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Special Issue "Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Jianguo Zhou

Department of Computing and Mathematics, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mathematical model; numerical methods; lattice Boltzmann method; sediment transport; mass transport; computational hydrodynamics
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jianmin Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: engineering hydraulics; flood discharge; energy dissipation; model experiments; numerical simulation of turbulence; two-phase flows
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yong Peng

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: numerical simulation of flows; lattice Boltzmann method; shallow water flow; two-phase flow; droplet impact; cavitation; hydraulics experiment
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alistair G. L. Borthwick

School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: environmental fluid mechanics; river basin management; coastal processes; ocean engineering; marine renewable energy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Great progress has been made in research on hydraulics and hydroinformatics over the past few decades, which include theoretical, experimental and numerical studies, generating new understanding and knowledge. This undoubtedly accelerates the applications of research outcomes in solving challenging problems for optimizing design and improving relevant management of flow problems in engineering. For example, new formulations in the treatment of bed friction in the shallow water model for overland flow due to rainfall, and coupled 1D–2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow may shed light on the forecast and mitigation of flooding under climate change. In order to meet the requirements of speedy knowledge transfer to resolving engineering problems, this Special Issue aims to report the on-going research in hydraulics and hydroinformatics as well as their novel applications in practical engineering. All original contributions in the following areas will be considered for publication. This includes new research on hydraulics and hydroinformatics and their latest applications without being limited to the following listed topics, e.g., urban floods, sediment transport dynamics, environmental hydraulics, subsurface flows, hydropower station hydraulics, ecological hydraulics, ice hydraulics, numerical simulation of hydraulics, multiphysics and multiscale methods, new numerical schemes, high-performance computing, remote sensing, geography information systems, global positioning systems.

Dr. JianGuo Zhou
Prof. Dr. Jianmin Zhang
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yong Peng
Prof. Dr. Alistair Borthwick
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Engineering hydraulics
  • Urban floods
  • Sediment transport dynamics
  • Environmental hydraulics
  • Remote sensing
  • Geography information systems
  • Global positioning systems
  • Multiphysics and multiscale methods
  • Experiments in hydraulics

Published Papers (38 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
River Bathymetry Model Based on Floodplain Topography
Water 2019, 11(6), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061287
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
An appropriate digital elevation model (DEM) is required for purposes of hydrodynamic modelling of floods. Such a DEM describes a river’s bathymetry (bed topography) as well as its surrounding area. Extensive measurements for creating accurate bathymetry are time-consuming and expensive. Mathematical modelling can [...] Read more.
An appropriate digital elevation model (DEM) is required for purposes of hydrodynamic modelling of floods. Such a DEM describes a river’s bathymetry (bed topography) as well as its surrounding area. Extensive measurements for creating accurate bathymetry are time-consuming and expensive. Mathematical modelling can provide an alternative way for representing river bathymetry. This study explores new possibilities in mathematical depiction of river bathymetry. A new bathymetric model (Bathy-supp) is proposed, and the model’s ability to represent actual bathymetry is assessed. Three statistical methods for the determination of model parameters were evaluated. The best results were achieved by the random forest (RF) method. A two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model was used to evaluate the influence of the Bathy-supp model on the hydrodynamic modelling results. Also presented is a comparison of the proposed model with another state-of-the-art bathymetric model. The study was carried out on a reach of the Otava River in the Czech Republic. The results show that the proposed model’s ability to represent river bathymetry exceeds that of his current competitor. Use of the bathymetric model may have a significant impact on improving the hydrodynamic model results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Tidal Discharge and Phase Difference at a Tidal Channel Junction Investigated Using the Fluvial Acoustic Tomography System
Water 2019, 11(4), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040857
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 20 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
This study investigates the tidal discharge division and phase difference at branches connected to a channel junction. The tidal discharge at three branches (eastern, western, and northern branches) was continuously collected using the fluvial acoustic tomography system (FATS). The discharge asymmetry index was [...] Read more.
