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Volume 13, January-1
 
 

J. Clin. Med., Volume 13, Issue 2 (January-2 2024) – 339 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common in middle-aged and older adult individuals. DM may accelerate the aging process, and the age-related declines in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) can pose a challenge to diagnosing diabetic kidney disease (DKD) using standard diagnostic criteria, especially with the absence of severe albuminuria among older adults. We review the evidence that the benefits from these newer therapies apply equally to older and younger patients with CKD and type 2 diabetes and propose comprehensive management. This framework will address nonpharmacological measures and pharmacological management with renin–angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi), sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), non-steroidal mineralocorticoids receptor antagonists (MRAs), and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RAs). View this paper
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21 pages, 2130 KiB  
Review
Cytomegalovirus and Pregnancy: A Narrative Review
by Karina Felippe Monezi Pontes, Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Heron Werner, Gabriele Tonni, Roberta Granese and Edward Araujo Júnior
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020640 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common congenital infection worldwide, affecting between 0.7% and 1% of all live births. Approximately 11% of infected newborns are symptomatic at birth, and between 30% and 40% of these are at risk of developing long-term neurological sequelae. [...] Read more.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common congenital infection worldwide, affecting between 0.7% and 1% of all live births. Approximately 11% of infected newborns are symptomatic at birth, and between 30% and 40% of these are at risk of developing long-term neurological sequelae. Until recently, the lack of an effective treatment did not justify universal testing of pregnant women. In recent years, however, valacyclovir at a dose of 8 g/day has been shown to be effective in preventing vertical transmission, and ganciclovir has been shown to be effective in preventing long-term sequelae in the treatment of symptomatic neonates. The aim of this article is to review congenital CMV infection, from its epidemiology to its treatment, using the most recent studies in the literature, and to help in the decision to modify protocols for universal testing of pregnant women according to the possibilities of each locality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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13 pages, 1105 KiB  
Article
Injury Pattern and Current Early Clinical Care of Pediatric Polytrauma Comparing Different Age Groups in a Level I Trauma Center
by Anna Schuster, Lisa Klute, Maximilian Kerschbaum, Jürgen Kunkel, Jan Schaible, Josina Straub, Johannes Weber, Volker Alt and Daniel Popp
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020639 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Introduction: Pediatric polytrauma is a complex condition with unique characteristics and requirements for early clinical care. This study aimed to analyze the injury patterns, early clinical care, and outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients in a Level I trauma center. The focus was on [...] Read more.
Introduction: Pediatric polytrauma is a complex condition with unique characteristics and requirements for early clinical care. This study aimed to analyze the injury patterns, early clinical care, and outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients in a Level I trauma center. The focus was on evaluation between different age groups and the recognition of injuries as potential factors influencing outcomes. Methods: A prospective cohort study model of pediatric polytrauma patients (ISS ≥ 16) was conducted over a 13-year period, stratified by age groups (Group A: 0–5 years; Group B: 6–10 years; Group C: 11–15 years; and Group D: 16–18 years). A comparison of the groups was conducted to examine variations in early clinical care, trauma mechanisms, distribution of affected body regions (as per AIS and ISS criteria), and trauma-related mortality. Additionally, factors contributing to mortality were evaluated. Results: The median age of patients was 16 years, with a male predominance (64.7%). The Injury Severity Score (ISS) varied across age groups, with no significant difference. The 30-day mortality rate was 19.0%, with no significant age-related differences. Trauma mechanisms varied across age groups, with motor vehicle accidents being the most common mechanism in all age groups except 0–5 years, where falls were prevalent. Analysis of injury patterns by AIS body regions indicated that head trauma was a significant predictor of mortality (Hazard Ratio 2.894, p < 0.001), while chest, abdominal, and extremity trauma showed no significant association with mortality. Multiple regression analysis identified the ISS and preclinical GCS as valid predictors of mortality (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively). Conclusions: While age-related differences in injury severity and clinical interventions were limited, head trauma emerged as a critical predictor of mortality. Early recognition and management of head injuries are crucial in improving outcomes. Additionally, the ISS and preclinical GCS were identified as valid predictors of mortality, emphasizing the importance of early assessment and resuscitation. A tailored approach to pediatric polytrauma care, considering both age and injury patterns, might contribute to survival benefits in this vulnerable population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Advances in Pediatric Emergency Medicine)
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13 pages, 410 KiB  
Article
Association between Psychological Distress and Possible, Probable, and Definite Sleep Bruxism—A Comparison of Approved Diagnostic Procedures
by Nicole Pascale Walentek, Ralf Schäfer, Nora Bergmann, Michael Franken and Michelle Alicia Ommerborn
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020638 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 942
Abstract
(1) Background: The relationship between sleep bruxism (SB) and psychological distress has been investigated in numerous studies and is heterogeneous. Different diagnostic procedures have been applied to determine SB. The aim of this study was to directly compare the association between psychological distress [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The relationship between sleep bruxism (SB) and psychological distress has been investigated in numerous studies and is heterogeneous. Different diagnostic procedures have been applied to determine SB. The aim of this study was to directly compare the association between psychological distress and SB diagnosed by different accepted methods. (2) Methods: Data of N = 45 subjects were analyzed, including group comparisons and correlation analyses. Following diagnostic methods for the determination of SB were used in one sample: self-report, clinical assessment, polysomnography with audio–video recording and a novel diagnostic sheet with analyzing software. Psychological distress was measured using the global severity index (GSI) of the Symptom Checklist-90-Standard (SCL-90-S). (3) Results: The GSI did not differ significantly between subjects with and without SB, regardless of the underlying diagnostic classification (p > 0.05). In-depth correlation analyses of self-report and clinical data revealed a weak-to-medium correlation with the GSI (r = 0.12–0.44). Due to non-normally distributed data, a test of statistical significance was not possible. Variables of instrumental methods such as the SB index (amount of SB activity per hour) of polysomnography (PSG) showed almost no correlation with psychological distress (r = −0.06–0.05). (4) Conclusions: Despite these limitations, the results provide an indication that the choice of diagnostic procedure may elucidate the variance in the correlation between SB and psychological distress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment/Management of Sleep Bruxism)
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11 pages, 828 KiB  
Article
Continence Is Not Affected after Sling Revision with Transvaginal Tape Elongation for Post-Sling Voiding Dysfunction
by Ching-Pei Tsai, Chih-Ku Liu, Evelyn Yang, Tsung-Ho Ying, Gin-Den Chen and Man-Jung Hung
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020637 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 779
Abstract
Voiding dysfunction (VD) after sling operation is not uncommon. Sling revisions by incision/excision are usually effective; however, they may result in recurrent stress urinary incontinence (SUI). We aimed to evaluate continence status after an innovative sling revision procedure that preserves the integrity of [...] Read more.
