Next Issue
Volume 9, October
Previous Issue
Volume 9, August

J. Clin. Med., Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2020) – 380 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Plasma exchange and immunoadsorption constitute two different extracorporeal methods of apheresis which are frequently used in a large variety of neuroinflammatory diseases. Immunoadsorption is more selective and is generally considered advantageous with regard to safety in tolerability. However, our data show the importance of not only considering the choice of method, but also specific treatment regimens. By lowering the volume of exchanged plasma per day, we were able to significantly reduce the frequency of adverse events in plasma exchange, both compared to previous publications as well as compared to immunoadsorption. Efficacy of this approach must however be proven in future studies. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Phosphatidylethanol for Monitoring Alcohol Use in Liver Transplant Candidates: An Observational Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093060 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
Liver transplantation remains an essential procedure for many patients suffering from alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol use monitoring remains paramount all through the stages of this complex process. Direct alcohol biomarkers, with improved specificity and sensibility, should replace traditional indirect markers. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) has [...] Read more.
Liver transplantation remains an essential procedure for many patients suffering from alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol use monitoring remains paramount all through the stages of this complex process. Direct alcohol biomarkers, with improved specificity and sensibility, should replace traditional indirect markers. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) has been recently tested in alcoholic liver disease patients, but more evidence is needed, especially in comparison with other direct biomarkers. We conducted an observational study among patients awaiting liver transplantation. We analyzed Peth in blood, ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair and urine and ethylsulphate (EtS) in urine, using mass spectrometry methods. In addition, transaminases, and self-reports were analyzed. A total of 50 patients were included (84% men, mean age 59 years (SD = 6)). 18 patients (36%) screened positive for any marker. Self-reports were positive in 3 patients. EtS was the biomarker with more positive screens. It also was the most frequently exclusive biomarker, screening positive in 7 patients who were negative for all other biomarkers. PEth was positive in 5 patients, being the only positive biomarker in 2 patients. It showed a false negative in a patient admitting alcohol use the previous week and screening positive for EtG and EtS. Hair EtG was positive in 3 patients who had negative Peth, EtG. EtG did not provide any exclusive positive result.A combination of biomarkers seems to be the best option to fully ascertain abstinence in this population. Our study suggest EtS might also play a significant role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol, Brain, and the Liver: A Troubled Relationship)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of Psychological Distress and Sleep Quality on Balance Confidence, Muscle Strength, and Functional Balance in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older People
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3059; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093059 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
The objective was to evaluate the associations of psychological distress and sleep quality with balance confidence, muscle strength, and functional balance among community-dwelling middle-aged and older people. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted (n = 304). Balance confidence (Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale, [...] Read more.
The objective was to evaluate the associations of psychological distress and sleep quality with balance confidence, muscle strength, and functional balance among community-dwelling middle-aged and older people. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted (n = 304). Balance confidence (Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale, ABC), muscle strength (hand grip dynamometer), and functional balance (Timed Up-and-Go test) were assessed. Psychological distress and sleep quality were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Age, sex, physical activity level, nutritional status, and fatigue were included as possible confounders. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed. Higher values of anxiety (OR = 1.10), fatigue (OR = 1.04), and older age (OR = 1.08) were associated with an increased risk of falling (ABC < 67%). Greater muscle strength was associated with male sex and improved nutritional status (adjusted R2 = 0.39). On the other hand, being older and using sleeping medication were linked to poorer functional balance (adjusted R2 = 0.115). In conclusion, greater anxiety levels and the use of sleep medication were linked to a high risk of falling and poorer functional balance, respectively. No associations were found between muscle strength and sleep quality, anxiety, or depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Treatment of Sarcopenia)
Article
Motor Control Stabilisation Exercise for Patients with Non-Specific Low Back Pain: A Prospective Meta-Analysis with Multilevel Meta-Regressions on Intervention Effects
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3058; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093058 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Low-to-moderate quality meta-analytic evidence shows that motor control stabilisation exercise (MCE) is an effective treatment of non-specific low back pain. A possible approach to overcome the weaknesses of traditional meta-analyses would be that of a prospective meta-analyses. The aim of the present analysis [...] Read more.
Low-to-moderate quality meta-analytic evidence shows that motor control stabilisation exercise (MCE) is an effective treatment of non-specific low back pain. A possible approach to overcome the weaknesses of traditional meta-analyses would be that of a prospective meta-analyses. The aim of the present analysis was to generate high-quality evidence to support the view that motor control stabilisation exercises (MCE) lead to a reduction in pain intensity and disability in non-specific low back pain patients when compared to a control group. In this prospective meta-analysis and sensitivity multilevel meta-regression within the MiSpEx-Network, 18 randomized controlled study arms were included. Participants with non-specific low back pain were allocated to an intervention (individualized MCE, 12 weeks) or a control group (no additive exercise intervention). From each study site/arm, outcomes at baseline, 3 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months were pooled. The outcomes were current pain (NRS or VAS, 11 points scale), characteristic pain intensity, and subjective disability. A random effects meta-analysis model for continuous outcomes to display standardized mean differences between intervention and control was performed, followed by sensitivity multilevel meta-regressions. Overall, 2391 patients were randomized; 1976 (3 weeks, short-term), 1740 (12 weeks, intermediate), and 1560 (6 months, sustainability) participants were included in the meta-analyses. In the short-term, intermediate and sustainability, moderate-to-high quality evidence indicated that MCE has a larger effect on current pain (SMD = −0.15, −0.15, −0.19), pain intensity (SMD = −0.19, −0.26, −0.26) and disability (SMD = −0.15, −0.27, −0.25) compared with no exercise intervention. Low-quality evidence suggested that those patients with comparably intermediate current pain and older patients may profit the most from MCE. Motor control stabilisation exercise is an effective treatment for non-specific low back pain. Sub-clinical intermediate pain and middle-aged patients may profit the most from this intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improved Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Pain)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Contributions of Major Cell Populations to Sjögren’s Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3057; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093057 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a female dominated autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration into salivary and lacrimal glands and subsequent exocrine glandular dysfunction. SS also may exhibit a broad array of extraglandular manifestations including an elevated incidence of non-Hodgkin’s B cell lymphoma. The [...] Read more.
Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a female dominated autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration into salivary and lacrimal glands and subsequent exocrine glandular dysfunction. SS also may exhibit a broad array of extraglandular manifestations including an elevated incidence of non-Hodgkin’s B cell lymphoma. The etiology of SS remains poorly understood, yet progress has been made in identifying progressive stages of disease using preclinical mouse models. The roles played by immune cell subtypes within these stages of disease are becoming increasingly well understood, though significant gaps in knowledge still remain. There is evidence for distinct involvement from both innate and adaptive immune cells, where cells of the innate immune system establish a proinflammatory environment characterized by a type I interferon (IFN) signature that facilitates propagation of the disease by further activating T and B cell subsets to generate autoantibodies and participate in glandular destruction. This review will discuss the evidence for participation in disease pathogenesis by various classes of immune cells and glandular epithelial cells based upon data from both preclinical mouse models and human patients. Further examination of the contributions of glandular and immune cell subtypes to SS will be necessary to identify additional therapeutic targets that may lead to better management of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diseases of the Salivary Glands)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characterization of Fetal Thyroid Levels at Delivery among Appalachian Infants
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3056; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093056 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Thyroid disorders are a frequently encountered issue during pregnancy and a cause of maternal and fetal morbidity. In regions like Appalachia that are particularly susceptible to health disparities, descriptive studies are needed to assist in identifying pathologic derangements. We sought to characterize fetal [...] Read more.
Thyroid disorders are a frequently encountered issue during pregnancy and a cause of maternal and fetal morbidity. In regions like Appalachia that are particularly susceptible to health disparities, descriptive studies are needed to assist in identifying pathologic derangements. We sought to characterize fetal thyroid hormone levels at delivery and investigate whether or not maternal demographic characteristics affect the prevalence of neonatal thyroid disease. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 130 pregnant women recruited from the Tri-State region, incorporating areas of Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia. Total triiodothyronine (T3) (p = 0.4799), free T3 (p = 0.6323), T3 uptake (p = 0.0926), total thyroxine (T4) (p = 0.8316), free T4 (p = 0.0566), and Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (p = 0.8745) levels were comparable between urban and rural newborns. We found no effect of hypertension status or nicotine levels on fetal umbilical cord thyroid hormone levels. Maternal diabetic status was associated with lower T4 (p = 0.0099) and free T4 (p = 0.0025) levels. Cotinine affected levels of T4 (p = 0.0339). In regard to maternal Body Mass Index (BMI), there was an increase in total T3 as BMI increased (p = 0.0367) and no significant difference in free T3, T3 uptake, T4, free T4, or TSH. There was a negative correlation between TSH and 1 min Apgar scores (p = 0.0058). Lead and cadmium have been implicated to alter TSH levels, but no correlation was found in our study (r2 = 0.0277). There were no differences in cord blood between urban (37.3 ± 10.3 fmol/ug DNA) and rural (70.5 ± 26.8 fmol/ug DNA) benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts (p = 0.174). Thyroid disorders present a unique opportunity for the prevention of perinatal morbidity and mortality, since maternal treatment, as well as maternal demographic characteristics, can have direct fetal effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Frequency of, and Factors Associated with Prolonged Hospitalization: A Multicentre Study in Victoria, Australia
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3055; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093055 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Background: Limited available evidence suggests that a small proportion of inpatients undergo prolonged hospitalization and use a disproportionate number of bed days. Understanding the factors contributing to prolonged hospitalization may improve patient care and reduce the length of stay in such patients. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Limited available evidence suggests that a small proportion of inpatients undergo prolonged hospitalization and use a disproportionate number of bed days. Understanding the factors contributing to prolonged hospitalization may improve patient care and reduce the length of stay in such patients. Methods: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of adult (≥20 years) patients admitted for at least 24 h between 14 November 2016 and 14 November 2018 to hospitals in Victoria, Australia. Data including baseline demographics, admitting specialty, survival status and discharge disposition were obtained from the Victorian Admission Episode Dataset. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with prolonged hospitalization (≥14 days). Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to examine the association between various factors and in-hospital mortality. Results: There were almost 5 million hospital admissions over two years. After exclusions, 1,696,112 admissions lasting at least 24 h were included. Admissions with prolonged hospitalization comprised only 9.7% of admissions but utilized 44.2% of all hospital bed days. Factors independently associated with prolonged hospitalization included age, female gender, not being in a relationship, being a current smoker, level of co-morbidity, admission from another hospital, admission on the weekend, and the number of admissions in the prior 12 months. The in-hospital mortality rate was 5.0% for those with prolonged hospitalization compared with 1.8% in those without (p < 0.001). Prolonged hospitalization was also independently associated with a decreased likelihood of being discharged to home (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.52–0.54). Conclusions: Patients experiencing prolonged hospitalization utilize a disproportionate proportion of bed days and are at higher risk of in-hospital death and discharge to destinations other than home. Further studies are required to identify modifiable factors contributing to prolonged hospitalization as well as the quality of end-of-life care in such admissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology & Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of an Amino Acid Mix on the Secretion of Gastrointestinal Peptides, Glucometabolic Homeostasis, and Appetite in Obese Adolescents Administered with a Fixed-Dose or ad Libitum Meal
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3054; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093054 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 536
Abstract
Proteins have been demonstrated to reduce food intake in animals and humans via peripheral and central mechanisms. Supplementation of a dietetic regimen with single or mixed amino acids might represent an approach to improve the effectiveness of any body weight reduction program in [...] Read more.
