Editor’s Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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13 pages, 617 KiB  
Review
Advancing Patient Care: How Artificial Intelligence Is Transforming Healthcare
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(8), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13081214 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3838
Abstract
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged as a transformative technology with immense potential in the field of medicine. By leveraging machine learning and deep learning, AI can assist in diagnosis, treatment selection, and patient monitoring, enabling more accurate and efficient healthcare delivery. The widespread [...] Read more.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged as a transformative technology with immense potential in the field of medicine. By leveraging machine learning and deep learning, AI can assist in diagnosis, treatment selection, and patient monitoring, enabling more accurate and efficient healthcare delivery. The widespread implementation of AI in healthcare has the role to revolutionize patients’ outcomes and transform the way healthcare is practiced, leading to improved accessibility, affordability, and quality of care. This article explores the diverse applications and reviews the current state of AI adoption in healthcare. It concludes by emphasizing the need for collaboration between physicians and technology experts to harness the full potential of AI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Patient-Centered Care for Chronic Diseases)
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16 pages, 1400 KiB  
Review
Immune Biomarkers in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Improving the Predictivity of Current Testing Methods
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(7), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13071176 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) poses a significant challenge in terms of prognosis and disease recurrence. The limited treatment options and the development of resistance to chemotherapy make it particularly difficult to manage these patients. However, recent research has been shifting its focus towards [...] Read more.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) poses a significant challenge in terms of prognosis and disease recurrence. The limited treatment options and the development of resistance to chemotherapy make it particularly difficult to manage these patients. However, recent research has been shifting its focus towards biomarker-based approaches for TNBC, with a particular emphasis on the tumor immune landscape. Immune biomarkers in TNBC are now a subject of great interest due to the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in these tumors. This characteristic often coincides with the presence of PD-L1 expression on both neoplastic cells and immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, a subset of TNBC harbor mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) TNBC, which is frequently accompanied by microsatellite instability (MSI). All of these immune biomarkers hold actionable potential for guiding patient selection in immunotherapy. To fully capitalize on these opportunities, the identification of additional or complementary biomarkers and the implementation of highly customized testing strategies are of paramount importance in TNBC. In this regard, this article aims to provide an overview of the current state of the art in immune-related biomarkers for TNBC. Specifically, it focuses on the various testing methodologies available and sheds light on the immediate future perspectives for patient selection. By delving into the advancements made in understanding the immune landscape of TNBC, this study aims to contribute to the growing body of knowledge in the field. The ultimate goal is to pave the way for the development of more personalized testing strategies, ultimately improving outcomes for TNBC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Biomarkers and Therapy)
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14 pages, 2202 KiB  
Article
Using Anatomy-Based Fitting to Reduce Frequency-to-Place Mismatch in Experienced Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users: A Promising Concept
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(7), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13071109 - 08 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
Fitting cochlear implant (CI) users can be challenging. Anatomy-based fitting (ABF) maps may have the potential to lead to better objective and subjective outcomes than conventional clinically based fitting (CBF) methods. ABF maps were created via information derived from exact electrode contact positions, [...] Read more.
Fitting cochlear implant (CI) users can be challenging. Anatomy-based fitting (ABF) maps may have the potential to lead to better objective and subjective outcomes than conventional clinically based fitting (CBF) methods. ABF maps were created via information derived from exact electrode contact positions, which were determined via post-operative high-resolution flat panel volume computer tomography and clinical fitting software. The outcome measures were speech understanding in quiet and noise and self-perceived sound quality with the CBF map and with the ABF map. Participants were 10 experienced bilateral CI users. The ABF map provided better speech understanding in quiet and noisy environments compared to the CBF map. Additionally, two approaches of reducing the frequency-to-place mismatch revealed that participants are more likely to accept the ABF map if their electrode array is inserted deep enough to stimulate the apical region of their cochlea. This suggests an Angular Insertion Depth of the most apical contact of around 720°–620°. Participants had better speech understanding in quiet and noise with the ABF map. The maps’ self-perceived sound quality was similar. ABF mapping may be an effective tool for compensating the frequency-to-place mismatch in experienced bilateral CI users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Otolaryngology: Special Topic Otology)
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17 pages, 2669 KiB  
Article
HL7-FHIR-Based ContSys Formal Ontology for Enabling Continuity of Care Data Interoperability
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(7), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13071024 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
The rapid advancement of digital technologies and recent global pandemic-like scenarios have pressed our society to reform and adapt health and social care toward personalizing the home care setting. This transformation assists in avoiding treatment in crowded secondary health care facilities and improves [...] Read more.
The rapid advancement of digital technologies and recent global pandemic-like scenarios have pressed our society to reform and adapt health and social care toward personalizing the home care setting. This transformation assists in avoiding treatment in crowded secondary health care facilities and improves the experience and impact on both healthcare professionals and service users alike. The interoperability challenge through standards-based roadmaps is the lynchpin toward enabling the efficient interconnection between health and social care services. Hence, facilitating safe and trustworthy data workflow from one healthcare system to another is a crucial aspect of the communication process. In this paper, we showcase a methodology as to how we can extract, transform and load data in a semi-automated process using a common semantic standardized data model (CSSDM) to generate a personalized healthcare knowledge graph (KG). CSSDM is based on a formal ontology of ISO 13940:2015 ContSys for conceptual grounding and FHIR-based specification to accommodate structural attributes to generate KG. The goal of CSSDM is to offer an alternative pathway to discuss interoperability by supporting a unique collaboration between a company creating a health information system and a cloud-enabled health service. The resulting pathway of communication provides access to multiple stakeholders for sharing high-quality data and information. Full article
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17 pages, 1629 KiB  
Article
Radiomics in Breast Imaging: Future Development
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(5), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13050862 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Breast cancer is the most common and most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in women. There are several risk factors related to habits and heredity, and screening is essential to reduce the incidence of mortality. Thanks to screening and increased awareness among women, most [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is the most common and most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in women. There are several risk factors related to habits and heredity, and screening is essential to reduce the incidence of mortality. Thanks to screening and increased awareness among women, most breast cancers are diagnosed at an early stage, increasing the chances of cure and survival. Regular screening is essential. Mammography is currently the gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. In mammography, we can encounter problems with the sensitivity of the instrument; in fact, in the case of a high density of glands, the ability to detect small masses is reduced. In fact, in some cases, the lesion may not be particularly evident, it may be hidden, and it is possible to incur false negatives as partial details that may escape the radiologist’s eye. The problem is, therefore, substantial, and it makes sense to look for techniques that can increase the quality of diagnosis. In recent years, innovative techniques based on artificial intelligence have been used in this regard, which are able to see where the human eye cannot reach. In this paper, we can see the application of radiomics in mammography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
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13 pages, 672 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Safety of Axiostat® Hemostatic Dressing in Aiding Manual Compression Closure of the Femoral Arterial Access Site in Patients Undergoing Endovascular Treatments: A Preliminary Clinical Experience in Two Centers
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(5), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13050812 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Background: Hemostasis of the femoral arterial access site by manual compression or a vascular closure device is critical to the safe completion of any endovascular procedure. Previous investigations evaluated the hemostatic efficacy at the radial access site of some chitosan-based hemostatic pads. This [...] Read more.
Background: Hemostasis of the femoral arterial access site by manual compression or a vascular closure device is critical to the safe completion of any endovascular procedure. Previous investigations evaluated the hemostatic efficacy at the radial access site of some chitosan-based hemostatic pads. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of a new chitosan-based hemostatic dressing, namely Axiostat®, in aiding manual compression closure of the femoral arterial access site in patients undergoing endovascular treatments. Furthermore, the outcomes were compared with evidence on manual compression alone and vascular closure devices. Methods: This investigation is a two-center retrospective analysis of 120 consecutive patients who had undergone, from July 2022 to February 2023, manual compression closure of the femoral arterial access site aided by the Axiostat® hemostatic dressing. Endovascular procedures performed with introducer sheaths ranging from 4 Fr to 8 Fr were evaluated. Results: Primary technical success was achieved in 110 (91.7%) patients, with adequate hemostasis obtained in all cases of prolonged manual compression requirements. The mean time-to-hemostasis and time-to-ambulation were 8.9 (±3.9) and 462 (±199) minutes, respectively. Clinical success was achieved in 113 (94.2%) patients, with bleeding-related complications noted in 7 (5.8%) patients. Conclusions: Manual compression aided by the Axiostat® hemostatic dressing is effective and safe in achieving hemostasis of the femoral arterial access site in patients undergoing endovascular treatment with a 4–8 Fr introducer sheath. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Repair and Remodeling in Health and Disease)
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16 pages, 472 KiB  
Article
Association between Periodontitis Extent, Severity, and Progression Rate with Systemic Diseases and Smoking: A Retrospective Study
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(5), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13050814 - 11 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between extent, severity (stage), and rate of progression (grade) of periodontitis with systemic diseases as well as smoking using a large database. Methods: Patients’ records identified in the BigMouth Dental Data Repository [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between extent, severity (stage), and rate of progression (grade) of periodontitis with systemic diseases as well as smoking using a large database. Methods: Patients’ records identified in the BigMouth Dental Data Repository with a periodontal diagnosis based on the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions were evaluated. Patients were further categorized based on extent, severity, and rate of progression. Data were extracted from patients’ electronic health records including demographic characteristics, dental procedural codes, and self-reported medical conditions, as well as the number of missing teeth. Results: A total of 2069 complete records were ultimately included in the analysis. Males were more likely to have generalized periodontitis and stage III or IV periodontitis. Older individuals were more likely diagnosed with grade B and stage III or IV periodontitis. Individuals with generalized disease, grade C, and stage IV demonstrated a significantly higher number of missing teeth. Higher numbers of tooth loss reported during supportive periodontal treatment were noted in generalized disease and stage IV periodontitis. Multiple sclerosis and smoking were significantly associated with grade C periodontitis. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this retrospective study that utilized the BigMouth dental data repository, smokers were significantly associated with rapid progression of periodontitis (grade C). Gender, age, number of missing teeth, and number of tooth loss during supportive periodontal treatment were associated with disease characteristics. Full article
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20 pages, 890 KiB  
Review
Review of Endometrial Receptivity Array: A Personalized Approach to Embryo Transfer and Its Clinical Applications
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(5), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13050749 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3185
Abstract
Successful outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) rely on both the formation of a chromosomally normal embryo and its implantation in a receptive endometrium. Pre-implantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) has been widely accepted as a tool to assess the viability of an [...] Read more.
