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Special Issue "Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Resources Management and Governance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Pingping Luo

1. Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University
2. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi'an, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: flood modelling; flood management; hydrological modelling; water quality analysis; statistical analysis; water resource management; ecohydrology
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jingming Hou

School of Water Resources and Hydro-electric Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, China
E-Mail
Interests: hydrodynamic modelling; flood management; low impact development measures; eco-hydraulics; environmental hydraulics; sediment transport
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Weili Duan

Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
E-Mail
Interests: environmental hydrology and water resources; water-related disasters management; hydro-climatology (land surface-atmosphere interactions); climate change; safety engineering
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Peng Shi

1. State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University
2. College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: flood forecasting; flood management; hydrological modelling; statistical analysis; geomorphological hydrology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mitigating water related disasters and preserving the water environment are key research topics for sustainable development. Climate change and human activities exacerbating risk associated with water related disasters and threatening environmental quality. At the heart of these issues are the timing, magnitude and frequency of extreme events, changes in the hydrological cycle, and water pollution. This special issue incorporates broad and synergistic research fields with a focus on hydrological modelling, remote sensing, and statistics. The objective of this special issue is to share knowledge, develop modelling and analysis tools, and provide the scientific foundation for addressing water related disasters and for preserving environmental health.

Prof. Dr. Pingping Luo
Prof. Dr. Jingming Hou
Prof. Dr. Weili Duan
Prof. Dr. Peng Shi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Flood
  • Remote sensing
  • Statistical analysis
  • Ecohydrology
  • Drought
  • Extreme events
  • Hydrological modelling
  • Hydrological process
  • Shallow landslides
  • Water resource management
  • Environmental management
  • Waste-water treatment

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Temperature Change on the Soil Water Characteristic Curve and a Prediction Model for the Mu Us Bottomland, Northern China
Water 2019, 11(6), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061235
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
The soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) is the basis for obtaining the hydraulic conductivity parameters of a soil as well as for using soil water and heat transport models. At present, the curve can be obtained by two methods: by direct measurement and by [...] Read more.
The soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) is the basis for obtaining the hydraulic conductivity parameters of a soil as well as for using soil water and heat transport models. At present, the curve can be obtained by two methods: by direct measurement and by empirical formula. Direct measurement is both difficult and time-consuming. By contrast, fitting the SWCC with a suitable empirical formula is stable and convenient. The van Genuchten (VG) model has the advantage of universal applicability due to its use of a statistical aperture distribution model for estimating hydraulic conductivity. This study selected the Mu Us Bottomland as a study area. Data on the water content and water potential of undisturbed soil from this site were obtained with a Ku-pF instrument and a self-designed soil column experiment with temperature settings of 13 °C, 18 °C, 23 °C, 27 °C, and 30 °C. The variation of four main parameters in the VG model with temperature was analyzed based on thermodynamic theory and considering the effect of temperature on soil capillary pressure via its effects on surface tension and contact angle. A prediction model for the soil-water characteristic curve of the Mu Us Bottomland was then constructed, and its applicability was further analyzed. The temperature dependence of the SWCC demonstrated here provides an important scientific basis for agricultural production, farmland water conservancy, and the design of soil and water conservation engineering projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Bridge Piers on Flood Hazards: A Case Study on the Jialing River in China
Water 2019, 11(6), 1181; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061181
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
Bridge piers on river channels can cause obstacles for flood flow by reducing the cross-sectional area and inducing local eddy currents and high flow velocities, which may destroy hydraulic structures. A two-dimensional numerical model was used to investigate the effects of bridge piers [...] Read more.