Proteins have been demonstrated to reduce food intake in animals and humans via peripheral and central mechanisms. Supplementation of a dietetic regimen with single or mixed amino acids might represent an approach to improve the effectiveness of any body weight reduction program in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an amino acid mix (L-arginine + L-leucine + L-glutamine + L-tryptophan) on the secretion of some gastrointestinal peptides (i.e., ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide type 1, GLP-1), glucometabolic homeostasis (i.e., glucose, insulin, and glucagon), and appetite (hunger/satiety scored by visual analogue scale, VAS) in obese adolescents (n = 14; 10 females and 4 males; age: 16.6 ± 1.0 years; body mass index (BMI): 36.4 ± 4.6 kg/m²; fat-free mass (FFM): 54.9 ± 4.7%; fat mass (FM): 45.1 ± 4.4%) administered with a fixed-dose (lunch) or ad libitum (dinner) meal. Isocaloric maltodextrins were used as control treatment. During the lunch test, a significant increase in circulating levels of GLP-1, but not of ghrelin, was observed in the amino acid-treated group, which was congruent with significant changes in appetite, i.e., increase in satiety and decrease in hunger. A significant hyperglycemia was found in the maltodextrin-treated group during the prelunch period, without any significant changes in insulin and glucagon between the two groups. During the dinner test, there were no significant differences in appetite (hunger/satiety) and intake of calories. In conclusion, L-arginine, L-leucine, L-glutamine, and L-tryptophan, when administered to obese adolescents with a fixed-dose meal, are capable of evoking an anorexigenic response, which is, at least in part, mediated by an increase in GLP-1 released in circulation by L cells, which are capable of chemosensing specific amino acids present in the intestinal lumen. Further additional studies are requested to understand whether higher doses are necessary to inhibit ad libitum feeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Monomeric C-Reactive Protein Aggravates Secondary Degeneration after Intracerebral Haemorrhagic Stroke and May Function as a Sensor for Systemic Inflammation
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3053; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093053 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
Background: We previously identified increased tissue localization of monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP) in the infarcted cortical brain tissue of patients following ischaemic stroke. Here, we investigated the relationship of mCRP expression in haemorrhagic stroke, and additionally examined the capacity of mCRP to travel [...] Read more.
Background: We previously identified increased tissue localization of monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP) in the infarcted cortical brain tissue of patients following ischaemic stroke. Here, we investigated the relationship of mCRP expression in haemorrhagic stroke, and additionally examined the capacity of mCRP to travel to or appear at other locations within the brain that might account for later chronic neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative effects. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed on Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archived brain tissue blocks obtained at autopsy from stroke patients and age-matched controls. We modelled mCRP migration into the brain after haemorrhagic stroke by infusing mCRP (3.5 µg) into the hippocampus of mice and localized mCRP with histological and immunohistochemistry methods. Results: On human tissue in the early stages of haemorrhage, there was no staining of mCRP. However, with increasing post-stroke survival time, mCRP immunostaining was associated with some parenchymal brain cells, some stroke-affected neurons in the surrounding areas and the lumen of large blood vessels as well as brain capillaries. Further from the peri-haematoma region, however, mCRP was detected in the lumen of micro-vessels expressing aquaporin 4 (AQP4). In the hypothalamus, we detected clusters of neurons loaded with mCRP along with scattered lipofuscin-like deposits. In the peri-haematoma region of patients, mCRP was abundantly seen adjacent to AQP4 immunoreactivity. When we stereotactically injected mCRP into the hippocampus of mice, we also observed strong expression in distant neurones of the hypothalamus as well as cortical capillaries. Conclusions: mCRP is abundantly expressed in the brain after haemorrhagic stroke, directly impacting the pathophysiological development of the haematoma. In addition, it may have indirect effects, where the microcirculatory system appears to be able to carry it throughout the cortex as far as the hypothalamus, allowing for long-distance effects and damage through its capacity to induce inflammation and degenerate neuronal perivascular compartments. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Quantitative Analysis of Somatostatin and Dopamine Receptors Gene Expression Levels in Non-functioning Pituitary Tumors and Association with Clinical and Molecular Aggressiveness Features
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3052; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093052 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 617
Abstract
The primary treatment for non-functioning pituitary tumors (NFPTs) is surgery, but it is often unsuccessful. Previous studies have reported that NFPTs express receptors for somatostatin (SST1-5) and dopamine (DRDs) providing a rationale for the use of dopamine agonists and somatostatin analogues. [...] Read more.
The primary treatment for non-functioning pituitary tumors (NFPTs) is surgery, but it is often unsuccessful. Previous studies have reported that NFPTs express receptors for somatostatin (SST1-5) and dopamine (DRDs) providing a rationale for the use of dopamine agonists and somatostatin analogues. Here, we systematically assessed SST1-5 and DRDs expression by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in a large group of patients with NFPTs (n = 113) and analyzed their potential association with clinical and molecular aggressiveness features. SST1-5 expression was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry. SST3 was the predominant SST subtype detected, followed by SST2, SST5, and SST1. DRD2 was the dominant DRD subtype, followed by DRD4, DRD5, and DRD1. A substantial proportion of NFPTs displayed marked expression of SST2 and SST5. No major association between SSTs and DRDs expression and clinical and molecular aggressiveness features was observed in NFPTs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Syndecan-4 as a Marker of Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Resistant Hypertension
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093051 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
(1) Background: Arterial hypertension (HTN) is one of the most relevant cardiovascular risk factors. Nowadays multiple pharmaceutical treatment options exist with novel interventional methods (e.g., baroreflex activation therapy (BAT)) as a last resort to treat patients with resistant HTN. Although pathophysiology behind resistant [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Arterial hypertension (HTN) is one of the most relevant cardiovascular risk factors. Nowadays multiple pharmaceutical treatment options exist with novel interventional methods (e.g., baroreflex activation therapy (BAT)) as a last resort to treat patients with resistant HTN. Although pathophysiology behind resistant HTN is still not fully understood. There is evidence that selected biomarkers may be involved in the pathophysiology of HTN. (2) Methods: We investigated serum SDC4-levels in patients suffering from resistant HTN before and 6 months after BAT implantation. We collected 19 blood samples from patients with resistant HTN and blood pressure above target and measured serum SDC4-levels. (3) Results: Our results showed high serum SDC4-levels in patients with resistant HTN as compared to a healthy population. Patients with both, resistant HTN and diabetes mellitus type II, demonstrated higher serum SDC4-levels. β-blockers had lowering effects on serum SDC4-levels, whereas calcium channel blockers were associated with higher levels of serum SDC4. BAT implantation did not lead to a significant difference in serum SDC4-levels after 6 months of therapy. (4) Conclusion: Based on our results we propose SDC4 is elevated in patients suffering from resistant HTN. Thus, SDC4 might be a potential marker for endothelial dysfunction in patients with resistant hypertension. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Uninterrupted Dabigatran Administration Provides Greater Inhibition against Intracardiac Activation of Hemostasis as Compared to Vitamin K Antagonists during Cryoballoon Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3050; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093050 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 671
Abstract
Background. Cerebral thromboembolism is a rare but feared complication of transcatheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Here, we aimed to test which pre-procedural anticoagulation strategy results in less intracardiac activation of hemostasis during ablation. Patients and methods. In this observational study, [...] Read more.