This study investigates the tidal discharge division and phase difference at branches connected to a channel junction. The tidal discharge at three branches (eastern, western, and northern branches) was continuously collected using the fluvial acoustic tomography system (FATS). The discharge asymmetry index was used to quantify the flow division between two seaward branches (eastern and western branches). The cross-wavelet method was applied to calculate the phase difference between the tidal discharge and water level. The discharge asymmetry index shows that the inequality of flow division is obviously prominent during the spring tide duration, where the eastern branch has the capability to deliver greater amounts of subtidal discharge, approximately 55–63%, compared with the western branch. However, the equality of flow division between the eastern and western channels can be observed clearly during the neap tide period. The wavelet analysis shows that the phase difference at the western branch is higher than at the eastern branch, because the geometry of the western branch is more convergent than that of the eastern branch. Accordingly, the amplitude of the tidal wave at the western branch is more magnified compared with that at the eastern branch. Moreover, the phase difference at the northern branch is greater than at the two seaward branches, implying that the phase difference is slightly increased after passing through the junction into the northern branch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Application Depth and Water Distribution Uniformity of a Linearly Moved Irrigation System
Water 2019, 11(4), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040827
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
A model of a linearly moved irrigation system (LMIS) has been developed to calculate the water application depth and coefficient of uniformity (CU), and an experimental sample was used to verify the accuracy of the model. The performance testing of the LMIS equipped [...] Read more.
A model of a linearly moved irrigation system (LMIS) has been developed to calculate the water application depth and coefficient of uniformity (CU), and an experimental sample was used to verify the accuracy of the model. The performance testing of the LMIS equipped with 69-kPa and 138-kPa sprinkler heads was carried out in an indoor laboratory. The LMIS was towed by a winch with a 1.0 cycle/min pulsing frequency while operating at percent-timer settings of 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90%, corresponding to average moving speeds of 1.5, 2.3, 3.3, 4.0, and 4.7 m min−1, respectively. The application depth and CU obtained under various speed conditions were compared between the measured and model-simulated data. The model calculation accuracy was high for both operating pressures of 69 and 138 kPa. The measured application depths were much larger than the triangular-shaped predictions of the simulated application depth and were between the parabolic-shaped predictions and the elliptical-shaped predictions of the simulated application depth. The results also indicate that the operating pressure and moving speed were not significant factors that affected the resulting CU values. For the parabolic- and elliptical-shaped predictions, the deviations between the measured and model-simulated values were within 5%, except for several cases at moving speeds of 2.3 and 4.0 m min−1. The measured water distribution pattern of the individual sprinklers could be represented by both elliptical- and parabolic-shaped predictions, which are accurate and reliable for simulating the application performances of the LMIS. The most innovative aspect of the proposed model is that the water application depths and CU values of the irrigation system can be determined at any moving speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Hyporheic Exchange based on Numerical Modeling
Water 2019, 11(4), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040665
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
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Abstract
The hyporheic zone is a transition zone for the exchange of matter and energy between surface water and subsurface water. The study of trends and sensitivities of bed hyporheic exchanges to the various influencing factors is of great significance. The surface−groundwater flow process [...] Read more.
The hyporheic zone is a transition zone for the exchange of matter and energy between surface water and subsurface water. The study of trends and sensitivities of bed hyporheic exchanges to the various influencing factors is of great significance. The surface−groundwater flow process was simulated using a multiphysics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and compared to previous flume experiments. Based on that, the single-factor effects of flow velocity (u), water depth (H), dune wave height (h), and bed substrate permeability (κ) on hyporheic exchange in the bed hyporheic zone were investigated. The sensitivity analysis of various factors (H, u, dune wavelength (L), h, bed substrate porosity (θ), κ, and the diffusion coefficient of solute molecules (Dm)) in the surface−subsurface water coupling model was done using orthogonal tests. The results indicated that u, h, and κ were positively related, whereas H was negatively related to hyporheic exchange. H and u showed large effects, whereas κ, Dm, and θ had moderate effects, and L and h showed small effects on hyporheic exchange. This study provides valuable references for the protection and recovery of river ecology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Laboratory Study of Secondary Flow in an Open Channel Bend by Using PIV
Water 2019, 11(4), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040659
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
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Abstract
The present paper aims to gain deeper insight into the evolution of secondary flows in open channel bend. A U-shaped open channel with long straight inflow/outflow reaches was used for experiments. Efforts were made to precisely specify flow conditions and to achieve high [...] Read more.
