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Special Issue "Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water and Wastewater Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rui C. Martins

University of Coimbra Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Coimbra, Portugal
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Interests: chemical reaction engineering, effluents treatment, advanced oxidation processes, ozonation and photocatalytic ozonation, ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry, product recovery
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rosa M. Quinta-Ferreira

Chemical Process Engineering and Forest Products Research Centre, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Portugal
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Interests: environmental catalysis and multiphase reactors; computational modeling; advanced oxidation processes (AOPs); advanced biological treatments; emerging chemical and biological contaminants; VOCs decontamination; impact of contaminants on human health; water reuse and circular economy; bioenergy recovery; recycling/valorization and waste management
Guest Editor
Dr. Sandra Contreras Iglesias

Department: Department of Chemical Engineering, ETSEQ (School of Chemical Engineering), Rovira I Virgili University, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: advanced oxidation processes (AOPs); heterogeneous catalysis; environmental catalysis; wastewater treatment; industrial wastewater; water reuse; contaminants of emerging concern (CEC); removal of nitrates; oil and gas wastewater; photocatalysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water scarcety is pushing man-kind to focus efforts on reducing the impact of industry over natural water courses. The final goal should be water recovery within the process, contributing to a circular economy and closing the water cycle in plants. Industrial wastewater complexity implies the use of innovative and more-efficient treatment technologies. In this context, advanced oxidation processes may have an important role. Moreover, process integration is usually required to accomplish more-and-more restrict environmental legislation. Thus, advanced oxidation processes may be integrated with traditional biological systems, or even membrane processes. The aim is always to find the best treatment solution at the lowest cost. An important issue is the potential impact of treated effluents (since total mineralization is usually not achieved) on ecosystems and human health. Thus, the processes of optimization must bear in mind the evolution of the toxicological characteristics of wastewater during treatment. Within this problematic the aim of this Special Issue is to gather innovative works dealing with the application of advanced oxidation processes for industrial wastewater treatment and detoxification. Research dealing with pollutants (such as emerging contaminants) and pathogen removal from wastewater are also welcome.

Dr. Rui C. Martins
Prof. Dr. Rosa M. Quinta-Ferreira
Dr. Sandra Contreras Iglesias
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Advanced oxidation processes
  • Industrial wastewater
  • Processes integration
  • Wastewater detoxification
  • Toxicity
  • Water reuse
  • Emerging contaminants
  • Pathogens
  • Water Reuse
  • Circular Economy
  • Persistent organic pollutants

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Catalytic Efficiency of Red Mud for the Degradation of Olive Mill Wastewater through Heterogeneous Fenton’s Process
Water 2019, 11(6), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061183
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
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Abstract
Olive mill wastewater is a challenging effluent, especially due to its toxicity related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Fenton’s process was analysed on the abatement of phenolic acids typically found in this kind of effluents. To overcome the main drawback of Fenton’s [...] Read more.
Olive mill wastewater is a challenging effluent, especially due to its toxicity related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Fenton’s process was analysed on the abatement of phenolic acids typically found in this kind of effluents. To overcome the main drawback of Fenton’s process, a waste from the aluminium industry commonly called red mud was used as a heterogeneous source of iron. The adsorption of simulated effluent on the red mud was negligible. Therefore, the degradation of phenolic acids during Fenton’s process was due to oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. The amount of red mud and hydrogen peroxide were optimized regarding phenolic acids degradation. The optimal conditions leading to the highest removal of contaminants (100% of phenolic acids degradation and 25% of mineralization after 60 min of reaction) were 1 g/L of catalyst and 100 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide. The possibility of recovering treated water for agricultural purposes was evaluated by assessing the toxic impact over a wide range of species. The toxicity observed for the treated samples was mainly related to the residual hydrogen peroxide remaining after treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Radiation Sources and Noble Metal Doped onto TiO2 for Contaminants of Emerging Concern Removal
Water 2019, 11(5), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050894
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
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Abstract
Water scarcity is a worldwide problem boosted by global warming and pollution of anthropogenic origin. The contaminants of emerging concern in water sources are increasing due to the inefficiency of conventional wastewater treatments, and these should be mitigated. Advanced oxidation processes appear as [...] Read more.