Background. Cerebral thromboembolism is a rare but feared complication of transcatheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Here, we aimed to test which pre-procedural anticoagulation strategy results in less intracardiac activation of hemostasis during ablation. Patients and methods. In this observational study, 54 paroxysmal/persistent AF patients undergoing cryoballoon ablation were grouped according to their periprocedural anticoagulation strategy: no anticoagulation (oral anticoagulation (OAC) free; n = 24), uninterrupted vitamin K antagonists (VKA) (n = 11), uninterrupted dabigatran (n = 17). Blood was drawn from the left atrium before and immediately after the ablation procedure. Cryoablations were performed according to standard protocols, during which heparin was administered. Heparin-insensitive markers of hemostasis and endothelial damage were tested from intracardiac samples: D-dimer, quantitative fibrin monomer (FM), plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP), von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen, chromogenic factor VIII (FVIII) activity. Results. D-dimer increased significantly in all groups post-ablation, with lowest levels in the dabigatran group (median [interquartile range]: 0.27 [0.36] vs. 1.09 [1.30] and 0.74 [0.26] mg/L in OAC free and uninterrupted VKA groups, respectively, p < 0.001). PAP levels were parallel to this observation. Post-ablation FM levels were elevated in OAC free (26.34 [30.04] mg/L) and VKA groups (10.12 [16.01] mg/L), but remained below cut-off in all patients on dabigatran (3.98 [2.0] mg/L; p < 0.001). VWF antigen and FVIII activity increased similarly post-ablation in all groups, suggesting comparable procedure-related endothelial damage. Conclusion. Dabigatran provides greater inhibition against intracardiac activation of hemostasis as compared to VKAs during cryoballoon catheter ablation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thrombosis, Blood Clotting and Vascular Biology-Part I)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Precision Medicine to Treat Advanced Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Work in Progress
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3049; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093049 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 735
Abstract
Gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA) represents a heterogeneous disease and, when diagnosed as locally advanced or metastatic, it is characterized by poor prognosis. During the last few years, several molecular classifications have been proposed to try to personalize treatment for those patients diagnosed with advanced [...] Read more.
Gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA) represents a heterogeneous disease and, when diagnosed as locally advanced or metastatic, it is characterized by poor prognosis. During the last few years, several molecular classifications have been proposed to try to personalize treatment for those patients diagnosed with advanced disease. Nevertheless, despite the great effort, precision medicine is still far from being a reality. The improvement in the molecular analysis due to the application of high throughput technologies based on DNA and RNA sequencing has opened a novel scenario leading to the personalization of treatment. The possibility to target epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2, Claudine, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFR), and other alterations with a molecular matched therapy could significantly improve clinical outcomes over advanced gastric cancer patients. On the other hand, the development of immunotherapy could also represent a promising strategy in a selected population. In this review, we sought to describe the novel pathways implicated in GEA progression and the results of the molecular matched therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodality Treatments in Metastatic Gastric Cancer)
Article
Novel Sub-Clustering of Class III Skeletal Malocclusion Phenotypes in a Southern European Population Based on Proportional Measurements
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3048; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093048 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Current phenotypic characterizations of Class III malocclusion are influenced more by gender or ethnic origin than by raw linear skeletal measurements. The aim of the present research is to develop a Class III skeletal malocclusion sub-phenotype characterization based on proportional cranial measurements using [...] Read more.
Current phenotypic characterizations of Class III malocclusion are influenced more by gender or ethnic origin than by raw linear skeletal measurements. The aim of the present research is to develop a Class III skeletal malocclusion sub-phenotype characterization based on proportional cranial measurements using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Radiometric data from 212 adult subjects (115 women and 96 men) of southern European origin affected by Class III skeletal malocclusion were analyzed. A total of 120 measurements were made, 26 were proportional skeletal measurements, which were used to perform principal component analysis and subsequent cluster analysis. The remaining 94 supplementary measurements were used for a greater description of the identified clusters. Principal component analysis established eight principal components that explained 85.1% of the total variance. The first three principal components explained 51.4% of the variance and described mandibular proportions, anterior facial height proportions, and posterior–anterior cranial proportions. Cluster analysis established four phenotypic subgroups, representing 18.4% (C1), 20.75% (C2), 38.68% (C3), and 22.17% (C4) of the sample. A new sub-clustering of skeletal Class III malocclusions that avoids gender influence is provided. Our results improve clinicians’ resources for Class III malocclusion and could improve the diagnostic and treatment approaches for this malocclusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approaches and Technologies in Orthodontics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Role of Thermal Water in Chronic Skin Diseases Management: A Review of the Literature
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093047 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
The benefits of thermal water in different diseases have been known since ancient times. Over the past decades, a re-assessment of the use of mineral water for the treatment of several pathologic conditions has taken place around the world. Today, water therapy is [...] Read more.
