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Special Issue "Design of Urban Water Drainage Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tullio Tucciarelli

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: shallow water modeling; model calibration; micro-turbine design and management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urban drainage systems (UDS) have a central role in water management. Impermeabilization of increasingly larger urban and suburban areas, as well as the occurring climate changes, lead to possible drainage failures within short return time periods and require, along with accurate analysis and forecast tools, also the design of new diffused storage systems like permeable pavements, gardens and green roofs. Adaptation of UDS to existing or planned wastewater treatment plants, as well as exploitation of the energy potential hidden in the conveyed water volumes are also central and critical issues for a wise urban water management.

On this basis, modeling urban drainage systems requires, along with accurate and efficient 1D and 2D numerical solvers, also the capability of getting and processing all the data and the information used by the models: Topografic elevations, soil permeability, rainfall/runoff transformation inside the model domain and in all the linked external basins, rain intensity nowcast and forecast, capability of the final wastewater treatment plant, information about the potential benefit of hydropower production, information about the (quantitative and qualitative) capability of the final receiving water body.

Prof. Dr. Tullio Tucciarelli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • urban drainage
  • dual models
  • hydropower
  • wastewater
  • urban flood
  • water storage
  • green roofs
  • urban ponds

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Curb Inlet Efficiency for Urban Drainage and Road Bioretention Facilities
Water 2019, 11(4), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040851
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
An updated two-dimensional flow simulation program, FullSWOF-ZG, which fully (Full) solves shallow water (SW) equations for overland flow (OF) and includes submodules modeling infiltration by zones (Z) and flow interception by grate-inlet (G), was tested with 20 locally depressed curb inlets to validate [...] Read more.
An updated two-dimensional flow simulation program, FullSWOF-ZG, which fully (Full) solves shallow water (SW) equations for overland flow (OF) and includes submodules modeling infiltration by zones (Z) and flow interception by grate-inlet (G), was tested with 20 locally depressed curb inlets to validate the inlet efficiency (Eci), and with 80 undepressed curb inlets to validate the inlet lengths (LT) for 100% interception. Previous curb inlet equations were based on certain theoretical approximations and limited experimental data. In this study, 1000 road-curb inlet modeling cases from the combinations of 10 longitudinal slopes (S0, 0.1–1%), 10 cross slopes (Sx, 1.5–6%), and 10 upstream inflows (Qin, 6–24 L/s) were established and modeled to determine LT. The second 1000 modeling cases with the same 10 S0 and 10 Sx and 10 curb inlet lengths (Lci, 0.15–1.5 m) were established to determine Eci. The LT and Eci regression equations were developed as a function of input parameters (S0, Sx, and Qin) and Lci/LT with the multiple linear regression method, respectively. Newly developed regression equations were applied to 10,000 inlet design cases (10 S0, 10 Sx, 10 Qin, and 10 Lci combinations) and comprehensively compared with three equations in previous studies. The 100% intercepted gutter flow (Qg100) equations were derived, and over-prediction of Qg100 from previous methods was strongly correlated to smaller S0. Newly developed equations gave more accurate estimations of LT and Eci over a wide range of input parameters. These equations can be applied to designing urban drainage and road bioretention facilities, since they were developed using a large number of simulation runs with diverse input parameters, but previous methods often overpredict the gutter flow of total interception when the longitudinal slope S0 is small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Urban Water Drainage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Measurement of Permeability and Comparison of Pavements
Water 2019, 11(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030444
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
Permeable pavements have the ability to reduce surface runoff by allowing water to infiltrate into the underlying soil. The potential of permeable pavements to assist in managing stormwater and improve water quality has gained attention as an option, other than conventional impermeable concrete [...] Read more.
Permeable pavements have the ability to reduce surface runoff by allowing water to infiltrate into the underlying soil. The potential of permeable pavements to assist in managing stormwater and improve water quality has gained attention as an option, other than conventional impermeable concrete for paving purposes. This study examined the permeability of three different pavement systems, including the JW Eco-technology pavement (JW), which has not previously been installed or studied in the U.S., standard impermeable concrete (IC), and pervious concrete (PC). Each pavement type was installed in triplicate. Devices based on the ASTM C1701/C1701M and ASTM C1781/C1781M constant-head methods, the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) falling-head permeameter, and two new square frames, SF-4 and SF-9, modified to fit the JW pavement, were utilized for permeability measurement on several locations of each pavement system. The results showed that the JW Eco-technology pavement had comparable permeability to the commonly used PC pavement in each method used. In addition, there was a strong correlation between the permeability measurements of NCAT method and SF-4, and between the ASTM standard and SF-9. The square frames used in this study showed their effectiveness and efficiency in performing permeability measurements. It was also found that the permeability obtained had a pronounced difference in values between the falling head and the constant head methods, with an average ratio ranging from 4.08–6.36. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Urban Water Drainage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Performance Evaluation System Based on Environmental and Economic Benefits for Optimal Allocation of LID Facilities
Water 2019, 11(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020341
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
In recent years, urban flooding occurred frequently because of extreme rainstorms. Sponge city construction can effectively mitigate urban flooding and improve urban rainwater utilization. Low-impact development (LID) is regarded as a sustainable solution for urban stormwater management. In this project, a comprehensive evaluation [...] Read more.
