (MC) in terms of trait level, and its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Based on the cognitive–affective processing system theory and the existing studies, the current study aimed to explore the internal [...] Read more.
The Dark Triad has been found to be associated with malevolent creativity (MC) in terms of trait level, and its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Based on the cognitive–affective processing system theory and the existing studies, the current study aimed to explore the internal mechanism between the Dark Triad and MC behavioral tendencies/performance. The results revealed that the Dark Triad is positively related to MC behavioral tendencies through trait aggression and general creativity behavioral tendencies. Regarding MC performance, the Dark Triad is positively related to the originality of malevolent ideas through MC behavioral tendencies, but this effect is only significant at low-to-medium levels of moral identity. In line with moral identity theory, a higher moral identity may prevent individuals from acting immorally due to their desire to maintain their moral image, which may further suppress malevolent idea generation. Therefore, cultivating moral identity may be an effective approach to weaken the Dark Triad–MC performance association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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15 pages, 520 KiB  
Case Report
Bored, Distracted, and Confused: Emotions That Promote Creativity and Learning in a 28-Month-Old Child Using an iPad
by Shiva Khalaf, Hechmi Kilani, Melissa B. Razo and Elena L. Grigorenko
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040118 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2902
Abstract
Digital technology is increasingly becoming a part of daily life, including the lives of children. Portable digital devices are omnipresent and integrated into activities that did not previously require them. The related skills are often referred to as 21st-century skills, constituting a new [...] Read more.
Digital technology is increasingly becoming a part of daily life, including the lives of children. Portable digital devices are omnipresent and integrated into activities that did not previously require them. The related skills are often referred to as 21st-century skills, constituting a new type of literacy: digital literacy. These devices and skills bring unique, innovative elements to the learning experience; yet, we do not know the extent to which behavior, emotion, and socialization are affected by such experience. For preschool-aged children, interactions with digital devices and games for the purposes of learning can lead to a state of confusion and boredom, an emotional driving force that may generate mind-wandering and exploration, which, in turn, may facilitate learning. Our interdisciplinary observational case study examined the behavioral patterns linked to digital game-based learning (DGBL) by observing how a child’s mind-wandering contributed to iPad use when they were allowed to freely engage with the device and explore independently during the learning process. Building on a previous case study of a 28-month-old boy, “Ryan”, we evaluated the effects of bouts of mind-wandering as he played various DGBL applications (apps) by examining the length of time that Ryan exhibited relevant affective and behavioral states, iPad manipulations, and social interaction during the playtime. Ryan’s interactions with the iPad were video recorded for five weeks, and the video footage was coded using a detailed rubric. The results indicated that negative emotions, such as boredom, distraction, and confusion, if coupled with attentiveness and persistence, led to positive mind-wandering and positive learning outcomes. However, when boredom was coupled with frustration, it led to negative mind-wandering and a lack of learning outcomes. In conclusion, our study presents evidence that DGBL apps may improve learning by capitalizing on positive and avoiding negative mind-wandering. Full article
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32 pages, 3786 KiB  
Article
Multidimensional Scaling of Cognitive Ability and Academic Achievement Scores
by Em M. Meyer and Matthew R. Reynolds
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040117 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3167
Abstract
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used as an alternate multivariate procedure for investigating intelligence and academic achievement test score correlations. Correlation coefficients among Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-5) and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third Edition (WIAT-III) validity sample scores and among [...] Read more.