The present paper aims to gain deeper insight into the evolution of secondary flows in open channel bend. A U-shaped open channel with long straight inflow/outflow reaches was used for experiments. Efforts were made to precisely specify flow conditions and to achieve high precision measurement of quasi-three-dimensional velocities with a multi-pass, two-dimensional PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method. The experimental results show that the flow begins to redistribute before entering the bend and it takes a long distance to re-establish to uniform conditions after exiting the bend. Complex secondary flow patterns were found to be present in the bend, as well as in the straight inflow and outflow reaches. A “self-breaking” (process was identified, which correlates stream-wise velocity with the intensity of flow circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Study on Mechanisms for Sediment Transformation Due to Riverbank Collapse
Water 2019, 11(3), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030529
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
Riverbank erosion is a natural process in rivers that can become exacerbated by direct and indirect human impacts. Unfortunately, riverbank degradation can cause societal impacts such as property loss and sedimentation of in-stream structures, as well as environmental impacts such as water quality [...] Read more.
Riverbank erosion is a natural process in rivers that can become exacerbated by direct and indirect human impacts. Unfortunately, riverbank degradation can cause societal impacts such as property loss and sedimentation of in-stream structures, as well as environmental impacts such as water quality impact. The frequency, magnitude, and impact of riverbank collapse events in China and worldwide are forecasted to increase under climate change. To understand and mitigate the risk of riverbank collapse, experimental/field data in real conditions are required to provide robust calibration and validation of hydraulic and mathematical models. This paper presents an experimental set of tests conducted to characterize riverbank erosion and sediment transport for banks with slopes of 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° and quantify the amount of sediments transported by the river, deposited within the bank toe or settled in the riverbed after having been removed due to erosion. The results showed interesting comprehension about the characterization of riverbank erosion and sediment transport along the river. These insights can be used for calibration and validation of new and existing numerical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Free Surface Turbulence Damping in RANS Simulations for Complex Free Surface Flows
Water 2019, 11(3), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030456
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
The modelling of complex free surface flows over weirs and in the vicinity of bridge piers is presented in a numerical model emulating open channel flow based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The importance of handling the turbulence at the free [...] Read more.
The modelling of complex free surface flows over weirs and in the vicinity of bridge piers is presented in a numerical model emulating open channel flow based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The importance of handling the turbulence at the free surface in the case of different flow regimes using an immiscible two-phase RANS Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is demonstrated. The free surface restricts the length scales of turbulence and this is generally not accounted for in standard two-equation turbulence modelling approaches. With the two-phase flow approach, large-velocity gradients across the free surface due to the large difference in the density of the fluids can lead to over-production of turbulence. In this paper, turbulence at the free surface is restricted with an additional boundary condition for the turbulent dissipation. The resulting difference in the free surface features and the consequences for the solution of the flow problem is discussed for different flow conditions. The numerical results for the free surface and stream-wise velocity gradients are compared to experimental data to show that turbulence damping at the free surface provides a better representation of the flow features in all the flow regimes and especially in cases with rapidly varying flow conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Consistent Particle Method Simulation of Solitary Wave Interaction with a Submerged Breakwater
Water 2019, 11(2), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020261
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents a numerical study of the solitary wave interaction with a submerged breakwater using the Consistent Particle Method (CPM). The distinct feature of CPM is that it computes the spatial derivatives by using the Taylor series expansion directly and without the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a numerical study of the solitary wave interaction with a submerged breakwater using the Consistent Particle Method (CPM). The distinct feature of CPM is that it computes the spatial derivatives by using the Taylor series expansion directly and without the use of the kernel or weighting functions. This achieves good numerical consistency and hence better accuracy. Validated by published experiment data, the CPM model is shown to be able to predict the wave elevations, profiles and velocities when a solitary wave interacts with a submerged breakwater. Using the validated model, the detailed physics of the wave breaking process, the vortex generation and evolution and the water particle trajectories are investigated. The influence of the breakwater dimension on the wave characteristics is parametrically studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study of the Collapse of Multiple Bubbles and the Energy Conversion during Bubble Collapse
Water 2019, 11(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020247
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
This paper investigates numerically the collapses of both a single cavitation bubble and a cluster consisting of 8 bubbles, concerning mainly on the conversions between different forms of energy. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) with volume of fluid (VOF) method is applied, considering the [...] Read more.