Water scarcity is a worldwide problem boosted by global warming and pollution of anthropogenic origin. The contaminants of emerging concern in water sources are increasing due to the inefficiency of conventional wastewater treatments, and these should be mitigated. Advanced oxidation processes appear as suitable solutions for decontamination. The photocatalytic oxidation of the mixture of sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine and lorazepam was investigated. TiO2 modified by Ag and TiO2 modified by Pd were used as photocatalysts to improve photoactivity. The impact of light wavelengths was examined using UVA and visible radiation as well as natural sunlight. Visible light revealed the lowest ability for decontamination in 60 min of irradiation through Ag and Pd–TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation. On the other hand, UVA and sunlight in the presence of photocatalysts were able to totally remove the contaminants. This can be related to the high production of reactive oxidative species at those conditions. The increase of the noble metal load promotes the improvement of the decontamination efficiency. The kinetic rate was analyzed for UVA and sunlight radiation for different photocatalytic conditions. The presence of a natural light source without energy costs leads to an increase in the pseudo-first-order kinetic constant. Sunlight radiation with a suitable photocatalyst can be a very good option for water decontamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of the Performance of Dielectric Barrier Discharge under Different Conditions for Nitrobenzene Degradation
Water 2019, 11(4), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040842
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
Water scarcity and water contamination due to the extensive use of organic compounds in industries trigger us to adopt modern techniques for wastewater treatment. In this research, we developed a new dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system which was evaluated for the degradation of [...] Read more.
Water scarcity and water contamination due to the extensive use of organic compounds in industries trigger us to adopt modern techniques for wastewater treatment. In this research, we developed a new dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system which was evaluated for the degradation of nitrobenzene in water under different experimental arrangements. DBD produces an enormous amount of active species like O3, O, O2+ and O2 and OH to degrade the pollutants. In this study, NB (Nitrobenzene) was treated from wastewater by changing the gas flow rate, adopting different carrier gas, by adding inhibitors and promoters and the effect of applied voltage on the production of active species to check the effectiveness of the DBD system. The DBD system was evaluated based on input power, degradation efficiency and energy yield compared with other advanced oxidation processes. The energy yield of the DBD system was 1.253 mg/kWh for the degradation of 20 mg/L of NB to 75% in 60 min with the discharge power of 0.538 W, which displays better results in comparison with the other AOPs regarding energy yield and the degradation efficiency of the pollutant. The results illustrate the significance of the system and further suggest its application to industrial-scale treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Advanced Oxidation Products on Nanofiltration Efficiency
Water 2019, 11(3), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030541
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the work was to determine the influence of salicylic acid (SA) oxidation products on the effectiveness of their further removal in the membrane filtration process. Two commercial polyamide-based polymer membranes, HL (GE Osmonics) and TS80 (TriSepTM), were used [...] Read more.
The aim of the work was to determine the influence of salicylic acid (SA) oxidation products on the effectiveness of their further removal in the membrane filtration process. Two commercial polyamide-based polymer membranes, HL (GE Osmonics) and TS80 (TriSepTM), were used and characterized by SEM microscopic analysis, contact angles, and free surface energy. The products of salicylic acid oxidation, 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and catechol, were determined and their impact on the removal of unreacted salicylic acid in the nanofiltration process was investigated. It was also checked to what extent and why they were retained or not by the membranes. The results of the research have shown that the main product of salicylic acid oxidation, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, has a negative impact on the retention of salicylic acid in the nanofiltration stage, while the other product, catechol, improves SA retention. The determined values of contact angles correlate well with solubility (S) of the tested compounds, which increases in the following order SSA < S2,3-DHBA < SCAT, while the contact angle of the membrane decreases. Nevertheless, it has been shown that some oxidation products can penetrate the environment due to poorer membrane separation properties of these products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Brine Recycling from Industrial Textile Wastewater Treated by Ozone. By-Products Accumulation. Part 1: Multi Recycling Loop
Water 2019, 11(3), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030460
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
The “reactive” dyeing of textiles requires an application of low-molecular-weight salts (LMWS), such as NaCl or Na2SO4, as necessary auxiliary agents. LMWS acts only as a remediation factor and remains in the dyeing effluents constitute brine. The main goal [...] Read more.