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used as an alternate multivariate procedure for investigating intelligence and academic achievement test score correlations. Correlation coefficients among Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-5) and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third Edition (WIAT-III) validity sample scores and among Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition (KTEA-2) co-norming sample scores were analyzed using multidimensional scaling (MDS). Three-dimensional MDS configurations were the best fit for interpretation in both datasets. Subtests were more clearly organized by CHC ability and academic domain instead of complexity. Auditory-linguistic, figural-visual, reading-writing, and quantitative-numeric regions were visible in all models. Results were mostly similar across different grade levels. Additional analysis with WISC-V and WIAT-III tests showed that content (verbal, numeric, figural) and response process facets (verbal, manual, paper-pencil) were also useful in explaining test locations. Two implications from this study are that caution may be needed when interpreting fluency scores across academic areas, and MDS provides more empirically based validity evidence regarding content and response mode processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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17 pages, 376 KiB  
Concept Paper
The Intelligent Attitude: What Is Missing from Intelligence Tests
by Robert J. Sternberg
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040116 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4083
Abstract
Intelligence, like creativity and wisdom, has an attitudinal component as well as an ability-based one. The attitudinal component is at least as important as the ability-based one. Theories of intelligence, in ignoring the attitudinal component of intelligence, have failed to account fully or [...] Read more.
Intelligence, like creativity and wisdom, has an attitudinal component as well as an ability-based one. The attitudinal component is at least as important as the ability-based one. Theories of intelligence, in ignoring the attitudinal component of intelligence, have failed to account fully or accurately for why so many people who have relatively high levels of intelligence as an ability fail fully to deploy their ability, especially toward positive ends. The article reviews the need to view intelligence as comprising an attitude as well as an ability, and surveys reasons why people’s lack of an intelligent attitude hinders their deployment of intelligence. Suggestions are made for how things could change in a positive way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Human Intelligence—State of the Art in the 2020s)
18 pages, 1347 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Domain-Specific Creativity: The Mediating Role of Resilience and the Moderating Effects of Gratitude
by Dandan Tong, Hanxiao Kang, Minghui Li, Junyi Yang, Peng Lu and Xiaochun Xie
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040115 - 27 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3606
Abstract
Creativity incorporates both domain-general and domain-specific ideas. While previous studies have explored the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on creativity in both domains, a consensus has not been reached, and the mechanism is currently unclear. In the present study, we examined which aspect [...] Read more.
Creativity incorporates both domain-general and domain-specific ideas. While previous studies have explored the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on creativity in both domains, a consensus has not been reached, and the mechanism is currently unclear. In the present study, we examined which aspect of creativity EI was most strongly associated with in a group of undergraduates. Moreover, we explored the moderated mediation effect between EI and domain-specific creativity. In Study 1, 532 undergraduates completed questionnaires measuring EI, convergent and divergent creative thinking, and creative achievement. The results revealed that the most reliable positive correlations were between EI and domain-specific creativity. In Study 2, 926 undergraduates completed measurements of EI, resilience, gratitude, and creative achievement. The results revealed that resilience mediates the relationship between EI and creative achievement. Furthermore, gratitude moderated the indirect effect of EI on creative achievement through resilience. The indirect effect of EI on creative achievement was stronger for high-gratitude individuals than for low-gratitude individuals. This orientation and other results are discussed. Overall, our findings add further nuance to the relationship between EI and creativity in different domains. This study serves as a basis for other contributions aligned with these concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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20 pages, 1968 KiB  
Article
Prosodic Transfer in English Literacy Skills among Chinese Elementary-Age Students: Controlling for Non-Verbal Intelligence
by Jiexin Lin, Haomin Zhang and Xiaoyu Lin
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040114 - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Building upon the prosodic transfer hypothesis, the current study aims to examine the intermediary effect of English stress on the relation between Chinese lexical tone awareness and English word-level literacy (reading and spelling) as well as the moderating effect of English oral vocabulary [...] Read more.
