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Appl. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In recent years, organic optic electronic devices have been attracting extensive research interest. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle SampleCNN: End-to-End Deep Convolutional Neural Networks Using Very Small Filters for Music Classification
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010150
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (14998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have been applied to diverse machine learning tasks for different modalities of raw data in an end-to-end fashion. In the audio domain, a raw waveform-based approach has been explored to directly learn hierarchical characteristics of audio. However, the majority
[...] Read more.
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have been applied to diverse machine learning tasks for different modalities of raw data in an end-to-end fashion. In the audio domain, a raw waveform-based approach has been explored to directly learn hierarchical characteristics of audio. However, the majority of previous studies have limited their model capacity by taking a frame-level structure similar to short-time Fourier transforms. We previously proposed a CNN architecture which learns representations using sample-level filters beyond typical frame-level input representations. The architecture showed comparable performance to the spectrogram-based CNN model in music auto-tagging. In this paper, we extend the previous work in three ways. First, considering the sample-level model requires much longer training time, we progressively downsample the input signals and examine how it affects the performance. Second, we extend the model using multi-level and multi-scale feature aggregation technique and subsequently conduct transfer learning for several music classification tasks. Finally, we visualize filters learned by the sample-level CNN in each layer to identify hierarchically learned features and show that they are sensitive to log-scaled frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sound and Music Computing) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Real-Time Reduction of Task-Related Scalp-Hemodynamics Artifact in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Sliding-Window Analysis
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010149
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an effective non-invasive neuroimaging technique for measuring hemoglobin concentration in the cerebral cortex. Owing to the nature of fNIRS measurement principles, measured signals can be contaminated with task-related scalp blood flow (SBF), which is distributed over the whole
[...] Read more.
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an effective non-invasive neuroimaging technique for measuring hemoglobin concentration in the cerebral cortex. Owing to the nature of fNIRS measurement principles, measured signals can be contaminated with task-related scalp blood flow (SBF), which is distributed over the whole head and masks true brain activity. Aiming for fNIRS-based real-time application, we proposed a real-time task-related SBF artifact reduction method. Using a principal component analysis, we estimated a global temporal pattern of SBF from few short-channels, then we applied a general linear model for removing it from long-channels that were possibly contaminated by SBF. Sliding-window analysis was applied for both signal steps for real-time processing. To assess the performance, a semi-real simulation was executed with measured short-channel signals in a motor-task experiment. Compared with conventional techniques with no elements of SBF, the proposed method showed significantly higher estimation performance for true brain activation under a task-related SBF artifact environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Research on Model-Based Fault Diagnosis for a Gas Turbine Based on Transient Performance
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010148
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 22 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is essential to monitor and to diagnose faults in rotating machinery with a high thrust–weight ratio and complex structure for a variety of industrial applications, for which reliable signal measurements are required. However, the measured values consist of the true values of
[...] Read more.
It is essential to monitor and to diagnose faults in rotating machinery with a high thrust–weight ratio and complex structure for a variety of industrial applications, for which reliable signal measurements are required. However, the measured values consist of the true values of the parameters, the inertia of measurements, random errors and systematic errors. Such signals cannot reflect the true performance state and the health state of rotating machinery accurately. High-quality, steady-state measurements are necessary for most current diagnostic methods. Unfortunately, it is hard to obtain these kinds of measurements for most rotating machinery. Diagnosis based on transient performance is a useful tool that can potentially solve this problem. A model-based fault diagnosis method for gas turbines based on transient performance is proposed in this paper. The fault diagnosis consists of a dynamic simulation model, a diagnostic scheme, and an optimization algorithm. A high-accuracy, nonlinear, dynamic gas turbine model using a modular modeling method is presented that involves thermophysical properties, a component characteristic chart, and system inertial. The startup process is simulated using this model. The consistency between the simulation results and the field operation data shows the validity of the model and the advantages of transient accumulated deviation. In addition, a diagnostic scheme is designed to fulfill this process. Finally, cuckoo search is selected to solve the optimization problem in fault diagnosis. Comparative diagnostic results for a gas turbine before and after washing indicate the improved effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method of using data from transient processes, compared with traditional methods using data from the steady state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Turbine Engine - towards the Future of Power)
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Open AccessArticle Maximum Power Point Tracking Implementation by Dspace Controller Integrated Through Z-Source Inverter Using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for Photovoltaic Applications
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010145
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 13 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
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Abstract
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is used to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic system. This paper involves working on an enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based MPPT method for the photovoltaic (PV) system integrated through Z-Source inverter. The main benefit of
[...] Read more.