Successful outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) rely on both the formation of a chromosomally normal embryo and its implantation in a receptive endometrium. Pre-implantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) has been widely accepted as a tool to assess the viability of an embryo. In 2011, the endometrial receptivity array (ERA) was first published as a tool to determine when the endometrium is most receptive to an embryo, commonly referred to as the “window of implantation” (WOI). The ERA uses molecular arrays to assess proliferation and differentiation in the endometrium and screens for inflammatory markers. Unlike PGT-A, there has been dissent within the field concerning the efficacy of the ERA. Many studies that contest the success of the ERA found that it did not improve pregnancy outcomes in patients with an already-good prognosis. Alternatively, studies that utilized the ERA in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) and transfer of known euploid embryos demonstrated improved outcomes. This review aims to describe the ERA as a novel technique, review the various settings that the ERA may be used in, such as natural frozen embryo transfer (nFET) and hormone replacement therapy frozen embryo transfer (HRT-FET), and provide a summary of the recent clinical data for embryo transfers in patients with RIF utilizing the ERA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine in Reproductive Health)
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14 pages, 2087 KiB  
Review
The Role of Cold Atmospheric Plasma in Wound Healing Processes in Critically Ill Patients
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(5), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13050736 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2924
Abstract
Critically ill patients are at risk of skin wounds, which reduce their quality of life, complicate their pharmacological regimens, and prolong their hospital stays in intensive care units (ICUs), while also increasing overall mortality and morbidity rates. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been [...] Read more.
Critically ill patients are at risk of skin wounds, which reduce their quality of life, complicate their pharmacological regimens, and prolong their hospital stays in intensive care units (ICUs), while also increasing overall mortality and morbidity rates. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been proposed as a viable option for many biological and medical applications, given its capacity to reduce wound bacterial contamination and promote wound healing. The aim of this narrative review is to describe how CAP works and its operating mechanisms, as well as reporting its possible applications in critical care settings. The success of CAP in the treatment of wounds, in particular, bedsores or pressure sores, presents an innovative path in the prevention of nosocomial infections and an opportunity of reducing the negative implications of these diseases for the NHS. This narrative review of the literature was conducted following the ‘Scale for the Assessment of Narrative Review Articles’ (SANRA) methodology. Previous literature highlights three biological effects of plasma: inactivation of a wide range of microorganisms, including those that are multi-drug-resistant; increased cell proliferation and angiogenesis with a shorter period of plasma treatment; and apoptosis stimulation with a longer and more intensive treatment. CAP is effective in many areas of the medical field, with no significant adverse effects on healthy cells. However, its use can produce potentially serious side effects and should, therefore, be used under expert supervision and in appropriate doses. Full article
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19 pages, 811 KiB  
Systematic Review
Investigating the Role of Maintenance TMS Protocols for Major Depression: Systematic Review and Future Perspectives for Personalized Interventions
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040697 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has been approved by the FDA as an effective intervention for Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD). However, there is little evidence about maintenance protocol necessity. The aim of this systematic review is to identify, characterize, and evaluate the current maintenance [...] Read more.
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has been approved by the FDA as an effective intervention for Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD). However, there is little evidence about maintenance protocol necessity. The aim of this systematic review is to identify, characterize, and evaluate the current maintenance TMS protocols for MDD and TRD patients who have received acute treatment. A literature search was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines of 2015 on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases for publications up to March 2022. Fourteen articles were included. High protocol heterogeneity was observed. Most studies highlighted significant efficacy of maintenance protocols in decreasing relapse risk, suggesting that administering two or fewer stimulations per month is ineffective in sustaining an antidepressant effect or in reducing the risk of relapse in responder patients. The risk of relapse was most pronounced after five months from the acute treatment. Maintenance TMS appears to be a resourceful strategy to maintain acute antidepressant treatment effects, significantly reducing relapse risk. The ease of administering and the ability to monitor treatment adherence should be considered when evaluating the future use of maintenance TMS protocols. Further studies are needed to clarify the clinical relevance of overlapping acute TMS effects with maintenance protocols and to evaluate their long-term effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Psychiatric Disorders)
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25 pages, 1615 KiB  
Review
The Role of BDNF as a Biomarker in Cognitive and Sensory Neurodegeneration
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040652 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2152
Abstract
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a crucial function in the central nervous system and in sensory structures including olfactory and auditory systems. Many studies have highlighted the protective effects of BDNF in the brain, showing how it can promote neuronal growth and survival [...] Read more.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a crucial function in the central nervous system and in sensory structures including olfactory and auditory systems. Many studies have highlighted the protective effects of BDNF in the brain, showing how it can promote neuronal growth and survival and modulate synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, conflicting data about BDNF expression and functions in the cochlear and in olfactory structures have been reported. Several clinical and experimental research studies showed alterations in BDNF levels in neurodegenerative diseases affecting the central and peripheral nervous system, suggesting that BDNF can be a promising biomarker in most neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, shearing loss, or olfactory impairment. Here, we summarize current research concerning BDNF functions in brain and in sensory domains (olfaction and hearing), focusing on the effects of the BDNF/TrkB signalling pathway activation in both physiological and pathological conditions. Finally, we review significant studies highlighting the possibility to target BDNF as a biomarker in early diagnosis of sensory and cognitive neurodegeneration, opening new opportunities to develop effective therapeutic strategies aimed to counteract neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
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18 pages, 492 KiB  
Systematic Review
Is Ozone a Valid Adjuvant Therapy for Periodontitis and Peri-Implantitis? A Systematic Review
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 646; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040646 - 08 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1968
Abstract
Introduction: Ozone is a naturally occurring unstable compound with three oxygen atoms that generally transforms into an oxygen molecule, releasing one oxygen atom. This feature has been exploited in dentistry for numerous applications, including for periodontal diseases and peri-implantitis. Methods: This review was [...] Read more.
Introduction: Ozone is a naturally occurring unstable compound with three oxygen atoms that generally transforms into an oxygen molecule, releasing one oxygen atom. This feature has been exploited in dentistry for numerous applications, including for periodontal diseases and peri-implantitis. Methods: This review was performed in relation to the PRISMA flow chart and was annotated in the PROSPERO register. PICO questions were used as research questions. The risk of bias in the non-randomized clinical trials was appraised using the ROBINS-I tool. Results: An electronic search found a total of 1073 records, in particular, 842 from MEDLINE/PubMed, 13 from Bio Med Central, 160 from Scopus, 1 from the Cochrane library databases, and 57 from the PROSPERO register. A total of 17 studies were included in the present systematic review. Information regarding the characteristics of the periodontal clinical and radiographic parameters for gaseous ozone, ozonate water, ozonate oil, and ozone gel, including clinical attachment loss (CAL) probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BoP), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and marginal bone levels (MBL), were obtained. Conclusions: The studies included in this systematic review show different results regarding the ozone in periodontal treatment in association with or without SRP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Diseases)
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16 pages, 2896 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Safety of Distal Radial Access for Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization (TACE) of the Liver
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040640 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2644
Abstract
Background: The distal radial artery has emerged as an alternative vascular-access site to conventional transfemoral and transradial approaches. The main advantage over the conventional transradial route is the reduced risk of radial artery occlusion, especially in those patients who, for various clinical reasons, [...] Read more.
Background: The distal radial artery has emerged as an alternative vascular-access site to conventional transfemoral and transradial approaches. The main advantage over the conventional transradial route is the reduced risk of radial artery occlusion, especially in those patients who, for various clinical reasons, have to undergo repeated endovascular procedures. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of distal radial access for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of the liver. Methods: This investigation is a single-center retrospective analysis of 42 consecutive patients who had undergone, from January 2018 to December 2022, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of the liver with distal radial access for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. Outcome data were compared with a retrospectively constituted control group of 40 patients undergoing drug-eluting beads-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with femoral access. Results: Technical success was achieved in all cases, with a 2.4% conversion rate for distal radial access. A superselective chemoembolization was performed in 35 (83.3%) cases of distal radial access. No episode of radial artery spasm or radial artery occlusion occurred. No significant differences in efficacy and safety were observed between the distal radial access group and the femoral access group. Conclusions: Distal radial access is effective, safe, and comparable to femoral access in patients undergoing transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Repair and Remodeling in Health and Disease)
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16 pages, 293 KiB  
Review
Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: Past, Current, and Future Trends
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040629 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
In response to the rising incidence of indolent, low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) due to increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1990s, active surveillance (AS) emerged as a treatment modality to combat overtreatment by delaying or avoiding unnecessary definitive treatment and its associated [...] Read more.