Bridge piers on river channels can cause obstacles for flood flow by reducing the cross-sectional area and inducing local eddy currents and high flow velocities, which may destroy hydraulic structures. A two-dimensional numerical model was used to investigate the effects of bridge piers on river flood hazards in the Jialing River, China. For the modeling, Mike 21 FM was used, which is an unstructured mesh and finite volume model that solves the shallow water equations. The numerical model was validated with collected historical flood traces, and sensitivity analyses identified the effects of the Manning coefficient and the dependence on the grid size. The influence of backwater effects on the flow field was analyzed by comparing numerical results with and without piers. The results showed that the most significant impacts were caused by the Fengxian Bridge. The maximum water level rise was about 1 m and the maximum velocity near this bridge decreased by 22.77% for a 10-year flood. We found that the top elevations of planned levees near the bridges must be increased by 0.15–0.36 m. The influence of bridge piers on the flood velocity field is more complex. These findings will help flood hazard management in this river and provides a reference for similar projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Risks Analysis and Response of Forecast-Based Operation for Ankang Reservoir Flood Control
Water 2019, 11(6), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061134
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
With the improvement of short-term flood forecasting and short-term rainfall forecast accuracy, as well as the advance of hydrological and meteorological information collection and collation methods, the reservoir flood regulation method taking rainfall or inflow forecast into consideration is gaining more and more [...] Read more.
With the improvement of short-term flood forecasting and short-term rainfall forecast accuracy, as well as the advance of hydrological and meteorological information collection and collation methods, the reservoir flood regulation method taking rainfall or inflow forecast into consideration is gaining more and more attention. As the index of Forecast-Based Operation (FBO), the forecasted factor plays an important part in determining success or failure of FBO due to its uncertainty and accuracy. In this study, possible risk sources were analyzed considering the process and the characteristics of reservoir flood regulation firstly, and the uncertainty of the forecast information and the FBO risks were discussed based on hypothesis testing. Then, combined with the case study of applying FBO on Ankang Reservoir, in which the forecasted net rainfall was selected as the index of the FBO rules, the probability distribution of the forecasted net rainfall errors was derived as the basis of risk analysis. Finally, FBO risk analysis was conducted based on Monte Carlo method for several real flood processes, while a simulation was also carried out with the Conventional Operation (CO) for contrast. The results indicate that the maximum risk was reduced more than half when FBO was adopted. Consequently, the possible remedial measures were put forward in the case of invalid forecast happened based on simulation and the analysis of the principle of flood regulation. The conclusions and methods in this research provide ideas for real-time flood regulation and risk management of reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact Assessments of Rainfall–Runoff Characteristics Response Based on Land Use Change via Hydrological Simulation
Water 2019, 11(4), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040866
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
The hydrology response was studied considering the established fact of land use change in Dapoling basin. The whole period was divided into two (1965–1985 and 1986–2012) according to the major land use and land cover change in this region. Xinanjiang model was used [...] Read more.
The hydrology response was studied considering the established fact of land use change in Dapoling basin. The whole period was divided into two (1965–1985 and 1986–2012) according to the major land use and land cover change in this region. Xinanjiang model was used to simulate discharge data in the two periods. The hydrologic response to the change could be evaluated by inspecting the response of model parameters and flood elements. The results show that the lag time varied, and the hydrologic elements including the mean runoff depth, flood peak and kurtosis coefficient varied with the rainfall depth. This result is significant for studying the response of runoff characteristic from land use and land cover change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Integrating XAJ Model with GIUH Based on Nash Model for Rainfall-Runoff Modelling
Water 2019, 11(4), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040772
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
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Abstract
The geomorphologic instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) is an applicable approach that simulates the runoff for the ungauged basins. The nash model is an efficient tool to derive the unit hydrograph (UH), which only requires two items, including the indices n and k. [...] Read more.