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is used to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic system. This paper involves working on an enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based MPPT method for the photovoltaic (PV) system integrated through Z-Source inverter. The main benefit of the proposed method is the diminishing of the steady-state oscillation when the maximum power point (MPP) is located. Additionally, during an extreme environmental condition, such as partial shading and large fluctuations of irradiance and temperature, the proposed method has the capability to track the MPP. This algorithm is implemented in dspace 1104 controller. MATLAB simulations are carried out under varying irradiance and temperature conditions to evaluate its effectiveness. Its performance is compared with a conventional method like Perturb and observe (P&O) method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Manipulating Propagation Constants of Silver Nanowire Plasmonic Waveguide Modes Using a Dielectric Multilayer Substrate
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010144
Received: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 22 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that when a silver nanowire is placed on a dielectric multilayer, but not the commonly used bare glass slide, the effective refractive index of the propagating surface plasmons along the silver nanowire can be controlled. Furthermore, by increasing
[...] Read more.
Experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that when a silver nanowire is placed on a dielectric multilayer, but not the commonly used bare glass slide, the effective refractive index of the propagating surface plasmons along the silver nanowire can be controlled. Furthermore, by increasing the thickness of the top dielectric layer, longer wavelength light can also propagate along a very thin silver nanowire. In the experiment, the diameter of the silver nanowire could be as thin as 70 nm, with the incident wavelength as long as 640 nm. The principle of this control is analysed from the existence of a photonic band gap and the Bloch surface wave with this dielectric multilayer substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Waves on Planar Photonic Crystals)
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Open AccessReview Current Status of Single Particle Imaging with X-ray Lasers
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010132
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 22 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The advent of ultrafast X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) opens the tantalizing possibility of the atomic-resolution imaging of reproducible objects such as viruses, nanoparticles, single molecules, clusters, and perhaps biological cells, achieving a resolution for single particle imaging better than a few tens of
[...] Read more.
The advent of ultrafast X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) opens the tantalizing possibility of the atomic-resolution imaging of reproducible objects such as viruses, nanoparticles, single molecules, clusters, and perhaps biological cells, achieving a resolution for single particle imaging better than a few tens of nanometers. Improving upon this is a significant challenge which has been the focus of a global single particle imaging (SPI) initiative launched in December 2014 at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA. A roadmap was outlined, and significant multi-disciplinary effort has since been devoted to work on the technical challenges of SPI such as radiation damage, beam characterization, beamline instrumentation and optics, sample preparation and delivery and algorithm development at multiple institutions involved in the SPI initiative. Currently, the SPI initiative has achieved 3D imaging of rice dwarf virus (RDV) and coliphage PR772 viruses at ~10 nm resolution by using soft X-ray FEL pulses at the Atomic Molecular and Optical (AMO) instrument of LCLS. Meanwhile, diffraction patterns with signal above noise up to the corner of the detector with a resolution of ~6 Ångström (Å) were also recorded with hard X-rays at the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument, also at LCLS. Achieving atomic resolution is truly a grand challenge and there is still a long way to go in light of recent developments in electron microscopy. However, the potential for studying dynamics at physiological conditions and capturing ultrafast biological, chemical and physical processes represents a tremendous potential application, attracting continued interest in pursuing further method development. In this paper, we give a brief introduction of SPI developments and look ahead to further method development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue X-Ray Free-Electron Laser) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Incoherent Digital Holography: A Review
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010143
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Digital holography (DH) is a promising technique for modern three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Coherent holography records the complex amplitude of a 3D object holographically, giving speckle noise upon reconstruction and presenting a serious drawback inherent in coherent optical systems. On the other hand, incoherent
[...] Read more.
Digital holography (DH) is a promising technique for modern three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Coherent holography records the complex amplitude of a 3D object holographically, giving speckle noise upon reconstruction and presenting a serious drawback inherent in coherent optical systems. On the other hand, incoherent holography records the intensity distribution of the object, allowing a higher signal-to-noise ratio as compared to its coherent counterpart. Currently there are two incoherent digital holographic techniques: optical scanning holography (OSH) and Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH). In this review, we first explain the principles of OSH and FINCH. We then compare, to some extent, the differences between OSH and FINCH. Finally, some of the recent applications of the two incoherent holographic techniques are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography and 3D Imaging: Tomorrows Ultimate Experience)
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Open AccessArticle Variability of Hydroacoustic Noise Probability Density Function at the Output of Automatic Gain Control System
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010142
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
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Abstract
This research presents results of the estimation of temporal variability of the hydroacoustic noise probability density function (PDF) in shallow waters within the frequency band of 0.03–3.3 kHz; the studies were conducted near the Primorsky Aquarium on Russky Island, Vladivostok, Russia. Signals were
[...] Read more.