Building upon the prosodic transfer hypothesis, the current study aims to examine the intermediary effect of English stress on the relation between Chinese lexical tone awareness and English word-level literacy (reading and spelling) as well as the moderating effect of English oral vocabulary proficiency on the cross-linguistic association. Grade 4 Chinese learners of English (N = 224) participated in this study and were assessed for their tone and stress sensitivity, English oral vocabulary, English word reading, and English word spelling. Mediated multivariate analyses with moderation were used to explore: (1) whether the influence of lexical tone perception on L2 word reading and spelling was mediated by English stress as posited in the prosodic transfer hypothesis; (2) whether the effects of tone on English word reading and spelling performance varied as a function of oral vocabulary levels. The findings revealed a direct positive relationship between Chinese tone and English word reading and spelling, and the relationship was mediated by English stress awareness. Furthermore, the direct pathway from tone to English word-level literacy skills were moderated by oral vocabulary and the relationship between tone and English word-level skills became stronger as oral vocabulary levels increased; however, such strength reached a plateau among children without adequate oral vocabulary skills. These findings suggest the necessity to incorporate word spelling as an outcome in the cross-suprasegmental phonological transfer models of early literacy development. Additionally, the current study endorses the complexity of cross-language prosodic transfer. It points to a precise threshold for sufficient L2 oral vocabulary skills to enable tone transfer in English word-level literacy attainment. Full article
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29 pages, 8566 KiB  
Article
A Validated Ontology for Metareasoning in Intelligent Systems
by Manuel F. Caro, Michael T. Cox and Raúl E. Toscano-Miranda
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040113 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Metareasoning suffers from the heterogeneity problem, in which different researchers build diverse metareasoning models for intelligent systems with comparable functionality but differing contexts, ambiguous terminology, and occasionally contradicting features and descriptions. This article presents an ontology-driven knowledge representation for metareasoning in intelligent systems. [...] Read more.
Metareasoning suffers from the heterogeneity problem, in which different researchers build diverse metareasoning models for intelligent systems with comparable functionality but differing contexts, ambiguous terminology, and occasionally contradicting features and descriptions. This article presents an ontology-driven knowledge representation for metareasoning in intelligent systems. The proposed ontology, called IM-Onto, provides a visual means of sharing a common understanding of the structure and relationships between terms and concepts. A rigorous research method was followed to ensure that the two main requirements of the ontology (integrity based on relevant knowledge and acceptance by researchers and practitioners) were met. The high accuracy rate indicates that most of the knowledge elements in the ontology are useful information for the integration of multiple types of metareasoning problems in intelligent systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metareasoning: Theoretical and Methodological Developments)
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21 pages, 1391 KiB  
Article
Cognitive and Developmental Functions in Autistic and Non-Autistic Children and Adolescents: Evidence from the Intelligence and Development Scales–2
by Salome D. Odermatt, Wenke Möhring, Silvia Grieder and Alexander Grob
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040112 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3417
Abstract
Autistic individuals often show impairments in cognitive and developmental domains beyond the core symptoms of lower social communication skills and restricted repetitive behaviors. Consequently, the assessment of cognitive and developmental functions constitutes an essential part of the diagnostic evaluation. Yet, evidence on differential [...] Read more.
Autistic individuals often show impairments in cognitive and developmental domains beyond the core symptoms of lower social communication skills and restricted repetitive behaviors. Consequently, the assessment of cognitive and developmental functions constitutes an essential part of the diagnostic evaluation. Yet, evidence on differential validity from intelligence and developmental tests, which are commonly used with autistic individuals, varies widely. In the current study, we investigated the cognitive (i.e., intelligence, executive functions) and developmental (i.e., psychomotor skills, social–emotional skills, basic skills, motivation and attitude, participation during testing) functions of autistic and non-autistic children and adolescents using the Intelligence and Development Scales–2 (IDS-2). We compared 43 autistic (Mage = 12.30 years) with 43 non-autistic (Mage = 12.51 years) participants who were matched for age, sex, and maternal education. Autistic participants showed significantly lower mean values in psychomotor skills, language skills, and the evaluation of participation during testing of the developmental functions compared to the control sample. Our findings highlight that autistic individuals show impairments particularly in motor and language skills using the IDS-2, which therefore merit consideration in autism treatment in addition to the core symptoms and the individuals’ intellectual functioning. Moreover, our findings indicate that particularly motor skills might be rather neglected in autism diagnosis and may be worthy of receiving more attention. Nonsignificant group differences in social–emotional skills could have been due to compensatory effects of average cognitive abilities in our autistic sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
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15 pages, 1725 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Infectious Disease Threat on Malevolent Creativity
by Mingzhe Zhao, Ke Zhang and Xiumin Du
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040111 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
The behavioral immune system (BIS), which evolved to protect humans from infectious disease threats, prompts people to be sensitive to disease-connoting cues. A common denominator of many disease-connoting cues is benign physical abnormalities, such as birthmarks and obesity. Previous studies found that among [...] Read more.