This paper investigates numerically the collapses of both a single cavitation bubble and a cluster consisting of 8 bubbles, concerning mainly on the conversions between different forms of energy. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) with volume of fluid (VOF) method is applied, considering the detailed resolution of the vapor-liquid interfaces. First, for a single bubble near a solid wall, we find that the peak value of the wave energy, or equivalently the energy conversion rate decreases when the distance between the bubble and the wall is reduced. However, for the collapses of multiple bubbles, this relationship between the bubble-wall distance and the conversion rate reverses, implying a distinct physical mechanism. The evolutions of individual bubbles during the collapses of multiple bubbles are examined. We observe that when the bubbles are placed far away from the solid wall, the jetting flows induced by all bubbles point towards the cluster centre, while the focal point shifts towards the solid wall when the cluster is very close to the wall. We note that it is very challenging to consider thermal and acoustic damping mechanisms in the current numerical methods, which might be significant contributions to the energy budget, and we leave it open to the future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation on Mean Flow Development of a Three-Dimensional Wall Jet Confined by a Vertical Baffle
Water 2019, 11(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020237
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) confined wall jets have various engineering applications related to efficient energy dissipation. This paper presents experimental measurements of mean flow development for a 3D rectangular wall jet confined by a vertical baffle with a fixed distance (400 mm) from its surface [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) confined wall jets have various engineering applications related to efficient energy dissipation. This paper presents experimental measurements of mean flow development for a 3D rectangular wall jet confined by a vertical baffle with a fixed distance (400 mm) from its surface to the nozzle. Experiments were performed at three different Reynolds numbers of 8333, 10,000 and 11,666 based on jet exit velocity and square root of jet exit area (named as B), with water depth of 100 mm. Detailed measurements of current jet were taken using a particle image velocimetry technique. The results indicate that the confined jet seems to behave like an undisturbed jet until 16B downstream. Beyond this position, however, the mean flow development starts to be gradually affected by the baffle confinement. The baffle increases the decay and spreading of the mean flow from 16B to 23B. The decay rate of 1.11 as well as vertical and lateral growth rates of 0.04 and 0.19, respectively, were obtained for the present study, and also fell well within the range of values which correspond to the results in the radial decay region for the unconfined case. In addition, the measurements of the velocity profiles, spreading rates and velocity decay were also found to be independent of Reynolds number. Therefore, the flow field in this region appears to have fully developed at least 4B earlier than the unconfined case. Further downstream (after 23B), the confinement becomes more pronounced. The vertical spreading of current jet shows a distinct increase, while the lateral growth was found to be decreased significantly. It can be also observed that the maximum mean velocity decreases sharply close to the baffle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
The Evaluation of Regional Water-Saving Irrigation Development Level in Humid Regions of Southern China
Water 2019, 11(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010172
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
Water-saving irrigation development level (WIDL) refers to reasonably and accurately judging a water-saving area based on the analysis of all factors affecting the water-saving irrigation development. The evaluation of regional WIDL is the premise of scientific planning guidance to irrigation work. How to [...] Read more.