The geomorphologic instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) is an applicable approach that simulates the runoff for the ungauged basins. The nash model is an efficient tool to derive the unit hydrograph (UH), which only requires two items, including the indices n and k. Theoretically, the GIUH method describes the process of a droplet flowing from which it falls on to the basin outlet, only covering the flow concentration process. The traditional technique for flood estimation using GIUH method always uses the effective rainfall, which is empirically obtained and scant of accuracy, and then calculates the convolution of the effective rainfall and GIUH. To improve the predictive capability of the GIUH model, the Xin’anjiang (XAJ) model, which is a conceptual model with clear physical meaning, is applied to simulate the runoff yielding and the slope flow concentration, integrating with the GIUH derived based on Nash model to compute the river network flow convergence, forming a modified GIUH model for flood simulation. The average flow velocity is the key to obtain the indices k, and two methods to calculate the flow velocity were compared in this study. 10 flood events in three catchments in Fujian, China are selected to calibrate the model, and six for validation. Four criteria, including the time-to-peak error, the relative peak flow error, the relative runoff depth error, and the Nash–Sutcliff efficiency coefficient are computed for the model performance evaluation. The observed runoff value and simulated series in validation stage is also presented in the scatter plots to analyze the fitting degree. The analysis results show the modified model with a convenient calculation and a high fitting and illustrates that the model is reliable for the flood estimation and has potential for practical flood forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantifying the Effects of Climate and Vegetation on Soil Moisture in an Arid Area, China
Water 2019, 11(4), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040767
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
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Abstract
Soil moisture plays a critical role in land-atmosphere interactions. Quantifying the controls on soil moisture is highly valuable for effective management of water resources and climatic adaptation. In this study, we quantified the effects of precipitation, temperature, and vegetation on monthly soil moisture [...] Read more.
Soil moisture plays a critical role in land-atmosphere interactions. Quantifying the controls on soil moisture is highly valuable for effective management of water resources and climatic adaptation. In this study, we quantified the effects of precipitation, temperature, and vegetation on monthly soil moisture variability in an arid area, China. A non-linear Granger causality framework was applied to examine the causal effects based on multi-decadal reanalysis data records. Results indicate that precipitation had effects on soil moisture in about 91% of the study area and explained up to 40% of soil moisture variability during 1982–2015. Temperature and vegetation explained up to 8.2% and 3.3% of soil moisture variability, respectively. Climatic extremes were responsible for up to 10% of soil moisture variability, and the importance of climatic extremes was low compared to that of the general climate dynamics. The time-lagged analysis shows that the effects of precipitation and temperature on soil moisture were immediate and dissipated shortly. In addition, the effects of precipitation on soil moisture decreased with the increase of precipitation, soil moisture, and elevation. This study provides deep insight for uncovering the drivers of soil moisture variability in arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Soil Water Movement Changes Associated with Revegetation on the Loess Plateau of China
Water 2019, 11(4), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040731
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 5 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
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Abstract
Soil water is the limitation factors in the semiarid region for vegetation growth. With the large scale “Grain for Green” implementation on the Loess Plateau of China, an amount of sloping cropland was converted to forestland, shrubland, and grassland. The spatial and temporal [...] Read more.
Soil water is the limitation factors in the semiarid region for vegetation growth. With the large scale “Grain for Green” implementation on the Loess Plateau of China, an amount of sloping cropland was converted to forestland, shrubland, and grassland. The spatial and temporal distribution of soil water was changed. However, the effect of revegetation on soil water movement is still unclear. In this study, we analyze the stable isotopes changes in precipitation and soil water in sloping cropland, forestland, shrubland, and grassland to trace the movement of moisture in soil. The results showed that δ18O in shallow layers (<20 cm depth) of sloping cropland, forestland, shrubland, and grassland were −3.54‰, −2.68‰, −4.00‰, and −3.16‰, respectively. The δ18O in these layers were higher than that in the lower layers, indicating that evaporation was mainly from the shallow layers. The δ18O for the soil water in the unsaturated zone in the grassland, shrubland, and forestland of the temporal variability decreases with depth and approaches a minimum value at 160 cm, 180 cm, and 200 cm, respectively, suggesting that the soil water is relatively stable many months or even longer. Precipitation was infiltrated with piston and preferential modes, and infiltration demonstrated obvious mixing. Present study demonstrated the δ18O was more sensitive than the soil water content for tracing the maximum infiltration depth of event water and recharge mechanisms. Consequently, we suggested that the land user management such as type, plant density should be considered in the revegetation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Duality of Seasonal Effect and River Bend in Relation to Water Quality in the Chao Phraya River
Water 2019, 11(4), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040656
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
The present study conducted a field survey of water quality along the Chao Phraya River during the past three years. The main objective was to better understand the spatial–temporal variations in water quality in relation to season and channel morphology. It assessed the [...] Read more.