The behavioral immune system (BIS), which evolved to protect humans from infectious disease threats, prompts people to be sensitive to disease-connoting cues. A common denominator of many disease-connoting cues is benign physical abnormalities, such as birthmarks and obesity. Previous studies found that among people whose BIS was activated (e.g., people who were exposed to situational disease prime or chronically concerned about disease threat), disease-connoting cues could make people feel threatened by infectious disease and induce their malevolence. Malevolence is a necessary feature of malevolent creativity (MC), which is defined as creativity that deliberately leads to harmful or immoral results. According to the motivated focus account of creativity, a threat could promote creativity when creativity is relevant to the threat. Thus, infectious disease threats might increase malevolent creativity. However, whether infectious disease threats could influence MC is unknown. Therefore, the current study aims to explore the effect of infectious disease threat on MC by two disease-connoting cues (birthmark, obesity). In Study 1 (n = 174), a 2 (threat prime: infectious disease, natural disaster) × 2 (disease-connoting cue: birthmarked face, normal face) between-subjects design was used. Participants were asked to complete a malevolent creativity task (MCT). In Study 2 (n = 131), we used a perceived vulnerability to disease scale (PVD) to assess people’s dispositional tendencies of concerns about disease and selected high as well as low PVD participants. A 2 (PVD: high, low) × 2 (disease-connoting cue: obese, average-weight) between-subjects design was used. Participants were asked to complete the negotiation task to assess their MC. The results of Study 1 showed that, compared with participants in the normal face condition, participants in the birthmarked face condition showed higher MC fluency and total MC when they were exposed to situational disease prime. Compared with the natural disaster prime group, the infectious disease prime group showed higher MC fluency and total MC when they were provoked by a birthmark person. The results of Study 2 showed that, compared with the average-weight condition, the obese condition led to higher MC fluency and originality among high PVD participants. Compared with low PVD participants, high PVD participants showed higher MC fluency and originality when they negotiated with an obese person. Our studies suggest that among people whose BIS is situationally or chronically activated, birthmarks and obesity could increase MC, and people’s malevolent creativity might be induced by disease-connoting cues during the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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17 pages, 1238 KiB  
Article
Where Does Eureka Come From? The Effect of Unreportable Hints on the Phenomenology of Insight
by Artur Ammalainen and Nadezhda Moroshkina
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040110 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1985
Abstract
Insight interests researchers given its special cognitive mechanisms and phenomenology (an Aha! experience or Eureka moment). There is a considerable amount of research on the effect of hints on performance in insight problem solving. However, only a few studies address the effect of [...] Read more.