The “reactive” dyeing of textiles requires an application of low-molecular-weight salts (LMWS), such as NaCl or Na2SO4, as necessary auxiliary agents. LMWS acts only as a remediation factor and remains in the dyeing effluents constitute brine. The main goal of the presented study was to investigate the application of ozone technology for industrial textile wastewater highly polluted by LMWS. The study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, by-products accumulated during multi-recycling of the same wastewater was investigated. While Part 2 was devoted to the scaling up of ozonation process, Part 1 concerns the efficiency of textile wastewater ozonation carried out as a repeatable process. The sequence of wastewater treatment and textile dyeing was repeated four times in a closed loop using the same process water. Although the wastewater decolorization was efficient in the subsequent ozonation cycles, some adverse effects, such as an increase in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and self-buffering at pH 9.5–10.0, were suggested the accumulation of by-products. The preliminary detection of by-products by thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed phenol and naphthol derivatives as the transformation products (TPs) of ozonation. Dyeing of cotton using purified wastewater (brine) resulted in very good DECMC color matching parameters (under 1.16), but only in the first recycling loop, and then the TPs affected the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO Magnetic Nanomaterials for Activated Peroxymonosulfate Degradation of Rhodamine B
Water 2019, 11(2), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020384
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Magnetic spinel ferrites that act as heterogeneous catalysts and generate powerful radicals from peroxymono-sulfate (PMS) for the degradation of organic pollutants have received much attention in recent years due to the characteristic of environmental benefits. In this study, NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO [...] Read more.
Magnetic spinel ferrites that act as heterogeneous catalysts and generate powerful radicals from peroxymono-sulfate (PMS) for the degradation of organic pollutants have received much attention in recent years due to the characteristic of environmental benefits. In this study, NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO magnetic nanomaterials were synthesized using a calcinated Ni-Fe-LDH-rGO precursor. The morphology, structure, and chemical constitution were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The catalytic performance of NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO nanoparticles was thoroughly evaluated for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation and its removal of rhodamine B (RhB) from water. The influence of different process parameters on the RhB degradation efficiency was examined. Further, the catalytic stability was evaluated. Under optimized conditions, the NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO/PMS system was very efficient; RhB fully degraded after 40 min at room temperature. Quenching experiments and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) results suggested that SO4· and OH· were the main active species in the degradation process. Moreover, NiO-NiFe2O4-rGO catalyst was stable without any apparent activity loss after three cycling runs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of a Hybrid Suspended-Supported Photocatalytic Reactor for the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Benzothiazole and Aniline
Water 2019, 11(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020337
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
In this work, a study of the main operating variables affecting TiO2/UV photocatalysis was carried out. The treatment of an industrial effluent containing aniline and benzothiazole from the manufacture of accelerants for vulcanization was performed in a TiO2-supported commercial [...] Read more.
In this work, a study of the main operating variables affecting TiO2/UV photocatalysis was carried out. The treatment of an industrial effluent containing aniline and benzothiazole from the manufacture of accelerants for vulcanization was performed in a TiO2-supported commercial photoreactor. The degradation of both contaminants was monitored by GC-MS analysis. The proposed experiments were able to properly identify the phenomenon of adsorption, as well as to improve the performance of the commercial photoreactor by adding small amounts of TiO2 in suspension. The removal performance, durability of the photocatalytic material, and energy costs were analysed. The results showed that the use of suspensions intensifies the degradation obtaining an improvement of 23.15% with respect to the use of the supported catalyst. For an aniline and benzothiazole solution, the best operating conditions were found at pH = 12.0, introducing 60.0 mg L−1 of suspended TiO2 together with the existing supported catalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
31P NMR Investigations on Roundup Degradation by AOP Procedures
Water 2019, 11(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020331
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
The reactions of (N-(PhosphonoMethyl)Glycine) PMG with H2O2 in homogenous systems were investigated using 31P NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). These reactions were carried out in two reaction modes: without UV radiation and under UV radiation. The reactions of [...] Read more.