In response to the rising incidence of indolent, low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) due to increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1990s, active surveillance (AS) emerged as a treatment modality to combat overtreatment by delaying or avoiding unnecessary definitive treatment and its associated morbidity. AS consists of regular monitoring of PSA levels, digital rectal exams, medical imaging, and prostate biopsies, so that definitive treatment is only offered when deemed necessary. This paper provides a narrative review of the evolution of AS since its inception and an overview of its current landscape and challenges. Although AS was initially only performed in a study setting, numerous studies have provided evidence for the safety and efficacy of AS which has led guidelines to recommend it as a treatment option for patients with low-risk PCa. For intermediate-risk disease, AS appears to be a viable option for those with favourable clinical characteristics. Over the years, the inclusion criteria, follow-up schedule and triggers for definitive treatment have evolved based on the results of various large AS cohorts. Given the burdensome nature of repeat biopsies, risk-based dynamic monitoring may further reduce overtreatment by avoiding repeat biopsies in selected patients. Full article
11 pages, 1240 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Value of Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the Temporal Progression of Chronic Spinal Cord Injury
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040626 - 02 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Background: Oxidative stress is a major signature of spinal cord injury (SCI). The altered levels of various oxidative stress markers have been demonstrated in acute and chronic SCI. However, the variation of these markers in patients with chronic SCI depending on the time [...] Read more.
Background: Oxidative stress is a major signature of spinal cord injury (SCI). The altered levels of various oxidative stress markers have been demonstrated in acute and chronic SCI. However, the variation of these markers in patients with chronic SCI depending on the time since the initial injury has not been explored yet. Objective: Our aim was to measure plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation in patients with SCI stratified in different periods of suffering the injury (0–5 years, 5–10 years, and more than 10 years). Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled patients with SCI (N = 105) from different periods of the lesion and healthy control (HC) subjects (N = 38): short period (SCI SP, N = 31, time of evolution less than 5 years); early chronic (SCI ECP, N = 32, time of evolution 5–15 years); and late chronic (SCI LCP, N = 42, time of evolution more than 15 years). The plasma levels of MDA were measured using a commercially available colorimetric assay. Results: Patients with SCI had significantly higher plasma levels of MDA than HC subjects. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for plasma MDA levels in patients with SCI demonstrated areas under the curve (AUC) of 1 (HC vs. SCI-SP); 0.998 (HC vs. SCI-ECP); and 0.964 (HC vs. SCI-LCP). Additionally, three ROC curves were used to compare the different concentrations of MDA between the subgroups of patients with SCI, and the resulting AUCs were: 0.896 (SCI-SP vs. SCI-ECP); 0.840 (SCI-ECP vs. SCI-LCP); and 0.979 (SCI-SP vs. SCI-LCP). Conclusion: Plasma concentration of MDA can be considered as an oxidative stress biomarker to assess the prognosis of SCI in chronic stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune-Mediated Diseases)
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13 pages, 270 KiB  
Review
State of the Art and Challenges in Epilepsy—A Narrative Review
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040623 - 01 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Epilepsy is a common condition worldwide, with approximately 50 million people suffering from it. A single seizure does not mean epilepsy; almost 10% of the population can have a seizure during their lifetime. In particular, there are many other central nervous system disorders [...] Read more.
Epilepsy is a common condition worldwide, with approximately 50 million people suffering from it. A single seizure does not mean epilepsy; almost 10% of the population can have a seizure during their lifetime. In particular, there are many other central nervous system disorders other than epilepsy in which seizures occur, either transiently or as a comorbid condition. The impact of seizures and epilepsy is, therefore, widespread and easily underestimated. It is estimated that about 70% of patients with epilepsy could be seizure-free if correctly diagnosed and treated. However, for patients with epilepsy, quality of life is influenced not only by seizure control but also by antiepileptic drug-adverse reactions, access to education, mood, employment, and transportation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epilepsy: Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Precision Medicine)
11 pages, 2251 KiB  
Article
Early Postoperative Recovery after Modified Ultra-Minimally Invasive Sonography-Guided Thread Carpal Tunnel Release
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040610 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
Thread carpal tunnel release (TCTR) has been reported to be safe and effective for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the modified TCTR for safety, efficacy, and postoperative recovery. Seventy-six extremities in 67 patients undergoing [...] Read more.
Thread carpal tunnel release (TCTR) has been reported to be safe and effective for the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the modified TCTR for safety, efficacy, and postoperative recovery. Seventy-six extremities in 67 patients undergoing TCTR were analyzed pre- and postoperatively using clinical parameters and patient-reported outcome measures. Twenty-nine men and 38 women with a mean age of 59.9 ± 18.9 years underwent TCTR. The mean postoperative time to resume activities of daily living was 5.5 ± 5.5 days, analgesia was completed after 3.7 ± 4.6 days, and return to work was achieved after a mean of 32.6 ± 15.6 days for blue-collar workers and 4.6 ± 4.3 days for white-collar workers. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) and Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores were comparable with previous studies. Overall, two persistent compressions and one recurrence required open reoperation (3.9%). All three had been operated in the initial phase, and none required reoperation after an additional safety step was introduced. No other complications occurred. TCTR surgery appears to be a safe and reliable technique with almost no wound and scarring and a potentially faster recovery time than open techniques. Although our technical modifications may reduce the risk of incomplete release, TCTR requires both ultrasound and surgical skills and has a considerable learning curve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment in Peripheral Nerve Surgery)
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13 pages, 1057 KiB  
Article
Care for Patients with Type-2 Chronic Rhinosinusitis
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040618 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
In the last 20 years, growing interest in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has become evident in medical literature; nevertheless, it is still difficult to identify the real prevalence of the disease. Epidemiological studies are few and focused on heterogeneous populations and diagnostic methods. Recent [...] Read more.
In the last 20 years, growing interest in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has become evident in medical literature; nevertheless, it is still difficult to identify the real prevalence of the disease. Epidemiological studies are few and focused on heterogeneous populations and diagnostic methods. Recent research has contributed to identifying CRS as a disease characterized by heterogeneous clinical scenarios, high impact on quality of life, and elevated social costs. Patient stratification with phenotypes and identification of the pathobiological mechanism at the origin of the disease (endotype) and its comorbidities are pivotal in the diagnostic process, and they should be addressed in order to properly tailor treatment. A multidisciplinary approach, shared diagnostic and therapeutic data, and follow-up processes are therefore necessary. Oncological multidisciplinary boards offer models to imitate in accordance with the principles of precision medicine: tracing a diagnostic pathway with the purpose of identifying the patient’s immunological profile, monitoring therapeutical processes, abstaining from having only a single specialist involved in treatment, and placing the patient at the center of the therapeutic plan. Awareness and participation from the patient’s perspective are fundamental steps to optimize the clinical course, improve quality of life, and reduce the socioeconomic burden. Full article
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14 pages, 1495 KiB  
Review
Patient Self-Inflicted Lung Injury—A Narrative Review of Pathophysiology, Early Recognition, and Management Options
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(4), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13040593 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4824
Abstract
Patient self-inflicted lung injury (P-SILI) is a life-threatening condition arising from excessive respiratory effort and work of breathing in patients with lung injury. The pathophysiology of P-SILI involves factors related to the underlying lung pathology and vigorous respiratory effort. P-SILI might develop both [...] Read more.
Patient self-inflicted lung injury (P-SILI) is a life-threatening condition arising from excessive respiratory effort and work of breathing in patients with lung injury. The pathophysiology of P-SILI involves factors related to the underlying lung pathology and vigorous respiratory effort. P-SILI might develop both during spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation with preserved spontaneous respiratory activity. In spontaneously breathing patients, clinical signs of increased work of breathing and scales developed for early detection of potentially harmful effort might help clinicians prevent unnecessary intubation, while, on the contrary, identifying patients who would benefit from early intubation. In mechanically ventilated patients, several simple non-invasive methods for assessing the inspiratory effort exerted by the respiratory muscles were correlated with respiratory muscle pressure. In patients with signs of injurious respiratory effort, therapy aimed to minimize this problem has been demonstrated to prevent aggravation of lung injury and, therefore, improve the outcome of such patients. In this narrative review, we accumulated the current information on pathophysiology and early detection of vigorous respiratory effort. In addition, we proposed a simple algorithm for prevention and treatment of P-SILI that is easily applicable in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS))
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12 pages, 842 KiB  
Article
Bladder Cancer and Risk Factors: Data from a Multi-Institutional Long-Term Analysis on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer Incidence
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030512 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
Background: Bladder cancer (BCa) is a heterogeneous disease with a variable prognosis and natural history. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), although completely different, has several similarities and possible interactions with cancer. The association between them is still unknown, but common risk factors between the two [...] Read more.
Background: Bladder cancer (BCa) is a heterogeneous disease with a variable prognosis and natural history. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), although completely different, has several similarities and possible interactions with cancer. The association between them is still unknown, but common risk factors between the two suggest a shared biology. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study that included patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor at two high-volume institutions. Depending on the presence of a previous history of CVD or not, patients were divided into two groups. Results: A total of 2050 patients were included, and 1638 (81.3%) were diagnosed with bladder cancer. Regarding comorbidities, the most common were hypertension (59.9%), cardiovascular disease (23.4%) and diabetes (22.4%). At univariate analysis, independent risk factors for bladder cancer were age and male sex, while protective factors were cessation of smoking and presence of CVD. All these results, except for ex-smoker status, were confirmed at the multivariate analysis. Another analysis was performed for patients with high-risk bladder cancer and, in this case, the role of CVD was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study pointed out a positive association between CVD and BCa incidence; CVD was an independent protective factor for BCa. This effect was not confirmed for high-risk tumors. Several biological and genomics mechanisms clearly contribute to the onset of both diseases, suggesting a possible shared disease pathway and highlighting the complex interplay of cancer and CVD. CVD treatment can involve different drugs with a possible effect on cancer incidence, but, to date, findings are still inconclusive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
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12 pages, 1871 KiB  
Article
Total Cholesterol Variability and the Risk of Osteoporotic Fractures: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030509 - 11 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
Several risk factors for osteoporotic fractures have been identified but reports of the association of lipid parameters with the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures have been limited. We aimed to examine whether serum total cholesterol (TC) variability is associated with osteoporotic fractures. The study [...] Read more.