Insight interests researchers given its special cognitive mechanisms and phenomenology (an Aha! experience or Eureka moment). There is a considerable amount of research on the effect of hints on performance in insight problem solving. However, only a few studies address the effect of hints on the subjective experiences of solvers, and the picture their results provide is unclear. We analyze the effect of unreportable true and false hints on different dimensions of the Aha! experience (subjective suddenness, Aha! experience as an effect, and certainty). Using the processing fluency framework, we predict that true hints lead to more insights and stronger Aha! experience and certainty, while false hints lead to the opposite results due to the controlled inhibition of the inappropriate representation. The results showed that false hints decreased the chance of finding a correct solution. The true-hint condition did not lead to more correct solutions but made solutions feel sudden more often than the control condition. The ratings of the Aha! experience and certainty were higher for solutions obtained after true hints than after false hints. We obtained partial support for the effect of unreportable hints on “Eureka!” moments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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29 pages, 1870 KiB  
Article
When Type 2 Processing Misfires: The Indiscriminate Use of Statistical Thinking about Reasoning Problems
by Mário B. Ferreira, Jerônimo C. Soro, Joana Reis, André Mata and Valerie A. Thompson
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040109 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
Research on dual-process theories of judgment makes abundant use of reasoning problems that present a conflict between Type 1 intuitive responses and Type 2 rule-based responses. However, in many of these reasoning tasks, there is no way to discriminate between the adequate and [...] Read more.
Research on dual-process theories of judgment makes abundant use of reasoning problems that present a conflict between Type 1 intuitive responses and Type 2 rule-based responses. However, in many of these reasoning tasks, there is no way to discriminate between the adequate and inadequate use of rules based on logical or probabilistic principles. To experimentally discriminate between the two, we developed a new set of problems: rule-inadequate versions of standard base-rate problems (where base rates are made irrelevant). Across four experiments, we observed conflict sensitivity (measured in terms of response latencies and response confidence) in responses to standard base-rate problems but also in responses to rule-inadequate versions of these problems. This failure to discriminate between real and merely apparent (or spurious) conflict suggests that participants often misuse statistical information and draw conclusions based on irrelevant base rates. We conclude that inferring the sound use of statistical rules from normatively correct responses to standard conflict problems may be unwarranted when this kind of reasoning bias is not controlled for. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metareasoning: Theoretical and Methodological Developments)
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17 pages, 2592 KiB  
Article
The Creative Process and Emotions of Pupils in a Training Context with a Design Project
by Marion Botella, John Didier, Marie-Dominique Lambert and Rachel Attanasio
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040108 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
For many years, researchers have been investigating how the creative process occurs and what factors influence it. The scope of these studies is essential in the school context to enable pupils to develop their creativity and thus address the needs of the 21st [...] Read more.
For many years, researchers have been investigating how the creative process occurs and what factors influence it. The scope of these studies is essential in the school context to enable pupils to develop their creativity and thus address the needs of the 21st century society. Although very rich, these studies are generally not situated in a real teaching and learning context. The output of the present research will make it possible to model, to better understand, and to identify the creative process in pupils as they design and produce utility objects in an educational and training context with ecological validity (real context of training). In the context of teaching Creative and Manual Activities in education, in the French part of Switzerland, we are focusing on observations of the creative process in line with psychology, didactics, and pedagogy. During their class, 22 pupils were invited to create a water fountain and, in parallel, to complete a Creative process Report Diary about the stages they do and the multivariate factors (cognitive, conative, emotional, and environmental factors) they mobilize at each lesson. Results presented the main frequent stages and factors at each lesson and we proposed a model describing the transitions between the stages and how the multivariate factors are involved in each stage. They illustrate what pupils actually do in a creative learning context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotional Intelligence and Creativity)
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16 pages, 2653 KiB  
Article
Pupillometry as a Window into Young Children’s Sustained Attention
by Viridiana L. Benitez and Matthew K. Robison
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040107 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2566
Abstract
Sustained attention is critical to cognition, social competence, and academic success. Importantly, sustained attention undergoes significant development over the early childhood period. Yet, how sustained attention fluctuates over time on task has not been clearly outlined, particularly in young children. In this study, [...] Read more.