Water-saving irrigation development level (WIDL) refers to reasonably and accurately judging a water-saving area based on the analysis of all factors affecting the water-saving irrigation development. The evaluation of regional WIDL is the premise of scientific planning guidance to irrigation work. How to select reasonable evaluation indexes and build a scientific and comprehensive model to evaluate WIDL is of great significance. In this study, the comprehensive evaluation index system of WIDL in 21 cities (states) of the Sichuan province in China (a typical humid region in southern China) was constructed, and the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution) method was improved to evaluate WIDL. Results showed that the overall development level of water-saving irrigation was “poor” in Sichuan province. The water-saving irrigation level turned out to be “good” in three regions with advantageous geographical conditions and developed economies, “general” in four regions with good economic levels where agronomy water saving has been popularized, and “poor” in fourteen regions of mountainous and hilly areas, especially Ganzi, Aba, and Liangshan, located in the Northwest plateau of Sichuan province, with poor natural resources and insufficient economies. The evaluation results were in good agreement with the actual situation, and in this area, there is enormous potential for the development of water-saving irrigation strategies. This study provides an important technical approach for the evaluation of water-saving irrigation development in humid regions of Southern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis of the Impact Factors on the Flow Fields in a Large Shallow Lake
Water 2019, 11(1), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010155
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Wetland acts as an important part of climatic regulation, water purification, and biodiversity maintenance. As an integral part of wetlands, large shallow lakes play an essential role in protecting ecosystem diversity and providing water sources. Baihe Lake in the Momoge Wetland is one [...] Read more.
Wetland acts as an important part of climatic regulation, water purification, and biodiversity maintenance. As an integral part of wetlands, large shallow lakes play an essential role in protecting ecosystem diversity and providing water sources. Baihe Lake in the Momoge Wetland is one such example, so it is necessary to study the flow pattern characteristics of this lake under different conditions. A new model, based on the lattice Boltzmann method, was used to investigate the effects of different impact factors on flow fields, such as water discharge from surrounding farmland, rainfall, wind speed, and aquatic vegetation. Importantly, this study provides a hydrodynamic basis for local ecological protection and restoration work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydraulic Features of Flow through Local Non-Submerged Rigid Vegetation in the Y-Shaped Confluence Channel
Water 2019, 11(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010146
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
A laboratory measurement with acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) was used to investigate the flow through a Y-shaped confluence channel partially covered with rigid vegetation on its inner bank. In this study, the flow velocities in cases with and without vegetation were measured by [...] Read more.
A laboratory measurement with acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) was used to investigate the flow through a Y-shaped confluence channel partially covered with rigid vegetation on its inner bank. In this study, the flow velocities in cases with and without vegetation were measured by the ADV in a Y-shaped confluence channel. The results clearly showed that the existence of non-submerged rigid plants has changed the internal flow structure. The velocity in the non-vegetated area is greater than in the vegetated area. There is a large exchange of mass and momentum between the vegetated and non-vegetated areas. In addition, due to the presence of vegetation, the high-velocity area moved rapidly to the middle of the non-vegetated area in the vicinity of tributaries, and the secondary flow phenomenon disappeared. The presence of vegetation made the flow in non-vegetated areas more intense. The turbulent kinetic energy of the non-vegetated area was smaller than that of the vegetated area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Time-Averaged Turbulent Velocity Flow Field through the Various Bridge Contractions during Large Flooding
Water 2019, 11(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010143
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Extreme rainfall events, larger than 500-year floods, have produced a large number of flooding events in the land and also close to the shore, and have resulted in massive destruction of hydraulic infrastructures because of scour. In light of climate change, this trend [...] Read more.