In recent years, urban flooding occurred frequently because of extreme rainstorms. Sponge city construction can effectively mitigate urban flooding and improve urban rainwater utilization. Low-impact development (LID) is regarded as a sustainable solution for urban stormwater management. In this project, a comprehensive evaluation system was developed based on environmental and economic benefits using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) of the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The performance of four LID scenarios with the same locations but different sizes of green roof, permeable pavement, concave greenbelt, and rain garden were analyzed in the Sucheng district of Jiangsu province in China. Results illustrate that the green roof performed best in reducing runoff, while the rain garden performed worst. The LID combination scenario (1) that contained more green roof, permeable pavement, and concave greenbelt facilities, but fewer rain gardens had the better comprehensive performance on the basis of environmental and economic benefits. The combined scenario (2) (LID proportion of maximum construction area was 40%) could also be an alternative. This study provides a guide to optimize LID layouts for sponge city construction, which can also provide optimal selection for other sponge city constructions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Urban Water Drainage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Data-Driven Surrogate Modelling Approach for Acceleration of Short-Term Simulations of a Dynamic Urban Drainage Simulator
Water 2018, 10(12), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121849
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
In this study, applicability of a data-driven Gaussian Process Emulator (GPE) technique to develop a dynamic surrogate model for a computationally expensive urban drainage simulator is investigated. Considering rainfall time series as the main driving force is a challenge in this regard due [...] Read more.
In this study, applicability of a data-driven Gaussian Process Emulator (GPE) technique to develop a dynamic surrogate model for a computationally expensive urban drainage simulator is investigated. Considering rainfall time series as the main driving force is a challenge in this regard due to the high dimensionality problem. However, this problem can be less relevant when the focus is only on short-term simulations. The novelty of this research is the consideration of short-term rainfall time series as training parameters for the GPE. Rainfall intensity at each time step is counted as a separate parameter. A method to generate synthetic rainfall events for GPE training purposes is introduced as well. Here, an emulator is developed to predict the upcoming daily time series of the total wastewater volume in a storage tank and the corresponding Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) volume. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Volumetric Efficiency (VE) are calculated as emulation error indicators. For the case study herein, the emulator is able to speed up the simulations up to 380 times with a low accuracy cost for prediction of the total storage tank volume (medians of NSE = 0.96 and VE = 0.87). CSO events occurrence is detected in 82% of the cases, although with some considerable accuracy cost (medians of NSE = 0.76 and VE = 0.5). Applicability of the emulator for consecutive short-term simulations, based on real observed rainfall time series is also validated with a high accuracy (NSE = 0.97, VE = 0.89). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Urban Water Drainage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Submerged Zone and Carbon Source on Nutrient and Metal Removal for Stormwater by Bioretention Cells
Water 2018, 10(11), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111629
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A bioretention system is a low-impact and sustainable treatment facility for treating urban stormwater runoff. To meet or maintain a consistently satisfactory performance, especially in terms of increasing nitrogen removal efficiency, the introduction of a submerged (anoxic) zone (SZ) combined with a module-based [...] Read more.
A bioretention system is a low-impact and sustainable treatment facility for treating urban stormwater runoff. To meet or maintain a consistently satisfactory performance, especially in terms of increasing nitrogen removal efficiency, the introduction of a submerged (anoxic) zone (SZ) combined with a module-based carbon source (C) has been recommended. This study investigated the removal of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and heavy metals with a retrofitted bioretention system. A significant (p < 0.05) removal enhancement of N as well as total phosphorus (TP) was observed, in the mesocosms with additions of exogenous carbon as opposed to those without such condition. However, even in the mesocosm with SZ alone (without exogenous C), TP removal showed significant enhancement. With regard to the effects of SZ depth on nutrient removal, the results showed that the removal of both N and P in module with a shallow SZ (200 mm) showed significant enhancement compared to that in module with a deep SZ (300 mm). Removal efficiencies greater than 93% were observed for all three heavy metals tested (Cu, Pb, and Zn) in all mesocosms, even in the bioretention module without an SZ or plants, and it indicated that adsorption by the filtration media itself is probably the most important removal mechanism. Only Cu (but not Pb or Zn) showed significantly enhanced removal in module with an SZ as compared to those without an SZ. Carbon source played a minor role in metal removal as no significant (p > 0.05) improvement was observed in module with C as compared to that without C. Based on these results, the incorporation of SZ with C in stormwater biofilters is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Urban Water Drainage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Geotextile Type and Position in a Porous Asphalt Pavement System on Pb (II) Removal from Stormwater
Water 2018, 10(9), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091205
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 1 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Porous asphalt (PA) pavement systems with and without a geotextile layer were investigated in laboratory experiments to determine the impacts of the geotextile layer on the processes leading to lead ion (Pb2+) removal from stormwater runoff. Two types of geotextile membranes [...] Read more.
Porous asphalt (PA) pavement systems with and without a geotextile layer were investigated in laboratory experiments to determine the impacts of the geotextile layer on the processes leading to lead ion (Pb2+) removal from stormwater runoff. Two types of geotextile membranes that were placed separately at upper and lower levels within the PA systems were tested in an artificial rainfall experiment while using synthetic rainwater. The effect of storage capacity within the system on Pb2+ removal was also investigated. Results indicated that the use of a geotextile layer resulted in a longer delay to the onset of effluent. The non-woven geotextile membrane that was placed below the reservoir course improved the Pb2+ removal rate by 20% over the removal efficiency of the system while using a woven geotextile placed just below the surface but before the choker course. Pb2+ ions were reduced by over 98% in the effluent after being held for 24 h in reservoir storage. Results suggest that temporary storage of stormwater in the reservoir course of a PA system is essential to improving Pb2+ ion removal capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Urban Water Drainage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Clogging Impacts on Distribution Pipe Delivery of Street Runoff to an Infiltration Bed
Water 2018, 10(8), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081045
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The performance of flow through orifices on a perforated distribution pipe between periods with and without partial clogging (submersion of part of the distribution pipe) was compared. The distribution pipe receives runoff and delivers it to an underground infiltration bed. Clogging appeared in [...] Read more.
The performance of flow through orifices on a perforated distribution pipe between periods with and without partial clogging (submersion of part of the distribution pipe) was compared. The distribution pipe receives runoff and delivers it to an underground infiltration bed. Clogging appeared in winter but was reduced in summer. Performance of flow delivery was found to be defined by the effective pipe length and the pressure head. ANCOVA (ANalysis of COVAriance) was used to examine the clogging effect with flow rate plotted against the effective pipe length times the square root of the mean pressure head, and found that it was significant during low or no rainfall. During larger storms, clogging had little effect on pipe performance. Clogging might be caused by leaves and other trash accumulating in the lower section of the pipe in winter and its effect was insignificant when the water level rose in the pipe, utilizing significantly more orifices on the distribution pipe. Larger storms might also move the debris, thus exposing the orifices. The current maintenance schedule was sufficient to keep the distribution pipe at a satisfactory performance even though partial clogging can exist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Urban Water Drainage Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
The Testing of Standard and Recyclable Filter Media to Eliminate Hydrogen Sulphide from Sewerage Systems
Water 2018, 10(6), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060689
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract
This article focuses on the subject of odours forming in sewage transfer chambers with displacement inlets, as well as the odours in their vicinity. It further covers the locations of odour formation, factors influencing the formation of hydrogen sulphide in wastewater, methods of [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the subject of odours forming in sewage transfer chambers with displacement inlets, as well as the odours in their vicinity. It further covers the locations of odour formation, factors influencing the formation of hydrogen sulphide in wastewater, methods of removing hydrogen sulphide from wastewater, and laboratory testing of filtration media efficacy at various concentration levels of H2S. The laboratory testing of filtration media efficacy is performed for products normally used by sewerage system operators guaranteeing the elimination of hydrogen sulphide (activated carbon, natural minerals and gels), recyclable materials (paper) and secondary raw materials in the field of waste management (biochar—the final product of microwave pyrolysis). Odour generated by sewerage systems is a secondary issue faced by all sewerage system operators, who sustain considerable expense in corrective measures to address this problem. The most economical and widespread measure used by those operators is hydrogen sulphide removal by filtration (filtration materials). Filtration media are installed in special cartridges under sewage covers in locations where the irritating odour is formed. These filtration cartridges, designed solely to eliminate odour from the surroundings, show various degrees of efficacy in removing H2S. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Urban Water Drainage Systems)
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