Special Issue "Advances in Structural Steel Research"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Assist. Prof. Ravi Kiran Yellavajjala
Website
Guest Editor
Civil & Environmental Engineering, North Dakota State University, CIE201E, 1410 North 14th Avenue, Fargo, ND 58105, USA
Interests: fracture, fatigue, corrosion, microstructure–mechanical property relationships and steel structures under multiple hazards
Assoc. Prof. Hussam Mahmoud
Website
Guest Editor
Civil & Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University, 1372 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Interests: corrosion, fatigue, fracture, strain rate effects, fire in steel structures, life-cycle costs

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

More than 50% of the steel produced in the world is used by the construction industry alone. Steel consumption by the construction industry is found to be strongly correlated with economic growth in both developing and developed countries. Structural steel is cheap, abundantly available, and has the highest strength-to-weight ratio among mass-produced construction materials. Theoretically, structural steel is 100% recyclable, and in fact about 90% of the structural steel produced in the United States is recovered from steel scrap. Steel structures have a long life and low life-cycle costs. Besides this, steel structures are adaptable to future needs and provide ample architectural and structural freedom to architects and design engineers.

Despite these advantages, there remain many challenges associated with making steel infrastructure robust, resilient, and sustainable. The main aim of this Special Issue is to rapidly disseminate state-of-the-art fundamental and applied research that will have a positive impact on the design, analysis, erection, and maintenance of steel infrastructure (buildings, bridges, transmission towers, offshore structures, and steel pipelines, among others).

Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

Area-1: Steel Structures

  • Performance-based design or analysis criteria
  • Life-cycle cost assessment and optimization
  • Modeling of steel structures subjected to single or multiple hazards
  • Innovative structural steel systems
  • Novel connections and fastening systems
  • Innovative design solutions for complex steel infrastructure challenges
  • Design and assessment issues with high-rise buildings, off-shore structures, transmission towers, and pipelines
  • Improving the sustainability of steel infrastructure
  • Data science in steel infrastructure (inclusive of structural health monitoring)
  • Frame optimization and sensitivity analysis
  • Topology optimization of structural members and connections

Area-2: Structural Steels

  • The mechanical behavior of structural steels under blast, corrosion, fracture, fatigue, and fire
  • Constitutive modeling of structural steels subjected to blast, corrosion, fracture, fatigue, and fire
  • Applications of shape memory alloys and multiphase steels in construction
  • Additive manufactured steels for construction
  • Stainless steels for construction
  • The influence of nano- and microscale steel properties on the behavior of steel structures
  • The design of new steel microstructures for enhanced mechanical performance

Any other topic closely related to steel infrastructure will be considered for publication.

Assist. Prof. Ravi Kiran Yellavajjala
Assoc. Prof. Hussam Mahmoud
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Collapse
  • Structural steel systems
  • Structural health monitoring
  • Connections
  • Instability
  • Sensitivity and optimization
  • Fracture
  • Corrosion
  • Shape memory alloys
  • Ultra-high strength steels

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Seismic Behavior of Selective Storage Racks Subjected to Chilean Earthquakes
Metals 2020, 10(7), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10070855 - 28 Jun 2020
Abstract
A seismic performance evaluation of selective storage racks subjected to Chilean Earthquakes was conducted using nonlinear pushover and nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses. Nine seismic records with two horizontal components and magnitude Mw > 7.7 were applied to numerical models of prototype rack structures. [...] Read more.
A seismic performance evaluation of selective storage racks subjected to Chilean Earthquakes was conducted using nonlinear pushover and nonlinear dynamic time-history analyses. Nine seismic records with two horizontal components and magnitude Mw > 7.7 were applied to numerical models of prototype rack structures. The prototype racks were designed considering two types of soil and two aspect ratios. The inelastic behavior of beam connections was included in the models. The results showed a predominantly elastic behavior, mainly in the cross-aisle direction, in comparison to the down-aisle direction. The inelastic action was concentrated in pallet beams and up-rigths. Higher values of base shear were reached, due to elevated rigidity in rack configurations, and an acceptable performance was obtained. A response reduction factor was reported in both directions, reaching values larger than the limit imposed by the Chilean standard. However, values below this limit were obtained in the cross-aisle direction, in some cases. Finally, in all cases, the calculated response modification factor is highly influenced by the overstrength obtained from seismic design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Warm Rolling Temperature on the Microstructure and Texture of Microcarbon Dual-Phase (DP) Steel
Metals 2020, 10(5), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10050566 - 27 Apr 2020
Abstract
The effect of warm rolling temperature on microstructure and texture of microcarbon dual-phase (DP) steel was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that with the increase of rolling temperature, the density [...] Read more.
The effect of warm rolling temperature on microstructure and texture of microcarbon dual-phase (DP) steel was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that with the increase of rolling temperature, the density and thickness of the deformation band first increased and then decreased. Ferrite and fine martensite were observed in the annealed sheet, and the ferrite had a much more homogeneous distribution in the sample rolled at 450 °C. During warm rolling, the ferrite developed a dominant γ-fiber and a weak α-texture. During the annealing of the rolled sheet, the intensity of the γ-fiber was increased and a weak {001}<100> texture developed in the sample rolled at room temperature. An increase in the rolling temperature generated an initial decrease and subsequent increase in the strength of the unfavorable {001}<110> texture in the annealed sheet. In addition, the strength reached a maximum at 550 °C due to an increase in the dissolved carbon in the matrix, which was result of carbide dissolution. By contrast, the intensity of the γ-fiber remained relatively higher and was deemed the weaker {001}<110> component in the annealed sheet rolled at 450 °C. Therefore, a larger texture factor (fγ-fiber/f(α-fiber+λ-fiber)) can be produced under this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Open AccessArticle
In-Situ Observation of Lüders Band Formation in Hot-Rolled Steel via Digital Image Correlation
Metals 2020, 10(4), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040530 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Although the Lüders yield phenomenon has been investigated for more than 150 years, some understanding of Lüders band formation lack substantial support from experimental evidence. In-situ observation of Lüders band formation in hot-rolled steel experimentally clarified the following facts: (i) When stress reaches [...] Read more.
Although the Lüders yield phenomenon has been investigated for more than 150 years, some understanding of Lüders band formation lack substantial support from experimental evidence. In-situ observation of Lüders band formation in hot-rolled steel experimentally clarified the following facts: (i) When stress reaches the true upper yield stress, the Lüders band begins to nucleate. True upper yield stress is greater than nominal upper yield stress. (ii) Gross stress concentration promotes the Lüders band formation, and the size of the gross stress concentration region determines the initial width of the Lüders band. (iii) The Lüders band nucleates far ahead of the gross yield point. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study on Cyclic Response of End-Plate Biaxial Moment Connection in Box Columns
Metals 2020, 10(4), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040523 - 18 Apr 2020
Abstract
The 2008 Wenchuan-China earthquake showed the importance of considering the bidirectional seismic action as a cause of failure in column hinge mechanisms. Subsequently, the large 2011 Tohoku-Japan earthquake revealed that Special Moment Frames buildings, made of tubular columns (Hollow Structural Section or Built-up [...] Read more.
The 2008 Wenchuan-China earthquake showed the importance of considering the bidirectional seismic action as a cause of failure in column hinge mechanisms. Subsequently, the large 2011 Tohoku-Japan earthquake revealed that Special Moment Frames buildings, made of tubular columns (Hollow Structural Section or Built-up Box Section) and rigid connections with I-beams, did not suffer serious damage. However, only the ConXtech® ConXL™ moment connection has been prequalified according to the (American Institute of Construction) AISC Seismic Provisions for use with tubular columns and the rest of connections do not consider biaxial resistance. The research reported herein investigated the cyclic response of box-columns joints, connected to I beams using the four-bolt extended endplate connection, subjected to bidirectional bending and axial load on the column. To conduct the study, complex nonlinear finite element models (FEMs) of several I beam to box column joint configurations were constructed and analyzed under cyclic loading using the ANSYS software. The results reveal that the failure is concentrated in the beams of all joint configurations except for the columns with axial load equal to 75% of the column capacity, where a combined failure mechanism is achieved. The energy dissipation capacity of joints with a greater number of beams is lower than joints with fewer beams. The bidirectional effect of the seismic action and the level of axial load must be considered to avoid the formation of a column-hinge fragile failure mechanism also the behavior exhibited by 3D joints is more realistic than 2D joints according to real structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Monotonic Response of Exposed Base Plates of Columns: Numerical Study and a New Design Method
Metals 2020, 10(3), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10030396 - 19 Mar 2020
Abstract
This paper describes a numerical study of the behavior of exposed base plates of columns under the action of axial and bending loads. The aim of this research is to evaluate numerically the failure mechanisms on stiffened and non-stiffened base plates and propose [...] Read more.
This paper describes a numerical study of the behavior of exposed base plates of columns under the action of axial and bending loads. The aim of this research is to evaluate numerically the failure mechanisms on stiffened and non-stiffened base plates and propose a new design method. The effects of base plate thickness, location of anchor rods, location of stiffeners and tensile strength of anchor rods were considered in the analysis. Sixteen finite elements simulations were performed considering different combinations of the above mentioned parameters. The results show a fragile response in the base plates when high resistance anchor rods are used. The anchor rods worked as fuse elements in base plates with a large thickness or many stiffeners. Additionally, the models with anchor bars located outside of the column flanges showed lower flexural strength and rotational stiffness compared to the models with anchor rods located between column flanges. The simulations showed that the base plate strength was determined by the simultaneous failure mechanisms of two or more components, different to what is stated in current design guides. Finally, the new method is suitable to design base plates with stiffened and not stiffened configurations, which unlike traditional design methods, show a good adjustment with numerical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Cross-Section Type and Degree of Utilization on Failure Time and Temperature of Cold-Formed Steel Column under ISO Fire
Metals 2019, 9(9), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9090964 - 02 Sep 2019
Abstract
An investigation into fire resistance subjected to the ISO fire standard was conducted on a cold-formed steel (CFS) column. The variables involved were the CFS sections with various cross-section types and service loadings known as the degree of utilization. Three types of cross-section, [...] Read more.
An investigation into fire resistance subjected to the ISO fire standard was conducted on a cold-formed steel (CFS) column. The variables involved were the CFS sections with various cross-section types and service loadings known as the degree of utilization. Three types of cross-section, known as channel, back-to-back (BTB), and box-up (BU) sections, were studied. All supports for the column are in constant condition. To simulate the real fire situation, the column was preloaded at 30%, 50%, and 70% of its ultimate strength. After the load was static, the column was exposed to the ISO fire standard. The column was loaded at the centroid of the section. The temperature at the column surface and the time was recorded until the column became unstable. The results show that the shape did not have any significant effects on the critical temperature of the CFS columns. The higher the applied load—or as used in this study, the higher the degree of utilization of the CFS columns—the greater the negative linear effect on their critical temperature. It is concluded that the minimum limiting temperature is 400 °C and the minimum limiting time is four minutes for the CFS column. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram, Microstructures, and Properties of the Simulated Coarse-Grain Heat-Affected Zone in a Low-Carbon Bainite E550 Steel
Metals 2019, 9(9), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9090939 - 27 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In order to provide important guidance for controlling and obtaining the optimal microstructures and mechanical properties of a welded joint, the continuous cooling transformation diagram of a new low-carbon Nb-microalloyed bainite E550 steel in a simulated coarse-grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) has been constructed [...] Read more.
In order to provide important guidance for controlling and obtaining the optimal microstructures and mechanical properties of a welded joint, the continuous cooling transformation diagram of a new low-carbon Nb-microalloyed bainite E550 steel in a simulated coarse-grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) has been constructed by thermal dilatation method in this paper. The welding thermal simulation experiments were conducted on a Gleeble-3800 thermo-mechanical simulator. The corresponding microstructure was observed by a LEICA DM2700M. The Vickers hardness (HV) and the impact toughness at −40 °C were measured according to the ASTM E384 standard and the ASTM E2298 standard, respectively. The experimental results may indicate that the intermediate temperature phase transformation of the whole bainite can occur in a wide range of cooling rates of 2–20 °C/s. In the scope of cooling rates 2–20 °C/s, the microstructure of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) mainly consists of lath bainite and granular bainite. Moreover, the proportion of lath bainite increased and granular bainite decreased as the cooling rate increasing. There is a spot of lath martensite in the microstructure of HAZ when the cooling rate is above 20 °C/s. The Vickers hardness increases gradually with the increasing of the cooling rate, and the maximum hardness is 323 HV10. When the cooling time from 800 °C to 500 °C (t8/5) is 5–15 s, it presents excellent −40 °C impact toughness (273–286 J) of the CGHAZ beyond the base material (163 J). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Microstructure and Properties of a New Warm-Stamped Niobium-Alloyed Steel
Metals 2019, 9(7), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9070765 - 08 Jul 2019
Abstract
The warm stamping technology is a promising technology to meet the needs of car weight reduction and energy conservation. In order to compare with the mechanical properties of the traditional hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel 22MnB5, a new warm-stamped niobium-alloyed steel 22Mn3SiNb was designed and [...] Read more.
The warm stamping technology is a promising technology to meet the needs of car weight reduction and energy conservation. In order to compare with the mechanical properties of the traditional hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel 22MnB5, a new warm-stamped niobium-alloyed steel 22Mn3SiNb was designed and tested. The optimal heating parameters for warm forming process were explored through mechanical tests, and the process of their microstructure evolution was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), etc. The experimental results indicate that the optimal heating parameters for the niobium-alloyed steel 22Mn3SiNb are a heating temperature of 800 °C and a soaking time of 5 min. Compared to the hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel 22MnB5 under their respective optimal heating parameters, the properties and microstructure characteristics of 22Mn3SiNb are greatly improved, and nearly no decarburized layer is found on the surface of the niobium-alloyed steel 22Mn3SiNb. In addition, the addition of Nb produces the effects of grain refinement and precipitation strengthening due to the introduction of plenty of nano-precipitated particles and dislocations. In the end, it can be predicted that the new warm-stamped niobium-alloyed steel will replace the conventional hot-stamped boron-alloyed steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Method for Internal Force Detection of Steel Bars Covered by Concrete Based on the Metal Magnetic Memory Effect
Metals 2019, 9(6), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9060661 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, the specimens of steel bars covered by concrete (SBCC) are taken as research objects, and a new method for steel bar internal force detection based on the metal magnetic memory effect is proposed. The variation law of the self-magnetic flux [...] Read more.
In this paper, the specimens of steel bars covered by concrete (SBCC) are taken as research objects, and a new method for steel bar internal force detection based on the metal magnetic memory effect is proposed. The variation law of the self-magnetic flux leakage (SMFL) signals on the surfaces of SBCC specimens with loading tension and the variation of the SMFL signals along the axial positions of specimens under different tensile forces are studied. The results show that when the loading tension is about 90% of the yield tension, the tangential component of the SMFL signal has a maximum extreme point. The distribution of the SMFL signals along the axial position shows a smooth curve, where the values at both ends are small while the intermediate values are large. This paper also proposes the use of the “area ratio deviation parameter” to quantitatively calculate the internal forces of the steel bars. This parameter shows a significant linear relationship with the loading tension during the strengthening stage of the specimens. This method can supplement the existing steel bar stress detection methods and has prospective research value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Texture-Based Metallurgical Phase Identification in Structural Steels: A Supervised Machine Learning Approach
Metals 2019, 9(5), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050546 - 10 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Automatic identification of metallurgical phases based on thresholding methods in microstructural images may not be possible when the pixel intensities associated with the metallurgical phases overlap and, hence, are indistinguishable. To circumvent this problem, additional visual information about the metallurgical phases, referred to [...] Read more.
Automatic identification of metallurgical phases based on thresholding methods in microstructural images may not be possible when the pixel intensities associated with the metallurgical phases overlap and, hence, are indistinguishable. To circumvent this problem, additional visual information about the metallurgical phases, referred to as textural features, are considered in this study. Mathematically, textural features are the second order statistics of an image domain and can be distinct for each metallurgical phase. Textural features are evaluated from the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of each metallurgical phase (ferrite, pearlite, and martensite) present in heat-treated ASTM A36 steels in this study. The dataset of textural features and pixel intensities generated for the metallurgical phases is used to train supervised machine learning classifiers, which are subsequently employed to predict the metallurgical phases in the microstructure. Naïve Bayes (NB), k-nearest neighbor (K-NN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and decision tree (DT) classifiers are the four classifiers employed in this study. The performances of all four classifiers were assessed prior to their deployment, and the classification accuracy was found to be >97%. The proposed technique has two unique advantages: (1) unlike pixel intensity-based methods, the proposed method does not misclassify the grain boundaries as a metallurgical phase, and (2) the proposed method does not require the end-user to input the number of phases present in the microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation between Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of 2000 MPa Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires during Galvanizing Simulated Annealing
Metals 2019, 9(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9030326 - 14 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the present experiment, hot-dip galvanizing simulated annealing of 2000 MPa cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires was carried out at 450 °C. The effects of microstructural evolution on the mechanical properties of the as-prepared wires were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron [...] Read more.
In the present experiment, hot-dip galvanizing simulated annealing of 2000 MPa cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires was carried out at 450 °C. The effects of microstructural evolution on the mechanical properties of the as-prepared wires were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, torsion test, and Vickers hardness test. In addition, the relationship between torsion laps and microstructural evolution of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires was investigated in detail. It was found that the torsional performance of the wires deteriorated after annealing at 450 °C for 2–5 min, and the corresponding microstructural evolution was accompanied by the partial degradation of lamellar pearlites due to the diffusion and dislocation pinning of dissolved carbon atoms in ferrites, and it is not feasible to achieve the matching of strength and torsion laps by prolonging the holding time. The deterioration in torsional performance can be attributed to the microstructural difference between the surface and the center of the annealed wires. When the proportion of non-lamellar structure between the surface and the center in each specimen exceeded 8%, the microhardness difference was found to be greater than 40 HV and the torsion lap was less than 3 circles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Lateral Buckling Theory and Experimental Study on Pipe-in-Pipe Structure
Metals 2019, 9(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020185 - 04 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
With the increasing depth of marine oil and gas exploitation, more requirements have been proposed on the structure of deep-sea oil pipelines. The influencing factors of lateral buckling of a pipe-in-pipe (PIP) structure containing initial imperfections and its critical force were investigated in [...] Read more.
With the increasing depth of marine oil and gas exploitation, more requirements have been proposed on the structure of deep-sea oil pipelines. The influencing factors of lateral buckling of a pipe-in-pipe (PIP) structure containing initial imperfections and its critical force were investigated in this study by conducting an experiment, a finite element analysis, and a theoretical derivation. The change laws on the influence of initial imperfections of the PIP structure during thermal loading were revealed through an experimental study by using imperfection amplitude and wavelength as parameters. Appropriate finite element models were established, and the influences of initial imperfections, pipe-soil interaction, and the height and the number of centralizers on the global buckling critical force of the PIP structure were analyzed. The formulas of global buckling critical force of inner and outer pipes and that under pipe-soil interaction was obtained by using a theoretical derivation method. A comparative verification with experimental and finite element (FE) models result was conducted, which provided a corresponding basis for steel pipeline design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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