This research presents results of the estimation of temporal variability of the hydroacoustic noise probability density function (PDF) in shallow waters within the frequency band of 0.03–3.3 kHz; the studies were conducted near the Primorsky Aquarium on Russky Island, Vladivostok, Russia. Signals were received via unidirectional hydrophone and automatic gain control of the received signals. The hydrophone was attached to a drifting buoy via an elastic suspension; the received signals were transmitted by cable to a boat drifting with the buoy. The results of the comparison of the sea noise probability density function (PDF) estimates at the output of a system with automatic gain control (AGC) with similar results for a white Gaussian noise in the same frequency band are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Acoustics, Communications and Information Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Hierarchical Colored Petri Nets for Modeling and Analysis of Transit Signal Priority Control Systems
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010141
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, we consider the problem of developing a model for traffic signal control with transit priority using Hierarchical Colored Petri nets (HCPN). Petri nets (PN) are useful for state analysis of discrete event systems due to their powerful modeling capability and
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider the problem of developing a model for traffic signal control with transit priority using Hierarchical Colored Petri nets (HCPN). Petri nets (PN) are useful for state analysis of discrete event systems due to their powerful modeling capability and mathematical formalism. This paper focuses on their use to formalize the transit signal priority (TSP) control model. In a four-phase traffic signal control model, the transit detection and two kinds of transit priority strategies are integrated to obtain the HCPN-based TSP control models. One of the advantages to use these models is the clear presentation of traffic light behaviors in terms of conditions and events that cause the detection of a priority request by a transit vehicle. Another advantage of the resulting models is that the correctness and reliability of the proposed strategies are easily analyzed. After their full reachable states are generated, the boundness, liveness, and fairness of the proposed models are verified. Experimental results show that the proposed control model provides transit vehicles with better effectiveness at intersections. This work helps advance the state of the art in the design of signal control models related to the intersection of roadways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Agile Attitude Control and Singularity Avoidance/Escape by the SDRE Method Using a Biased State-Dependent Weighting Matrix
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010140
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
In recent years there has been an increasing need to improve satellite attitude control performance in terms of agility and attitude accuracy in large-angle attitude maneuvers. To achieve such control performance, single-gimbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) should be mounted as modern-type actuators. Conventionally,
[...] Read more.
In recent years there has been an increasing need to improve satellite attitude control performance in terms of agility and attitude accuracy in large-angle attitude maneuvers. To achieve such control performance, single-gimbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) should be mounted as modern-type actuators. Conventionally, based on the torque command calculated by the attitude control system of the satellite, SGCMGs were controlled by solving inverse kinematics through a pseudo inverse matrix steering law. However, in such a control system structure, it may be difficult to obtain the desired torque required by the attitude control system because of the singularity problem of SGCMGs. Furthermore, with respect to implementation, since the condition number of the Jacobian matrix of SGCMG becomes extremely large in the singularity, the numerical calculation error of the pseudo inverse matrix increases greatly. Therefore, we propose an overall control system that can solve above-described problems and the state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) control system that integrates the satellite and SGCMG system. The proposed optimal control system, which does not solve the pseudo inverse matrix, can realize gimbal angle guidance by gimbal angle feedback and singularity avoidance/escape using the biased weighting matrix. In the numerical simulation, the usefulness of proposed system is shown in comparison with the conventional system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Motion Planning for Bipedal Robot to Perform Jump Maneuver
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010139
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The remarkable ability of humans to perform jump maneuvers greatly contributes to the improvements of the obstacle negotiation ability of humans. The paper proposes a jumping control scheme for a bipedal robot to perform a high jump. The half-body of the robot is
[...] Read more.
The remarkable ability of humans to perform jump maneuvers greatly contributes to the improvements of the obstacle negotiation ability of humans. The paper proposes a jumping control scheme for a bipedal robot to perform a high jump. The half-body of the robot is modeled as three planar links and the motion during the launching phase is taken into account. A geometrically simple motion was first conducted through which the gear reduction ratio that matches the maximum motor output for high jumping was selected. Then, the following strategies to further exploit the motor output performance was examined: (1) to set the maximum torque of each joint as the baseline that is explicitly modeled as a piecewise linear function dependent on the joint angular velocity; (2) to exert it with a correction of the joint angular accelerations in order to satisfy some balancing criteria during the motion. The criteria include the location of ZMP (zero moment point) and the torque limit. Using the technique described above, the jumping pattern is pre-calculated to maximize the jump height. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through simulations. In the simulation, the bipedal robot model achieved a 0.477-m high jump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Robotics)
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Open AccessArticle Computational Modelling of Rectangular Sub-Boundary Layer Vortex Generators
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010138
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Vortex generators (VGs) are increasingly used in the wind turbine manufacture industry as flow control devices to improve rotor blade aerodynamic performance. Nevertheless, VGs may produce excess residual drag in some applications. The so-called sub-boundary layer VGs can provide an effective flow-separation control
[...] Read more.