Voiding dysfunction (VD) after sling operation is not uncommon. Sling revisions by incision/excision are usually effective; however, they may result in recurrent stress urinary incontinence (SUI). We aimed to evaluate continence status after an innovative sling revision procedure that preserves the integrity of the sling. Patients who underwent either a single-incision (AJUST) or a trans-obturator (TVT-O) mid-urethral sling were studied. Transvaginal tape elongation (i.e., sling midline incision and mesh interposition) was performed on patients with post-sling VD. Factors that may affect recurrent SUI were investigated by statistical analyses. Of 119 patients, 90 (75.6%) (45 AJUST and 45 TVT-O) were available for long-term (median 9; 8–10 years) follow-up. A significantly higher rate (17.2% vs. 3.3%, p = 0.014) of VD was noted after AJUST (N = 10) than after TVT-O (N = 2). After sling revision, four (33%) of the 12 cases reported recurrent SUI, which was not significantly different (p = 1.000) from the rate (37%, 29/78) of patients who did not undergo sling revision. Further statistical analyses revealed no significant predisposing factors affecting the recurrence of SUI. Surgical continence did not seem to be affected by having had sling revision with transvaginal tape elongation for post-sling VD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Urogynecology and Pelvic Floor Surgery)
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16 pages, 3807 KiB  
Article
Face Recognition Characteristics in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Determined Using a Virtual Reality Headset with Eye Tracking
by Nina Žugelj, Lara Peterlin, Urša Muznik, Pia Klobučar, Polona Jaki Mekjavić, Nataša Vidović Valentinčić and Ana Fakin
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020636 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Face recognition is one of the most serious disabilities of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our purpose was to study face recognition using a novel method incorporating virtual reality (VR) and eye tracking. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients with [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Face recognition is one of the most serious disabilities of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our purpose was to study face recognition using a novel method incorporating virtual reality (VR) and eye tracking. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients with AMD (seven male; median age 83 years; 89% with bilateral advanced AMD) and nineteen healthy controls (five male; median age 68 years) underwent the face recognition test IC FACES (Synthesius, Ljubljna, Slovenia) on a VR headset with built-in eye tracking sensors. Analysis included recognition accuracy, recognition time and fixation patterns. Additionally, a screening test for dementia and imaging with fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography was performed. Results: AMD patients had significantly lower face recognition accuracy (42% vs. 92%; p < 0.001) and longer recognition time (median 4.0 vs. 2.0 s; p < 0.001) in comparison to controls. Both parameters were significantly worse in patients with lower visual acuity. In both groups, eye-tracking data revealed the two classical characteristics of the face recognition process, i.e., fixations clustering mainly in the nose–eyes–mouth triangle and starting observation in the nasal area. Conclusions: The study demonstrates usability of a VR headset with eye tracking for studying visual perception in real-world situations which could be applicable in the design of clinical studies. Full article
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17 pages, 889 KiB  
Review
Classification and Definitions of Compensatory Protective Step Strategies in Older Adults: A Scoping Review
by Maria Melo-Alonso, Alvaro Murillo-Garcia, Juan Luis Leon-Llamas, Santos Villafaina, Mari Carmen Gomez-Alvaro, Felipe Alejandro Morcillo-Parras and Narcis Gusi
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020635 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 933
Abstract
Background: The risk for an unexpected fall can be due to increasing age, health conditions, and loss of cognitive, sensory, or musculoskeletal functions. Falls have personal and economic consequences in many countries. Different disturbances can occur during gait, such as tripping, slipping, or [...] Read more.
Background: The risk for an unexpected fall can be due to increasing age, health conditions, and loss of cognitive, sensory, or musculoskeletal functions. Falls have personal and economic consequences in many countries. Different disturbances can occur during gait, such as tripping, slipping, or other unexpected circumstances that can generate a loss of balance. The strategies used to recover balance depend on many factors, but selecting a correct response strategy influences the success of balance recovery. Objectives: (1) To collect and clarify the definitions of compensatory protective step strategies to recover balance in older adults; (2) to identify the most used methods to induce loss of balance; and (3) to identify the most used spatiotemporal variables in analyzing these actions. Methods: The present review has followed the PRISMA guideline extension for Scoping Review (PRISMA-ScR) and the phases proposed by Askery and O’Malley. The search was conducted in three databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Results: A total of 525 articles were identified, and 53 studies were included. Forty-five articles were quasi-experimental studies, six articles were randomized controlled trials, and two studies had an observational design. In total, 12 compensatory protective step strategies have been identified. Conclusions: There are 12 compensatory protective step strategies: lowering and elevating strategy, short- and long-step strategy, backward and forward stepping for slip, single step, multiple steps, lateral sidesteps or loaded leg sidestep unloaded leg sidestep, crossover step (behind and front), and medial sidestep. To standardize the terminology applied in future studies, we recommend collecting these strategies under the term of compensatory protective step strategies. The most used methods to induce loss of balance are the tether-release, trip, waist-pull, and slip methods. The variables analyzed by articles are the number of steps, the acceleration phase and deceleration phase, COM displacement, the step initiation or step duration, stance phase time, swing phase time and double-stance duration, stride length, step length, speed step, speed gait and the type of step. Full article
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11 pages, 873 KiB  
Article
Effects of Topical Anti-Glaucoma Medications on Outcomes of Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy: Comparison with Age- and Sex-Matched Controls
by Seong Eun Lee, Hyung Bin Lim, Seungjun Oh, Kibum Lee and Sung Bok Lee
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020634 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Background: This study analyzed the effects of topical anti-glaucoma medications on the surgical outcomes of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EDCR) in nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). Methods: This retrospective study included patients who underwent EDCR for NLDO between September 2012 and April 2021. Thirty patients with [...] Read more.
Background: This study analyzed the effects of topical anti-glaucoma medications on the surgical outcomes of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EDCR) in nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). Methods: This retrospective study included patients who underwent EDCR for NLDO between September 2012 and April 2021. Thirty patients with topical anti-glaucoma medications and 90 age- and sex-matched controls were included. Results: The success rate of EDCR was higher in the control group than in the anti-glaucoma group (97.8% vs. 86.7%, p = 0.034). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified prostaglandin analogs as the most influential risk factor for EDCR success among anti-glaucoma medication ingredients (p = 0.005). The success rate of the group containing all four anti-glaucoma medication ingredients was statistically significant (p = 0.010). The success rate was significantly different in the group of patients who used anti-glaucoma medication for >24 months (p = 0.019). When multiplying the number of drug ingredients by the duration in months, the group > 69 showed a significantly decreased success rate (p = 0.022). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the number of anti-glaucoma medications as the most significant risk factor for EDCR success (odds ratio, 0.437; 95% confidence interval, 0.247 to 0.772; p = 0.004). Conclusions: The authors suggest that the anti-glaucoma medications might cause NLDO and increase the failure rate after EDCR. Therefore, when performing EDCR in patients using topical anti-glaucoma medications, surgeons should consider the possibility of increased recurrence after EDCR in clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Orbital, Oculoplastic and Lacrimal Surgery)
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15 pages, 3242 KiB  
Article
Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Enzymolytic and Biomechanical Profiles of Abdominal Aortic Adventitia Tissue
by Emil-Marian Arbănaşi, Eliza Russu, Eliza-Mihaela Arbănaşi, Constantin Claudiu Ciucanu, Adrian Vasile Mureșan, Shuko Suzuki and Traian V. Chirilă
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020633 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
Background: The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as an increase in aortic diameter by more than 50% and is associated with a high risk of rupture and mortality without treatment. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of aortic [...] Read more.