The benefits of thermal water in different diseases have been known since ancient times. Over the past decades, a re-assessment of the use of mineral water for the treatment of several pathologic conditions has taken place around the world. Today, water therapy is being practiced in many countries that have a variety of mineral springs considerably different in their hydrogeologic origin, temperature, and chemical composition. Thermal water and balneotherapy offer several advantages: this approach needs no chemicals or potentially harmful drugs; there are almost no side effects during and after treatment, and there is a low risk to the patient’s general health and well-being. However, it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of this therapeutic approach in clinical practice due to the complexity of molecular mechanisms underlying its efficacy. Here we review the current knowledge of the chemical, immunological, and microbiological basis for therapeutic effects of thermal water with a specific focus on chronic inflammatory skin diseases. We also describe recent evidence of the major dermatologic diseases that are frequently treated by balneotherapy with a remarkable rate of success. Moreover, we discuss the potential role of balneotherapy either alone or as a complement to conventional medical treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Inflammatory Skin Diseases: An Update for Clinician)
Article
Restless Legs Syndrome During Pregnancy and 12 Weeks Postpartum and Its Links to Cardiovascular Diseases, Stressful Life Events, and Psychiatric History
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3046; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093046 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is highly prevalent among pregnant women. In the present study, a neurological–obstetrical sample of 561 postpartum women was retrospectively screened for RLS symptoms during pregnancy and in the first 12 weeks postpartum. The first screening took place within 1 [...] Read more.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is highly prevalent among pregnant women. In the present study, a neurological–obstetrical sample of 561 postpartum women was retrospectively screened for RLS symptoms during pregnancy and in the first 12 weeks postpartum. The first screening took place within 1 to 6 days of delivery (T0) and the second 12 weeks after childbirth (T1). The pregnancy-related RLS prevalence rate was found to be 21% (n = 119), with the women suffering from RLS being more often affected by psychiatric history and having been more exposed to stressful life events. They were also found to have experienced baby blues more frequently shortly after childbirth. However, RLS in pregnancy did not appear to have any effect on the development of postpartum depression. Additionally, a positive trend was observed toward an association between pregnancy-related RLS and gestational diabetes and hypertension. Of the 119 women, 23 (19.3%) remained affected by RLS 12 weeks postpartum. Body mass index (BMI), weight gain, parity, childbearing history, or chronic stress exposure in pregnancy as measured by hair cortisol were not found to be linked to RLS. In summary, a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of clinical, environmental, and anamnestic factors can help shed valuable light on this pregnancy-related condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Can Adenosine Fight COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome?
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3045; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093045 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients can develop interstitial pneumonia, which, in turn, can evolve into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This is accompanied by an inflammatory cytokine storm. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has proteins capable of promoting the cytokine [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients can develop interstitial pneumonia, which, in turn, can evolve into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This is accompanied by an inflammatory cytokine storm. severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has proteins capable of promoting the cytokine storm, especially in patients with comorbidities, including obesity. Since currently no resolutive therapy for ARDS has been found and given the scientific literature regarding the use of adenosine, its application has been hypothesized. Through its receptors, adenosine is able to inhibit the acute inflammatory process, increase the protection capacity of the epithelial barrier, and reduce the damage due to an overactivation of the immune system, such as that occurring in cytokine storms. These features are known in ischemia/reperfusion models and could also be exploited in acute lung injury with hypoxia. Considering these hypotheses, a COVID-19 patient with unresponsive respiratory failure was treated with adenosine for compassionate use. The results showed a rapid improvement of clinical conditions, with negativity of SARS-CoV2 detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Diagnostic Imaging and Beyond)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation under General Anesthesia: Literature Review and Single Center Experience
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3044; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093044 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
Bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established treatment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Traditionally, STN DBS for PD is performed by using microelectrode recording (MER) and/or intraoperative macrostimulation under local anesthesia (LA). However, many patients cannot tolerate the [...] Read more.
Bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established treatment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Traditionally, STN DBS for PD is performed by using microelectrode recording (MER) and/or intraoperative macrostimulation under local anesthesia (LA). However, many patients cannot tolerate the long operation time under LA without medication. In addition, it cannot be even be performed on PD patients with poor physical and neurological condition. Recently, it has been reported that STN DBS under general anesthesia (GA) can be successfully performed due to the feasible MER under GA, as well as the technical advancement in direct targeting and intraoperative imaging. The authors reviewed the previously published literature on STN DBS under GA using intraoperative imaging and MER, focused on discussing the technique, clinical outcome, and the complication, as well as introducing our single-center experience. Based on the reports of previously published studies and ours, GA did not interfere with the MER signal from STN. STN DBS under GA without intraoperative stimulation shows similar or better clinical outcome without any additional complication compared to STN DBS under LA. Long-term follow-up with a large number of the patients would be necessary to validate the safety and efficacy of STN DBS under GA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Clinical Deep Brain Stimulation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Urgent Pericardiocentesis Is More Frequently Needed After Left Circumflex Coronary Artery Perforation
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3043; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093043 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 605
Abstract
Background: Coronary artery perforation (CAP) is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) due to the risk of cardiac tamponade. Strikingly, in contrast to numerous analyses of CAP predictors, only few studies were focused on the predictors of tamponade [...] Read more.
Background: Coronary artery perforation (CAP) is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) due to the risk of cardiac tamponade. Strikingly, in contrast to numerous analyses of CAP predictors, only few studies were focused on the predictors of tamponade after PCI, once iatrogenic CAP has occurred. Our aim was to search for clinical and periprocedural characteristics, including the coronary artery involved, associated with the development of acute cardiac tamponade among patients experiencing CAP. Methods: From the medical records of nine centers of invasive cardiology in southern Poland, we retrospectively selected 81 patients (80% with acute myocardial infarction) who had iatrogenic CAP with a visible extravasation jet during angiography (corresponding to type III CAP by the Ellis classification, CAPIII) over a 15-year period (2005–2019). Clinical, angiographic and periprocedural characteristics were compared between the patients who developed acute cardiac tamponade requiring urgent pericardiocentesis in the cathlab (n = 21) and those with CAPIII and without tamponade (n = 60). Results: CAPIII were situated in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) or its diagonal branches (51%, n = 41), right coronary artery (RCA) (24%, n = 19), left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) (16%, n = 13), its obtuse marginal branches (7%, n = 6) and left main coronary artery (2%, n = 2). Acute cardiac tamponade occurred in 24% (10 of 41), 21% (4 of 19) and 37% (7 of 19) patients who experienced CAPIII in the territory of LAD, RCA and LCx, respectively. There were no significant differences in the need for urgent pericardiocentesis (37%) in patients with CAPIII in LCx territory (i.e., the LCx or its obtuse marginal branches) compared to CAPIII in the remaining coronary arteries (23%) (p = 0.24). However, when CAPIII in the LCx were separated from CAPIII in obtuse marginal branches, urgent pericardiocentesis was more frequently performed in patients with CAPIII in the LCx (54%, 7 of 13) compared to subjects with CAPIII in an artery other than the LCx (21%, 14 of 68) (p = 0.03). The direction of this tendency remained consistent regardless of CAP management: prolonged balloon inflation only (n = 26, 67% vs. 13%, p = 0.08) or balloon inflation with subsequent stent implantation (n = 55, 50% vs. 24%, p = 0.13). Besides LCx involvement, no significant differences in other characteristics were observed between patients according to the need of urgent pericardiocentesis. Conclusions: CAPIII in the LCx appears to lead to a higher risk of acute cardiac tamponade compared to perforations involving other coronary arteries. This association may possibly be linked to distinct features of LCx anatomy and/or well-recognized delays in diagnosis and management of LCx-related acute coronary syndromes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Retrospective Analysis of a Modified Organizational Model to Guarantee CT Workflow during the COVID-19 Outbreak in the Tertiary Hospital of Padova, Italy
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3042; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093042 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
At the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) outbreak in Italy, the cluster of Vò Euganeo was managed by the University Hospital of Padova. The Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI) conceived an organizational approach based on three different pathways [...] Read more.