Sustained attention is critical to cognition, social competence, and academic success. Importantly, sustained attention undergoes significant development over the early childhood period. Yet, how sustained attention fluctuates over time on task has not been clearly outlined, particularly in young children. In this study, we provide a first test of whether the pupillary response can be used as an indicator of moment-to-moment sustained attention over time on task in young children. Children aged 5 to 7 years (N = 41) completed a psychomotor vigilance task, where they were asked to press a button as fast as possible at the onset of a target stimulus. We measured reaction times over the course of the task, pupil size prior to target onset (baseline pupil size), and pupil size in response to target onset (task-evoked pupil size). The results showed a stereotypical vigilance decrement in children’s response times: as time on task increased, reaction times increased. Critically, children’s task-evoked pupil size decreased over time on task, while no such change was present in baseline pupil size. These results suggest that young children’s waning sustained attention may be linked to a decrease in alertness while overall arousal is maintained. We discuss the importance of leveraging pupillometry to understand the mechanisms of sustained attention over individuals and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Development of Working Memory and Attention)
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13 pages, 366 KiB  
Review
Being Intelligent with Emotions to Benefit Creativity: Emotion across the Seven Cs of Creativity
by Daniel Sundquist and Todd Lubart
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040106 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3722
Abstract
In this review of emotion, emotional intelligence (EI) and creativity, we look at the various ways that these topics can be explored together using the seven Cs of Creativity as a structuring framework. The seven Cs of creativity are: creators, creating, collaborations, contexts, [...] Read more.
In this review of emotion, emotional intelligence (EI) and creativity, we look at the various ways that these topics can be explored together using the seven Cs of Creativity as a structuring framework. The seven Cs of creativity are: creators, creating, collaborations, contexts, creations, consumption and curricula, representing the different facets of creativity research. The question of emotion and creativity has a long historical lineage, which has led up to the study of intelligent and dynamic aspects of emotion and their impact on creativity. Previous and emerging work on EI, related emotional aspects and creativity offer promising ways to advance this field of research. However, we show that some aspects of creativity and EI are less explored than others. We offer several implications for the direction of future work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emotional Intelligence and Creativity)
14 pages, 358 KiB  
Article
Different Facets of Creativity in Employees Covering Non-Clinical to Clinical Manifestations of Burnout
by Elisabeth M. Weiss, Markus Canazei, Corinna M. Perchtold-Stefan, Christian Rominger, Ilona Papousek and Andreas Fink
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040105 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
Empirical studies exploring the relationship between burnout and creativity are very rare. In the present study, a well-defined group of clinical burnout patients (n = 75) and two groups of working people showing high (n = 39) vs. low burnout symptoms (n = [...] Read more.
Empirical studies exploring the relationship between burnout and creativity are very rare. In the present study, a well-defined group of clinical burnout patients (n = 75) and two groups of working people showing high (n = 39) vs. low burnout symptoms (n = 62) were investigated. Participants completed various creativity tests including self-assessed facets of creativity, as well as psychometric measures of figural and verbal creativity. Furthermore, we examined individual and clinical characteristics that may influence creativity in burnout patients, such as depression, sleep quality, daytime fatigue, and cognitive measures (i.e., selective attention and executive control). The clinical burnout group scored lowest in all creativity tasks and cognitive tests. Additionally, they showed lower nighttime sleep quality and higher depression scores. However, creativity scores in both groups of working people were largely comparable, indicating that only more severe (i.e., clinical) manifestations of burnout are linked to creativity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
20 pages, 1407 KiB  
Article
Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership: Meta-Analysis and Explanatory Model of Female Leadership Advantage
by Ning Hsu, Daniel A. Newman and Katie L. Badura
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040104 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 8054
Abstract
Emotional intelligence is a second-stratum factor of general intelligence (MacCann et al. 2014) that: (a) has been popularly touted as an essential individual difference for effective leadership (Goleman 1998), but also (b) exhibits large gender group differences favoring women (Joseph and Newman 2010). [...] Read more.