Several risk factors for osteoporotic fractures have been identified but reports of the association of lipid parameters with the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures have been limited. We aimed to examine whether serum total cholesterol (TC) variability is associated with osteoporotic fractures. The study included 3,00,326 subjects who had undergone three or more health examinations between 2003 and 2008. The primary endpoint was the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, including vertebral, hip, distal radius, and humerus fractures. TC variability was evaluated based on the following three parameters: coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation (SD), and variability independent of the mean (VIM). A total of 29,044 osteoporotic fracture events (9.67%) were identified during a median of 11.6 years of follow-up. The risk of osteoporotic fractures in the highest quartile was significantly higher compared with the lowest quartile according to the three indices of TC variability with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as follows: CV (HR 1.11, 95% CI [1.08–1.15]), SD (HR 1.07, 95% CI [1.04–1.11]) and VIM (HR 1.07, 95% CI [1.04–1.11]). The Kaplan–Meier curves showed a significantly positive relationship between the higher quartile of TC variability and overall osteoporotic fractures. The association remained significant in subgroup analyses of vertebral and hip fractures, regardless of the indices of TC variability. Our study showed that visit-to-visit TC variability was found to be associated with osteoporotic fracture risk. Maintaining TC levels stable may help attenuate the osteoporotic fracture risk in the future. Full article
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18 pages, 1310 KiB  
Review
Can Opioid-Free Anaesthesia Be Personalised? A Narrative Review
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030500 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3547
Abstract
Background: A significant amount of evidence suggests that Opioid-Free Anaesthesia (OFA) may provide better outcomes for patients undergoing surgery, sparing patients who are particularly vulnerable to adverse side effects of opioids. However, to what extent personalizing OFA is feasible and beneficial has not [...] Read more.
Background: A significant amount of evidence suggests that Opioid-Free Anaesthesia (OFA) may provide better outcomes for patients undergoing surgery, sparing patients who are particularly vulnerable to adverse side effects of opioids. However, to what extent personalizing OFA is feasible and beneficial has not been adequately described. Methods: We conducted a narrative literature review aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding of nociception and pain and its context within the field of OFA. Physiological (including monitoring), pharmacological, procedural (type of surgery), genetical and phenotypical (including patients’ conditions) were considered. Results: We did not find any monitoring robustly associated with improved outcomes. However, we found evidence supporting particular OFA indications, such as bariatric and cancer surgery. We found that vulnerable patients may benefit more from OFA, with an interesting field of research in patients suffering from vascular disease. We found a variety of techniques and medications making it impossible to consider OFA as a single technique. Our findings suggest that a vast field of research remains unexplored. In particular, a deeper understanding of nociception with an interest in its genetic and acquired contributors would be an excellent starting point paving the way for personalised OFA. Conclusion: Recent developments in OFA may present a more holistic approach, challenging the use of opioids. Understanding better nociception, given the variety of OFA techniques, may help to maximize their potential in different contexts and potential indications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Paradigms in Anesthesia and Intensive Care)
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13 pages, 318 KiB  
Article
Identification of Transporter Polymorphisms Influencing Metformin Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Volunteers
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030489 - 08 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1479
Abstract
For patients with type 2 diabetes, metformin is the most often recommended drug. However, there are substantial individual differences in the pharmacological response to metformin. To investigate the effect of transporter polymorphisms on metformin pharmacokinetics in an environment free of confounding variables, we [...] Read more.
For patients with type 2 diabetes, metformin is the most often recommended drug. However, there are substantial individual differences in the pharmacological response to metformin. To investigate the effect of transporter polymorphisms on metformin pharmacokinetics in an environment free of confounding variables, we conducted our study on healthy participants. This is the first investigation to consider demographic characteristics alongside all transporters involved in metformin distribution. Pharmacokinetic parameters of metformin were found to be affected by age, sex, ethnicity, and several polymorphisms. Age and SLC22A4 and SLC47A2 polymorphisms affected the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). However, after adjusting for dose-to-weight ratio (dW), sex, age, and ethnicity, along with SLC22A3 and SLC22A4, influenced AUC. The maximum concentration was affected by age and SLC22A1, but after adjusting for dW, it was affected by sex, age, ethnicity, ABCG2, and SLC22A4. The time to reach the maximum concentration was influenced by sex, like half-life, which was also affected by SLC22A3. The volume of distribution and clearance was affected by sex, age, ethnicity and SLC22A3. Alternatively, the pharmacokinetics of metformin was unaffected by polymorphisms in ABCB1, SLC2A2, SLC22A2, or SLC47A1. Therefore, our study demonstrates that a multifactorial approach to all patient characteristics is necessary for better individualization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine Genomics: Pharmacogenomics)
17 pages, 2015 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Progress and Pitfalls of Pharmacogenetics-Based Precision Medicine in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030471 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2581
Abstract
The inadequate efficacy and adverse effects of antipsychotics severely affect the recovery of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). We report the evidence for associations between pharmacogenetic (PGx) variants and antipsychotics outcomes, including antipsychotic response, antipsychotic-induced weight/BMI gain, metabolic syndrome, antipsychotic-related prolactin levels, [...] Read more.
The inadequate efficacy and adverse effects of antipsychotics severely affect the recovery of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). We report the evidence for associations between pharmacogenetic (PGx) variants and antipsychotics outcomes, including antipsychotic response, antipsychotic-induced weight/BMI gain, metabolic syndrome, antipsychotic-related prolactin levels, antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia (TD), clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CLA), and drug concentration level (pharmacokinetics) in SSD patients. Through an in-depth systematic search in 2010–2022, we identified 501 records. We included 29 meta-analyses constituting pooled data from 298 original studies over 69 PGx variants across 39 genes, 4 metabolizing phenotypes of CYP2D9, and 3 of CYP2C19. We observed weak unadjusted nominal significant (p < 0.05) additive effects of PGx variants of DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, HTR1A, HTR2A, HTR3A, and COMT (10 variants) on antipsychotic response; DRD2, HTR2C, BDNF, ADRA2A, ADRB3, GNB3, INSIG2, LEP, MC4R, and SNAP25 (14 variants) on weight gain; HTR2C (one variant) on metabolic syndrome; DRD2 (one variant) on prolactin levels; COMT and BDNF (two variants) on TD; HLA-DRB1 (one variant) on CLA; CYP2D6 (four phenotypes) and CYP2C19 (two phenotypes) on antipsychotics plasma levels. In the future, well-designed longitudinal naturalistic multi-center PGx studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of PGx variants in antipsychotic outcomes before establishing any reproducible PGx passport in clinical practice. Full article
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12 pages, 1732 KiB  
Article
Age and Sex-Related Effects on Single-Subject Gray Matter Networks in Healthy Participants
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030419 - 26 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Recent developments in image analysis have enabled an individual’s brain network to be evaluated and brain age to be predicted from gray matter images. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of age and sex on single-subject gray matter networks using a large [...] Read more.
Recent developments in image analysis have enabled an individual’s brain network to be evaluated and brain age to be predicted from gray matter images. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of age and sex on single-subject gray matter networks using a large sample of healthy participants. We recruited 812 healthy individuals (59.3 ± 14.0 years, 407 females, and 405 males) who underwent three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Similarity-based gray matter networks were constructed, and the following network properties were calculated: normalized clustering, normalized path length, and small-world coefficients. The predicted brain age was computed using a support-vector regression model. We evaluated the network alterations related to age and sex. Additionally, we examined the correlations between the network properties and predicted brain age and compared them with the correlations between the network properties and chronological age. The brain network retained efficient small-world properties regardless of age; however, reduced small-world properties were observed with advancing age. Although women exhibited higher network properties than men and similar age-related network declines as men in the subjects aged < 70 years, faster age-related network declines were observed in women, leading to no differences in sex among the participants aged ≥ 70 years. Brain age correlated well with network properties compared to chronological age in participants aged ≥ 70 years. Although the brain network retained small-world properties, it moved towards randomized networks with aging. Faster age-related network disruptions in women were observed than in men among the elderly. Our findings provide new insights into network alterations underlying aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
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18 pages, 7933 KiB  
Review
Predicting the Onset of Diabetes with Machine Learning Methods
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030406 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3681
Abstract
The number of people suffering from diabetes in Taiwan has continued to rise in recent years. According to the statistics of the International Diabetes Federation, about 537 million people worldwide (10.5% of the global population) suffer from diabetes, and it is estimated that [...] Read more.
The number of people suffering from diabetes in Taiwan has continued to rise in recent years. According to the statistics of the International Diabetes Federation, about 537 million people worldwide (10.5% of the global population) suffer from diabetes, and it is estimated that 643 million people will develop the condition (11.3% of the total population) by 2030. If this trend continues, the number will jump to 783 million (12.2%) by 2045. At present, the number of people with diabetes in Taiwan has reached 2.18 million, with an average of one in ten people suffering from the disease. In addition, according to the Bureau of National Health Insurance in Taiwan, the prevalence rate of diabetes among adults in Taiwan has reached 5% and is increasing each year. Diabetes can cause acute and chronic complications that can be fatal. Meanwhile, chronic complications can result in a variety of disabilities or organ decline. If holistic treatments and preventions are not provided to diabetic patients, it will lead to the consumption of more medical resources and a rapid decline in the quality of life of society as a whole. In this study, based on the outpatient examination data of a Taipei Municipal medical center, 15,000 women aged between 20 and 80 were selected as the subjects. These women were patients who had gone to the medical center during 2018–2020 and 2021–2022 with or without the diagnosis of diabetes. This study investigated eight different characteristics of the subjects, including the number of pregnancies, plasma glucose level, diastolic blood pressure, sebum thickness, insulin level, body mass index, diabetes pedigree function, and age. After sorting out the complete data of the patients, this study used Microsoft Machine Learning Studio to train the models of various kinds of neural networks, and the prediction results were used to compare the predictive ability of the various parameters for diabetes. Finally, this study found that after comparing the models using two-class logistic regression as well as the two-class neural network, two-class decision jungle, or two-class boosted decision tree for prediction, the best model was the two-class boosted decision tree, as its area under the curve could reach a score of 0.991, which was better than other models. Full article
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18 pages, 472 KiB  
Review
Pharmacogenetics in the Treatment of Huntington’s Disease: Review and Future Perspectives
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13030385 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant progressive brain disorder, caused by a pathological expansion of a CAG repeat that encodes the huntingtin gene. This genetic neurodegenerative rare disease is characterized by cognitive, motor, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. The aim of the treatment is [...] Read more.
Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant progressive brain disorder, caused by a pathological expansion of a CAG repeat that encodes the huntingtin gene. This genetic neurodegenerative rare disease is characterized by cognitive, motor, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. The aim of the treatment is symptomatic and addresses the hyperkinetic disorders (chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, tics, etc.) and the behavioural and cognitive disturbances (depression, anxiety, psychosis, etc.) associated with the disease. HD is still a complex condition in need of innovative and efficient treatment. The long-term goal of pharmacogenetic studies is to use genotype data to predict the effective treatment response to a specific drug and, in turn, prevent potential undesirable effects of its administration. Chorea, depression, and psychotic symptoms have a substantial impact on HD patients’ quality of life and could be better controlled with the help of pharmacogenetic knowledge. We aimed to carry out a review of the available publications and evidence related to the pharmacogenetics of HD, with the objective of compiling all information that may be useful in optimizing drug administration. The impact of pharmacogenetic information on the response to antidepressants and antipsychotics is well documented in psychiatric patients, but this approach has not been investigated in HD patients. Future research should address several issues to ensure that pharmacogenetic clinical use is appropriately supported, feasible, and applicable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine Genomics: Pharmacogenomics)
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13 pages, 1731 KiB  
Article
Multi-Modal Stacking Ensemble for the Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Diseases
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020373 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1997
Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Deep learning methods have been widely used in the field of medical image analysis and have shown promising results in the diagnosis of CVDs. Methods: Experiments were performed on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) [...] Read more.
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of death worldwide. Deep learning methods have been widely used in the field of medical image analysis and have shown promising results in the diagnosis of CVDs. Methods: Experiments were performed on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) databases collected by Chapman University and Shaoxing People’s Hospital. The ECG signal of each lead was converted into a scalogram image and an ECG grayscale image and used to fine-tune the pretrained ResNet-50 model of each lead. The ResNet-50 model was used as a base learner for the stacking ensemble method. Logistic regression, support vector machine, random forest, and XGBoost were used as a meta learner by combining the predictions of the base learner. The study introduced a method called multi-modal stacking ensemble, which involves training a meta learner through a stacking ensemble that combines predictions from two modalities: scalogram images and ECG grayscale images. Results: The multi-modal stacking ensemble with a combination of ResNet-50 and logistic regression achieved an AUC of 0.995, an accuracy of 93.97%, a sensitivity of 0.940, a precision of 0.937, and an F1-score of 0.936, which are higher than those of LSTM, BiLSTM, individual base learners, simple averaging ensemble, and single-modal stacking ensemble methods. Conclusion: The proposed multi-modal stacking ensemble approach showed effectiveness for diagnosing CVDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
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12 pages, 684 KiB  
Review
Effect of Radio-Chemotherapy on PD-L1 Immunohistochemical Expression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020363 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
Background: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors represent a mainstay of therapy in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). However, little is known about the influence of combined therapy on PD-L1 expression. The study aims to gather evidence on this topic. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors represent a mainstay of therapy in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). However, little is known about the influence of combined therapy on PD-L1 expression. The study aims to gather evidence on this topic. Methods: A systematic search was carried out in electronic databases Pubmed-MEDLINE and Embase to retrieve studies on the comparison of PD-L1 expression before and after conventional therapy. Data were extracted and a quantitative analysis with pooled odds ratios (ORs) was performed when applicable. Results: Of 5688 items, 15 were finally included. Only a minority of studies assessed PD-L1 with the recommended combined positive score (CPS). The results are highly heterogeneous, with some studies reporting an increase in PD-L1 expression and others reporting a decrease. Three studies allowed for quantitative analysis and showed a pooled OR of 0.49 (CI 0.27–0.90). Conclusions: From the present evidence, a clear conclusion towards an increase or decrease in PD-L1 expression after combined therapy cannot be drawn, but even with few studies available, a trend towards an increase in expression in tumor cells at a cutoff of 1% can be noted in patients undergoing platinum-based therapy. Future studies will provide more robust data on the effect of combined therapy on PD-L1 expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
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12 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
Association of Oral Health with Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Cohort Study
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020340 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are inflammatory diseases that share many similarities. We aimed to investigate the associations of periodontitis and oral hygiene status and behaviors with RA in a nationwide general population cohort. Participants from the National Health Screening cohort database of [...] Read more.
Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are inflammatory diseases that share many similarities. We aimed to investigate the associations of periodontitis and oral hygiene status and behaviors with RA in a nationwide general population cohort. Participants from the National Health Screening cohort database of Korea who underwent oral health screening by dentists between 2003 and 2004 were included. The occurrence of RA was analyzed according to the presence of periodontitis, oral health examination findings, and behaviors. Overall, 2,239,586 participants were included. During a median of 16.7 years, RA occurred in 27,029 (1.2%) participants. The risk for incident RA was higher when participants had periodontitis (hazard ratio (HR) 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08−1.24) and an increased number of missing teeth (HR 1.5, 95% CI, 1.38−1.69). In contrast, better oral hygiene behaviors, such as a higher frequency of daily tooth brushing (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.73–0.79, p for trend <0.001) and a recent history of dental scaling (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94–0.99), were associated with a lower occurrence of RA. Periodontitis and increased missing teeth were associated with an increased risk of RA. Maintaining good oral hygiene through frequent tooth brushing and regular dental scaling may reduce the risk of RA occurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Epidemiology)
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27 pages, 419 KiB  
Review
Biomarkers as Prognostic Predictors and Therapeutic Guide in Critically Ill Patients: Clinical Evidence
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020333 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3506
Abstract
A biomarker is a molecule that can be measured in a biological sample in an objective, systematic, and precise way, whose levels indicate whether a process is normal or pathological. Knowing the most important biomarkers and their characteristics is the key to precision [...] Read more.
A biomarker is a molecule that can be measured in a biological sample in an objective, systematic, and precise way, whose levels indicate whether a process is normal or pathological. Knowing the most important biomarkers and their characteristics is the key to precision medicine in intensive and perioperative care. Biomarkers can be used to diagnose, in assessment of disease severity, to stratify risk, to predict and guide clinical decisions, and to guide treatments and response to them. In this review, we will analyze what characteristics a biomarker should have and how to ensure its usefulness, and we will review the biomarkers that in our opinion can make their knowledge more useful to the reader in their clinical practice, with a future perspective. These biomarkers, in our opinion, are lactate, C-Reactive Protein, Troponins T and I, Brain Natriuretic Peptides, Procalcitonin, MR-ProAdrenomedullin and BioAdrenomedullin, Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and lymphopenia, Proenkephalin, NefroCheck, Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), Interleukin 6, Urokinase-type soluble plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), Presepsin, Pancreatic Stone Protein (PSP), and Dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3). Finally, we propose an approach to the perioperative evaluation of high-risk patients and critically ill patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) based on biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Paradigms in Anesthesia and Intensive Care)
13 pages, 777 KiB  
Article
Myopia Control with Low-Dose Atropine in European Children: Six-Month Results from a Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020325 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2218
Abstract
The effect and safety of low-dose atropine in myopia control have not been studied in randomized, placebo-controlled trials outside Asia. We investigated the efficacy and safety of 0.1% atropine loading dose and 0.01% atropine compared with a placebo in a European population. Investigator-initiated, [...] Read more.
The effect and safety of low-dose atropine in myopia control have not been studied in randomized, placebo-controlled trials outside Asia. We investigated the efficacy and safety of 0.1% atropine loading dose and 0.01% atropine compared with a placebo in a European population. Investigator-initiated, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, equal-allocation, multicenter study comparing 0.1% atropine loading dose (six months) followed by 0.01% atropine (18 months), 0.01% atropine (24 months), and placebo (24 months). Participants were monitored for a 12-months washout period. Outcome measures were axial length (AL), cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE), photopic and mesopic pupil size, accommodation amplitude, visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and adverse reactions and events. We randomized 97 participants (mean [standard deviation] age, 9.4 [1.7] years; 55 girls (57%) and 42 boys (43%)). After six months, AL was 0.13 mm shorter (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.18 to −0.07 [adjusted p < 0.001]) with 0.1% atropine loading dose and 0.06 mm shorter (95% CI, −0.11 to −0.01 [adjusted p = 0.06]) with 0.01% atropine than in the placebo group. We observed similar dose-dependent changes in SE, pupil size, accommodation amplitude, and adverse reactions. No significant differences in visual acuity or IOP were found between groups, and no serious adverse reactions were reported. We found a dose-dependent effect of low-dose atropine in European children without adverse reactions requiring photochromatic or progressive spectacles. Our results are comparable to those observed in East Asia, indicating that results on myopia control with low-dose atropine are generalizable across populations with different racial backgrounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics and Therapeutics in Ophthalmology)
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15 pages, 4219 KiB  
Article
Advancing Osteoporosis Evaluation Procedures: Detailed Computational Analysis of Regional Structural Vulnerabilities in Osteoporotic Bone
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020321 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Osteoporotic fractures of the femur are associated with poor healing, disability, reduced quality of life, and high mortality rates within 1 year. Moreover, osteoporotic fractures of the femur are still considered to be an unsolved problem in orthopedic surgery. In order to more [...] Read more.