Background: The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is defined as an increase in aortic diameter by more than 50% and is associated with a high risk of rupture and mortality without treatment. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of aortic adventitial collagen photocrosslinking by UV-A irradiation on the biomechanical profile of the aortic wall. Methods: This experimental study is structured in two parts: the first part includes in vitro uniaxial biomechanical evaluation of porcine adventitial tissue subjected to either short-term elastolysis or long-term collagenolysis in an attempt to duplicate two extreme situations as putative stages of aneurysmal degeneration. In the second part, we included biaxial biomechanical evaluation of in vitro human abdominal aortic adventitia and human AAA adventitia specimens. Biomechanical profiles were examined for porcine and human aortic tissue before and after irradiation with UV-A light (365 nm wavelength). Results: On the porcine aortic sample, the enhancing effect of irradiation was evident both on the tissue subjected to elastolysis, which had a high collagen-to-elastin ratio, and on the tissue subjected to prolonged collagenolysis despite being considerably depleted in collagen. Further, the effect of irradiation was conclusively demonstrated in the human adventitia samples, where significant post-irradiation increases in Cauchy stress (longitudinal axis: p = 0.001, circumferential axis: p = 0.004) and Young’s modulus (longitudinal axis: p = 0.03, circumferential axis: p = 0.004) were recorded. Moreover, we have a stronger increase in the strengthening of the AAA adventitia samples following the exposure to UV-A irradiation (p = 0.007) and a statistically significant but not very important increase (p = 0.021) regarding the stiffness in the circumferential axis. Conclusions: The favorable effect of UV irradiation on the strength and stiffness of degraded aortic adventitia in experimental situations mimicking early and later stages of aneurysmal degeneration is essential for the development and potential success of procedures to prevent aneurysmal ruptures. The experiments on human normal and aneurysmal adventitial tissue confirmed the validity and potential success of a procedure based on exposure to UV-A radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Advances and Future Perspectives in Vascular Surgery)
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11 pages, 1348 KiB  
Review
Novel Advances in Qualitative Diagnostic Imaging for Decision Making in Multidisciplinary Treatment for Advanced Esophageal Cancer
by Shinichi Okazumi, Gaku Ohira, Koichi Hayano, Tomoyoshi Aoyagi, Shunsuke Imanishi and Hisahiro Matsubara
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020632 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 908
Abstract
Background: Recently, neoadjuvant therapy and the succeeding surgery for advanced esophageal cancer have been evaluated. In particular, the response to the therapy has been found to affect surgical outcomes, and thus a precise evaluation of treatment effect is important for this strategy. In [...] Read more.
Background: Recently, neoadjuvant therapy and the succeeding surgery for advanced esophageal cancer have been evaluated. In particular, the response to the therapy has been found to affect surgical outcomes, and thus a precise evaluation of treatment effect is important for this strategy. In this study, articles on qualitative diagnostic modalities to evaluate tumor activities were reviewed, and the diagnostic indices were examined. Methods: For prediction of the effect, perfusion CT and diffusion MRI were estimated. For the histological response evaluation, perfusion CT, diffusion-MRI, and FDG-PET were estimated. For downstaging evaluation of T4, tissue-selective image reconstruction using enhanced CT was estimated and diagnostic indices were reviewed. Results: The prediction of the effect using perfusion CT with ‘pre CRT blood flow’ and diffusion MRI with ‘pre CRT ADC value’; the estimation of the histological response using perfusion CT with ‘post CRT blood flow reduction, using diffusion MRI with ‘post CRT ADC increasing’, and using FDG-PET with ‘post CRT SUV reduction’; and the downstaging evaluation of T4 using CT image reconstruction with ‘fibrous changed layer’ were performed well, respectively. Conclusions: Qualitative imaging modalities for prediction or response evaluation of neoadjuvant therapy for progressive esophageal cancer were useful for the decision making of the treatment strategy of the multidisciplinary treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Esophageal Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment)
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24 pages, 10709 KiB  
Article
Utility of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression Based on Published Data from 7458 Patients
by Gerhard-Paul Diller, Mirjam Gerwing, Simona Boroni Grazioli, Fernando De-Torres-Alba, Robert M. Radke, Julia Vormbrock, Helmut Baumgartner, Gerrit Kaleschke and Stefan Orwat
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020631 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Background: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) may detect coronary artery disease (CAD) in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) patients and may obviate invasive coronary angiography (ICA) in selected patients. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA for detecting CAD in TAVI patients based on [...] Read more.
Background: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) may detect coronary artery disease (CAD) in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) patients and may obviate invasive coronary angiography (ICA) in selected patients. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA for detecting CAD in TAVI patients based on published data. Methods: Meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed based on a comprehensive electronic search, including relevant studies assessing the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in the setting of TAVI patients compared to ICA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), were calculated on a patient and per segment level. Results: Overall, 27 studies (total of 7458 patients) were included. On the patient level, the CCTA’s pooled sensitivity and NPV were 95% (95% CI: 93–97%) and 97% (95% CI: 95–98%), respectively, while the specificity and PPV were at 73% (95% CI: 62–82%) and 64% (95% CI: 57–71%), respectively. On the segmental coronary vessel level, the sensitivity and NPV were 90% (95% CI: 79–96%) and 98% (95% CI: 97–99%). Conclusions: This meta-analysis highlights CCTA’s potential as a first-line diagnostic tool although its limited PPV and specificity may pose challenges when interpreting heavily calcified arteries. This study underscores the need for further research and protocol standardization in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
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14 pages, 5033 KiB  
Review
The Ross Procedure: Imaging, Outcomes and Future Directions in Aortic Valve Replacement
by Domenico Galzerano, Naji Kholaif, Bandar Al Amro, Mohammed Al Admawi, Abdalla Eltayeb, Amal Alshammari, Giovanni Di Salvo and Zohair Y. Al-Halees
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020630 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1232
Abstract
The Ross procedure is gaining recognition as a significant option for aortic valve replacement (AVR), and is particularly beneficial in specific patient groups. Although categorized as a class IIb recommendation in the 2020 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA), and the [...] Read more.