Emotional intelligence is a second-stratum factor of general intelligence (MacCann et al. 2014) that: (a) has been popularly touted as an essential individual difference for effective leadership (Goleman 1998), but also (b) exhibits large gender group differences favoring women (Joseph and Newman 2010). Combining these insights, we propose that emotional intelligence is a key mechanism in the so-called female leadership advantage (Eagly and Carli 2003—which emphasizes the finding that women are rated slightly higher in transformational leadership compared to men). The current study seeks to explain this gender leadership gap by specifying three personality-based theoretical mechanisms that enhance transformational leadership: (a) emotional intelligence (favoring women), (b) communion (stereotypical femininity; favoring women; Hsu et al. 2021), as well as an offsetting effect of (c) agency (stereotypical masculinity; favoring men). Meta-analytic data (including original meta-analyses among the leader’s ability-based emotional intelligence, transformational leadership, communion, and agency) are used to test our theorized model. Results confirm the full mediation model of female leadership advantage. Because the three unique mechanisms operate in different directions, their individual indirect effects are notable, but their cumulative indirect effect is small and near-zero. In conclusion, we emphasize incorporating emotional intelligence with other personality-based explanations of gender effects in leadership perceptions. Full article
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24 pages, 5547 KiB  
Article
WikiLink: An Encyclopedia-Based Semantic Network for Design Creativity
by Haoyu Zuo, Qianzhi Jing, Tianqi Song, Lingyun Sun, Peter Childs and Liuqing Chen
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040103 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Data-driven design is a process to reuse data sources and provide valuable information to provoke creative ideas in the stages of design. However, existing semantic networks for design creativity are built on data sources restricted to technological and scientific information. Existing studies build [...] Read more.
Data-driven design is a process to reuse data sources and provide valuable information to provoke creative ideas in the stages of design. However, existing semantic networks for design creativity are built on data sources restricted to technological and scientific information. Existing studies build the edges of a semantic network on statistical or semantic relationships, which are less likely to make full use of the benefits from both types of relationships and discover implicit knowledge for design creativity. Therefore, to overcome the gaps, we constructed WikiLink, a semantic network based on Wikipedia, which is an integrated source of general knowledge and specific knowledge, with broad coverage of disciplines. The weight in WikiLink fuses both the statistic and semantic weights between concepts instead of simply one type of weight, and four algorithms are developed for inspiring new ideas. Evaluation experiments are undertaken, and the results show that the network is characterised by high coverage of terms, relationships and disciplines, which demonstrates and supports the network’s effectiveness and usefulness. A demonstration and case study results indicate that WikiLink can serve as an idea generation tool for creativity in conceptual design. The source code of WikiLink and the backend data are provided open-source for more users to explore and develop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Creativity and Stimulating Creativity)
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22 pages, 1282 KiB  
Article
Stop Worrying about Multiple-Choice: Fact Knowledge Does Not Change with Response Format
by Benjamin Goecke, Marlena Staab, Catherine Schittenhelm and Oliver Wilhelm
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040102 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1992
Abstract
Declarative fact knowledge is a key component of crystallized intelligence. It is typically measured with multiple-choice (MC) items. Other response formats, such as open-ended formats are less frequently used, although these formats might be superior for measuring crystallized intelligence. Whereas MC formats presumably [...] Read more.
Declarative fact knowledge is a key component of crystallized intelligence. It is typically measured with multiple-choice (MC) items. Other response formats, such as open-ended formats are less frequently used, although these formats might be superior for measuring crystallized intelligence. Whereas MC formats presumably only require recognizing the correct response to a question, open-ended formats supposedly require cognitive processes such as searching for, retrieving, and actively deciding on a response from long-term memory. If the methods of inquiry alter the cognitive processes involved, mean-changes between methods for assessing declarative knowledge should come along with changes in the covariance structure. We tested these assumptions in two online studies administering declarative knowledge items in different response formats (MC, open-ended, and open-ended with cues). Item difficulty clearly increases in the open-ended methods although effects in logistic regression models vary slightly across items. Importantly, latent variable analyses suggest that the method of inquiry does not affect what is measured with different response formats. These findings clearly endorse the position that crystallized intelligence does not change as a function of the response format. Full article
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31 pages, 1403 KiB  
Article
When Memory and Metamemory Align: How Processes at Encoding Influence Delayed Judgment-of-Learning Accuracy
by Gregory Isaac Hughes and Ayanna Kim Thomas
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040101 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
Judgments of learning are most accurate when made at a delay from the initial encoding of the assessed material. A wealth of evidence suggests that this is because a delay encourages participants to base their predictions on cues retrieved from long-term memory, which [...] Read more.