Osteoporotic fractures of the femur are associated with poor healing, disability, reduced quality of life, and high mortality rates within 1 year. Moreover, osteoporotic fractures of the femur are still considered to be an unsolved problem in orthopedic surgery. In order to more effectively identify osteoporosis-related fracture risk and develop advanced treatment approaches for femur fractures, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of how osteoporosis alters the diaphyseal structure and biomechanical characteristics. The current investigation uses computational analyses to comprehensively examine how femur structure and its associated properties differ between healthy and osteoporotic bones. The results indicate statistically significant differences in multiple geometric properties between healthy femurs and osteoporotic femurs. Additionally, localized disparities in the geometric properties are evident. Overall, this approach will be beneficial in the development of new diagnostic procedures for highly detailed patient-specific detection of fracture risk, for establishing novel injury prevention treatments, and for informing advanced surgical solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine for Orthopaedic Disorders)
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14 pages, 1069 KiB  
Article
Sex-Related Differences and Factors Associated with Peri-Procedural and 1 Year Mortality in Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischemia Patients from the CLIMATE Italian Registry
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020316 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Background: Identifying sex-related differences/variables associated with 30 day/1 year mortality in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Multicenter/retrospective/observational study. A database was sent to all the Italian vascular surgeries to collect all the patients operated on for CLTI in 2019. Acute lower-limb [...] Read more.
Background: Identifying sex-related differences/variables associated with 30 day/1 year mortality in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Methods: Multicenter/retrospective/observational study. A database was sent to all the Italian vascular surgeries to collect all the patients operated on for CLTI in 2019. Acute lower-limb ischemia and neuropathic-diabetic foot are not included. Follow-up: One year. Data on demographics/comorbidities, treatments/outcomes, and 30 day/1 year mortality were investigated. Results: Information on 2399 cases (69.8% men) from 36/143 (25.2%) centers. Median (IQR) age: 73 (66–80) and 79 (71–85) years for men/women, respectively (p < 0.0001). Women were more likely to be over 75 (63.2% vs. 40.1%, p = 0.0001). More men smokers (73.7% vs. 42.2%, p < 0.0001), are on hemodialysis (10.1% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.006), affected by diabetes (61.9% vs. 52.8%, p < 0.0001), dyslipidemia (69.3% vs. 61.3%, p < 0.0001), hypertension (91.8% vs. 88.5%, p = 0.011), coronaropathy (43.9% vs. 29.4%, p < 0.0001), bronchopneumopathy (37.1% vs. 25.6%, p < 0.0001), underwent more open/hybrid surgeries (37.9% vs. 28.8%, p < 0.0001), and minor amputations (22% vs. 13.7%, p < 0.0001). More women underwent endovascular revascularizations (61.6% vs. 55.2%, p = 0.004), major amputations (9.6% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.024), and obtained limb-salvage if with limited gangrene (50.8% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.017). Age > 75 (HR = 3.63, p = 0.003) is associated with 30 day mortality. Age > 75 (HR = 2.14, p < 0.0001), nephropathy (HR = 1.54, p < 0.0001), coronaropathy (HR = 1.26, p = 0.036), and infection/necrosis of the foot (dry, HR = 1.42, p = 0.040; wet, HR = 2.04, p < 0.0001) are associated with 1 year mortality. No sex-linked difference in mortality statistics. Conclusion: Women exhibit fewer comorbidities but are struck by CLTI when over 75, a factor associated with short- and mid-term mortality, explaining why mortality does not statistically differ between the sexes. Full article
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40 pages, 1012 KiB  
Review
Systemic Cytokines in Retinopathy of Prematurity
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020291 - 05 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a vasoproliferative vitreoretinal disorder, is the leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Although angiogenic pathways have been the main focus, cytokine-mediated inflammation is also involved in ROP etiology. Herein, we illustrate the characteristics and actions of all cytokines involved [...] Read more.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a vasoproliferative vitreoretinal disorder, is the leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Although angiogenic pathways have been the main focus, cytokine-mediated inflammation is also involved in ROP etiology. Herein, we illustrate the characteristics and actions of all cytokines involved in ROP pathogenesis. The two-phase (vaso-obliteration followed by vasoproliferation) theory outlines the evaluation of cytokines in a time-dependent manner. Levels of cytokines may even differ between the blood and the vitreous. Data from animal models of oxygen-induced retinopathy are also valuable. Although conventional cryotherapy and laser photocoagulation are well established and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents are available, less destructive novel therapeutics that can precisely target the signaling pathways are required. Linking the cytokines involved in ROP to other maternal and neonatal diseases and conditions provides insights into the management of ROP. Suppressing disordered retinal angiogenesis via the modulation of hypoxia-inducible factor, supplementation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1/IGF-binding protein 3 complex, erythropoietin, and its derivatives, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and inhibition of secretogranin III have attracted the attention of researchers. Recently, gut microbiota modulation, non-coding RNAs, and gene therapies have shown promise in regulating ROP. These emerging therapeutics can be used to treat preterm infants with ROP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical and Translational Research in Ophthalmology)
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23 pages, 843 KiB  
Review
Lung Dysfunction and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Complex Network of Multiple Interactions
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020286 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5802
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive disease that affects > 10% of the total population worldwide or >800 million people. CKD poses a particularly heavy burden in low- and middle-income countries, which are least able to cope with its consequences. It has [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive disease that affects > 10% of the total population worldwide or >800 million people. CKD poses a particularly heavy burden in low- and middle-income countries, which are least able to cope with its consequences. It has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide and is one of the few non-communicable diseases where the number of related deaths has increased over the last two decades. The high number of people affected, and the significant negative impact of CKD should be a reason to increase efforts to improve prevention and treatment. The interaction of lung and kidney leads to highly complex and difficult clinical scenarios. CKD significantly affects the physiology of the lung by altering fluid homeostasis, acid-base balance and vascular tone. In the lung, haemodynamic disturbances lead to the development of alterations in ventilatory control, pulmonary congestion, capillary stress failure and pulmonary vascular disease. In the kidney, haemodynamic disturbances lead to sodium and water retention and the deterioration of renal function. In this article, we would like to draw attention to the importance of harmonising the definitions of clinical events in pneumology and renal medicine. We would also like to highlight the need for pulmonary function tests in routine clinical practise for the management of patients with CKD, in order to find new concepts for pathophysiological based disease-specific management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Medicine in Kidney Disease)
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17 pages, 1736 KiB  
Review
Homologous Recombination Deficiency in Ovarian Cancer: from the Biological Rationale to Current Diagnostic Approaches
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020284 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3814
Abstract
The inability to efficiently repair DNA double-strand breaks using the homologous recombination repair pathway is defined as homologous recombination deficiency (HRD). This molecular phenotype represents a positive predictive biomarker for the clinical use of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase inhibitors and platinum-based chemotherapy [...] Read more.
The inability to efficiently repair DNA double-strand breaks using the homologous recombination repair pathway is defined as homologous recombination deficiency (HRD). This molecular phenotype represents a positive predictive biomarker for the clinical use of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase inhibitors and platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. However, HRD is a complex genomic signature, and different methods of analysis have been developed to introduce HRD testing in the clinical setting. This review describes the technical aspects and challenges related to HRD testing in ovarian cancer and outlines the potential pitfalls and challenges that can be encountered in HRD diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
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13 pages, 2265 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effectiveness of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Associated with Cytoreductive Surgery in the Treatment of Advanced Ovarian Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020258 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Objective: The use of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) as a treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer remains controversial. Our study aims to analyze the overall survival and disease-free survival for the use of HIPEC as a treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer after neoadjuvant [...] Read more.
Objective: The use of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) as a treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer remains controversial. Our study aims to analyze the overall survival and disease-free survival for the use of HIPEC as a treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out using PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov. A total of six studies were used, comprising a total of 674 patients. Results: The results of our meta-analysis of all studies analyzed together (observational and randomized controlled trials (RCT)) did not achieve significant results. Contrary to the OS (HR = 0.56, 95% IC = 0.33–0.95, p = 0.03) and DFS (HR = 0.61, 95% IC = 0.43–0.86, p < 0.01) of the RCT analyzed separately, a clear impact on survival was suggested. The subgroup analysis showed that studies making use of higher temperatures (≥42 °C) for a shorter period of time (≤60 min) achieved better results for both OS and DFS, as well as the use of cisplatin as the form of chemotherapy in HIPEC. Moreover, the use of HIPEC did not increase high-grade complications. Conclusions: The addition of HIPEC to cytoreductive surgery demonstrates an improvement in OS and DFS for patients with epithelial ovarian cancer in advanced stages, without an increase in the number of complications. The use of cisplatin as chemotherapy in HIPEC obtained better results. Full article
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28 pages, 961 KiB  
Review
The Rationale for Vitamin, Mineral, and Cofactor Treatment in the Precision Medical Care of Autism Spectrum Disorder
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020252 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6555
Abstract
Children with autism spectrum disorder may exhibit nutritional deficiencies due to reduced intake, genetic variants, autoantibodies interfering with vitamin transport, and the accumulation of toxic compounds that consume vitamins. Importantly, vitamins and metal ions are essential for several metabolic pathways and for neurotransmitter [...] Read more.