The reactions of (N-(PhosphonoMethyl)Glycine) PMG with H2O2 in homogenous systems were investigated using 31P NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). These reactions were carried out in two reaction modes: without UV radiation and under UV radiation. The reactions of PMG with H2O2 without UV radiation were carried out in two modes: the degradations of PMG (0.1 mmol) by means of 5–10 molar excess of hydrogen dioxide (PMG-H2O2 = 1:5 and 1:10) and the degradation of PMG (0.1 mmol) in homogenous Fenton reactions (PMG-H2O2-Fe2+ = 1:10:0.05 and 1:10:0.1). All reactions were carried out at ambient temperature, at pH 3.5, for 48 h. The reactions of PMG (in Roundup herbicide composition, 12 mmol) with H2O2 under UV radiation (254 nm) were carried out using 5 × molar excess of H2O2 (60 mmol), in the pH range of 2 ≤ pH ≤ 12, for 6 h. In this mode of PMG oxidation, the splitting of C-P was observed in the ratios dependent on the applied pH of the reaction mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Brine Recycling from Industrial Textile Wastewater Treated by Ozone. By-Products Accumulation. Part 2: Scaling-Up
Water 2019, 11(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020233
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 26 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
Extremely high volumes of salty wastewater are produced by textile manufacturers daily. Therefore, brine recycling from the wastewater should be regarded as a crucial issue within the textile industry. Ozonation was used in this two-part study as a purification method for industrial textile [...] Read more.
Extremely high volumes of salty wastewater are produced by textile manufacturers daily. Therefore, brine recycling from the wastewater should be regarded as a crucial issue within the textile industry. Ozonation was used in this two-part study as a purification method for industrial textile wastewater polluted by low-molecular-weight salts (LMWS). Part 1 revealed the accumulation of ozonation by-products in a multi-recycling system. The objective of Part 2 was the scaling-up of the process and the investigation of the occurrence of by-products. It was found that ozonation works well in an alkaline reaction medium, which was characteristic of the wastewater from a dye house; an almost complete color removal was achieved within 30 min of treatment. The brine that was produced from the wastewater treated by ozonation in a 20 L bubble column reactor was recycled successfully. Dyeing of cotton with five types of reactive dyes in various shades resulted in very good values of DECMC, which is the normative color matching parameter, and were between 0.15 and 1.2. The color fastness obtained for upcycled fabrics were satisfactory, and not worse than standard values. Although accumulation of the side products was detected in Part 1, the fabric discharges produced in the scaled-up process were free from carcinogenic amines and heavy metals. The study indicated that ozonation can be applied in the industry as a method for textile wastewater recycling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of the Degradation of Trimethoprim Using Photo-Fenton Oxidation Technology
Water 2019, 11(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020207
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 25 January 2019
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Abstract
Trimethoprim is one of the representative drugs within the pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) group. The photo-Fenton oxidation technology was used to degrade trimethoprim in wastewater and the extent of degradation was analyzed by using high-performance liquid chromatography, then experimentally obtained the [...] Read more.
Trimethoprim is one of the representative drugs within the pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) group. The photo-Fenton oxidation technology was used to degrade trimethoprim in wastewater and the extent of degradation was analyzed by using high-performance liquid chromatography, then experimentally obtained the optimal conditions. Analysis of the experimental data showed that, under the single-factor experimental conditions, the optimal conditions for degradation were a pH of 4, an H2O2 concentration of 3.0 mmol/L, an FeSO4 concentration of 0.06 mmol/L, an initial trimethoprim concentration of 0.0689 mmol/L, and an ultraviolet (UV) intensity (UVA) of 12 mW/cm2. The interaction of pH and the concentration of H2O2 and Fe2+ have been further explored, it was obtained the following response surface results through the central composite design experiment: pH = 4.56, H2O2 concentration = 0.09 mmol/L, and Fe2+ concentration = 0.09 mmol/L. Under these conditions, it can be obtained a degradation rate of 99.95% after 6 min. There were similar results for three sets of parallel experiments, indicating that these simulation conditions were feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Treatment of Landfill Leachates with Combined Acidification/Coagulation and the Fe0/H2O2 Process
Water 2019, 11(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020194
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
One of the major environmental concerns associated with waste disposal is the large amount of generated landfill leachates (LL), which are considered a type of wastewater with a complex composition. There is an urgent need to find an effective LL treatment method. LL [...] Read more.