Vortex generators (VGs) are increasingly used in the wind turbine manufacture industry as flow control devices to improve rotor blade aerodynamic performance. Nevertheless, VGs may produce excess residual drag in some applications. The so-called sub-boundary layer VGs can provide an effective flow-separation control with lower drag than the conventional VGs. The main objective of this study is to investigate how well the simulations can reproduce the physics of the flow of the primary vortex generated by rectangular sub-boundary layer VGs mounted on a flat plate with a negligible pressure gradient with an angle of attack of the vane to the oncoming flow of β = 18°. Three devices with aspect ratio values of 2, 2.5 and 3 are qualitatively and quantitatively compared. To that end, computational simulations have been carried out using the RANS (Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes) method and at Reynolds number Re = 2600 based on the boundary layer momentum thickness θ at the VG position. The computational results show good agreement with the experimental data provided by the Advanced Aerodynamic Tools of Large Rotors (AVATAR) European project for the development and validation of aerodynamic models. Finally, the results indicate that the highest VG seems to be more suitable for separation control applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Flow Control Technologies for Energy and Propulsive Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A 25.78-Gbit/s × 4-ch Active Optical Cable with Ultra-Compact Form Factor for High-Density Optical Interconnects
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010137
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
A 25.78-Gbit/s × 4-ch active optical cable (AOC) with an ultra-compact form factor is proposed. The size of the proposed AOC is 5.2 cm3, which is 55% smaller than the standard form factor of Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable (QSFP28), and 45%
[...] Read more.
A 25.78-Gbit/s × 4-ch active optical cable (AOC) with an ultra-compact form factor is proposed. The size of the proposed AOC is 5.2 cm3, which is 55% smaller than the standard form factor of Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable (QSFP28), and 45% smaller than that of Micro Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable (μQSFP). As a result of utilizing a high-efficiency heat-dissipation structure and optimizing signal transmission lines and ground vias, the proposed AOC achieves high-heat dissipation and low-crosstalk characteristics. Furthermore, the proposed AOC demonstrated 25.78-Gbit/s error-free optical transmission over a 100-m Optical Multimode 3 (OM3) multimode fiber under all-channels (4-ch) operation and case temperature (Tc) of 70 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Interconnects)
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Open AccessArticle Pareto Optimal Solutions for Network Defense Strategy Selection Simulator in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010136
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
Using Pareto optimization in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning (MORL) leads to better learning results for network defense games. This is particularly useful for network security agents, who must often balance several goals when choosing what action to take in defense of a network. If
[...] Read more.
Using Pareto optimization in Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning (MORL) leads to better learning results for network defense games. This is particularly useful for network security agents, who must often balance several goals when choosing what action to take in defense of a network. If the defender knows his preferred reward distribution, the advantages of Pareto optimization can be retained by using a scalarization algorithm prior to the implementation of the MORL. In this paper, we simulate a network defense scenario by creating a multi-objective zero-sum game and using Pareto optimization and MORL to determine optimal solutions and compare those solutions to different scalarization approaches. We build a Pareto Defense Strategy Selection Simulator (PDSSS) system for assisting network administrators on decision-making, specifically, on defense strategy selection, and the experiment results show that the Satisficing Trade-Off Method (STOM) scalarization approach performs better than linear scalarization or GUESS method. The results of this paper can aid network security agents attempting to find an optimal defense policy for network security games. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Analyzing Free-Hand Sound-Tracings of Melodic Phrases
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010135
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this paper, we report on a free-hand motion capture study in which 32 participants ‘traced’ 16 melodic vocal phrases with their hands in the air in two experimental conditions. Melodic contours are often thought of as correlated with vertical movement (up and
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In this paper, we report on a free-hand motion capture study in which 32 participants ‘traced’ 16 melodic vocal phrases with their hands in the air in two experimental conditions. Melodic contours are often thought of as correlated with vertical movement (up and down) in time, and this was also our initial expectation. We did find an arch shape for most of the tracings, although this did not correspond directly to the melodic contours. Furthermore, representation of pitch in the vertical dimension was but one of a diverse range of movement strategies used to trace the melodies. Six different mapping strategies were observed, and these strategies have been quantified and statistically tested. The conclusion is that metaphorical representation is much more common than a ‘graph-like’ rendering for such a melodic sound-tracing task. Other findings include a clear gender difference for some of the tracing strategies and an unexpected representation of melodies in terms of a small object for some of the Hindustani music examples. The data also show a tendency of participants moving within a shared ‘social box’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sound and Music Computing) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Combined Effects of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Chemotherapeutic Agents on Prostate Cancer Cells In Vitro
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010134
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have poor outcomes. Docetaxel (DTX)-based therapy is a current standard treatment for patients with mCRPC. Approaches combining conventional chemotherapeutic agents and nanoparticles (NPs), particularly iron oxide NPs, may overcome the serious side effects and drug resistance,
[...] Read more.
Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have poor outcomes. Docetaxel (DTX)-based therapy is a current standard treatment for patients with mCRPC. Approaches combining conventional chemotherapeutic agents and nanoparticles (NPs), particularly iron oxide NPs, may overcome the serious side effects and drug resistance, resulting in the establishment of new therapeutic strategies. We previously reported the combined effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) with DTX on prostate cancer cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of Fe3O4 NPs and rapamycin or carboplatin on prostate cancer cells in vitro. Treatment of DU145 and PC-3 cells with Fe3O4 NPs increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of both cell lines with 100 μg/mL Fe3O4 NPs for 72 h resulted in significant inhibition of cell viability with a different inhibitory effect. Combination treatments with 100 µg/mL Fe3O4 NPs and 10 µM carboplatin or 10 nM rapamycin in DU145 and PC-3 cells significantly decreased cell viability. Synergistic effects on apoptosis were observed in PC-3 cells treated with Fe3O4 NPs and rapamycin and in DU145 cells with Fe3O4 NPs and carboplatin. These results suggest the possibility of combination therapy with Fe3O4 NPs and various chemotherapeutic agents as a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with mCRPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Applied Sciences and Announcement of the 2017 Outstanding Reviewer Awards Winners
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010133
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Applied Sciences maintains high quality standards for its published papers [...]
Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation on Seismic Behavior of Steel Truss-RC Column Hybrid Structure with Steel Diagonal Braces
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010131
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper aims to provide an experimental support on seismic performance evaluation of the steel braced truss-RC (reinforced concrete) column hybrid structure, which could be applied as the air-cooled supporting structural system in large-capacity thermal power plants located in strong earthquake prone regions.
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This paper aims to provide an experimental support on seismic performance evaluation of the steel braced truss-RC (reinforced concrete) column hybrid structure, which could be applied as the air-cooled supporting structural system in large-capacity thermal power plants located in strong earthquake prone regions. A series of pseudo-dynamic tests (PDTs) and quasi-static tests (QSTs) were performed on a 1/8-scaled sub-structure. The dynamic characteristics, lateral deformation patterns, deterioration behavior, hysteretic behavior and failure mechanisms were investigated. Test results showed that the first vibration mode is torsion, which is caused by the small torsional stiffness of this kind of hybrid structure. The lateral deformation shape is shear mode, and the drift ratio of the structure above the corbel is significantly less than that of the column below the corbel. Earthquake energy is mainly dissipated by the RC pipe columns where cracks mainly occurred at the bottom of column and lower part of corbel. The failure mechanisms were identified indicating that the steel braces improved the global stiffness and modified the load transfer mechanism. This study affirms that the steel braced truss-RC column hybrid structure has the sufficient ductility and good energy dissipation capacity to satisfy the design requirements in high seismic regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Acoustics and Vibrations)
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Open AccessArticle A Phase Change Material for Reconfigurable Circuit Applications
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010130
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
The large resistance contrast between amorphous and crystalline states of phase change materials (PCM) makes them a promising candidate for data-storage applications. Germanium telluride (GeTe), an early member of the PCM family, shows ~6 orders of magnitude difference in resistivity upon phase transition.