The present study conducted a field survey of water quality along the Chao Phraya River during the past three years. The main objective was to better understand the spatial–temporal variations in water quality in relation to season and channel morphology. It assessed the water quality in terms of chemical parameters, bacteria, and phytoplankton. The results revealed a duality of seasonal effect for nutrients. The rainy season degraded the water quality by increasing the nutrient concentration in the waterway in the beginning, but cleaned it up by dilution in the end. However, this duality did not apply to Escherichia coli (E. coli), for which the highest level occurred during the second half of the rainy season and a sag curve variation pattern was displayed along the mainstream. Another duality found by this study is that there was no statistically significant difference in water quality in terms of chemical parameters between a river bend and the straight channel shortcutting the bend, but significant differences in the level of E. coli and the phytoplankton community structure were observed between the two. Of particular note, the present study revealed a coexistence of a saproxenous species (algae found in clean water) with a harmful species in the bend river reach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Objective Calibration of a Distributed Hydrological Model in a Highly Glacierized Watershed in Central Asia
Water 2019, 11(3), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030554
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 17 March 2019
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Abstract
Understanding glacio-hydrological processes is crucial to water resources management, especially under increasing global warming. However, data scarcity makes it challenging to quantify the contribution of glacial melt to streamflow in highly glacierized catchments such as those in the Tienshan Mountains. This study aims [...] Read more.
Understanding glacio-hydrological processes is crucial to water resources management, especially under increasing global warming. However, data scarcity makes it challenging to quantify the contribution of glacial melt to streamflow in highly glacierized catchments such as those in the Tienshan Mountains. This study aims to investigate the glacio-hydrological processes in the SaryDjaz-Kumaric River (SDKR) basin in Central Asia by integrating a degree-day glacier melt algorithm into the macro-scale hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. To deal with data scarcity in the alpine area, a multi-objective sensitivity analysis and a multi-objective calibration procedure were used to take advantage of all aspects of streamflow. Three objective functions, i.e., the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of logarithms (LogNS), the water balance index (WBI), and the mean absolute relative difference (MARD), were considered. Results show that glacier and snow melt-related parameters are generally sensitive to all three objective functions. Compared to the original SWAT model, simulations with a glacier module match fairly well to the observed streamflow, with the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS) and R2 approaching 0.82 and an absolute percentage bias less than 1%. Glacier melt contribution to runoff is 30–48% during the simulation period. The approach of combining multi-objective sensitivity analysis and optimization is an efficient way to identify important hydrological processes and recharge characteristics in highly glacierized catchments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Managing for Sustainability: The Development of Environmental Flows Implementation in China
Water 2019, 11(3), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030433
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
Environmental flows (e-flows) are important for river protection and restoration under degraded ecological conditions. With increasing public desire for and pursuit of sustainable development, e-flows are widely used to reflect the hydrological regime requirements for sustaining freshwater ecosystems and human livelihoods. Over the [...] Read more.
Environmental flows (e-flows) are important for river protection and restoration under degraded ecological conditions. With increasing public desire for and pursuit of sustainable development, e-flows are widely used to reflect the hydrological regime requirements for sustaining freshwater ecosystems and human livelihoods. Over the past 40 years, e-flows implementation has shifted from static minimum flows to dynamic flow components. However, e-flows standards used to manage flow releases from dams are to a great extent based on expert judgement and government supervision. These attributes make it difficult to effectively implement e-flows in the non-stationary world. The primary focus of this paper is to review the history, management systems and scientific basis of e-flows in China. Firstly, the study classifies the development phases into four periods and then analyses the underpinning legal system for e-flows implementation in each period, including the laws, regulations, policies and responsible authorities. Finally, the scientific basis and methods for e-flows determination and assessment were analyzed. The study showed that: (1) e-flows have been officially regarded as ecological flow in China, which evolved from minimum flow, and the contents and connotations are still broadening; (2) currently, there are too many authorities related to e-flows and complicated legal documents in China which lead to ineffective implementation; (3) the scientific basis of e-flows is enriched from the relationship between hydrological alteration and ecological response, so that the practices will be more holistic in China. Despite the successful practices of e-flows implementation in large rivers, there are challenges for implementing future e-flows in small rivers. This study recommended that future e-flows implementation be integrated with sustainable water management by setting clear responsibilities for governments, ministries, and other stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Open AccessArticle
A Simple Early Warning System for Flash Floods in an Ungauged Catchment and Application in the Loess Plateau, China
Water 2019, 11(3), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030426
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
Under climate change, flash floods have become more frequent and severe, and are posing a danger to society, especially in the ungauged catchments. The objective of this paper, is to construct a simple and early warning system, serving for flash floods risk management [...] Read more.
Under climate change, flash floods have become more frequent and severe, and are posing a danger to society, especially in the ungauged catchments. The objective of this paper, is to construct a simple and early warning system, serving for flash floods risk management in the ungauged catchments of the Loess Plateau in China, and offer a reference for flash flood warning in other areas in the world. Considering the absence of hydrological data in the ungauged catchments, the early warning system for flash floods is established by combining the regional or watershed isograms of hydrological parameters and local empirical formulas. Therein, rainfall and water stage/flow are used as warning indices for real-time risk estimation of flash flood. For early warning, the disaster water stage was first determined according to the protected objects (e.g., residents and buildings), namely the critical water stage. The critical flow (flow threshold), was calculated based on the water stage, and the established relationship between water stage and flow using the cross-sectional measured data. Then, according to the flow frequency curve of the design flood, the frequency of critical flow was ascertained. Assuming that the rainfall and the flood have the same frequency, the critical rainfall threshold was calculated through the design rainstorm with the same frequency of the design flood. Due to the critical rainfall threshold being sensitive with different soil conditions, the design flood and frequency curve of flood flow were calculated under different soil conditions, and thus the rainfall threshold was given under different soil condition for early warning of the flash flood disaster. Taking two sections in Zichang County (within the Loess Plateau) as an example, we set the rainfall and water stage/flow thresholds to trigger immediate or preparation signals for the migration of the population along the river. The application of this method to the 7.26 flood events in 2017 in China, shows that the early warning system is feasible. It is expected that this simple early warning system can provide early warnings of flash floods in ungauged catchments in the Loess Plateau and other similar areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Contribution of Excessive Supply of Solid Material to a Runoff-Generated Debris Flow during Its Routing Along a Gully and Its Impact on the Downstream Village with Blockage Effects
Water 2019, 11(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010169
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
On 8 August 2017, a runoff-generated debris flow occurred in the Puge County, Sichuan Province of southwestern China and caused huge property damage and casualties (25 people died and 5 people were injured). Emergency field investigations found that paddy fields, dry land, residential [...] Read more.
On 8 August 2017, a runoff-generated debris flow occurred in the Puge County, Sichuan Province of southwestern China and caused huge property damage and casualties (25 people died and 5 people were injured). Emergency field investigations found that paddy fields, dry land, residential buildings and roads suffered different degrees of impact from the debris flow. This paper reveals the formation process of the debris flow by analyzing the characteristics of rainfall precipitation and sediment supply conditions in the study area and it approaches the practical application of hazard prevention and mitigation constructions. Doppler weather radar analysis indicates that a very high intensity rainfall occurred in the middle and upper zones of the basin, illustrating the importance of enhancing rainfall monitoring in high-altitude areas. The abundant supply of deposits in gully channels is among the significant causes of a transformation from mountain floods to large-scale debris flows. It was also found that the two culverts played an important role in the movement affecting the processes of debris flows which has substantially aggravated the destructive outcome. The excessive supply of solid material and local blockage with outburst along a gully must receive significant attention for the prediction of future debris flows, hazard prevention and mitigation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Related Disaster and Water Environment Management)
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