Extreme rainfall events, larger than 500-year floods, have produced a large number of flooding events in the land and also close to the shore, and have resulted in massive destruction of hydraulic infrastructures because of scour. In light of climate change, this trend is likely to continue in the future and thus, resilience, security and sustainability of hydraulic infrastructures has become an interesting topic for hydraulic engineering stakeholders. In this study, a physical model experiment with a geometric similarity of the bridge embankments, abutments, and bridge deck as well as river bathymetry was conducted in a laboratory flume. Flow conditions were utilized to get submerged orifice flow and overtopping flow in the bridge section in order to simulate extreme hydrologic flow conditions. Point velocities of the bridge section were measured in sufficient details and the time-averaged velocity flow field were plotted to obtain better understandings of scour and sediment transport under high flow conditions. The laboratory study concluded that existing lateral flow contraction as well as vertical flow contraction resulted in a unique flow field through the bridge and the shape of velocity profile being “fuller”, thereby increasing the velocity gradients close to the bed and subsequently resulting in a higher rate of bed sediment transport. The relationships between the velocity gradients measured close to the bed and the degree of flow contraction through the bridge are suggested. Furthermore, based on the location of maximum scour corresponding to the measured velocity flow field, the classification of scour conditions, long setback abutment scour and short setback abutment scour, are also suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study of the Velocity Decay of Offset Jet in a Narrow and Deep Pool
Water 2019, 11(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010059
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 31 December 2018
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Abstract
The present study examines the configuration of an offset jet issuing into a narrow and deep pool. The standard k-ε model with volume-of-fluid (VOF) method was used to simulate the offset jet for three exit offset ratios (OR = 1, 2 and 3), [...] Read more.
The present study examines the configuration of an offset jet issuing into a narrow and deep pool. The standard k-ε model with volume-of-fluid (VOF) method was used to simulate the offset jet for three exit offset ratios (OR = 1, 2 and 3), three expansion ratios (ER = 3, 4 and 4.8), and different jet exits (circular and rectangular). The results clearly show significant effects of the circumference of jet exits (Lexit) in the early region of flow development, and a fitted formula is presented to estimate the length of the potential core zone (LPC). Analysis of the flow field for OR = 1 showed that the decay of cross-sectional streamwise maximum mean velocity (Um) in the transition zone could be fitted by power law with the decay rate n decreased from 1.768 to 1.197 as the ER increased, while the decay of Um for OR = 2 or 3 was observed accurately estimated by linear fit. Analysis of the flow field of circular offset jet showed that Um for OR = 2 decayed fastest due to the fact that the main flow could be spread evenly in floor-normal direction. For circular jets, the offset ratio and expansion ratio do not affect the spread of streamwise velocity in the early region of flow development. It was also observed that the absence of sudden expansion of offset jet is analogous to that of a plane offset jet, and the flow pattern is different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Capturing the Motion of the Free Surface of a Fluid Stored within a Floating Structure
Water 2019, 11(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010050
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
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Abstract
Large floating structures, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships, are subject to both internal and external fluid forces. The internal fluid forces may also be detrimental to a vessel’s stability and cause excessive loading regimes when sloshing occurs. Whilst it is relatively [...] Read more.
Large floating structures, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships, are subject to both internal and external fluid forces. The internal fluid forces may also be detrimental to a vessel’s stability and cause excessive loading regimes when sloshing occurs. Whilst it is relatively easy to measure the motion of external free surface with conventional measurement techniques, the sloshing of the internal free surface is more difficult to capture. The location of the internal free surface is normally extrapolated from measuring the pressure acting on the internal walls of the vessel. In order to understand better the loading mechanisms of sloshing internal fluids, a method of capturing the transient inner free surface motion with negligible affect on the response of the fluid or structure is required. In this paper two methods will be demonstrated for this purpose. The first approach uses resistive wave gauges made of copper tape to quantify the water run-up height on the walls of the structure. The second approach extends the conventional use of optical motion tracking to report the position of randomly distributed free floating markers on the internal water surface. The methods simultaneously report the position of the internal free surface with good agreement under static conditions, with absolute variation in the measured water level of around 4 mm. This new combined approach provides a map of the free surface elevation under transient conditions. The experimental error is shown to be acceptable (low mm-range), proving that these experimental techniques are robust free surface tracking methods in a range of situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Three-Dimensional Turbulence Numerical Simulation of Flow in a Stepped Dropshaft
Water 2019, 11(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010030
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
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Abstract
The dropshaft structure is usually applied in an urban drainage system to connect the shallow pipe network and the deep tunnel. By using the renormalization group (RNG) k~ε turbulence model with a volume of fluid method, the flow pattern and the [...] Read more.