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The large resistance contrast between amorphous and crystalline states of phase change materials (PCM) makes them a promising candidate for data-storage applications. Germanium telluride (GeTe), an early member of the PCM family, shows ~6 orders of magnitude difference in resistivity upon phase transition. In this paper, two different heating methods, direct (Joule) and indirect thermal heating, were applied to induce a phase transition in vertical and horizontal GeTe resistors. In the electrical measurements, it was observed that thermal heating produces a two orders of magnitude larger difference in GeTe resistivity that the Joule heating, irrespective of the resistor’s geometry and orientation. It was also found that the large inter-electrode distances in horizontal resistors make them impractical for low voltage applications. In addition, a correlation in between crystallization voltage and resistor’s geometrical parameters (i.e., inter-electrode distance and cross-sectional area) was also established. Here, it was found that the threshold voltage increases with resistor length, while it remains unaffected with a change in cross-sectional area. This work provides design guidelines to make use of not only GeTe but also other phase change materials in reconfigurable circuit applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Study of Non-Detection Zones in Conventional Long-Distance Ultrasonic Guided Wave Inspection on Square Steel Bars
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010129
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
In a low-frequency ultrasonic guided wave dual-probe flaw inspection of a square steel bar with a finite length boundary, the flaw reflected pulse wave cannot be identified using conventional time monitoring when the flaw is located near the reflection terminal; therefore, the conventional
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In a low-frequency ultrasonic guided wave dual-probe flaw inspection of a square steel bar with a finite length boundary, the flaw reflected pulse wave cannot be identified using conventional time monitoring when the flaw is located near the reflection terminal; therefore, the conventional ultrasonic echo method is not applicable and results in a non-detection zone. Using analysis and simulations of ultrasonic guided waves for the inspection of a square steel bar, the reasons for the appearance of the non-detection zone and its characteristics were analyzed and the range of the non-detection zone was estimated. Subsequently, by extending the range of the conventional detection time domain, the envelope of the specific reflected pulse signal was extracted by a combination of simulations and related envelope calculations to solve the problem of the non-detection zone in conventional inspection methods. A comparison between the simulation and the experimental results demonstrate that the solution is feasible. This study has certain practical significance for ultrasonic guided wave structural monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasonic Guided Waves)
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Open AccessArticle Pore Solution pH for the Corrosion Initiation of Rebars Embedded in Concrete under a Long-Term Natural Carbonation Reaction
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010128
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents an in-situ inspection and experimental investigation on the pore solution pH of concrete cover for the corrosion initiation of rebars under a long-term natural carbonation reaction. A 77-year-old steel mill was inspected, and 35 concrete column cover samples were collected
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This paper presents an in-situ inspection and experimental investigation on the pore solution pH of concrete cover for the corrosion initiation of rebars under a long-term natural carbonation reaction. A 77-year-old steel mill was inspected, and 35 concrete column cover samples were collected to test the pH of the pore solution and phase compositions layer by layer. The variation in pH and phase compositions of the concrete along the cover depth was studied. The in-situ inspection results indicate that the rebar embedded in concrete had begun to corrode when the carbonation depth was almost less than one-third of the cover depth. The corrosion initiation of rebars embedded in concrete can occur when the pH is between 11.3 and 12.1. The pore solution pH test results and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that there is a semi-carbonated zone between the fully carbonated zone and the rebar. The pH of a fully carbonated zone is in a range of 8.0–9.5, and the pH of a semi-carbonated zone is between 9.5 and 12.1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Optical Effects Induced by Bloch Surface Waves in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010127
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 7 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
The review considers the influence of Bloch surface waves on the optical and magneto-optical effects observed in photonic crystals; for example, the Goos–Hänchen effect, the Faraday effect, optical trapping and so on. Prospects for using Bloch surface waves for spatial light modulation, for
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The review considers the influence of Bloch surface waves on the optical and magneto-optical effects observed in photonic crystals; for example, the Goos–Hänchen effect, the Faraday effect, optical trapping and so on. Prospects for using Bloch surface waves for spatial light modulation, for controlling the polarization of light, for optical trapping and control of micro-objects are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Waves on Planar Photonic Crystals)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Optimization of a High-Speed Press Considering Multi-Source Uncertainties Based on a New Heterogeneous TOPSIS
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010126
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
In order to achieve high punching precision, good operational reliability and low manufacturing cost, the structural optimization of a high-speed press in the presence of a set of available alternatives comprises a heterogeneous multiple-attribute decision-making (HMADM) problem involving deviation, fixation, cost and benefit
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In order to achieve high punching precision, good operational reliability and low manufacturing cost, the structural optimization of a high-speed press in the presence of a set of available alternatives comprises a heterogeneous multiple-attribute decision-making (HMADM) problem involving deviation, fixation, cost and benefit attributes that can be described in various mathematical forms due to the existence of multi-source uncertainties. Such a HMADM problem cannot be easily resolved by existing methods. To overcome this difficulty, a new heterogeneous technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (HTOPSIS) is proposed. A new approach to normalization of heterogeneous attributes is proposed by integrating the possibility degree method, relative preference relation and the attribute transformation technique. Expressions for determining positive and negative ideal solutions corresponding to heterogeneous attributes are also developed. Finally, alternative structural configurations are ranked according to their relative closeness coefficients, and the optimal structural configuration can be determined. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed HTOPSIS are demonstrated by a numerical example. The proposed HTOPSIS can also be applied to structural optimization of other complex equipment, because there is no prerequisite of independency among various attributes for its application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Numerical Assessment of Virtual Control Surfaces for Load Alleviation on Compressor Blades
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010125
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
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Abstract
Virtual control surfaces for the optimization of steady and unsteady airloads on a compressor cascade are assessed numerically. The effects of mechanical surfaces are realized with plasma actuators, located both on the pressure and on the suction side of the blade trailing edge.