At the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) outbreak in Italy, the cluster of Vò Euganeo was managed by the University Hospital of Padova. The Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI) conceived an organizational approach based on three different pathways for low-risk, high-risk, and confirmed Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) patients to accomplish three main targets: guarantee a safe pathway for non-COVID-19 patients, ensure health personnel safety, and maintain an efficient workload. Thus, an additional pathway was created with the aid of a trailer-mounted Computed Tomography (CT) scanner devoted to positive patients. We evaluated the performance of our approach from February 21 through April 12 in terms of workload (e.g., number of CT examinations) and safety (COVID-19-positive healthcare workers). There was an average of 72.2 and 17.8 COVID-19 patients per day in wards and the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), respectively. A total of 176 high-risk and positive patients were examined. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) was one of the most common exams, and 24 pulmonary embolism scans were performed. No in-hospital transmission occurred in the DDI neither among patients nor among health personnel. The weekly number of in-patient CT examinations decreased by 27.4%, and the surgical procedures decreased by 29.5%. Patient screening and dedicated diagnostic pathways allowed the maintenance of high standards of care while working in safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Diagnostic Imaging and Beyond)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity Related to Diet and Disordered Eating Attitudes in Adolescent Girls with Clinical Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3041; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093041 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1267
Abstract
Background: We aimed to find the difference between girls with clinical features of Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), divided into two groups: Overweight/obesity (Ov/Ob) and normal weight (N), related to diet, disordered eating attitudes (DEA), metabolic and hormonal differences, and to identify the risk [...] Read more.
Background: We aimed to find the difference between girls with clinical features of Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), divided into two groups: Overweight/obesity (Ov/Ob) and normal weight (N), related to diet, disordered eating attitudes (DEA), metabolic and hormonal differences, and to identify the risk factors of being overweight or obese. Methods: Seventy-eight adolescents with PCOS, aged 14–18 years, were divided into Ov/Ob and N groups. Patients underwent blood tests for determination of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone, DHEA-S, estradiol, of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), fasting glucose, insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profile. Nutrition was evaluated using a 3-day food record. To examine the level of DEA, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) was used. We defined an EAT-26 score ≥20 as positive for DEA. Logistic regression was carried out to identify the independent predictors of being overweight and obese. Results: An increase of 10 g in plant protein intake decreased the probability of being overweight and of obesity (OR = 0.54; p = 0.036). EAT-26 score ≥20 was correlated with a 7-fold (OR = 6.88; p = 0.02) increased odds of being overweight or of obesity. Conclusion: Being overweight and obesity in adolescents with PCOS may be associated with DEA and the type and amount of protein intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Psychology)
Article
Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Differentiating Necrotizing Fasciitis from Severe Cellulitis: A Magnetic Resonance Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (MRINEC) Algorithm
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3040; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093040 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1126
Abstract
We developed a new magnetic resonance indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (MRINEC) algorithm for differentiating necrotizing fasciitis (NF) from severe cellulitis (SC). All adults with suspected NF between 2010 and 2018 in a tertiary hospital in South Korea were enrolled. Sixty-one patients were diagnosed [...] Read more.
We developed a new magnetic resonance indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (MRINEC) algorithm for differentiating necrotizing fasciitis (NF) from severe cellulitis (SC). All adults with suspected NF between 2010 and 2018 in a tertiary hospital in South Korea were enrolled. Sixty-one patients were diagnosed with NF and 28 with SC. Among them, 34 with NF and 15 with SC underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRINEC algorithm, a two-step decision tree including T2 hyperintensity of intermuscular deep fascia and diffuse T2 hyperintensity of deep peripheral fascia, diagnosed NF with 94% sensitivity (95% confidence interval (CI), 80–99%) and 60% specificity (95% CI, 32–84%). The algorithm accurately diagnosed all 15 NF patients with a high (≥8) laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score. Among the five patients with an intermediate (6–7) LRINEC score, sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% CI, 78–100%) and 0% (95% CI, 0–84%), respectively. Finally, among the 29 patients with a low (≤5) LRINEC score, the algorithm had a sensitivity and specificity of 88% (95% CI, 62–98%) and 69% (95% CI, 39–91%), respectively. The MRINEC algorithm may be a useful adjuvant method for diagnosing NF, especially when NF is suspected in patients with a low LRINEC score. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Risk Assessment Using Risk Scores in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093039 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 759
Abstract
Risk scores are widely used in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) prior to treatment decision-making at different points in time. At initial hospital presentation, risk scores are used to assess the risk for developing major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and can guide [...] Read more.