One of the major environmental concerns associated with waste disposal is the large amount of generated landfill leachates (LL), which are considered a type of wastewater with a complex composition. There is an urgent need to find an effective LL treatment method. LL were subjected to pretreatment followed by the Fe0/H2O2 process. Pretreatment efficiency was coagulation at pH 6.0 >> coagulation at pH 9.0 > acidification at pH 3.0. Coagulation at pH 6.0 in an optimal Fe3+ dose of 1000 mg/L decreased total organic carbon (TOC) from the initial concentration of 1061 mg/L to 491 mg/L while acidification to pH 3.0 decreased TOC to 824 mg/L. After acidification, the Fe0/H2O2 process with 8000/9200 mg/L Fe0/H2O2 reagent doses decreased TOC to 499 mg/L after a processing time of 60 min. Performance of the Fe0/H2O2 process after coagulation at pH 6.0 for optimal Fe0/H2O2 8000/5540 mg/L reagent doses decreased TOC to 268 mg/L (75% TOC removal). Treatment of landfill leachates with combined process coagulation and Fe0/H2O2 also increased their susceptibility to biodegradation, expressed as the biochemical oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) ratio from 0.13 to 0.43, allowing LL to be considered as susceptible to biodegradation. Fe0/H2O2 process kinetics was described. A statistical analysis confirmed the obtained results. The proposed method can be successfully applied for LL treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Removal of Enteric Pathogens from Real Wastewater Using Single and Catalytic Ozonation
Water 2019, 11(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010127
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
Water scarcity is one of the main problems of this century. Water reclamation appears as an alternative due to the reuse of treated wastewater. Therefore, effluents treatment technologies (activated sludge, rotary biological discs, percolating beds) must be improved since they are not able [...] Read more.
Water scarcity is one of the main problems of this century. Water reclamation appears as an alternative due to the reuse of treated wastewater. Therefore, effluents treatment technologies (activated sludge, rotary biological discs, percolating beds) must be improved since they are not able to remove emerging contaminants such as enteric pathogens (bacteria and virus). These pollutants are difficult to remove from the wastewater and lead to adverse consequences to human health. Advanced oxidation processes, such as single and catalytic ozonation, appear as suitable complements to conventional processes. Catalytic ozonation was carried out using a low-cost material, a volcanic rock. Single and catalytic ozonation were capable of promoting total Escherichia coli removal from municipal wastewater after 90 min of contact. The presence of volcanic rock increases disinfection efficiency since E. coli regrowth was not observed. The identified viruses (Norovirus genotype I and II and JC virus) were completely removed using catalytic ozonation, whereas single ozonation was not able to eliminate JC virus even after 150 min of treatment. The higher performance of the catalytic process can be explained by the formation of hydroxyl radicals, proving that disinfection occurs in the liquid bulk and not due to adsorption at the volcanic rock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Treatment of Organics Contaminated Wastewater by Ozone Micro-Nano-Bubbles
Water 2019, 11(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010055
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 30 December 2018
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Abstract
The efficiency of ozone for the treatment of organics contaminated wastewater is limited by its slow dissolution rate and rapid decomposition in the aqueous phase. Micro-nano-bubbles (MNBs) are a novel method to prolong the reactivity of the ozone in the aqueous phase, thereby [...] Read more.
The efficiency of ozone for the treatment of organics contaminated wastewater is limited by its slow dissolution rate and rapid decomposition in the aqueous phase. Micro-nano-bubbles (MNBs) are a novel method to prolong the reactivity of the ozone in the aqueous phase, thereby accelerating the treatment of the contaminant. In this study, the effects of pH and salinity on the treatment efficiency of ozone MNBs were examined. The highest efficiency was observed in weak acidic conditions and an increase in salinity enhanced the treatment efficiency significantly. Furthermore, the treatment of highly saline industrial wastewater as well as multi-contaminant groundwater containing persistent organics were also investigated. Treatment using ozone MNBs had a considerable effect on wastewaters that are otherwise difficult to treat using other methods; hence, it is a promising technology for wastewater treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Treatment of Eutrophic Water and Wastewater from Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Mexico by Means of Ozonation: A Multiparameter Approach
Water 2018, 10(12), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121790
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
The present work aims to elucidate the possibility of injecting ozone into surface waters combined with urban wastewaters in order to improve the water quality of the High Atoyac Sub-basin (HAS) in Central Mexico. For this purpose, twenty physicochemical parameters, eight heavy metals, [...] Read more.