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Virtual control surfaces for the optimization of steady and unsteady airloads on a compressor cascade are assessed numerically. The effects of mechanical surfaces are realized with plasma actuators, located both on the pressure and on the suction side of the blade trailing edge. Suction side plasma actuation is thought to reproduce the effects of mechanical wing spoilers, whereas pressure side plasma actuation is meant to act as a mechanical Gurney flap. Indeed, actuators are operated to generate an induced velocity field that is opposite relative to the direction of the freestream velocity. As a consequence, controlled recirculating flow areas are generated, which modify the effective mean line shape, as well as the position of the Kutta condition application point—and in turn the developed airloads. Proper triggering of pressure/suction side actuation is found to be effective in altering the blade loading, with effects comparable to those of mechanical control surfaces. Traveling wave mode simulations show that significant reductions in the peaks of the blade pitching moment can be achieved on the whole spectrum of interblade phase angles. It is proved that virtual control surfaces can provide effective load alleviation on the cascade, with potential remarkable reduction of fatigue phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active Flow Control Technologies for Energy and Propulsive Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Elastic Characterization of Transparent and Opaque Films, Multilayers and Acoustic Resonators by Surface Brillouin Scattering: A Review
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010124
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 1 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
There is currently a renewed interest in the development of experimental methods to achieve the elastic characterization of thin films, multilayers and acoustic resonators operating in the GHz range of frequencies. The potentialities of surface Brillouin light scattering (surf-BLS) for this aim are
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There is currently a renewed interest in the development of experimental methods to achieve the elastic characterization of thin films, multilayers and acoustic resonators operating in the GHz range of frequencies. The potentialities of surface Brillouin light scattering (surf-BLS) for this aim are reviewed in this paper, addressing the various situations that may occur for the different types of structures. In particular, the experimental methodology and the amount of information that can be obtained depending on the transparency or opacity of the film material, as well as on the ratio between the film thickness and the light wavelength, are discussed. A generalization to the case of multilayered samples is also provided, together with an outlook on the capability of the recently developed micro-focused scanning version of the surf-BLS technique, which opens new opportunities for the imaging of the spatial profile of the acoustic field in acoustic resonators and in artificially patterned metamaterials, such as phononic crystals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brillouin Scattering and Optomechanics)
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Open AccessArticle Multiple Speech Source Separation Using Inter-Channel Correlation and Relaxed Sparsity
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010123
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
In this work, a multiple speech source separation method using inter-channel correlation and relaxed sparsity is proposed. A B-format microphone with four spatially located channels is adopted due to the size of the microphone array to preserve the spatial parameter integrity of the
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In this work, a multiple speech source separation method using inter-channel correlation and relaxed sparsity is proposed. A B-format microphone with four spatially located channels is adopted due to the size of the microphone array to preserve the spatial parameter integrity of the original signal. Specifically, we firstly measure the proportion of overlapped components among multiple sources and find that there exist many overlapped time-frequency (TF) components with increasing source number. Then, considering the relaxed sparsity of speech sources, we propose a dynamic threshold-based separation approach of sparse components where the threshold is determined by the inter-channel correlation among the recording signals. After conducting a statistical analysis of the number of active sources at each TF instant, a form of relaxed sparsity called the half-K assumption is proposed so that the active source number in a certain TF bin does not exceed half the total number of simultaneously occurring sources. By applying the half-K assumption, the non-sparse components are recovered by regarding the extracted sparse components as a guide, combined with vector decomposition and matrix factorization. Eventually, the final TF coefficients of each source are recovered by the synthesis of sparse and non-sparse components. The proposed method has been evaluated using up to six simultaneous speech sources under both anechoic and reverberant conditions. Both objective and subjective evaluations validated that the perceptual quality of the separated speech by the proposed approach outperforms existing blind source separation (BSS) approaches. Besides, it is robust to different speeches whilst confirming all the separated speeches with similar perceptual quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Acoustics and Vibrations)
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Open AccessArticle Transition Analysis and Its Application to Global Path Determination for a Biped Climbing Robot
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010122
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
Biped climbing robots are considered good assistants and (or) substitutes for human workers carrying out high-rise truss-associated routine tasks. Flexible locomotion on three-dimensional complex trusses is a fundamental skill for these robots. In particular, the capability to transit from one structural member to