The dropshaft structure is usually applied in an urban drainage system to connect the shallow pipe network and the deep tunnel. By using the renormalization group (RNG) k~ε turbulence model with a volume of fluid method, the flow pattern and the maximum relative water depth over a stepped dropshaft with a different central angle of step were numerically investigated. The calculated results suggested that the flow in the stepped dropshaft was highly turbulent and characterized by deflection during the jet caused by the curvature of the sidewall. According to the pressure distribution on the horizontal step and the flow pattern above the step, the flow field was partitioned into the recirculating region, the wall-impinging region and the mixing region. In addition, with the increase in the central angle of step, the scope of the wall-impinging region and the mixing region increased and the scope of the recirculating region remained nearly unchanged. The maximum water depth increased with the increase in discharge. In the present work we have shown that, as the value of the central angle of step increased, the maximum water depth decreased initially and increased subsequently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Particle Size and Shape on Separation in a Hydrocyclone
Water 2019, 11(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010016
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
Given the complex separation mechanisms of the particulate mixture in a hydrocyclone and the uncertain effects of particle size and shape on separation, this study explored the influence of the maximum projected area of particles on the separation effect as well as single [...] Read more.
Given the complex separation mechanisms of the particulate mixture in a hydrocyclone and the uncertain effects of particle size and shape on separation, this study explored the influence of the maximum projected area of particles on the separation effect as well as single and mixed separations based on CFD–DEM (Computational Fluid Dynamics and Discrete Element Method) coupling and experimental test methods. The results showed that spherical particles flowed out more easily from the downstream as their sizes increased. Furthermore, with the enlargement of maximum projected area, the running space of the particles with the same volume got closer to the upward flow and particles tended to be separated from the upstream. The axial velocity of the combined separation of 60 µm particles and 120 µm particles increased by 25.74% compared with that of single separation of 60 µm particles near the transition section from a cylinder to a cone. The concentration of 60 µm particles near the running space of 120 µm particles increased by 20.73% and those separated from the downstream increased by 4.1%. This study showed the influence of particle size and maximum projected area on the separation effect and the separation mechanism of mixed sand particles in a hydrocyclone, thereby providing a theoretical basis for later studies on the effect of particle size and shape on sedimentation under the cyclone action in a hydrocyclone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Best Depth of Stilling Basin with Shallow-Water Cushion
Water 2018, 10(12), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121801
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
The depth of the stilling basin with shallow-water cushion (SBSWC) is a key factor that affects the flow regime of hydraulic jump in the basin. However, the specific depth at which the water cushion is considered as ‘shallow’ has not been stated clearly [...] Read more.
The depth of the stilling basin with shallow-water cushion (SBSWC) is a key factor that affects the flow regime of hydraulic jump in the basin. However, the specific depth at which the water cushion is considered as ‘shallow’ has not been stated clearly by far, and only conceptual description is provided. Therefore, in order to define the best depth of SBSWC and its relationship between the Froude number at the inlet of the stilling basin, a large number of experiments were carried out to investigate SBSWC. First of all, 30 cases including five different Froude numbers and six depths were selected for which large eddy simulation (LES) was firstly verified by the experiments and then adopted to calculate the hydraulic characteristics in the stilling basin. Finally, three standards, based on the flow regime of hydraulic jump, the location of the main stream and the energy dissipation rate, were proposed to define the best depth of SBSWC. The three criteria are as follows: (1) a complete hydraulic jump occurs in the basin (2) the water cushion is about 1/10–1/3 deep of the stilling basin, and (3) the energy dissipation rate is more than 70% and the unit volume energy dissipation rate is as high as possible. It showed that the best depth ratio of SBSWC (depth to length ratio) was between 0.1 and 0.3 and it also indicated the best depth increased with the increase in Froude number. The results of the work are of significance to the design and optimizing of SBSWC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis on Hydraulic Characteristics of U-shaped Channel of Various Trapezoidal Cross-Sections
Water 2018, 10(12), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121788
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 1 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
Curved channel with trapezoidal cross-section is approximate to the common form in nature fluvial networks and its hydraulic characteristics are considerably complex and variable. Combined with volume of fluid (VOF) method, renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model was employed to numerically investigate the [...] Read more.