The present work aims to elucidate the possibility of injecting ozone into surface waters combined with urban wastewaters in order to improve the water quality of the High Atoyac Sub-basin (HAS) in Central Mexico. For this purpose, twenty physicochemical parameters, eight heavy metals, seven organic compounds, and one biological indicator were assessed in water from different sites of the studied area (the Alseseca River, the Atoyac River and the Valsequillo Reservoir). Results demonstrated that O3 injection led to the decrease of the aromatic fraction of organic molecules since the Spectral Absorption Coefficient at 254 nanometers (SAC254) reduction was found to be 31.7% in the Valsequillo Reservoir water samples. Maximum Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal was observed to be 60.2% from the Alseseca River with a 0.26 mg O3/mg initial COD dose. Among all the phthalates studied in the present work, Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exhibited the highest concentration (5.8 μg/L in the Atoyac River). Treatment with O3 was not effective in eliminating fecal coliforms (FC) in waters that host high organic matter (OM) loads as opposed to waters with low OM. After the injection of 4.7 mg O3/mg COD in the VO3-AT water sample, a 90% removal of Iron (Fe) and Aluminum (Al) was registered; while Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), and Cooper (Cu) showed a 73%, 67%, 81%, and 80% removal, respectively; Chromium (Cr) registered the highest removal (~100%). The present work demonstrated that while finding a suitable O3 dose to improve the quality of water in the HAS, the 5-days Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5)/COD ratio (i.e., biodegradability) is more important than the overall OM removal percentage proving that O3 injection is a feasible process for the treatment of eutrophic waters from HAS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
N–TiO2 Photocatalysts: A Review of Their Characteristics and Capacity for Emerging Contaminants Removal
Water 2019, 11(2), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020373
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
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Abstract
Titanium dioxide is the most used photocatalyst in wastewater treatment; its semiconductor capacity allows the indirect production of reactive oxidative species. The main drawback of the application of TiO2 is related to its high band-gap energy. The nonmetal that is most often [...] Read more.
Titanium dioxide is the most used photocatalyst in wastewater treatment; its semiconductor capacity allows the indirect production of reactive oxidative species. The main drawback of the application of TiO2 is related to its high band-gap energy. The nonmetal that is most often used as the doping element is nitrogen, which is due to its capacity to reduce the band-gap energy at low preparation costs. There are multiple and assorted methods of preparation. The main advantages and disadvantages of a wide range of preparation methods were discussed in this paper. Different sources of N were also analyzed, and their individual impact on the characteristics of N–TiO2 was assessed. The core of this paper was focused on the large spectrum of analytical techniques to detect modifications in the TiO2 structure from the incorporation of N. The effect of N–TiO2 co-doping was also analyzed, as well as the main characteristics that are relevant to the performance of the catalyst, such as its particle size, surface area, quantum size effect, crystalline phases, and the hydrophilicity of the catalyst surface. Powder is the most used form of N–TiO2, but the economic benefits and applications involving continuous reactors were also analyzed with supported N–TiO2. Moreover, the degradation of contaminants emerging from water and wastewater using N–TiO2 and co-doped TiO2 was also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes for the Treatment of Recalcitrant Agro-Industrial Wastewater: A Review
Water 2019, 11(2), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020205
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 25 January 2019
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agro-industrial wastewaters are characterized by the presence of multiple organic and inorganic contaminants of environmental concern. The high pollutant load, the large volumes produced, and the seasonal variability makes the treatment of these wastewaters an environmental challenge. A wide range of wastewater treatment [...] Read more.
Agro-industrial wastewaters are characterized by the presence of multiple organic and inorganic contaminants of environmental concern. The high pollutant load, the large volumes produced, and the seasonal variability makes the treatment of these wastewaters an environmental challenge. A wide range of wastewater treatment processes are available, however the continuous search for cost-effective treatment methods is necessary to comply with the legal limits of release in sewer systems and/or in natural waters. This review presents a state-of-the-art of the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to some worldwide generated agro-industrial wastewaters, such as olive mill, winery and pulp mill wastewaters. Studies carried out just with AOPs or combined with physico-chemical or biological treatments were included in this review. The main remarks and factors affecting the treatment efficiency such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total organic carbon (TOC), and total polyphenols removal are discussed. From all the studies, the combination of processes led to better treatment efficiencies, regardless the wastewater type or its physico-chemical characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Technologies in Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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