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Biped climbing robots are considered good assistants and (or) substitutes for human workers carrying out high-rise truss-associated routine tasks. Flexible locomotion on three-dimensional complex trusses is a fundamental skill for these robots. In particular, the capability to transit from one structural member to another is paramount for switching objects to be climbed upon. In this paper, we study member-to-member transition and its utility in global path searching for biped climbing robots. To compute operational regions for transition, hierarchical inspection of safety, reachability, and accessibility of grips is taken into account. A novel global path rapid determination approach is subsequently proposed based on the transition analysis. This scheme is efficient for finding feasible routes with respect to the overall structural environment, which also benefits the subsequent grip and motion planning. Simulations are conducted with Climbot, our self-developed biped climbing robot, to verify the efficiency of the presented method. Results show that our proposed method is able to accurately determine the operational region for transition within tens of milliseconds and can obtain global paths within seconds in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Robotics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Electromechanical Anisotropy at the Ferroelectric to Relaxor Transition of (Bi0.5Na0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3 Ceramics from the Thermal Evolution of Resonance Curves
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010121
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
(Bi0.5Na0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3 dense ceramics were obtained from autocombustion sol-gel synthesized nanopowders and sintered at 1050 °C for 1–2 h for the study of the electromechanical anisotropy. Measurement of the complex impedance spectrum was carried out
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(Bi0.5Na0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3 dense ceramics were obtained from autocombustion sol-gel synthesized nanopowders and sintered at 1050 °C for 1–2 h for the study of the electromechanical anisotropy. Measurement of the complex impedance spectrum was carried out on thin ceramic disks, thickness-poled, as a function of the temperature from 16 °C up to the vanishing of the electromechanical resonances at the ferroelectric to relaxor transition near 100 °C. The spectrum comprises the fundamental radial extensional mode and three overtones of this, together with the fundamental thickness extensional mode, coupled with other complex modes. Thermal evolution of the spectrum shows anisotropic behavior. Piezoelectric, elastic, and dielectric material coefficients, including all losses, were determined from iterative analysis of the complex impedance curves at the planar, thickness, and shear virtually monomodal resonances of disks and shear plates, thickness-poled. d33 was measured quasi-statically at 100 Hz. This set of data was used as the initial condition for the optimization of the numerical calculation by finite elements of the full spectrum of the disk, from 100 kHz to 1.9 MHz, to determine the thermal evolution of the material coefficients. An appropriate measurement strategy to study electromechanical anisotropy of piezoelectric ceramics has been developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle A Distribution Power Electronic Transformer with MMC
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010120
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper deals with a Power Electronic Transformer (PET) topology for a 3-phase AC distribution grid. In the discussed topology, a Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) and a Full-Bridge converter are employed for the medium voltage (MV) and the low voltage (LV) side, respectively.
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This paper deals with a Power Electronic Transformer (PET) topology for a 3-phase AC distribution grid. In the discussed topology, a Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) and a Full-Bridge converter are employed for the medium voltage (MV) and the low voltage (LV) side, respectively. By using the space vector, approach a mathematical model for the MMC is presented and a grid-synchronous algorithm is implemented to easily control the power flow through the structure. The MV and LV side converters are linked through a High Frequency (HF) transformer, whose control strategy is a Dual-Active Phase-Shift Control (PSC) with Square Wave Modulation (SQM). This technique is combined with a predictive algorithm, which is able to keep each leg’s capacitors’ voltages balanced both in stationary and in transient conditions. The proposed algorithm is numerically validated in the Matlab/Simulink® environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle A Semi-Explicit Multi-Step Method for Solving Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010119
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fractional step method is a technique that results in a computationally-efficient implementation of Navier–Stokes solvers. In the finite element-based models, it is often applied in conjunction with implicit time integration schemes. On the other hand, in the framework of finite difference and
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The fractional step method is a technique that results in a computationally-efficient implementation of Navier–Stokes solvers. In the finite element-based models, it is often applied in conjunction with implicit time integration schemes. On the other hand, in the framework of finite difference and finite volume methods, the fractional step method had been successfully applied to obtain predictor-corrector semi-explicit methods. In the present work, we derive a scheme based on using the fractional step technique in conjunction with explicit multi-step time integration within the framework of Galerkin-type stabilized finite element methods. We show that under certain assumptions, a Runge–Kutta scheme equipped with the fractional step leads to an efficient semi-explicit method, where the pressure Poisson equation is solved only once per time step. Thus, the computational cost of the implicit step of the scheme is minimized. The numerical example solved validates the resulting scheme and provides the insights regarding its accuracy and computational efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering)
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