Judgments of learning are most accurate when made at a delay from the initial encoding of the assessed material. A wealth of evidence suggests that this is because a delay encourages participants to base their predictions on cues retrieved from long-term memory, which are generally the most diagnostic of later memory performance. We investigated the hypothesis that different types of study techniques affect delayed JOL accuracy by influencing the accessibility of cues stored in long-term memory. In two experiments, we measured the delayed-JOL accuracy of participants who encoded semantically unrelated and weakly related word pairs through one of three study techniques: reading the pairs twice (study practice), generating keywords (elaborative encoding), or taking a cued-recall test with feedback (retrieval practice). We also measured the accessibility, utilization, and diagnostic quality of two long-term memory cues at the time of the delayed JOL: (a) retrieval of the target, and (b) noncriterial cues (retrieval of contextual details pertaining to the encoding of the target). We found that the accessibility of targets was positively associated with delayed-JOL accuracy. Further, we provide evidence that when study techniques enhance the accessibility of targets, they likewise enhance delayed-JOL accuracy. Full article
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9 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
The Future of Education as a Creative Ecosystem: A Sociocultural Framework for the Development of Creativity
by Felipe Zamana
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040099 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2752
Abstract
This article explores the social and educational impact post COVID-19 on education through the perspective of creativity. This is a reflective and forward-thinking piece of how creativity can transform the future of education. The article is structured into five parts. First, the opportunities [...] Read more.
This article explores the social and educational impact post COVID-19 on education through the perspective of creativity. This is a reflective and forward-thinking piece of how creativity can transform the future of education. The article is structured into five parts. First, the opportunities and barriers that COVID-19 offers in preparing students for an uncertain future. Second, the recognition of the vital role of creativity in the future. Third, the article discusses the value of creativity in education. Fourth, the teachers’ role in stimulating creativity and how its practices can be encountered in 21st-century education is commented on. Fifth, the last section presents perspectives for the future of education in an uncertain and complex world, introduces the concept of creative ecosystems for education, and summarizes the key points related to the aspects to which education should devote its efforts in the coming years. The article questions if more creativity-focused education is possible in the future and promotes a deep reflection in this particular context for teachers and educational institutions about the topics that need more attention during this time of change. Full article
12 pages, 853 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of the Relationship between Personality, Cognitive Ability, and Work Engagement in Intellectually Gifted Individuals
by Lindsey Macke, Flor de León, Tobias Hermansson and Petri Kajonius
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040100 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2193
Abstract
Do personality traits in highly intelligent individuals relate to their work engagement? Seemingly little is known about the relationship between personality and work engagement for gifted individuals. In what may be the first study to do so, a Swedish Mensa sample (n [...] Read more.
Do personality traits in highly intelligent individuals relate to their work engagement? Seemingly little is known about the relationship between personality and work engagement for gifted individuals. In what may be the first study to do so, a Swedish Mensa sample (n = 353) was explored with a two-part aim: to assess psychometric personality properties and to investigate the relationship between personality traits (Mini-IPIP6) and work engagement (UWES-9). The results of the Mensa members and the Mturk sample (1.4 SD lower in cognitive ability based on ICAR-16) were compared using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a regression. The findings indicated that the Mensa sample had higher openness (d = .50) and honesty-humility (d = .65) and that personality traits were similarly related to work engagement in both groups, with the exception that neither openness nor honesty-humility were related to work engagement in the Mensa sample. The characteristics of intellectually gifted individuals are further discussed. Full article
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