Risk scores are widely used in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) prior to treatment decision-making at different points in time. At initial hospital presentation, risk scores are used to assess the risk for developing major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and can guide clinicians in either discharging the patients at low risk or swiftly admitting and treating the patients at high risk for MACE. During hospital admission, risk assessment is performed to estimate mortality, residual ischemic and bleeding risk to guide further in-hospital management (e.g., timing of coronary angiography) and post-discharge management (e.g., duration of dual antiplatelet therapy). In the months and years following ACS, long term risk can also be assessed to evaluate current treatment strategies (e.g., intensify or reduce pharmaceutical treatment options). As multiple risk scores have been developed over the last decades, this review summarizes the most relevant risk scores used in ACS patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antithrombotic Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndrome)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Impact of Exercise on Immunometabolism in Multiple Sclerosis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3038; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093038 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune condition characterized by demyelinating lesions and axonal degradation. Even though the cause of MS is heterogeneous, it is known that peripheral immune invasion in the central nervous system (CNS) drives pathology at least in the most [...] Read more.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune condition characterized by demyelinating lesions and axonal degradation. Even though the cause of MS is heterogeneous, it is known that peripheral immune invasion in the central nervous system (CNS) drives pathology at least in the most common form of MS, relapse-remitting MS (RRMS). The more progressive forms’ mechanisms of action remain more elusive yet an innate immune dysfunction combined with neurodegeneration are likely drivers. Recently, increasing studies have focused on the influence of metabolism in regulating immune cell function. In this regard, exercise has long been known to regulate metabolism, and has emerged as a promising therapy for management of autoimmune disorders. Hence, in this review, we inspect the role of key immunometabolic pathways specifically dysregulated in MS and highlight potential therapeutic benefits of exercise in modulating those pathways to harness an anti-inflammatory state. Finally, we touch upon current challenges and future directions for the field of exercise and immunometabolism in MS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Multiple Sclerosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Is an Independent Predictor of Coronary Artery Ectasia in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3037; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093037 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Our purpose was to assess a possible association of inflammatory, lipid and mineral metabolism biomarkers with coronary artery ectasia (CAE) and to determine a possible association of this with acute atherotrombotic events (AAT). We studied 270 patients who underwent coronary angiography during an [...] Read more.
Our purpose was to assess a possible association of inflammatory, lipid and mineral metabolism biomarkers with coronary artery ectasia (CAE) and to determine a possible association of this with acute atherotrombotic events (AAT). We studied 270 patients who underwent coronary angiography during an acute coronary syndrome 6 months before. Plasma levels of several biomarkers were assessed, and patients were followed during a median of 5.35 (3.88–6.65) years. Two interventional cardiologists reviewed the coronary angiograms, diagnosing CAE according to previously published criteria in 23 patients (8.5%). Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to search for independent predictors of CAE. Multivariate analysis revealed that, aside from gender and a diagnosis of dyslipidemia, only monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (OR = 2.25, 95%CI = (1.35–3.76) for each increase of 100 pg/mL, p = 0.001) was independent predictor of CAE, whereas mineral metabolism markers or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 were not. Moreover, CAE was a strong predictor of AAT during follow-up after adjustment for other clinically relevant variables (HR = 2.67, 95%CI = (1.22–5.82), p = 0.013). This is the first report showing that MCP-1 is an independent predictor of CAE, suggesting that CAE and coronary artery disease may share pathogenic mechanisms. Furthermore, CAE was associated with an increased incidence of AAT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atherosclerosis: Endothelial Dysfunction and Beyond)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Pilot Study on the Use of a Laser-Structured Double Diamond Electrode (DDE) for Biofilm Removal from Dental Implant Surfaces
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3036; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093036 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
No proper treatment option for peri-implantitis exists yet. Based on previous studies showing the in vitro effectiveness of electrochemical disinfection using boron-doped diamond electrodes, novel double diamond electrodes (DDE) were tested here. Using a ceramic carrier and a laser structuring process, a clinically [...] Read more.
No proper treatment option for peri-implantitis exists yet. Based on previous studies showing the in vitro effectiveness of electrochemical disinfection using boron-doped diamond electrodes, novel double diamond electrodes (DDE) were tested here. Using a ceramic carrier and a laser structuring process, a clinically applicable electrode array was manufactured. Roughened metal discs (n = 24) made from Ti-Zr alloy were exposed to the oral cavities of six volunteers for 24 h in order to generate biofilm. Then, biofilm removal was carried out either using plastic curettes and chlorhexidine digluconate or electrochemical disinfection. In addition, dental implants were contaminated with ex vivo multispecies biofilm and disinfected using DDE treatment. Bacterial growth and the formation of biofilm polymer were determined as outcome measures. Chemo-mechanical treatment could not eliminate bacteria from roughened surfaces, while in most cases, a massive reduction of bacteria and biofilm polymer was observed following DDE treatment. Electrochemical disinfection was charge- and time-dependent and could also not reach complete disinfection in all instances. Implant threads had no negative effect on DDE treatment. Bacteria exhibit varying resistance to electrochemical disinfection with Bacillus subtilis, Neisseria sp., Rothiamucilaginosa, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Streptococcus mitis surviving 5 min of DDE application at 6 V. Electrochemical disinfection is promising but requires further optimization with respect to charge quantity and application time in order to achieve disinfection without harming host tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental Dental Research—New Concepts for Future Patient Needs)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
CD200 and CD200R Expression on Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Serum CD200 Concentration as a New Marker of Endometriosis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3035; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093035 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 663
Abstract
The causes of endometriosis (EMS) remain unknown; however, a number of immunological abnormalities contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. The cluster of differentiation-200 (CD200) and its receptor (CD200R) maintain peripheral self-tolerance by negatively regulating immune responses. In this comparative cross-sectional study, we [...] Read more.
The causes of endometriosis (EMS) remain unknown; however, a number of immunological abnormalities contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. The cluster of differentiation-200 (CD200) and its receptor (CD200R) maintain peripheral self-tolerance by negatively regulating immune responses. In this comparative cross-sectional study, we investigated the expression of CD200 and CD200R on T and B lymphocytes and the serum level of soluble CD200 (sCD200) using flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 54 female patients and 20 healthy, age-matched controls. Results were tested for correlation with disease severity and selected clinical parameters. We demonstrated that the differences in sCD200 levels (p = 0.001), the frequencies of CD200-positive T and B lymphocytes (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively), and the frequencies of CD200R-positive T and B lymphocytes (p < 0.001 for all comparisons) in the study group correlated positively with disease severity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that aberrant expression of CD200/CD200R might serve as a marker to distinguish between EMS cases. Finally, negative co-stimulatory factors may contribute to the induction and persistence of inflammation associated with EMS. It seems that it is essential to determine whether alteration in the CD200/CD200R pathway can be therapeutically targeted in EMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Management of Endometriosis and Uterine Fibroids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Clinical Course of Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema Treated with Nepafenac
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3034; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093034 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
Background: To evaluate the clinical course of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) treated with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Methods: An analysis of the clinical course of PCME consisting of 536 eyes of 536 patients from five consecutive randomized clinical trials aimed at [...] Read more.
