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Historical Self-Comparison of Water Consumption as a Water Demand Management Tool

Graduate School of Social Sciences, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo 186-8601, Japan
Department of Psychology, Yasuda Women’s University, Hiroshima 731-0153, Japan
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(4), 844;
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
PDF [1456 KB, uploaded 22 April 2019]
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This study aimed to identify effective presentation methods used for historical self-comparisons of residential water consumption that will lead to the efficient use of water. To compare each household’s current and previous water consumption, illustrations of water droplets were used as feedback every other week for five months, with the number of water droplets indicating an increase or decrease in water consumption. When only using the same blue water droplets, there was no change in water consumption. However, when using yellow and red droplets in cases of increased water use, we observed that water consumption declined. By improving the method of communication, historical self-comparisons of water consumption can realize an efficient use of water at all consumption levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: water demand management; historical self-comparison; consumption feedback; Nudge water demand management; historical self-comparison; consumption feedback; Nudge

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Otaki, Y.; Honda, H.; Ueda, K. Historical Self-Comparison of Water Consumption as a Water Demand Management Tool. Water 2019, 11, 844.

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