The Ross procedure is gaining recognition as a significant option for aortic valve replacement (AVR), and is particularly beneficial in specific patient groups. Although categorized as a class IIb recommendation in the 2020 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA), and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) management guidelines on valvular heart disease, recent studies bolster its credibility. Research, including a propensity-matched study, underlines the Ross procedure’s association with enhanced long-term survival and reduced adverse valve-related events compared to other AVR types. This positions the Ross procedure as a primary option for AVR in young and middle-aged adults within specialized centers, and potentially the only choice for children and infants requiring AVR. This review meticulously examines the Ross procedure, covering historical perspectives, surgical techniques, imaging, and outcomes, including hemodynamic performance and quality of life, especially focusing on pediatric and young adult patients. It explores contemporary techniques and innovations like minimally invasive approaches and tissue engineering, underscoring ongoing research and future directions. A summarization of comparative studies and meta-analyses reiterates the Ross procedure’s superior long-term outcomes, valve durability, and preservation of the left ventricular function, accentuating the crucial role of patient selection and risk stratification, and pinpointing areas for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What We See through Cardiac Imaging)
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11 pages, 1155 KiB  
Article
Autophagy-Related Gene ATG7 Polymorphism Could Potentially Serve as a Biomarker of the Progression of Atrophic Gastritis
by Naoyuki Yamaguchi, Takuki Sakaguchi, Miki Taira, Daisuke Fukuda, Ken Ohnita, Tatsuro Hirayama, Kazuo Yashima, Hajime Isomoto and Kazuhiro Tsukamoto
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020629 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) is an oncoprotein that H. pylori injects into the host’s gastric epithelial cells and that induces proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-1β. As a result, it leads to atrophic gastritis (AG), a precancerous lesion of gastric cancer. [...] Read more.
Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) is an oncoprotein that H. pylori injects into the host’s gastric epithelial cells and that induces proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-1β. As a result, it leads to atrophic gastritis (AG), a precancerous lesion of gastric cancer. On the other hand, host cells degrade CagA using autophagy systems. However, few studies exist about the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MAP1LC3A, MAP1LC3B, ATG4A, ATG4B, ATG4C, ATG7, and ATG13, which belong to the autophagy-related genes concerning AG. This study aimed to detect biomarkers associated with AG. Herein, H. pylori-positive subjects (n = 200) were divided into the AG (n = 94) and non-AG (n = 106) groups. Thirty tag SNPs were selected from the above seven candidate genes. The SNP frequency between the two groups was analyzed. The frequency of the C/T or T/T genotype at rs4683787 of ATG7 was significantly lower in the AG group than in the non-AG group (p = 0.034, odds ratio = 0.535). Based on multivariate analysis, the C/C genotype of rs4684787 and age were independently associated with gastric mucosal atrophy. This finding helps stratify the patients needing timely endoscopic screening or early eradication of H. pylori. Full article
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13 pages, 2750 KiB  
Article
Novel Artificial Intelligence-Based Assessment of Imaging Biomarkers in Full-Thickness Macular Holes: Preliminary Data from a Pivotal Trial
by Cesare Mariotti, Lorenzo Mangoni, Silvia Iorio, Veronica Lombardo, Daniela Fruttini, Clara Rizzo, Jay Chhablani, Edoardo Midena and Marco Lupidi
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020628 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 952
Abstract
Artificial intelligence (AI)- and deep learning (DL)-based systems have shown significant progress in the field of macular disorders, demonstrating high performance in detecting retinal fluid and assessing anatomical changes during disease progression. This study aimed to validate an AI algorithm for identifying and [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence (AI)- and deep learning (DL)-based systems have shown significant progress in the field of macular disorders, demonstrating high performance in detecting retinal fluid and assessing anatomical changes during disease progression. This study aimed to validate an AI algorithm for identifying and quantifying prognostic factors in visual recovery after macular hole (MH) surgery by analyzing major optical coherence tomography (OCT) biomarkers. This study included 20 patients who underwent vitrectomy for a full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). The mean diameter of the FTMH was measured at 285.36 ± 97.4 μm. The preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.76 ± 0.06 logMAR, improving to 0.38 ± 0.16 postoperatively, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001). AI software was utilized to assess biomarkers, such as intraretinal fluid (IRF) and subretinal fluid (SRF) volume, external limiting membrane (ELM) and ellipsoid zone (EZ) integrity, and retinal hyperreflective foci (HRF). The AI analysis showed a significant decrease in IRF volume, from 0.08 ± 0.12 mm3 preoperatively to 0.01 ± 0.01 mm3 postoperatively. ELM interruption improved from 79% ± 18% to 34% ± 37% after surgery (p = 0.006), whereas EZ interruption improved from 80% ± 22% to 40% ± 36% (p = 0.007) postoperatively. Additionally, the study revealed a negative correlation between preoperative IRF volume and postoperative BCVA recovery, suggesting that greater preoperative fluid volumes may hinder visual improvement. The integrity of the ELM and EZ was found to be essential for postoperative visual acuity improvement, with their disruption negatively impacting visual recovery. The study highlights the potential of AI in quantifying OCT biomarkers for managing MHs and improving patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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12 pages, 2018 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Handgrip Strength and Incident Diabetes in Korean Adults According to Gender: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study
by Sung-Bum Lee, Min-Kyeung Jo, Ji-Eun Moon, Hui-Jeong Lee and Jong-Koo Kim
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020627 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 898
Abstract
(1) Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known disease that causes comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is necessary to develop diagnostic tools to prevent DM. Handgrip strength, a known diagnostic tool for sarcopenia, is a predictor [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known disease that causes comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is necessary to develop diagnostic tools to prevent DM. Handgrip strength, a known diagnostic tool for sarcopenia, is a predictor of several diseases. However, the value of handgrip strength as an indicator of incident DM in Asian populations remains unknown. This study aimed to identify the relationship between handgrip strength and incidence of DM in Korean adults according to sex. (2) Methods: A total of 173,195 participants registered in a nationwide cohort were included in this study. After applying the exclusion criteria, 33,326 participants remained. DM occurred in 1473 individuals during the follow-up period (mean follow-up period, 4.1 years). To reduce the impact of body size, the study population was subdivided into quartiles of relative handgrip strength, defined as absolute handgrip strength divided by body mass index. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative handgrip strength was inversely associated with new-onset DM. (3) Results: Compared with the lowest quartile (Q1), the hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for new-onset DM for the highest quartiles (Q4) was 0.60 (0.43–0.84) in men and 0.72 (0.52–0.99) in women after adjusting for confounding factors. The incidence of DM decreased with the increase in the relative handgrip strength. These inverse relationships were statistically more significant in men than in women. (4) Conclusions: This novel study revealed that relative handgrip strength is related to incident DM in both men and women. Relative handgrip strength can be used as a practical tool to prevent DM. Regular measurement of handgrip strength can be used to detect DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
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11 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
The Association between Embryo Development and Chromosomal Results from PGT-A in Women of Advanced Age: A Prospective Cohort Study
by Pornchanit Santamonkunrot, Sonsiri Samutchinda, Pornsri Niransuk, Chonthicha Satirapod and Matchuporn Sukprasert
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020626 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Embryo morphology and morphokinetics have been studied for their association with euploid embryos. However, the results are controversial, especially in the advanced-aged women group, when the risk of aneuploidy increases significantly. This prospective cohort study evaluated the association between embryo development between day-3 [...] Read more.
Embryo morphology and morphokinetics have been studied for their association with euploid embryos. However, the results are controversial, especially in the advanced-aged women group, when the risk of aneuploidy increases significantly. This prospective cohort study evaluated the association between embryo development between day-3 cleavage and day-5 blastocyst stages and euploidy rates, determined using preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A). Embryos from women aged 35 years and above who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injections and PGT-A were studied. Day-3 cleavage-stage embryos were evaluated for their cell number, and day-5 blastocyst-stage embryos were evaluated for their morphological grade. Embryo development from day 3 to day 5 was categorized as either good or poor development and evaluated for its association with the PGT-A results. We evaluated 325 embryos from 101 infertile couples. It was found that 55.17% of blastocysts with good development and 29.83% with poor development were euploid. A significant association was found between embryo development and euploidy rates in advanced-aged women (p < 0.001). Also, there were significantly higher rates of euploid embryos with good blastocyst morphological grades, especially blastocyst expansion grades and trophectoderm grades. In conclusion, embryo morphokinetics shows promising results in predicting euploidy in advanced female age. Full article
13 pages, 2215 KiB  
Review
Post-Capillary Pulmonary Hypertension: Clinical Review
by Joshua M. Riley, James J. Fradin, Douglas H. Russ, Eric D. Warner, Yevgeniy Brailovsky and Indranee Rajapreyar
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020625 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2813
Abstract
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by left heart disease, also known as post-capillary PH, is the most common etiology of PH. Left heart disease due to systolic dysfunction or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, valvular heart disease, and left atrial myopathy due to [...] Read more.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by left heart disease, also known as post-capillary PH, is the most common etiology of PH. Left heart disease due to systolic dysfunction or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, valvular heart disease, and left atrial myopathy due to atrial fibrillation are causes of post-capillary PH. Elevated left-sided filling pressures cause pulmonary venous congestion due to backward transmission of pressures and post-capillary PH. In advanced left-sided heart disease or valvular heart disease, chronic uncontrolled venous congestion may lead to remodeling of the pulmonary arterial system, causing combined pre-capillary and post-capillary PH. The hemodynamic definition of post-capillary PH includes a mean pulmonary arterial pressure > 20 mmHg, pulmonary vascular resistance < 3 Wood units, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure > 15 mmHg. Echocardiography is important in the identification and management of the underlying cause of post-capillary PH. Management of post-capillary PH is focused on the treatment of the underlying condition. Strategies are geared towards pharmacotherapy and guideline-directed medical therapy for heart failure, surgical or percutaneous management of valvular disorders, and control of modifiable risk factors and comorbid conditions. Referral to centers with advanced heart and pulmonary teams has shown to improve morbidity and mortality. There is emerging interest in the use of targeted agents classically used in pulmonary arterial hypertension, but current data remain limited and conflicting. This review aims to serve as a comprehensive summary of postcapillary PH and its etiologies, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management, particularly as it pertains to advanced heart failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Hypertension: Updates in Diagnosis and Management)
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12 pages, 1931 KiB  
Article
Cervical Multifidus and Longus Colli Ultrasound Differences among Patients with Cervical Disc Bulging, Protrusion and Extrusion and Asymptomatic Controls: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Khodabakhsh Javanshir, Payam Ghafouri-Rouzbehani, Amirhossein Zohrehvand, Arvin Naeimi, César Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Hossein-Ali Nikbakht, Seyedeh Roghayeh Mousavi-Khatir and Juan Antonio Valera-Calero
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020624 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 854
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in morphological and histological features of the cervical multifidus (CM) and longus colli (LC) muscles among patients with cervical disc bulging, protrusion, or extrusion. Fifteen patients with cervical disc bulging (20% male, mean [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in morphological and histological features of the cervical multifidus (CM) and longus colli (LC) muscles among patients with cervical disc bulging, protrusion, or extrusion. Fifteen patients with cervical disc bulging (20% male, mean age: 48.5, standard deviation (SD) 7.5 years), fifteen with cervical disc protrusion (6% male, mean age: 43, SD 7.8 years), and fifteen with cervical disc extrusion (40% male, mean age: 44, SD 8 years) diagnosed via clinical and imaging findings participated in this study. Additionally, fifteen asymptomatic controls (40% male, mean age: 40.4, SD 9.7 years) were also included. The following ultrasound measurements, cross-sectional area (CSA), anterior–posterior distance (APD), lateral dimension (LD), and mean echo-intensity (EI) of the CM and LC at C5-C6 level were examined by an assessor blinded to the subject’s condition. The results revealed no group ×side significant differences among the groups (p > 0. 00625). However, group effects were found for APD and MEI of the CM (p = 0.006 and p < 0.001, respectively) and CSA, APD and MEI of the LC (all, p < 0.001). The LD of the LC muscle and the APD and LD of the CM were negatively associated with related disability (p < 0.01; p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively), and pain intensity was negatively associated with LC APD and LD (both p < 0.05). These results suggest that US can be used to detect bilateral morphological changes in deep cervical flexors and extensors to discriminate patients with cervical disc alterations. Full article
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10 pages, 208 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Previous Comorbidities on New Comorbidities and Medications after a Mild SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Lithuanian Cohort
by Dovilė Važgėlienė, Raimondas Kubilius and Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020623 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 714
Abstract
This cross-sectional study investigates new comorbidities and new medications after a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data were collected after an acute SARS-CoV-2 infection by online survey in a Lithuanian cohort. Sociodemographic data, SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms, previous and new comorbidities, and medications were analysed. The results [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study investigates new comorbidities and new medications after a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data were collected after an acute SARS-CoV-2 infection by online survey in a Lithuanian cohort. Sociodemographic data, SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms, previous and new comorbidities, and medications were analysed. The results of 895 participants (mean age: 44 years) show that 91% were women, 58% had higher education, and 84% were working. Among those, 473 (52.8%) answered being “healthy” before infection; 823 (92%) indicated being positive on diagnostic tests; and 841 (94%) were non-hospitalized. Asymptomatic infection was reported by 17 participants (1.9%). Participants reporting any comorbidity before a SARS-CoV-2 infection reported more frequently having remaining symptoms compared to those who were “healthy”, particularly in relation to neurological symptoms. Thirteen percent of participants reported new comorbidities, and thirty-five percent started new medication. Among new medications, an intake of vitamins/supplements (21%) and anti-inflammatory drugs (4%) was more often reported by “unhealthy” participants. Regression analysis revealed that new cardiovascular and pulmonary diagnoses predicted each other. Participants reporting prior neurological disorders tended to have an increased risk of intaking new vitamins/supplements and anti-inflammatory drugs after infection. The results indicate a significantly increased consumption of medication, particularly unprescribed substances, after SARS-CoV-2, indicating a need of more research in this area. Full article
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Article
Maxillofacial Morphology as a Predictive Factor for Caries Risk in Orthodontic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Yuma Koizumi, Ryo Kunimatsu, Isamu Kado, Yuki Yoshimi, Sakura Yamada, Tomohiro Ogasawara and Kotaro Tanimoto
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020622 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 727
Abstract
This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlation between maxillofacial morphology and caries risk, assessed using salivary tests, in orthodontic patients. Despite enhancing the oral health-related quality of life, orthodontic treatment may adversely affect oral hygiene and increase caries risk. This study included [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlation between maxillofacial morphology and caries risk, assessed using salivary tests, in orthodontic patients. Despite enhancing the oral health-related quality of life, orthodontic treatment may adversely affect oral hygiene and increase caries risk. This study included 1071 patients all of whom underwent orthodontic examinations and salivary tests before starting orthodontic treatment at a hospital. Salivary tests were performed to assess the secretion rate, pH, buffering capacity, and counts of cariogenic bacteria. The maxillofacial morphology was evaluated using cephalometric X-rays and dental models. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations among salivary characteristics, bacterial scores, and maxillofacial morphology. Notably, the facial angle and Y-axis values were associated with salivary secretion (p < 0.001), pH (p < 0.001), buffering capacity (p < 0.05), and cariogenic bacterial scores (p < 0.01), respectably. In conclusion, assessing the maxillofacial morphology before orthodontic treatment may aid in predicting the risk of bacterial oral diseases, offering valuable insights into personalized preventive measures. These findings underscore the potential for comprehensive evaluations to enhance caries risk assessment in orthodontic patients. Full article
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11 pages, 1008 KiB  
Article
Nonpapillary Prone Endoscopic Combined Intrarenal Surgery (ECIRS): Five-Year Experience and Outcomes from a High-Volume Center
by Panagiotis Kallidonis, Theodoros Spinos, Vasileios Tatanis, Anna Skarimpa, Theofanis Vrettos, Paraskevi Katsakiori and Evangelos Liatsikos
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020621 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery (ECIRS) provides simultaneous retrograde and percutaneous access to the upper urinary tract. The purpose of this study is to present revised data, tips and tricks, and technique modifications arising from our five-year experience with ECIRS. The data of 62 [...] Read more.
Endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery (ECIRS) provides simultaneous retrograde and percutaneous access to the upper urinary tract. The purpose of this study is to present revised data, tips and tricks, and technique modifications arising from our five-year experience with ECIRS. The data of 62 patients who underwent nonpapillary prone ECIRS from January 2019 to November 2023 were prospectively collected. All cases were performed in the prone position. Inclusion criteria were complex stone cases with stones in multiple calyces requiring either multiple accesses or multiple sessions to achieve stone-free status. Patients’ mean age was 54.4 ± 12.39 years, while the mean stone size was 39.03 ± 13.93 mm. The mean operative time was 51.23 ± 17.75 min. Primary and final stone-free rates were 83.8% and 90.3%, respectively. In total, nine patients presented with postoperative complications, which were all Grade II ones. The holmium-YAG laser type during retrograde lithotripsy was associated with significantly shorter operative times compared to the thulium fiber laser. Nonpapillary prone ECIRS is a feasible, safe, and efficient approach for patients with specific stone and anatomy characteristics. The implementation of more, higher-evidence studies is of utmost importance so that safer conclusions can be drawn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nephrology & Urology)
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16 pages, 2147 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Evaluation of the Shape of the Reconstructed Diaphragm in Patients with Left-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Using Serial Chest Radiographs and Correlation to Further Complications
by Christoph von Schrottenberg, Maren Lindacker, Meike Weis, Sylvia Büttner, Thomas Schaible, Michael Boettcher, Lucas M. Wessel and Katrin B. Zahn
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 620; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020620 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Background: Defining risk factors for long-term comorbidities in patients after neonatal repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is an important cornerstone of the implementation of targeted longitudinal follow-up programs. Methods: This study systematically assessed serial chest radiographs of 89 patients with [...] Read more.
Background: Defining risk factors for long-term comorbidities in patients after neonatal repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is an important cornerstone of the implementation of targeted longitudinal follow-up programs. Methods: This study systematically assessed serial chest radiographs of 89 patients with left-sided CDH throughout a mean follow-up of 8.2 years. These geometrical variables for the left and right side were recorded: diaphragmatic angle (LDA, RDA), diaphragmatic diameter (LDD, RDD), diaphragmatic height (LDH, RDH), diaphragmatic curvature index (LDCI, RDCI), lower lung diameter (LLLD, RLLD) and thoracic area (LTA, RTA). Results: It was demonstrated that the shape of the diaphragm in patients with large defects systematically differs from that of patients with small defects. Characteristically, patients with large defects present with a smaller LDCI (5.1 vs. 8.4, p < 0.001) at 6 months of age, which increases over time (11.4 vs. 7.0 at the age of 15.5 years, p = 0.727), representing a flattening of the patch and the attached rudimentary diaphragm as the child grows. Conclusions: Multiple variables during early follow-up were significantly associated with comorbidities such as recurrence, scoliotic curves of the spine and a reduced thoracic area. Some geometrical variables may serve as surrogate parameters for disease severity, which is associated with long-term comorbidities. Full article
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11 pages, 1348 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound-Assisted, Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Acute Intermediate/High-Risk Pulmonary Embolism: Design of the Multicenter USAT IH-PE Registry and Preliminary Results
by Claudia Colombo, Nicolò Capsoni, Filippo Russo, Mario Iannaccone, Marianna Adamo, Giovanna Viola, Ilaria Emanuela Bossi, Luca Villanova, Chiara Tognola, Camilla Curci, Francesco Morelli, Rossella Guerrieri, Lucia Occhi, Giuliano Chizzola, Antonio Rampoldi, Francesco Musca, Giuseppe De Nittis, Mario Galli, Giacomo Boccuzzi, Daniele Savio, Davide Bernasconi, Luciana D’Angelo, Andrea Garascia, Alaide Chieffo, Matteo Montorfano, Fabrizio Oliva and Alice Saccoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020619 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Catheter-based revascularization procedures were developed as an alternative to systemic thrombolysis for patients with intermediate-high- and high-risk pulmonary embolisms. USAT IH-PE is a retrospective and prospective multicenter registry of such patients treated with ultrasound-facilitated, catheter-directed thrombolysis, whose preliminary results are presented in this [...] Read more.
Catheter-based revascularization procedures were developed as an alternative to systemic thrombolysis for patients with intermediate-high- and high-risk pulmonary embolisms. USAT IH-PE is a retrospective and prospective multicenter registry of such patients treated with ultrasound-facilitated, catheter-directed thrombolysis, whose preliminary results are presented in this study. The primary endpoint was the incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) at follow-up. Secondary endpoints were short- and mid-term changes in the echocardiographic parameters of right ventricle (RV) function, in-hospital and all-cause mortality, and procedure-related bleeding events. Between March 2018 and July 2023, 102 patients were included. The majority were at intermediate–high-risk PE (86%), were mostly female (57%), and had a mean age of 63.7 ± 14.5 years, and 28.4% had active cancer. Echocardiographic follow-up was available for 70 patients, and in only one, the diagnosis of PH was confirmed by right heart catheterization, resulting in an incidence of 1.43% (CI 95%, 0.036–7.7). RV echocardiographic parameters improved both at 24 h and at follow-up. In-hospital mortality was 3.9% (CI 95%, 1.08–9.74), while all-cause mortality was 11% (CI 95%, 5.4–19.2). Only 12% had bleeding complications, of whom 4.9% were BARC ≥ 3. Preliminary results from the USAT IH-PE registry showed a low incidence of PH, improvement in RV function, and a safe profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Embolism: The Era of Catheter-Directed Treatment)
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14 pages, 905 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Nociception Monitor-Guided Multimodal General Anesthesia on Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Bowel Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Satoshi Okamoto, Hiroki Ogata, Shohei Ooba, Ayano Saeki, Fumiya Sato, Kazunori Miyamoto, Mayu Kobata, Hiroai Okutani, Ryusuke Ueki, Nobutaka Kariya and Munetaka Hirose
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020618 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 820
Abstract
Background: Excess surgical stress responses, caused by heightened nociception, can lead to elevated levels of postoperative inflammation, resulting in an increased incidence of complications after surgery. We hypothesized that utilizing nociception monitor-guided multimodal general anesthesia would exert effects on postoperative outcomes (e.g., serum [...] Read more.
Background: Excess surgical stress responses, caused by heightened nociception, can lead to elevated levels of postoperative inflammation, resulting in an increased incidence of complications after surgery. We hypothesized that utilizing nociception monitor-guided multimodal general anesthesia would exert effects on postoperative outcomes (e.g., serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) after surgery, postoperative complications). Methods: This single-center, double-blinded, randomized trial enrolled ASA class I/II adult patients with normal preoperative CRP levels, scheduled for laparoscopic bowel surgery. Patients were randomized to receive either standard care (control group) or nociception monitor-guided multimodal general anesthesia using the nociceptive response (NR) index (NR group), where NR index was kept below 0.85 as possible. The co-primary endpoint was serum concentrations of CRP after surgery or rates of 30-day postoperative complications (defined as Clavien–Dindo grades ≥ II). Main Results: One hundred and four patients (control group, n = 52; NR group, n = 52) were enrolled for analysis. The serum CRP level on postoperative day (POD) 1 was significantly lower in the NR group (2.70 mg·dL−1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.19–3.20]) than in the control group (3.66 mg·dL−1 [95% CI, 2.98–4.34], p = 0.024). The postoperative complication rate was also significantly lower in the NR group (11.5% [95% CI, 5.4–23.0]) than in the control group (38.5% [95% CI, 26.5–52.0], p = 0.002). Conclusions: Nociception monitor-guided multimodal general anesthesia, which suppressed intraoperative nociception, mitigated serum concentrations of CRP level, and decreased postoperative complications after laparoscopic bowel surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anesthesia in General Surgery: Clinical Management and Challenges)
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3 pages, 165 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Schuderer et al. Risk Factors for Flap Loss: Analysis of Donor and Recipient Vessel Morphology in Patients Undergoing Microvascular Head and Neck Reconstructions. J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12, 5206
by Ori Bar and Imad Abu El Naaj
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020617 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 396
Abstract
We have read with much interest the study by Schuderer et al [...] Full article
11 pages, 2117 KiB  
Article
Quality of Life and Sexual Function after Laparoscopic Posterior Vaginal Plication Plus Sacral Colpopexy for Severe Posterior Vaginal Prolapse
by Andrea Morciano, Michele Carlo Schiavi, Matteo Frigerio, Giulio Licchetta, Andrea Tinelli, Mauro Cervigni, Giuseppe Marzo and Giovanni Scambia
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020616 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Background: Laparoscopic sacral colpopexy (LSC) is the gold standard treatment for women with apical/anterior pelvic organ prolapse (POP). For isolated posterior vaginal prolapse, instead, the literature suggests fascial native tissue repair. This is a retrospective 2-year quality-of-life follow-up study after laparoscopic posterior plication [...] Read more.
Background: Laparoscopic sacral colpopexy (LSC) is the gold standard treatment for women with apical/anterior pelvic organ prolapse (POP). For isolated posterior vaginal prolapse, instead, the literature suggests fascial native tissue repair. This is a retrospective 2-year quality-of-life follow-up study after laparoscopic posterior plication (LPP) combined with LSC in patients with anterior/apical prolapse combined with severe posterior colpocele. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the subjective outcomes quality of life (QoL), sexual function, and patient satisfaction rate. The secondary endpoint was to evaluate perioperative and anatomical outcomes at the 2-year follow-up. Methods: A total of 139 consecutive patients with anterior and/or apical prolapse (POP-Q stage ≥ II) and severe posterior vaginal prolapse (posterior POP-Q stage ≥ III) were retrospectively selected from our database among women who underwent, from November 2018 to February 2021, a “two-meshes” LSC. The patients were classified into Group A (81 patients; LSC plus LPP) and Group B (67 patients; LSC alone). The primary endpoint was evaluated using the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I), the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory-6 (POPDI-6), the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 (PFIQ-7), the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12), and the EuroQol (EQ-5D). The secondary endpoint was studied using the POP-Q study and an intra-, peri-, and post-operative complications assessment. Two-year follow-up data were analyzed for the study. Results: At 2 years, all women showed a statistically significant amelioration of their symptoms on the QoL questionnaires. We found a statistical difference in favor of posterior plication in terms of the PGI-I successful outcome rate (Group A versus B: 85.3% versus 67.1%), FSDS (median 11 versus 21), and PISQ-12 (median 89 versus 62) (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). A significant improvement of all EQ-5D values was observed from baseline to 2-year follow-up, and only for the “pain/discomfort” domains did we observe a significant improvement in LSC plus LPP patients versus LSC alone (p < 0.05). LSC plus LPP women showed, at 2 years, a significant amelioration of their Ap and GH POP-Q points. We observed no statistical differences in terms of intra-post-operative complications or anatomic failure rate between groups. Conclusions: Our LPP approach to LSC appears to be a safe, feasible, and effective treatment for advanced pelvic organ prolapse with a significant impact on the patient’s general health and sexual quality of life. Adding laparoscopic posterior vaginal plication to “two-meshes” sacral colpopexy is recommended in patients with apical/anterior prolapse and concomitant severe posterior colpocele. This surgical approach, in addition to improving the anatomical results of these patients, is associated with a significant improvement in sexual and quality of life indexes. Full article
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13 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
A Qualitative Exploration of Prominent Factors Contributing to the Aetiology of Child and Adolescent Eating Disorder Presentations during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Perspectives of Patients, Parents and Clinicians
by Finán Murray, Sharon Houghton, Fay Murphy, Emma Clancy, Dónal Fortune and Fiona McNicholas
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020615 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the prominent factors that contributed to the development of child and adolescent eating disorder presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This was achieved through a qualitative analysis of interviews gathered from (1) adolescent patients [...] Read more.
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the prominent factors that contributed to the development of child and adolescent eating disorder presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This was achieved through a qualitative analysis of interviews gathered from (1) adolescent patients diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED) during the COVID-19 pandemic (aged 13–18) (n = 4), (2) parents of patients attending an ED service (n = 7) and (3) clinicians working within a specialist child and adolescent ED support service (n = 7). Reflexive thematic analysis was used to analyse the data and establish the most prominent aetiological factors reported. Results: The most prominent aetiological factors reported were (1) the accumulation of risk factors; (2) seeking control amid increased anxiety, stress and uncertainty; (3) social isolation; (4) an increased focus on exercise and “healthy eating”; (5) increased social media use promoting unhelpful attention towards ED triggers; and (6) a lack of both awareness and support services. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the quantity and severity of ED presentations increased. The current study uncovered six themes perceived by patients, parents and clinical staff that contributed to the aetiology of ED presentations during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is hoped that the insight gained through this research study into ED aetiology may act as a basis for further research and support ED awareness, prevention and intervention in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The COVID-19 Pandemic and Mental Health: The Next Phase)
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Review
The Role of Automated Infrared Pupillometry in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Narrative Review
by Charikleia S. Vrettou, Paraskevi C. Fragkou, Ioannis Mallios, Chrysanthi Barba, Charalambos Giannopoulos, Evdokia Gavrielatou and Ioanna Dimopoulou
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020614 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Pupillometry, an integral component of neurological examination, serves to evaluate both pupil size and reactivity. The conventional manual assessment exhibits inherent limitations, thereby necessitating the development of portable automated infrared pupillometers (PAIPs). Leveraging infrared technology, these devices provide an objective assessment, proving valuable [...] Read more.
Pupillometry, an integral component of neurological examination, serves to evaluate both pupil size and reactivity. The conventional manual assessment exhibits inherent limitations, thereby necessitating the development of portable automated infrared pupillometers (PAIPs). Leveraging infrared technology, these devices provide an objective assessment, proving valuable in the context of brain injury for the detection of neuro-worsening and the facilitation of patient monitoring. In cases of mild brain trauma particularly, traditional methods face constraints. Conversely, in severe brain trauma scenarios, PAIPs contribute to neuro-prognostication and non-invasive neuromonitoring. Parameters derived from PAIPs exhibit correlations with changes in intracranial pressure. It is important to acknowledge, however, that PAIPs cannot replace invasive intracranial pressure monitoring while their widespread adoption awaits robust support from clinical studies. Ongoing research endeavors delve into the role of PAIPs in managing critical neuro-worsening in brain trauma patients, underscoring the non-invasive monitoring advantages while emphasizing the imperative for further clinical validation. Future advancements in this domain encompass sophisticated pupillary assessment tools and the integration of smartphone applications, emblematic of a continually evolving landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Diagnosis and Management of Traumatic Brain Injury)
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2 pages, 152 KiB  
Editorial
Chronic Liver Diseases: What is Up?
by Sharmila Fagoonee and Pietro Invernizzi
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020613 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 640
Abstract
During the preparation of this Special Issue, Dr [...] Full article
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Protocol
The Effect of an Active Break Intervention on Nonspecific Low Back Pain and Musculoskeletal Discomfort during Prolonged Sitting among Young People—Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial
by Magdalena Plandowska, Marta Kinga Labecka, Aleksandra Truszczyńska-Baszak, Maciej Płaszewski, Reza Rajabi, Beata Makaruk and Dorota Różańska
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020612 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
Background: The most recent evidence has shown that the pandemic of COVID-19 caused an increasing problem with spinal pain in the population of teenagers and young adults. This may be explained by prolonged sitting times in flexed positions with electronic devices. Positions maintained [...] Read more.
Background: The most recent evidence has shown that the pandemic of COVID-19 caused an increasing problem with spinal pain in the population of teenagers and young adults. This may be explained by prolonged sitting times in flexed positions with electronic devices. Positions maintained for a prolonged time cause overloading of soft tissue and discogenic symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the active break program in reducing musculoskeletal discomfort and LBP (low back pain) among young people. Methods: This will be a randomized controlled study. The participants will be recruited from Bachelor’s course students of the Physical Education Department aged 18–25 years. The participants will be assigned to an experimental group (with an active break) and a control group. The group with an active break with lumbar and hip extension exercises will be recommended to take a break for every 30 min of sitting. The control group will receive self-care recommendations. The primary outcomes will be pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), disability index (Oswestry Disability Index), and perceived musculoskeletal discomfort during prolonged sitting (Borg scale), assessed at baseline and after the intervention, and the Global Perceived Effect, only assessed after the 12-week intervention. The secondary outcome will be a Post-Intervention Questionnaire (a 5-item self-completed questionnaire), only assessed after the 12-week intervention. Results: Our main research outcome—exercise protocols and interventions—will lead to the development of recommendations and protocols for the LBP population. It is important to determine the effect of interventions that are feasible and effective in addressing LBP and perceived musculoskeletal discomfort in young people. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the effect of active breaks with proposed lumbar and hip extension exercises on reducing or decreasing LBP in students based on a search of the literature. Exercises and recommendations will be the basis for developing proprietary preventative and therapeutic programs, which will be implemented in selected educational institutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Back Pain Management: Clinical Advances and Perspectives)
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Article
Developing a Virtual Reality Simulation System for Preoperative Planning of Robotic-Assisted Thoracic Surgery
by Hideki Ujiie, Ryohei Chiba, Aogu Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Nomura, Haruhiko Shiiya, Aki Fujiwara-Kuroda, Kichizo Kaga, Chad Eitel, Tod R. Clapp and Tatsuya Kato
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 611; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020611 - 21 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Background. Robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) is now standard for lung cancer treatment, offering advantages over traditional methods. However, RATS’s minimally invasive approach poses challenges like limited visibility and tactile feedback, affecting surgeons’ navigation through com-plex anatomy. To enhance preoperative familiarization with patient-specific [...] Read more.
Background. Robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) is now standard for lung cancer treatment, offering advantages over traditional methods. However, RATS’s minimally invasive approach poses challenges like limited visibility and tactile feedback, affecting surgeons’ navigation through com-plex anatomy. To enhance preoperative familiarization with patient-specific anatomy, we devel-oped a virtual reality (VR) surgical navigation system. Using head-mounted displays (HMDs), this system provides a comprehensive, interactive view of the patient’s anatomy pre-surgery, aiming to improve preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation. Methods. We integrated 3D data from preoperative CT scans into Perspectus VR Education software, displayed via HMDs for in-teractive 3D reconstruction of pulmonary structures. This detailed visualization aids in tailored preoperative resection simulations. During RATS, surgeons access these 3D images through Tile-ProTM multi-display for real-time guidance. Results. The VR system enabled precise visualization of pulmonary structures and lesion relations, enhancing surgical safety and accuracy. The HMDs offered true 3D interaction with patient data, facilitating surgical planning. Conclusions. VR sim-ulation with HMDs, akin to a robotic 3D viewer, offers a novel approach to developing robotic surgical skills. Integrated with routine imaging, it improves preoperative planning, safety, and accuracy of anatomical resections. This technology particularly aids in lesion identification in RATS, optimizing surgical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Advances in Thoracic Surgery)
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