Background: To evaluate the clinical course of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) treated with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Methods: An analysis of the clinical course of PCME consisting of 536 eyes of 536 patients from five consecutive randomized clinical trials aimed at the optimization of anti-inflammatory medication in patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. PCME was classified as (i) grade 0a; no macular thickening, (ii) grade 0b; macular thickening (central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) increase of at least 10%) without signs of macular edema, (iii) grade I; subclinical PCME, (iv) grade II; acute PCME, (v) grade III; long-standing PCME. Eyes with PCME classification from grade I onwards were treated with nepafenac 1 mg/mL t.i.d. for two months. Results: CSMT increase of at least 10% at any postoperative timepoint with cystoid changes—a criterion for PCME—was found in 19 of 536 eyes (total incidence 3.5%). Of these 19 eyes, 13 eyes (total incidence 2.4%) had clinically significant PCME. PCME was considered clinically significant when both of the following visual acuity criteria were fulfilled. At any timepoint after the cataract surgery both the corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) gain was less than 0.4 decimals from that of preoperative CDVA, and the absolute CDVA level remained below 0.8 decimals. Only one of the 19 eyes with criteria for PCME (total incidence 0.2%, incidence of PCME eyes 5.3%) showed no macular edema resolution within 2 months after topical nepafenac administration. Conclusions: PCME in most cases is self-limiting using topical nepafenac without any further need for intravitreal treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cataract Surgery and Postoperative Care)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Functional Progression in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease Resulted Positive to Antisynthetase Antibodies: A Multicenter, Retrospective Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3033; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093033 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 669
Abstract
Antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by serologic positivity for antisynthetase antibodies. Anti-Jo1 is the most frequent, followed by anti PL-7, anti PL-12, anti EJ, and anti OJ antibodies. The lung is the most frequently affected organ, usually manifesting with [...] Read more.
Antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by serologic positivity for antisynthetase antibodies. Anti-Jo1 is the most frequent, followed by anti PL-7, anti PL-12, anti EJ, and anti OJ antibodies. The lung is the most frequently affected organ, usually manifesting with an interstitial lung disease (ILD), which is considered the main determinant of prognosis. Some evidences suggest that non-anti-Jo-1 antibodies may be associated with more severe lung involvement and possibly with poorer outcomes, while other authors do not highlight differences between anti-Jo1 and other antisynthetase antibodies. In a multicenter, retrospective, “real life” study, we compared lung function tests (LFTs) progression in patients with ILD associated with anti-Jo1 and non-anti-Jo1 anti-synthetase antibodies to assess differences in lung function decline between these two groups. Therefore, we analyzed a population of 57 patients (56% anti-Jo1 positive), referred to the outpatient Clinic of four referral Centers in Italy (Modena, Monza, Siena, and Trieste) from 2008 to 2019, with a median follow-up of 36 months. At diagnosis, patients showed a mild ventilatory impairment and experienced an improvement of respiratory function during treatment. We did not observe statistically significant differences in LFTs at baseline or during follow-up between the two groups. Moreover, there were no differences in demographic data, respiratory symptoms onset (acute vs. chronic), extrapulmonary involvement, treatment (steroid and/or another immunosuppressant), or oxygen supplementation. Our study highlights the absence of differences in pulmonary functional progression between patients positive to anti-Jo-1 vs. non anti-Jo-1 antibodies, suggesting that the type of autoantibody detected in the framework of ASSD does not affect lung function decline. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Computational Analysis of Clinical and Molecular Markers and New Theranostic Possibilities in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3032; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093032 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 767
Abstract
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a paramount cause of irreversible visual disability worldwide. We focus on identifying clinical and molecular facts that may help elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. By using ophthalmological approaches (biomicroscopy, ocular fundus, optical coherence tomography, and perimetry) [...] Read more.
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a paramount cause of irreversible visual disability worldwide. We focus on identifying clinical and molecular facts that may help elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. By using ophthalmological approaches (biomicroscopy, ocular fundus, optical coherence tomography, and perimetry) and experimental tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Western blot/immunoblotting) directed to evaluate the oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and neurodegeneration processes, we gather information to build a network of data to perform a computational bioinformatics analysis. Our results showed strong interaction of the above players and its downstream effectors in POAG pathogenesis. In conclusion, specific risk factors were identified, and molecules involved in multiple pathways were found in relation to anterior and posterior eye segment glaucoma changes, pointing to new theranostic challenges for better managing POAG progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Glaucoma: Pathogenesis and Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Revision Arthroplasty Through the Direct Anterior Approach Using an Asymmetric Acetabular Component
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 3031; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9093031 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 684
Abstract
Despite increasing numbers of primary hip arthroplasties performed through the direct anterior approach (DAA), there is a lack of literature on DAA revision arthroplasty. The present study was performed in order to evaluate outcomes and revision rates after revision through the DAA using [...] Read more.
Despite increasing numbers of primary hip arthroplasties performed through the direct anterior approach (DAA), there is a lack of literature on DAA revision arthroplasty. The present study was performed in order to evaluate outcomes and revision rates after revision through the DAA using an asymmetric acetabular component with optional intra- and extramedullary fixation. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed prospectively collected data of 57 patients (61 hips, 43 female, 18 male) who underwent aseptic acetabular component revision through the DAA with the abovementioned implant system between January 2015 and December 2017. The mean follow-up was 40 months (12–56). Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. All complications were documented and functional outcomes were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed an estimated five-year implant survival of 97% (confidence interval CI 87–99%). The estimated five-year survival with revision for any cause was 93% (CI 83–98%). The overall revision rate was 6.6% (n = 4). Two patients had to undergo revision due to periprosthetic infection (3.3%). In one patient, the acetabular component was revised due to aseptic loosening four months postoperatively. Another patient suffered from postoperative iliopsoas impingement and was treated successfully by arthroscopic iliopsoas tenotomy. Two (3.3%) of the revised hips dislocated postoperatively. The mean Harris Hip Score improved from 35 (2–66) preoperatively to 86 (38–100) postoperatively (p < 0.001). The hip joint’s anatomical center of rotation was restored at a high degree of accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that acetabular revision arthroplasty through the DAA using an asymmetric acetabular component with optional intra- and extramedullary fixation is safe and practicable, resulting in good radiographic and clinical midterm results. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop