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J. Pers. Med., Volume 12, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 150 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This is the largest and most detailed systematic review and meta-analysis of human clinical trials focusing on buckwheat (BW) supplementation interventions and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. It is shown that the magnitude of the associations between BW supplementation interventions and CVD risk markers were small and inconsistent. Accounting for the distinct exposures and type of BW component investigated, subgroup analysis signaled a potential benefit in mild dyslipidemia and diabetes. In concert, findings are of low certainty due to small sample size and poor methodological rigor across trials. Given the increasing trend of BW consumption worldwide, future trials should focus on methodological rigor and explore BW non-grain components and how they may affect cardiometabolic health. View this paper
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Review
Current Concepts and Challenges in the Treatment of Cleft Lip and Palate Patients—A Comprehensive Review
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122089 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Cleft lip and cleft palate has one of the highest incidences in the malformations of the oral cavity, that varies between populations. The background underlying the issue of cleft lip and palate is multifactorial and greatly depends on the genetic factors and environmental [...] Read more.
Cleft lip and cleft palate has one of the highest incidences in the malformations of the oral cavity, that varies between populations. The background underlying the issue of cleft lip and palate is multifactorial and greatly depends on the genetic factors and environmental factors. The aim of this nonsystematic narrative review is to present the cleft palate and or lip pediatric population as target for interdisciplinary treatment. The purpose of this narrative review is to sum up the modern knowledge on the treatment of patients with clefts, as well as to highlight the importance of the great need for cooperation between different dental specialists along with medical professionals such as oral surgeons, prosthodontists, orthodontists along with medical professions such as pediatricians, speech therapists and phoniatrics, and laryngologist. Full article
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Article
Drug Resistance and Molecular Characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Single Center Experience
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2088; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122088 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 638
Abstract
In recent years, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and mortality caused by the disease have been decreasing. However, the number of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients is increasing rapidly year by year. Here, a total of 380 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-positive formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) [...] Read more.
In recent years, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and mortality caused by the disease have been decreasing. However, the number of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients is increasing rapidly year by year. Here, a total of 380 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-positive formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) specimens diagnosed in the Department of Pathology of the Eighth Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital were collected. Among 380 cases of MTB, 85 (22.37%) were susceptible to four anti-TB drugs and the remaining 295 (77.63%) were resistant to one or more drugs. The rate of MDR-TB was higher in previously treated cases (52.53%) than in new cases [(36.65%), p  <  0.05]. Of previously treated cases, the rate of drug resistance was higher in females than in males (p  <  0.05). Among specimens obtained from males, the rate of drug resistance was higher in new cases than in previously treated cases (p  <  0.05). Of mutation in drug resistance-related genes, the majority (53/380, 13.95%) of rpoB gene carried the D516V mutation, and 13.42% (51/380) featured mutations in both the katG and inhA genes. Among the total specimens, 18.68% (71/380) carried the 88 M mutation in the rpsL gene, and the embB gene focused on the 306 M2 mutation with a mutation rate of 19.74%. Among the resistant INH, the mutation rate of −15 M was higher in resistance to more than one drug than in monodrug-resistant (p  <  0.05). In conclusion, the drug resistance of MTB is still very severe and the timely detection of drug resistance is conducive to the precise treatment of TB. Full article
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Article
Resveratrol Inhibits Oxidative Stress and Regulates M1/M2-Type Polarization of Microglia via Mediation of the Nrf2/Shh Signaling Cascade after OGD/R Injury In Vitro
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122087 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Aims: Microglia are closely related to the occurrence and development of oxidative stress. Cerebral ischemia leads to abnormal activation of microglia. Resveratrol can regulate M1/M2-type microglia polarization, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood, although the Nrf2 and Shh signaling pathways may [...] Read more.
Aims: Microglia are closely related to the occurrence and development of oxidative stress. Cerebral ischemia leads to abnormal activation of microglia. Resveratrol can regulate M1/M2-type microglia polarization, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood, although the Nrf2 and Shh signaling pathways may be involved. Given that resveratrol activates Shh, the present study examined whether this is mediated by Nrf2 signaling. Methods: N9 microglia were pretreated with drugs before oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). HT22 neurons were also used for conditional co-culture with microglia. Cell viability was measured by CCK-8 assay. MDA levels and SOD activity in the supernatant were detected by TBA and WST-1, respectively. Immunofluorescence detected Nrf2 and Gli1 nuclear translocation. The levels of CD206, Arg1, iNOS, TNF-α, Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, Shh, Ptc, Smo, Gli1 protein and mRNA were measured by Western blotting or RT-qPCR. Annexin V-FITC Flow Cytometric Analysis detected apoptosis. Results: Resveratrol and Nrf2 activator RTA-408 enhanced the viability of microglia, reduced oxidative stress, promoted M2-type microglia polarization and activated Nrf2 and Shh signaling. ML385, a selective inhibitor of Nrf2, decreased the viability of microglia, aggravated oxidative stress, promoted M1-type microglia polarization and inhibited Nrf2 and Shh signaling. Moreover, resveratrol and RTA-408-treated microglia can reduce the apoptosis and increase the viability of HT22 neurons, while ML385-treated microglia aggravated the apoptosis and weakened the viability of HT22 neurons. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that resveratrol may inhibit oxidative stress, regulate M1/M2-type polarization of microglia and decrease neuronal injury in conditional co-culture of neurons and microglia via the mediation of the Nrf2/Shh signaling cascade after OGD/R injury in vitro. Full article
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Article
PRLR and CACNA2D1 Impact the Prognosis of Breast Cancer by Regulating Tumor Immunity
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2086; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122086 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is one of the highly susceptible genes to breast cancer (BC); however, the role of PTEN-related RNAs in BC remains poorly understood. Understanding the effect of PTEN-related RNAs and their mechanisms may be helpful to clinicians. We screened [...] Read more.
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is one of the highly susceptible genes to breast cancer (BC); however, the role of PTEN-related RNAs in BC remains poorly understood. Understanding the effect of PTEN-related RNAs and their mechanisms may be helpful to clinicians. We screened the differentially expressed RNAs (deRNAs) related to PTEN and established the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network by integrating several databases. After that, the RNA model, prolactin receptor (PRLR)/calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit alpha2delta 1 (CACNA2D1), was obtained by KM survival analysis and logistic regression analysis. Finally, mutation, methylation, functional enrichment, and immune correlation were analyzed to explore the roles of these RNAs. Our results showed that PRLR might be harmful to BC, while CACNA2D1 might be beneficial to BC. Furthermore, the abnormal expression of PRLR in BC might result from mutation and hypomethylation, while the aberrant expression of CACNA2D1 might be ascribed to methylation. Mechanistically, PRLR might affect the prognosis of BC by inhibiting the expression of immune checkpoints, while CACNA2D1 might improve the prognosis of BC by increasing the immune cells infiltrating into BC and up-regulating the expression of immune checkpoints. The abnormal expression of PRLR and CACNA2D1 in BC is closely related to the prognosis of BC, and they may serve as targets for the treatment of BC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Clinical and Translational Breast Cancer Research)
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Article
Clinical Characteristics and Management of Patients with a Suspected COVID-19 Infection in Emergency Departments: A European Retrospective Multicenter Study
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2085; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122085 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Background: Our aim is to describe and compare the profile and outcome of patients attending the ED with a confirmed COVID-19 infection with patients with a suspected COVID-19 infection. Methods: We conducted a multicentric retrospective study including adults who were seen in 21 [...] Read more.
Background: Our aim is to describe and compare the profile and outcome of patients attending the ED with a confirmed COVID-19 infection with patients with a suspected COVID-19 infection. Methods: We conducted a multicentric retrospective study including adults who were seen in 21 European emergency departments (ED) with suspected COVID-19 between 9 March and 8 April 2020. Patients with either a clinical suspicion of COVID-19 or confirmed COVID-19, detected using either a RT-PCR or a chest CT scan, formed the C+ group. Patients with non-confirmed COVID-19 (C− group) were defined as patients with a clinical presentation in the ED suggestive of COVID-19, but if tests were performed, they showed a negative RT-PCR and/or a negative chest CT scan. Results: A total of 7432 patients were included in the analysis: 1764 (23.7%) in the C+ group and 5668 (76.3%) in the C− group. The population was older (63.8 y.o. ±17.5 vs. 51.8 y.o. +/− 21.1, p < 0.01), with more males (54.6% vs. 46.1%, p < 0.01) in the C+ group. Patients in the C+ group had more chronic diseases. Half of the patients (n = 998, 56.6%) in the C+ group needed oxygen, compared to only 15% in the C− group (n = 877). Two-thirds of patients from the C+ group were hospitalized in ward (n = 1128, 63.9%), whereas two-thirds of patients in the C− group were discharged after their ED visit (n = 3883, 68.5%). Conclusion: Our study was the first in Europe to examine the emergency department’s perspective on the management of patients with a suspected COVID-19 infection. We showed an overall more critical clinical situation group of patients with a confirmed COVID-19 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19))
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Article
Pulmonary Embolism Risk Assessment Using Blood Copeptin Concentration and Pulmonary Arteries Thrombotic Burden Evaluated by Computer Tomography
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122084 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 655
Abstract
(1) Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) represents the third most important cardiovascular cause of death after myocardial infarction and stroke. The proper management of this condition is dependent on adequate risk stratification, due to the life-threatening complications of more aggressive therapies such as thrombolysis. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) represents the third most important cardiovascular cause of death after myocardial infarction and stroke. The proper management of this condition is dependent on adequate risk stratification, due to the life-threatening complications of more aggressive therapies such as thrombolysis. Copeptin is a surrogate marker of vasopressin which is found increased in several cardiovascular conditions. The Mastora score is an imagistic evaluation of the degree of pulmonary arteries thrombotic burden based on computed tomography angiography. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of copeptin in patients with acute PE. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between copeptin and Mastora score and their role in PE risk profiling. (2) Methods: We conducted a single center prospective study that included 112 patients with PE and 53 healthy volunteers. Clinical and paraclinical parameters, together with plasma levels of copeptin and the Mastora score, were evaluated in all patients after admission. (3) Results: Copeptin levels were significantly increased in PE patients compared with the general population (26.05 vs. 9.5 pmol/L, p < 0.001), while receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed an AUC of 0.800 (95% CI 0.728–0.873, p < 0.001). Copeptin directly correlated with the Mastora score (r = 0.535, p = 0.011) and both parameters were strong predictors for adverse clinical events and death. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for death within 30 days revealed a copeptin cut-off of 38.36 pmol/L, which presented a specificity of 79.6% and a sensitivity of 88.9%, and a Mastora score cut-off of 82 points, which presented a specificity of 74.8% and a sensitivity of 77.8%. (4) Conclusions: Our results showed that copeptin and the Mastora score are both correlated with adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in PE patients, and this may pave the way for their use in clinical practice, helping physicians to select the best therapeutical management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Emergency and Intensive Care)
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Editorial
Integration of Molecular Data in the Prognostic Stratification and Management of Endometrial Carcinoma
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2083; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122083 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 568
Abstract
In the last years, the TCGA-based molecular classifier have been progressively integrated in the management of endometrial carcinoma. While molecular assays are increasingly available across pathology laboratories, the additional costs will expectedly be compensated by a reduction in overtreatments and a prevention of [...] Read more.
In the last years, the TCGA-based molecular classifier have been progressively integrated in the management of endometrial carcinoma. While molecular assays are increasingly available across pathology laboratories, the additional costs will expectedly be compensated by a reduction in overtreatments and a prevention of recurrences. The additional time might be shortened by assessing molecular markers on biopsy specimens. Retrospective data suggest that the molecular classifier will have a major impact of on the risk stratification, with many patients having their risk class down- or upstaged based on POLE mutations or p53 abnormalities, respectively. However, there are still several issues to be resolved, such as the prognostic value of the TCGA classifier in each FIGO stage, or the type of adjuvant treatment most suitable for each molecular group. Other issues regard the prognostic stratification of the mismatch repair-deficient and “no specific molecular profile” groups, which currently follows the same criteria; however, the former seems to be prognostically consistent regardless of FIGO grade and histotype, whereas the latter appears highly heterogeneous. Numerous clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular markers have been proposed to refine the TCGA classification, but their prognostic value is still undefined. Hopefully, prospective data collected in the next years will help resolving these issues. Full article
Article
An Ultrasensitive PCR-Based CRISPR-Cas13a Method for the Detection of Helicobacter pylori
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2082; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122082 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 504
Abstract
The rapid and simple detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is essential for its clinical eradication. Although various methods for detecting H. pylori have been well established, such as endoscopy in combination with histology or culture, rapid urease test (RUT) and [...] Read more.
The rapid and simple detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is essential for its clinical eradication. Although various methods for detecting H. pylori have been well established, such as endoscopy in combination with histology or culture, rapid urease test (RUT) and molecular tests using clinical specimens, it is of great importance to develop an ultrasensitive and accurate nucleic acid detection platform and apply it to identify H. pylori. To meet these demands, a novel method based on PCR and CRISPR-Cas13a, called PCR-Cas13a, was developed and validated using the DNA of 84 clinical strains and 71 clinical specimens. PCR primers for the pre-amplification of conservative sequence and CRISPR RNA (crRNA) for the detection of specific sequence were designed according to the principle. The designed primers and crRNA were specific to H. pylori, and the assay showed a high degree of specificity compared with other common pathogens. Our detection system can screen H. pylori with a limit of 2.2 copies/μL within 30 mins after PCR amplification. Using a coincidence analysis with traditional methods, our method exhibited 100% accuracy for the detection of H. pylori. Furthermore, its diagnostic performance was compared, in parallel with a q-PCR. The PCR-Cas13a demonstrates 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Moreover, our approach had a lower limit of detection (LOD) than q-PCR. Herein, we present a diagnostic system for the highly sensitive screening of H. pylori and distinguish it from other pathogens. All the results demonstrated that this PCR-based CRISPR assay has wide application prospects for the detection of H. pylori and other slow-growth pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
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Article
Impact of Spino-Pelvic Parameters on the Prediction of Lumbar and Thoraco-Lumbar Segment Angles in the Supine Position
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2081; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122081 - 17 Dec 2022
Viewed by 416
Abstract
Background: The correction of malposition according to vertebral fractures is difficult because the alignment at the time before the fracture is unclear. Therefore, we investigate whether the spinal alignment can be determined by the spino-pelvic parameters. Methods: Pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), [...] Read more.
Background: The correction of malposition according to vertebral fractures is difficult because the alignment at the time before the fracture is unclear. Therefore, we investigate whether the spinal alignment can be determined by the spino-pelvic parameters. Methods: Pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), adjacent endplate angles (EPA), age, sex, body weight, body size, BMI, and age were used to predict mono- and bisegmental EPA (mEPA, bEPA) in the supine position using linear regression models. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Association of Saxony-Anhalt Germany on 20 August 2020, under number 46/20. Results: Using data from 287 patients, the prediction showed R2 from 0.092 up to 0.972. The adjacent cranial and caudal EPA showed by far the most frequently significance in the prediction of all parameters used. Anthropometric and spino-pelvic parameters showed sparse impact, which was frequently in the lower lumbar regions. On average, a very good prediction was found. For two mEPA (L3/4 R2 = 0.914, L4/5 R2 = 0.953) and two bEPA (L3 R2 = 0.899, L4 R2 = 0.972), the R2 was >0.8. However, the predicted EPA differed for individual patients, even in these very effective prediction models—roughly around ±10° as compared to the measured EPA. Conclusions: In general, the prediction showed good to perfect results. In the supine position, the spinopelvic and anthropometric parameters show sparse impact on the prediction of mEPA or bEPA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Management in Orthopedics and Traumatology)
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Article
Development of a Prototype for a Bilingual Patient-Reported Outcome Measure of the Important Health Aspects of Quality of Life in People Living with HIV: The Preference Based HIV Index (PB-HIV)
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122080 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 569
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of this project was to develop a short, HIV-specific, health-related quality of life measure with a scoring system based on patient preferences for the different dimensions of the Preference-Based HIV Index (PB-HIV). (2) Methods: This study is a cross-sectional [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of this project was to develop a short, HIV-specific, health-related quality of life measure with a scoring system based on patient preferences for the different dimensions of the Preference-Based HIV Index (PB-HIV). (2) Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Canadian Positive Brain Health Now cohort (n = 854; mean age 53 years). Items from the standardized measures were mapped to the areas from the Patient-Generated Index and formed the domains. A Rasch analysis was used to identify the best performing item to represent each dimension. Each item was then regressed on self-rated health (scored 0 to 100) and the regression parameters were used as scaling weights to form an index score for the prototype measure. (3) Results: Seven independent dimensions with three declarative statements ordered as response options formed the PB-HIV Index (pain, fatigue, memory/concentration, sleep, physical appearance/body image, depression, motivation). Regression parameters from a multivariable model yielded a measure with a scoring range from 0 (worst health) to 100 (perfect health). (4) Conclusions: Preference-based measures are optimal, as the total score reflects gains in some dimensions balanced against losses in others. The PB-HIV Index is the first HIV-specific preference-based measure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Care for HIV Prevention, Treatment and Cure)
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Article
The Role of a Multidisciplinary Team in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas: A Single-Center Experience
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2079; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122079 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Bone and soft tissue sarcomas with complex and varied clinical, imaging, and pathological characteristics cannot be diagnosed and treated by a single discipline, as each discipline has some limitations. This study aimed to explore the role of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) in the [...] Read more.
Bone and soft tissue sarcomas with complex and varied clinical, imaging, and pathological characteristics cannot be diagnosed and treated by a single discipline, as each discipline has some limitations. This study aimed to explore the role of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) in the diagnosis and treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas over the past four consecutive years. The subjects were 269 patients discussed during MDT meetings at a Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas Center in South China. The diagnosis, relapse diagnosis, unplanned resection, management of pulmonary nodules, and treatment of refractory and advanced tumors were compared to similar data provided in the literature to (i) determine whether the MDT significantly affected the diagnosis and treatment of bone and soft tissue sarcomas, and (ii) explore trends in the types of patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas and treatment decision-making since the establishment of the MDT. Results revealed that the MDT significantly improved preoperative diagnostic accuracy for patients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas; the accuracy of diagnosis and relapse diagnosis by the MDT reached 95.42% and 100%, respectively. After an MDT discussion, the positive pathology rate for extended resection after unplanned resection was 81.2%. The overall accuracy of the MDT in determining the nature of pulmonary nodules was 87.1–91.9%. For patients presenting with pulmonary nodules in osteosarcoma, no statistically significant difference in survival was shown between cases discussed by the MDT and those without an MDT discussion (p = 0.5751). Collectively, the MDT can play a positive role in accurate preoperative diagnosis, relapse diagnosis, the decision to extend resection after an unplanned resection, and the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary nodules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Genetics and Clinical Research)
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Article
Real-Life Experience in the Management of Sinonasal Complications of Dental Disease or Treatments
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2078; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122078 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 438
Abstract
Diagnosis and management of sinonasal complications of dental diseases or treatment (SCDDT) may be challenging. We aimed to report our real-life experience in patients treated with endoscopic endonasal approach describing data about symptoms, etiology, extension of the disease and success rate. We evaluated [...] Read more.
Diagnosis and management of sinonasal complications of dental diseases or treatment (SCDDT) may be challenging. We aimed to report our real-life experience in patients treated with endoscopic endonasal approach describing data about symptoms, etiology, extension of the disease and success rate. We evaluated retrospectively data about 262 patients diagnosed as SCDDT and managed from August 2015 to May 2022. In 44.65% cases, maxillary sinus complications were determined by a dental disorder; the remaining 55.34% of cases were iatrogenic. Patients were managed according to our multidisciplinary protocol including ENT, dental, and radiological evaluation. Treatments were planned with a personalized approach, based on the patient’s clinical characteristics; all patients were treated with an endonasal endoscopic mini-invasive conservative approach. Combined dental treatment was performed simultaneously in 152/262 (58%) of patients; in the remaining cases, it was postponed after surgery. The overall treatment success rate (symptom resolution and endoscopically observed maxillary sinus healing) was 96.5%. At 15 days after surgery, we observed a significant improvement in the quality of life. The mean post-operative Sinonasal outcome test-22 (SNOT-22) score was significantly lower compared to baseline (6 versus 43.4; p < 0.05). Our study showed that endoscopic sinus surgery can be a successful procedure for treatment of SCDDT, leading to fast resolution of sinonasal symptoms and improving the quality of life. Furthermore, the technique allows removal of migrated dental material or dental implants even in challenging cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Otorhinolaryngology)
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Article
Effect of Exercise Using an Exoskeletal Hip-Assist Robot on Physical Function and Walking Efficiency in Older Adults
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122077 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Robotic technology has developed rapidly in recent years, and several robotic devices have been applied to improve physical, sensory, intellectual, psychological, and social functioning in the elderly and people with disabilities. In this study, we investigated the effects of EX1-assisted exercise in various [...] Read more.
Robotic technology has developed rapidly in recent years, and several robotic devices have been applied to improve physical, sensory, intellectual, psychological, and social functioning in the elderly and people with disabilities. In this study, we investigated the effects of EX1-assisted exercise in various environments on physical function, muscle strength, and walking efficiency in older adults. We designated four experimental conditions and randomly assigned participants to one of four groups: A (overground walking without an EX1), B (overground walking using the resistance mode of EX1), C (stair ascent using the assistance mode of EX1), and Group D (inclined treadmill walking using the assistance mode of EX1). A total of 60 community-dwelling elderly persons participated in 10 exercise intervention sessions for 4 weeks, and all participants were assessed before and after the exercise intervention. Physical function was measured by the 10-meter walk test for self-selected velocity (10MWT-SSV), short physical performance battery (SPPB), Berg balance scale (BBS), timed up and go (TUG), functional reach test (FRT), geriatric depression scale—short form (GDS-SF), and muscle strength of trunk and lower extremity. Cardiopulmonary metabolic energy efficiency was measured using a portable telemetric gas analyzer system. A significant increase in the 10MWT-SSV and TUG test was observed in groups B, C, and D. A statistically significant improvement in the SPPB and FRT was seen only in group D, and GDS-SF scores decreased significantly after exercise with an EX1 in groups B and D. Trunk and lower limb muscle strength increased more in the groups that exercised with EX1 assistance than those without an EX1, particularly in group B. The net metabolic energy costs and energy expenditure measurement during walking significantly improved in exercise groups C and D. The findings in this study support the application of the EX1 to physical activity and exercise to improve age-related changes in physical function, muscle strength, and walking efficiency among older adults. In addition, personalized exercise programs using different modes and training environments with an EX1 can enhance physical performance and walking efficiency in the elderly. Full article
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Review
Pancreatic Cancer: Beyond Brca Mutations
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122076 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer remain unsatisfactory. In the current review, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic architecture of metastatic pancreatic cancer beyond the BRCA mutations, focusing on the genetic alterations [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer remain unsatisfactory. In the current review, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic architecture of metastatic pancreatic cancer beyond the BRCA mutations, focusing on the genetic alterations and the molecular pathology in pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on the molecular targets for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, with a correlation to future treatments. The potential approach addressed in this review may lead to the identification of a subset of patients with specific biological behaviors and treatment responses. Full article
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Article
Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss after Ciliary Sulcus Placement of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Patients with Noninfectious Uveitic Glaucoma
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122075 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 523
Abstract
This study was performed to investigate the corneal endothelial cell density (CECD) reduction and treatment efficacy in patients with uveitic glaucoma treated by the ciliary sulcus placement of the Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV). This retrospective study included 27 eyes of 27 patients with [...] Read more.
This study was performed to investigate the corneal endothelial cell density (CECD) reduction and treatment efficacy in patients with uveitic glaucoma treated by the ciliary sulcus placement of the Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV). This retrospective study included 27 eyes of 27 patients with noninfectious uveitis who underwent the sulcus placement of the AGV. Each patient underwent a clinical assessment including a CECD measurement before surgery and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. The mean CECD was 2431.4 ± 367.5 cells/mm2 at preoperative baseline and 2360.5 ± 391.3 cells/mm2 at 12 months (p = 0.074), with a reduction rate of 2.73 ± 9.29%. The CECD reduction was significantly greater in patients with unilateral uveitis than that with bilateral uveitis. The rate of successful intraocular pressure control was 88% at 12 months, and the number of intraocular pressure-lowering medications was significantly reduced (p < 0.001). The current study showed that the implantation of an Ahmed tube into the ciliary sulcus provided stable intraocular pressure control in patients with glaucoma secondary to noninfectious uveitis, and CECD reduction was moderate in most patients at 12 months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Glaucoma: Treatment and Postoperative Approaches)
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Review
Outcomes after Transcatheter Mitral Valve Implantation: A Literature Review
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2074; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122074 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Mitral valve disease is the most common heart valve disease worldwide. Surgical mitral valve replacement or repair has been an established therapy in patients with severe mitral valve disease for many years. On the other hand, many patients with advanced mitral valve disease [...] Read more.
Mitral valve disease is the most common heart valve disease worldwide. Surgical mitral valve replacement or repair has been an established therapy in patients with severe mitral valve disease for many years. On the other hand, many patients with advanced mitral valve disease and severe comorbidities are treated conservatively and are excluded from the surgical procedure. Furthermore, in patients with severe comorbidities, transcatheter mitral valve repair by edge-to-edge technique with MitraClip or transcatheter mitral valve repair with a non-absorbable ring have been added as therapeutic options over the last few years. Alternative procedures for the treatment of patients with advanced prosthetic or native mitral valve diseases include transcatheter access for replacement or implantation of a new prosthetic valve in the diseased mitral valve. Promising results were published about short-term outcomes of patients who underwent the transcatheter mitral valve replacement. The current view and results of the transcatheter mitral valve implantation in patients with advanced native or prosthetic mitral valve disease are briefly discussed. Full article
Article
Adherence to Long-Acting Inhaler Use for Initial Treatment and Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2073; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122073 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 503
Abstract
We aimed to determine the effect of long-acting inhaler use adherence on acute exacerbations in treatment-naïve patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using claims data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from July 2015–December 2016. Patients with COPD aged [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine the effect of long-acting inhaler use adherence on acute exacerbations in treatment-naïve patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using claims data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service from July 2015–December 2016. Patients with COPD aged ≥ 40 years who used long-acting inhalers were enrolled and observed for 6 months. Medication adherence was determined by the medication possession ratio (MPR); patients were categorized to adherence (MPR ≥ 80%) and non-adherence (MPR < 80%) groups. Ultimately, 3959 patients were enrolled: 60.4% and 39.6% in the adherence and non-adherence groups, respectively. The relative risk of acute exacerbation in the non-adherence group was 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25–1.99) compared with the adherence group. The adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed a relative risk of acute exacerbation in the non-adherence vs. adherence group of 1.68 (95% CI 1.32–2.14) regarding the number of inhalers used. Poor adherence to long-acting inhalers influenced increased acute exacerbation rates among patients with COPD. The acute exacerbation of COPD risk requiring hospitalization or ED visits was high in the non-adherence group, suggesting that efforts to improve medication adherence may help reduce COPD exacerbations even in the initial management of treatment-naïve patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
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Review
Langerhans Cells—Revising Their Role in Skin Pathologies
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2072; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122072 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Langerhans cells (LCs) constitute a cellular immune network across the epidermis. Because they are located at the skin barrier, they are considered immune sentinels of the skin. These antigen-presenting cells are capable of migrating to skin draining lymph nodes to prime adaptive immune [...] Read more.
Langerhans cells (LCs) constitute a cellular immune network across the epidermis. Because they are located at the skin barrier, they are considered immune sentinels of the skin. These antigen-presenting cells are capable of migrating to skin draining lymph nodes to prime adaptive immune cells, namely T- and B-lymphocytes, which will ultimately lead to a broad range of immune responses. Moreover, LCs have been shown to possess important roles in the anti-cancer immune responses. Indeed, the literature nicely highlights the role of LCs in melanoma. In line with this, LCs have been found in melanoma tissues where they contribute to the local immune response. Moreover, the immunogenic properties of LCs render them attractive targets for designing vaccines to treat melanoma and autoimmune diseases. Overall, future studies will help to enlarge the portfolio of immune properties of LCs, and aid the prognosis and development of novel therapeutic approaches to treating skin pathologies, including cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Cancers: Biomarkers and Potential Therapeutic Targets)
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Brief Report
Machine Learning Based Prediction of Gamma Passing Rate for VMAT Radiotherapy Plans
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122071 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 365
Abstract
The use of machine learning algorithms (ML) in radiotherapy is becoming increasingly popular. More and more groups are trying to apply ML in predicting the so-called gamma passing rate (GPR). Our team has developed a customized approach of using ML algorithms to predict [...] Read more.
The use of machine learning algorithms (ML) in radiotherapy is becoming increasingly popular. More and more groups are trying to apply ML in predicting the so-called gamma passing rate (GPR). Our team has developed a customized approach of using ML algorithms to predict global GPR for electronic portal imaging device (EPID) verification for dose different 2% and distance to agreement 2 mm criteria for VMAT dynamic plans. Plans will pass if the GPR is greater than 98%. The algorithm was learned and tested on anonymized clinical data from 13 months which resulted in more than 3000 treatment plans. The obtained results of GPR prediction are very interesting. Average specificity of the algorithm based on an ensemble of 50 decision tree regressors is 91.6% for our criteria. As a result, we can reduce the verification process by 50%. The novel approach described by our team can offer a new insight into the application of ML and neural networks in GPR prediction and dosimetry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Radiation Oncology)
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Systematic Review
Cognitive Impairment after Post-Acute COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review of the Literature
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2070; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122070 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 628
Abstract
The present study aims to provide a critical overview of the literature on the relationships between post-acute COVID-19 infection and cognitive impairment, highlighting the limitations and confounding factors. A systematic search of articles published from 1 January 2020 to 1 July 2022 was [...] Read more.
The present study aims to provide a critical overview of the literature on the relationships between post-acute COVID-19 infection and cognitive impairment, highlighting the limitations and confounding factors. A systematic search of articles published from 1 January 2020 to 1 July 2022 was performed in PubMed/Medline. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Only studies using validated instruments for the assessment of cognitive impairment were included. Out of 5515 screened records, 72 studies met the inclusion criteria. The available evidence revealed the presence of impairment in executive functions, speed of processing, attention and memory in subjects recovered from COVID-19. However, several limitations of the literature reviewed should be highlighted: most studies were performed on small samples, not stratified by severity of disease and age, used as a cross-sectional or a short-term longitudinal design and provided a limited assessment of the different cognitive domains. Few studies investigated the neurobiological correlates of cognitive deficits in individuals recovered from COVID-19. Further studies with an adequate methodological design are needed for an in-depth characterization of cognitive impairment in individuals recovered from COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Advance in COVID-19 and Neuroscience)
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Review
Recognition and Management of Serotonin Toxidrome in the Emergency Department—Case Based Review
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122069 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a clinical toxidrome with high variability in clinical practice. It develops due to increased serotonin levels in the central nervous system. With an underestimated frequency, SS can develop following an overdose, a therapeutic dose increase, or drug to drug [...] Read more.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a clinical toxidrome with high variability in clinical practice. It develops due to increased serotonin levels in the central nervous system. With an underestimated frequency, SS can develop following an overdose, a therapeutic dose increase, or drug to drug interaction of at least one serotonergic agent. It can present with autonomic signs, neuromuscular changes and an altered mental status. However, history and clinical examination are key features to formulate the diagnosis. Treatment options consist of supportive measures, discontinuation of the offending agent and certain therapeutic agents previously reported to improve outcomes. Physicians have limited experience with SS, partially due to the lack of its identification in clinical practice. Therefore, we have integrated, in a narrative review, the case of a young male with SS following an atypical antipsychotic overdose superimposed on chronic treatment with agents previously known to produce SS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Emergency and Intensive Care)
Article
Effects of Different Orthoses on Neuromuscular Activity of Superficial and Deep Shoulder Muscles during Activities of Daily Living and Physiotherapeutic Exercises in Healthy Participants
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2068; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122068 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of different shoulder orthoses on the neuromuscular activity of superficial and deep shoulder muscles during activities of daily living (ADL) and physiotherapeutic exercises. Methods: Ten participants with healthy shoulders (31 ± 3 years, 23.1 ± [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of different shoulder orthoses on the neuromuscular activity of superficial and deep shoulder muscles during activities of daily living (ADL) and physiotherapeutic exercises. Methods: Ten participants with healthy shoulders (31 ± 3 years, 23.1 ± 3.8 kg/m2) were randomized to receive a “shoulder sling”, an “abduction pillow” and a “variably adjustable orthosis” on the dominant side. With each orthosis, they completed seven ADL with and four physiotherapeutic exercises without wearing the orthoses. An electromyographic system was used to record the neuromuscular activity of three superficial (trapezius, deltoid, pectoralis major) and two deep shoulder muscles (infraspinatus, supraspinatus) using surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. Results: The neuromuscular activity differs between the orthoses during ADL (p ≤ 0.045), whereby the “variably adjustable orthosis” mostly showed the highest activation levels associated with the worst subjective wearing comfort rated on a visual analog scale. In addition, differences exist between the physiotherapeutic exercises (p ≤ 0.006) demonstrating the highest activations of the infra- and supraspinatus muscles for assistive elevation and wipe across a table, middle for pendulum and lowest for continuous passive motion exercises. Conclusions: The neuromuscular activity of superficial and deep shoulder muscles differs between the orthoses during ADL and also between the physiotherapeutic exercises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Management in Orthopedics and Traumatology)
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Article
Risk Stratification of Local Flaps and Skin Grafting in Skin Cancer-Related Facial Reconstruction: A Retrospective Single-Center Study of 607 Patients
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2067; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122067 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Background: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) takes up a substantial fraction of dermatological and plastic surgical outpatient visits and surgeries. NMSC develops as an accumulated exposure to UV light with the face most frequently diagnosed. Method: This retrospective study investigated the risk of complications [...] Read more.
Background: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) takes up a substantial fraction of dermatological and plastic surgical outpatient visits and surgeries. NMSC develops as an accumulated exposure to UV light with the face most frequently diagnosed. Method: This retrospective study investigated the risk of complications in relation to full-thickness skin grafts (FTSG) or local flaps in 607 patients who underwent facial surgery and reconstruction at a high-volume center for facial cancer surgery at a tertiary university hospital. Results: Between 01.12.2017 and 30.11.2020, 304 patients received reconstructive flap surgery and 303 received FTSG following skin cancer removal in the face. Flap reconstruction was predominantly performed in the nasal region (78%, n = 237), whereas FTSG reconstruction was performed in the nasal (41,6%, n = 126), frontal (19.8%, n = 60), and temporal areas (19.8%, n = 60), respectively. Patients undergoing FTSGs had a significantly higher risk of hematoma (p = 0.003), partial necroses (p < 0.001), and total necroses (p < 0.001) compared to flap reconstruction. Age and sex increased the risk of major complications (hematoma, partial or total necrosis, wound dehiscence, or infection) for FTSG, revealing that men exhibited 3.72 times increased risk of major complications compared to women reconstructed with FTSG. A tumor size above 15 mm increased the risk of hematoma and necrosis significantly. In summary, local flaps for facial reconstruction after skin cancer provide lower complication rate compared with FTSGs, especially in elderly and/or male patients. The indication for FTSG should be considered critically if the patient’s tumor size and location allow for both procedures. Full article
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Article
Application of Robotic Recovery Techniques to Stroke Survivors—Bibliometric Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2066; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122066 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 542
Abstract
Stroke is a significant disability and death cause worldwide and is conventionally defined as a neurological impairment relating to the intense focal harm of the central nervous system (CNS) by vascular causative components. Although the applicability of robotic rehabilitation is a topic with [...] Read more.
Stroke is a significant disability and death cause worldwide and is conventionally defined as a neurological impairment relating to the intense focal harm of the central nervous system (CNS) by vascular causative components. Although the applicability of robotic rehabilitation is a topic with considerable practical significance because it has produced noticeably higher improvements in motor function than regular (physical and occupational) therapy and exempted the therapists, most of the existing bibliometric papers were not focused on stroke survivors. Additionally, a modular system is designed by joining several medical end-effector devices to a single limb segment, which addresses the issue of potentially dangerous pathological compensatory motions. Searching the Web of Science database, 31,930 papers were identified, and using the VOSviewer software and science mapping technology, data were extracted on the most prolific countries, the connections between them, the most valuable journals according to certain factors, their average year of publication, the most influential papers, and the most relevant topical issues (bubble map of term occurrence). The most prolific country in the analyzed field and over the entire period evaluated (1975–2022) is the United States, and the most prolific journal is Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, observing a marked increase in the three periods of scientific interest for this field. The present paper assesses numerous scientific publications to provide, through statistical interpretation of the data, a detailed description of the use of robotic rehabilitation in stroke survivors. The findings may aid scientists, academics, and clinicians in establishing precise goals in the optimization of the management of stroke survivors via robotic rehabilitation, but also through easier access to scientifically validated literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Diseases)
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Article
Implications of Possible HBV-Driven Regulation of Gene Expression in Stem Cell-like Subpopulation of Huh-7 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122065 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Elevated levels of STIM1, an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor/buffering protein, appear to be correlated with poor cancer prognosis in which microRNAs are also known to play critical roles. The purpose of this study is to investigate possible HBV origins of specific microRNAs [...] Read more.
Elevated levels of STIM1, an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor/buffering protein, appear to be correlated with poor cancer prognosis in which microRNAs are also known to play critical roles. The purpose of this study is to investigate possible HBV origins of specific microRNAs we identified in a stem cell-like subpopulation of Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with enhanced STIM1 and/or Orai1 expression that mimicked poor cancer prognosis. Computational strategies including phylogenetic analyses were performed on miRNome data we obtained from an EpCAM- and CD133-expressing Huh-7 HCC stem cell-like subpopulation with enhanced STIM1 and/or Orai1 expression originally cultured in the present work. Results revealed two putative regions in the HBV genome based on the apparent clustering pattern of stem loop sequences of microRNAs, including miR3653. Reciprocal analysis of these regions identified critical human genes, of which their transcripts are among the predicted targets of miR3653, which was increased significantly by STIM1 or Orai1 enhancement. Briefly, this study provides phylogenetic evidence for a possible HBV-driven epigenetic remodeling that alters the expression pattern of Ca2+ homeostasis-associated genes in STIM1- or Orai1 overexpressing liver cancer stem-like cells for a possible mutual survival outcome. A novel region on HBV-X protein may affect liver carcinogenesis in a genotype-dependent manner. Therefore, detection of the viral genotype would have a clinical impact on prognosis of HBV-induced liver cancers. Full article
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Article
Clinical-Epidemiology of Tension-Type Headache among the Medical and Dental Undergraduates of King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2064; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122064 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Introduction (background): Headache is the primary complaint among students. Headaches mostly have multifactorial causes. The degree of headache severity significantly impacts attitudes, behavior, and academic performance. Objectives: Here, we investigate the demographic epidemiology of tension-type headaches (T.T.H.), and determine the clinical [...] Read more.
Introduction (background): Headache is the primary complaint among students. Headaches mostly have multifactorial causes. The degree of headache severity significantly impacts attitudes, behavior, and academic performance. Objectives: Here, we investigate the demographic epidemiology of tension-type headaches (T.T.H.), and determine the clinical presentation and triggers of the tension-type among headache sufferers. Methods (settings, design): An institutional-based cross-sectional study (descriptive) was conducted on the medical and dental undergraduates at King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia, from 1 July 2021 to 31 December 2021. Data were gathered using a pre-designed questionnaire. A consecutive sampling method was used in a COVID-19-constrained environment. After preliminary screening of the study population, 460 samples were included. An electronic questionnaire was shared with them, and they were requested to respond. Results: More than half of the participants (258, 56.1%) experienced tension-type headaches, while the remaining 202 (43.9%) never felt a headache. Tension-type headaches manifested as heaviness of the head (44, 17.0%), tightness (126, 48.8%), and dull aching pain (66, 25.7%). Conclusions: T.T.H. is a prevalent condition with a significant impingement on academic work, and psychological health. Tension-type headache sufferers are advised to keep daily diaries to determine triggers, and plan for prevention and treatment progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Neurooncology, Neurosurgery, and Neurosurgical Training)
Article
NLRP6 Induces Lung Injury and Inflammation Early in Brucella and Influenza Coinfection
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122063 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 529
Abstract
(1) Background: With the resurgence of brucellosis epidemics in China in recent years, the chances of a brucella coinfection with other common respiratory pathogens, such as the influenza virus, have increased dramatically. However, little is known about the pathogenicity or the mechanisms of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: With the resurgence of brucellosis epidemics in China in recent years, the chances of a brucella coinfection with other common respiratory pathogens, such as the influenza virus, have increased dramatically. However, little is known about the pathogenicity or the mechanisms of brucella and influenza coinfections. (2) Methods: To clarify the interventions in the early stages of lung damage due to brucella and influenza coinfections, we evaluated the effect of the coinfection on disease progression and mortality using a coinfection model in WT mice and NLRP6−/− mice, and we verified the function of NLRP6 in infection and proinflammation. (3) Results: The coinfection induced significant respiratory symptoms, weight loss, and a high mortality rate in WT mice. Influenza in the coinfection group significantly increased brucella proliferation in a synergistic manner. Meanwhile, a histological examination showed severe lung tissue destruction and excessive inflammatory responses in coinfected WT animals, and the expression of NLRP6 and IL-18 was dramatically increased in the lung tissues. Furthermore, NLRP6 deletion attenuated lung injuries and inflammation, a reduced bacterial load, and decreased IL-18 protein expression. (4) Conclusions: Our findings indicated that NLRP6 plays a critical role and might be a promising potential therapeutic target for brucella–influenza coinfections. Full article
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Communication
Social Behavioral Deficits in Krushinsky-Molodkina Rats, an Animal Model of Audiogenic Epilepsy
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122062 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
In clinical practice, epilepsy is often comorbid with the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This warrants a search of animal models to uncover putative overlapping neuronal mechanisms. The Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rat strain is one of the oldest inbred animal models for human convulsive epilepsies. [...] Read more.
In clinical practice, epilepsy is often comorbid with the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This warrants a search of animal models to uncover putative overlapping neuronal mechanisms. The Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rat strain is one of the oldest inbred animal models for human convulsive epilepsies. We analyzed the behavioral response of adult seizure-naive KM males in three-chambered tests for social preference. We found that a presence of social stimuli (encaged unfamiliar Wistar rats of the same age and sex) evoked a reduced or reversed exploratory response in freely moving KM individuals. The epilepsy-prone rats demonstrated remarkably shortened bouts of social contacts and displayed less locomotion around the stranger rat-containing boxes, together with a pronounced freezing response. The decrease in social preference was not due to a general decrease in activity, since relative measures of activity, the index of sociability, were decreased, too. The susceptibility to audiogenic seizures was verified in the KM cohort but not seen in the control Wistar group. We propose the KM rat strain as a new animal model for comorbid ASD and epilepsy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Approaches to Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Case Report
Cabergoline Failure and a Spontaneous Pregnancy in a Microprolactinoma with High Prolactin Levels
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122061 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
We report a particular case of a spontaneously occurring pregnancy in a long-term amenorrheic patient due to a prolactinoma with high serum prolactin (PRL) following the failure of dopamine agonist therapy (DA) for infertility. Initially, clinical, laboratory, and genital ultrasounds were normal, but [...] Read more.
We report a particular case of a spontaneously occurring pregnancy in a long-term amenorrheic patient due to a prolactinoma with high serum prolactin (PRL) following the failure of dopamine agonist therapy (DA) for infertility. Initially, clinical, laboratory, and genital ultrasounds were normal, but the serum PRL was 10,074 μIU/mL (n.v.: 127–637 μIU/mL), the PEG fraction was 71% (laboratory cut-off > 60%), and luteinizing hormone (LH) was significantly lower. An MRI revealed a pituitary tumor of 12.8/10 mm with a subacute intratumoral hemorrhage. DA was initiated, and menstrual bleeding reappeared with a reduction in the tumor’s volume to 1.9/2.2 mm at 12 months. Two years later, the patient renounced DA and follow-ups. After another 2 years, she became spontaneously pregnant. Serum PRL was 18,325 μIU/mL, and an MRI revealed a microprolactinoma of 2.1/2 mm. The patient gave birth to a normal baby at term, and she breastfed for six months, after which she asked for ablactation, and DA was administered. This case highlights the possibility of the occurrence of a normal pregnancy during a long period of amenorrhea induced by a microprolactinoma with a high level of serum PRL, even if DA fails to correct infertility. There was no compulsory relationship between the tumoral volume’s evolution and the evolution of its lactophore activity. The hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism induced by high PRL was mainly manifested by low LH, and in this situation, normal levels of FSH and estradiol do not always induce follicle recruitment and development without abnormalities in the ovary ultrasound. Full article
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Review
Management of Cholelithiasis in Cirrhotic Patients
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12122060 - 14 Dec 2022
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Gallstone disease (GD) is a common disease worldwide and has a higher incidence in cirrhotic patients than in the general population. The main indications for cholecystectomy surgery in cirrhotic patients remain symptomatic cholelithiasis and its complications. Over the past two decades, numerous published [...] Read more.
Gallstone disease (GD) is a common disease worldwide and has a higher incidence in cirrhotic patients than in the general population. The main indications for cholecystectomy surgery in cirrhotic patients remain symptomatic cholelithiasis and its complications. Over the past two decades, numerous published reports have attested to the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients. Surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis represents an additional source of stress for an already impaired liver function and perioperative complications are remarkably high compared to non-cirrhotic patients, despite significant advances in surgical management. Therefore, preoperative risk stratification and adequate patient selection are mandatory to minimize postoperative complications. We have conducted a systematic review of the literature over the last 22 years for specific information on indications for surgery in cirrhotic patients and individual percentages of Child–Pugh grades undergoing treatment. There are very few reported cases of cholecystectomy and minimally invasive treatment, such as percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy (PTC), in patients with Child–Pugh grade C cirrhosis. With this work, we would like to pay attention to the treatment of cholelithiasis in cirrhotic patients who are still able to undergo cholecystectomy, thus also encouraging this type of intervention in cases of asymptomatic cholelithiasis in patients with Child–Pugh grades A and B. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cirrhosis and Complication: Treatment and Prognosis)
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