Children with autism spectrum disorder may exhibit nutritional deficiencies due to reduced intake, genetic variants, autoantibodies interfering with vitamin transport, and the accumulation of toxic compounds that consume vitamins. Importantly, vitamins and metal ions are essential for several metabolic pathways and for neurotransmitter functioning. The therapeutic benefits of supplementing vitamins, minerals (Zinc, Magnesium, Molybdenum, and Selenium), and other cofactors (coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, and tetrahydrobiopterin) are mediated through their cofactor as well as non-cofactor functions. Interestingly, some vitamins can be safely administered at levels far above the dose typically used to correct the deficiency and exert effects beyond their functional role as enzyme cofactors. Moreover, the interrelationships between these nutrients can be leveraged to obtain synergistic effects using combinations. The present review discusses the current evidence for using vitamins, minerals, and cofactors in autism spectrum disorder, the rationale behind their use, and the prospects for future use. Full article
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15 pages, 18093 KiB  
Article
PD-L1, CD4+, and CD8+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) Expression Profiles in Melanoma Tumor Microenvironment Cells
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020221 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
(1) Background: Because melanoma is an aggressive tumor with an unfavorable prognosis, we aimed to characterize the PD-L1 expression in melanomas in association with T cell infiltrates because PD-1/PD-L1 blockade represents the target in treating melanoma strategy. (2) Methods: The immunohistochemical manual quantitative [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Because melanoma is an aggressive tumor with an unfavorable prognosis, we aimed to characterize the PD-L1 expression in melanomas in association with T cell infiltrates because PD-1/PD-L1 blockade represents the target in treating melanoma strategy. (2) Methods: The immunohistochemical manual quantitative methods of PD-L1, CD4, and CD8 TILs were performed in melanoma tumor microenvironment cells. (3) Results: Most of the PD-L1 positive, expressing tumors, have a moderate score of CD4+ TILs and CD8+TILs (5−50% of tumor area) in tumoral melanoma environment cells. The PD-L1 expression in TILs was correlated with different degrees of lymphocytic infiltration described by the Clark system (X2 = 8.383, p = 0.020). PD-L1 expression was observed often in melanoma cases, with more than 2−4 mm of Breslow tumor thickness being the associated parameters (X2 = 9.933, p = 0.014). (4) Conclusions: PD-L1 expression represents a predictive biomarker with very good accuracy for discriminating the presence or absence of malign tumoral melanoma cells. PD-L1 expression was an independent predictor of good prognosis in patients with melanomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin Cancers: Biomarkers and Potential Therapeutic Targets)
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18 pages, 2116 KiB  
Article
Differences and Similarities in Empathy Deficit and Its Neural Basis between Logopenic and Amnesic Alzheimer’s Disease
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020208 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
The aims of the study were to assess empathy deficit and neuronal correlates in logopenic primary progressive aphasia (lv-PPA) and compare these data with those deriving from amnesic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Eighteen lv-PPA and thirty-eight amnesic AD patients were included. Empathy in both [...] Read more.
The aims of the study were to assess empathy deficit and neuronal correlates in logopenic primary progressive aphasia (lv-PPA) and compare these data with those deriving from amnesic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Eighteen lv-PPA and thirty-eight amnesic AD patients were included. Empathy in both cognitive and affective domains was assessed by Informer-rated Interpersonal Reactivity Index (perspective taking, PT, and fantasy, FT, for cognitive empathy; empathic concern, EC, and personal distress, PD, for affective empathy) before (T0) and after (T1) cognitive symptoms’ onset. Emotion recognition was explored through the Ekman 60 Faces Test. Cerebral FDG-PET was used to explore neural correlates underlying empathy deficits. From T0 to T1, PT scores decreased, and PD scores increased in both lv-PPA (PT z = −3.43, p = 0.001; PD z = −3.62, p < 0.001) and in amnesic AD (PT z = −4.57, p < 0.001; PD z = −5.20, p < 0.001). Delta PT (T0–T1) negatively correlated with metabolic disfunction of the right superior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in amnesic AD and of the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), insula, MFG, and bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in lv-PPA (p < 0.005). Delta PD (T0-T1) positively correlated with metabolic disfunction of the right inferior frontal gyrus in amnesic AD (p < 0.001) and of the left IPL, insula, and bilateral SFG in lv-PPA (p < 0.005). Lv-PPA and amnesic AD share the same empathic changes, with a damage of cognitive empathy and a heightening of personal distress over time. The differences in metabolic disfunctions correlated with empathy deficits might be due to a different vulnerability of specific brain regions in the two AD clinical presentations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized and Precision Medicine 2022)
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14 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Contribution to the Personalized Management of the Nosocomial Infections: A New Paradigm Regarding the Influence of the Community Microbial Environment on the Incidence of the Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) in Emergency Hospital Surgical Departments
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020210 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Background: The management of acute surgical pathology implies not only the diagnosis–treatment sequence but also an important preventive component. In the surgical hospital department, wound infection is one of the most frequent complications which must be managed both in a preventive and a [...] Read more.
Background: The management of acute surgical pathology implies not only the diagnosis–treatment sequence but also an important preventive component. In the surgical hospital department, wound infection is one of the most frequent complications which must be managed both in a preventive and a personalized manner. To achieve this goal, several factors of negative local evolution, contributing to the slowdown of the healing processes, such as the colonization and contamination of the wounds, need to be emphasized and controlled from the first moment. In this context, knowing the bacteriological status at admission ensures the distinction between the colonization and infection processes and could help to manage in an efficient way the fight against bacterial pathogen infections from the beginning. Methods: A prospective study was performed for 21 months on 973 patients hospitalized as emergencies in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department within the Emergency University County Hospital of Brasov, Romania. We analyzed the bacteriological profile of the patients from admission to discharge and the bidirectional and cyclic microorganism dynamics both in the hospital and the community microbial environment. Results: Of the 973 samples collected at admission, 702 were positive, with 17 bacterial species and one fungal, with a predominance of Gram-positive cocci at 74,85%. The most frequently isolated strains were Staphylococcus species (86.51% of the Gram-positive/64.7% of the total isolated strains), while Klebsiella at 8.16% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species at 5.63% were mainly emphasized in the case of Gram-negative bacilli. Two to seven pathogens were introduced after admission, suggesting that the community microbial environment is in a process of evolution and enrichment with hospital pathogens. Conclusions: The high level of positive bacteriological samples and the complex associations of the pathogens found at the admission bacteriological screening sustain the new idea that the pathogenic microorganisms existing in the community microbial environment have started to increasingly influence the hospital microbial environment, in contrast with the previous consideration, which emphasized only the unidirectional relationship between hospital infections and the changing bacteriological characteristics of the community environment. This modified paradigm must become the basis of a new personalized approach to the management of nosocomial infections. Full article
14 pages, 602 KiB  
Review
Management of Irreparable Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tears—A Current Concepts Review and Proposed Treatment Algorithm by the AGA Shoulder Committee
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(2), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13020191 - 21 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Posterosuperior rotator cuff tears range among the most common causes of shoulder complaints. While non-operative treatment is typically reserved for the elderly patient with low functional demands, surgical treatment is considered the gold standard for active patients. More precisely, an anatomic rotator cuff [...] Read more.
Posterosuperior rotator cuff tears range among the most common causes of shoulder complaints. While non-operative treatment is typically reserved for the elderly patient with low functional demands, surgical treatment is considered the gold standard for active patients. More precisely, an anatomic rotator cuff repair (RCR) is considered the most desirable treatment option and should be generally attempted during surgery. If an anatomic RCR is impossible, the adequate choice of treatment for irreparable rotator cuff tears remains a matter of debate among shoulder surgeons. Following a critical review of the contemporary literature, the authors suggest the following evidence- and experience-based treatment recommendation. In the non-functional, osteoarthritic shoulder, treatment strategies in the management of irreparable posterosuperior RCT include debridement-based procedures and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty as the treatment of choice. Joint-preserving procedures aimed at restoring glenohumeral biomechanics and function should be reserved for the non-osteoarthritic shoulder. Prior to these procedures, however, patients should be counseled about deteriorating results over time. Recent innovations such as the superior capsule reconstruction and the implantation of a subacromial spacer show promising short-term results, yet future studies with long-term follow-up are required to derive stronger recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Management in Orthopedics and Traumatology)
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13 pages, 828 KiB  
Article
The Association between Alexithymia and Social Media Addiction: Exploring the Role of Dysmorphic Symptoms, Symptoms Interference, and Self-Esteem, Controlling for Age and Gender
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13010152 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3433
Abstract
Given the popularity of social media and the growing presence of these tools in the daily lives of individuals, research about the elements that can be linked to their problematic use appears to be of great importance. The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Given the popularity of social media and the growing presence of these tools in the daily lives of individuals, research about the elements that can be linked to their problematic use appears to be of great importance. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that may contribute to the levels of social media addiction, by focusing on the role of alexithymia, body image concern, and self-esteem, controlled for age and gender. A sample of 437 social media users (32.5% men, 67.5% women; Mage = 33.44 years, SD = 13.284) completed an online survey, including the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, Body Image Concern Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, together with a demographic questionnaire. Results showed a significant association between alexithymia and social media addiction, with the total mediation of body image concern (and more in detail, body dissatisfaction) and the significant moderation of self-esteem. Gender and age showed significant effects in these relationships. Such findings may offer further insights into the field of clinical research on social media addiction and may provide useful information for effective clinical practice. Full article
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17 pages, 873 KiB  
Review
Management of Hyponatremia in Heart Failure: Practical Considerations
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13010140 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 11721
Abstract
Hyponatremia is commonly encountered in the setting of heart failure, especially in decompensated, fluid-overloaded patients. The pathophysiology of hyponatremia in patients with heart failure is complex, including numerous mechanisms: increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, high levels of [...] Read more.
Hyponatremia is commonly encountered in the setting of heart failure, especially in decompensated, fluid-overloaded patients. The pathophysiology of hyponatremia in patients with heart failure is complex, including numerous mechanisms: increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, high levels of arginine vasopressin and diuretic use. Symptoms are usually mild but hyponatremic encephalopathy can occur if there is an acute decrease in serum sodium levels. It is crucial to differentiate between dilutional hyponatremia, where free water excretion should be promoted, and depletional hyponatremia, where administration of saline is needed. An inappropriate correction of hyponatremia may lead to osmotic demyelination syndrome which can cause severe neurological symptoms. Treatment options for hyponatremia in heart failure, such as water restriction or the use of hypertonic saline with loop diuretics, have limited efficacy. The aim of this review is to summarize the principal mechanisms involved in the occurrence of hyponatremia, to present the main guidelines for the treatment of hyponatremia, and to collect and analyze data from studies which target new treatment options, such as vaptans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances of Emergency and Intensive Care)
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13 pages, 1267 KiB  
Article
Epidemiology and Risk Factors of UTIs in Children—A Single-Center Observation
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13010138 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of childhood’s most common bacterial infections. The study aimed to determine the clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, risk factors, and etiology of different UTIs in children admitted to pediatric hospitals for three years. Methods: Patients with positive urine [...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of childhood’s most common bacterial infections. The study aimed to determine the clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, risk factors, and etiology of different UTIs in children admitted to pediatric hospitals for three years. Methods: Patients with positive urine cultures diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis (APN) or cystitis (CYS) were analyzed for clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, risk factors, and etiology, depending on their age and sex. Results: We studied 948 children with UTIs (531 girls and 417 boys), with a median age of 12 (IQR 5–48 months). A total of 789 children had clinical symptoms; the main symptom was fever (63.4% of patients). Specific symptoms of UTIs were presented only in 16.3% of patients. Children with APN had shown significantly more frequent loss of appetite, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, and less frequent dysuria and haematuria than children with CYS. We found significantly higher median WBC, CRP, and leukocyturia in children with APN than with CYS. The risk factors of UTIs were presented in 46.6% of patients, of which 35.6% were children with APN and 61.7% with CYS. The main risk factor was CAKUT, more frequently diagnosed in children with CYS than APN, mainly in children <2 years. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (74%). There was a higher percentage of urine samples with E. coli in girls than in boys. Other bacteria found were Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus species. Conclusions: Patients with APN were younger and had higher inflammatory markers. Often, fever is the only symptom of UTI in children, and other clinical signs are usually non-specific. The most common UTI etiology is E. coli, regardless of the clinical presentation and risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Medicine, Cell, and Organism Physiology)
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24 pages, 6394 KiB  
Review
Three-Dimensional Accuracy and Stability of Personalized Implants in Orthognathic Surgery: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13010125 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
This systematic review aimed to determine the accuracy/stability of patient-specific osteosynthesis (PSI) in orthognathic surgery according to three-dimensional (3D) outcome analysis and in comparison to conventional osteosynthesis and computer-aided designed and manufactured (CAD/CAM) splints or wafers. The PRISMA guidelines were followed and six [...] Read more.
This systematic review aimed to determine the accuracy/stability of patient-specific osteosynthesis (PSI) in orthognathic surgery according to three-dimensional (3D) outcome analysis and in comparison to conventional osteosynthesis and computer-aided designed and manufactured (CAD/CAM) splints or wafers. The PRISMA guidelines were followed and six academic databases and Google Scholar were searched. Records reporting 3D accuracy/stability measurements of bony segments fixated with PSI were included. Of 485 initial records, 21 met the eligibility (566 subjects), nine of which also qualified for a meta-analysis (164 subjects). Six studies had a high risk of bias (29%), and the rest were of low or moderate risk. Procedures comprised either single-piece or segmental Le Fort I and/or mandibular osteotomy and/or genioplasty. A stratified meta-analysis including 115 subjects with single-piece Le Fort I PSI showed that the largest absolute mean deviations were 0.5 mm antero-posteriorly and 0.65° in pitch. PSIs were up to 0.85 mm and 2.35° more accurate than conventional osteosynthesis with CAD/CAM splint or wafer (p < 0.0001). However, the clinical relevance of the improved accuracy has not been shown. The literature on PSI for multi-piece Le Fort I, mandibular osteotomies and genioplasty procedure is characterized by high methodological heterogeneity and a lack of randomized controlled trials. The literature is lacking on the 3D stability of bony segments fixated with PSI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Methodology, Drug and Device Discovery)
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20 pages, 1459 KiB  
Review
Medical and Surgical Strategies in Vulvar Paget Disease: Let’s Throw Some Light!
J. Pers. Med. 2023, 13(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm13010100 - 01 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
Background: Vulvar Paget’s disease (VPD) is defined as a neoplasm of epithelial origin, mostly in postmenopausal women. Due to the extreme rarity of VPD, limited data about recommended treatment options are available. Surgical excision has been the treatment of choice although in the [...] Read more.
Background: Vulvar Paget’s disease (VPD) is defined as a neoplasm of epithelial origin, mostly in postmenopausal women. Due to the extreme rarity of VPD, limited data about recommended treatment options are available. Surgical excision has been the treatment of choice although in the recent decade medical treatments have been proposed. Methods: A systematic computerized search of the literature was performed in the main electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, and Cochrane Library), from 2003 to September 2022, in order to analyze all medical and surgical strategies used for the treatment of VPD. Results: Thirty-four articles were included in this review with findings as follows: 390 patients were treated with medical or other conservative treatment while 2802 patients were treated surgically; 235/434 (54%) patients had a complete response, 67/434 (15%) a partial response, 10/434 (2.3%) a stable disease, 3/434 (0.7%) disease progress, 3/434 (0.7%) died of the disease, 55/434 (13%) died of other causes during follow up while 7/434 (1.6%) had to stop topical treatments with 5% imiquimod cream because of side effects; 239/434 patients (55%) had a recurrence and 11/434 (2.5%) were lost to follow-up. The length of follow-up was variable, according to the different studies analyzed. Conclusion: VPD is a chronic disease with a high recurrence rate and low mortality. There are no significant differences in recurrence rates in patients who undergo surgery and those who do not and the margin status at the time of primary surgery and recurrence. Several surgical and medical approaches providing both local control of the disease and minimal tissue damage have been developed. Clock mapping, a recent preoperative vulvo-vaginal workup tool, can predict the invasiveness and the extension of VPD. However, to date, due to the different treatment options available and in the absence of a global consensus, it is critical to tailor treatments to individual patient characteristics and biopsy histopathologic findings, to ensure the best type of therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gynecological Surgery: Current Perspectives and Future Challenges)
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16 pages, 1739 KiB  
Article
The Penn Medicine BioBank: Towards a Genomics-Enabled Learning Healthcare System to Accelerate Precision Medicine in a Diverse Population
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12121974 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2617
Abstract
The Penn Medicine BioBank (PMBB) is an electronic health record (EHR)-linked biobank at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn Medicine). A large variety of health-related information, ranging from diagnosis codes to laboratory measurements, imaging data and lifestyle information, is integrated with genomic and biomarker [...] Read more.
The Penn Medicine BioBank (PMBB) is an electronic health record (EHR)-linked biobank at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn Medicine). A large variety of health-related information, ranging from diagnosis codes to laboratory measurements, imaging data and lifestyle information, is integrated with genomic and biomarker data in the PMBB to facilitate discoveries and translational science. To date, 174,712 participants have been enrolled into the PMBB, including approximately 30% of participants of non-European ancestry, making it one of the most diverse medical biobanks. There is a median of seven years of longitudinal data in the EHR available on participants, who also consent to permission to recontact. Herein, we describe the operations and infrastructure of the PMBB, summarize the phenotypic architecture of the enrolled participants, and use body mass index (BMI) as a proof-of-concept quantitative phenotype for PheWAS, LabWAS, and GWAS. The major representation of African-American participants in the PMBB addresses the essential need to expand the diversity in genetic and translational research. There is a critical need for a “medical biobank consortium” to facilitate replication, increase power for rare phenotypes and variants, and promote harmonized collaboration to optimize the potential for biological discovery and precision medicine. Full article
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20 pages, 2985 KiB  
Review
Enhanced Permeability and Retention Effect as a Ubiquitous and Epoch-Making Phenomenon for the Selective Drug Targeting of Solid Tumors
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(12), 1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12121964 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2926
Abstract
In 1979, development of the first polymer drug SMANCS [styrene-co-maleic acid (SMA) copolymer conjugated to neocarzinostatin (NCS)] by Maeda and colleagues was a breakthrough in the cancer field. When SMANCS was administered to mice, drug accumulation in tumors was markedly increased compared with [...] Read more.
In 1979, development of the first polymer drug SMANCS [styrene-co-maleic acid (SMA) copolymer conjugated to neocarzinostatin (NCS)] by Maeda and colleagues was a breakthrough in the cancer field. When SMANCS was administered to mice, drug accumulation in tumors was markedly increased compared with accumulation of the parental drug NCS. This momentous result led to discovery of the enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR effect) in 1986. Later, the EPR effect became known worldwide, especially in nanomedicine, and is still believed to be a universal mechanism for tumor-selective accumulation of nanomedicines. Some research groups recently characterized the EPR effect as a controversial concept and stated that it has not been fully demonstrated in clinical settings, but this erroneous belief is due to non-standard drug design and use of inappropriate tumor models in investigations. Many research groups recently provided solid evidence of the EPR effect in human cancers (e.g., renal and breast), with significant diversity and heterogeneity in various patients. In this review, we focus on the dynamics of the EPR effect and restoring tumor blood flow by using EPR effect enhancers. We also discuss new applications of EPR-based nanomedicine in boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy for solid tumors. Full article
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