Curved channel with trapezoidal cross-section is approximate to the common form in nature fluvial networks and its hydraulic characteristics are considerably complex and variable. Combined with volume of fluid (VOF) method, renormalization group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model was employed to numerically investigate the flow properties in the U-shaped channel with various trapezoidal cross-sections. Analyses were performed from the aspects of the water surface transverse slope in bend apex (WTS-BA), longitudinal velocity, secondary flow, shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) under several scenarios, specifically, four types of radius-to-width ratio and seven types of slope coefficient with a constant aspect ratio. The calculated results suggested that the maximums of shear stress and TKE in the bend were observed in the convex bank and the maximal intensities of secondary flow were observed within the range of 60 to 75 degrees for various varieties. As the radius-to-width ratio increased, the maximums of shear stress, TKE and WTS-BA decreased; but increased with increasing slope coefficients. The intensity of secondary flow decreased as slope coefficients increased and the angle of maximum intensity of secondary flow moved to the upstream for the increasing radius-to-width ratios. In addition, a new equation concerning the vertical distribution of longitudinal velocity in trapezoidal cross-sectioned channel was presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on the Air Concentration Distribution of Aerated Jet Flows in a Plunge Pool
Water 2018, 10(12), 1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121779
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
There is a lack of knowledge on the air concentration distribution in plunge pools affected by aerated jets. A set of physical experiments was performed on vertical submerged aerated jet flows impinging a plunge pool. The air concentration distribution in the plunge pool [...] Read more.
There is a lack of knowledge on the air concentration distribution in plunge pools affected by aerated jets. A set of physical experiments was performed on vertical submerged aerated jet flows impinging a plunge pool. The air concentration distribution in the plunge pool was analyzed under different inflow air concentrations, flow velocities, and discharge rate conditions. The experimental results show that the air concentration distribution follows a power-law along the jet axis, and it is independent of the initial flow conditions. A new hypothetical analysis model was proposed for air diffusion in the plunge pool, that is, the air concentration distribution in the plunge pool is superposed by the lateral diffusion of three stages of the aerated jet motion. A set of formulas was proposed to predict the air concentration distribution in the plunge pool, the results of which showed good agreement with the experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Flushing Velocity and Flushing Frequency on the Service Life of Labyrinth-Channel Emitters
Water 2018, 10(11), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111630
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
Dripline flushing is an effective way to relieve emitter clogging and extend the longevity of drip irrigation systems. This laboratory study was conducted at Kunming University of Science and Technology to evaluate the effect of three targeted flushing velocities (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 [...] Read more.
Dripline flushing is an effective way to relieve emitter clogging and extend the longevity of drip irrigation systems. This laboratory study was conducted at Kunming University of Science and Technology to evaluate the effect of three targeted flushing velocities (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 m/s) and four flushing frequencies (no flushing, flushing daily, and flushing every three or five days) on the emitter’s service life and the particle size distribution of the sediment discharged from emitters and trapped in an emitter channel. The gradation of particle size was analyzed by a laser particle size analyzer. The experiment results suggested that flushing velocity and flushing frequency had a significant effect on the service life of emitters, and the emitter’s service life was extended by 30.40% on average under nine different flushing treatments. Flushing can effectively reduce the accumulation of sediments in the dripline and decrease the probability of coarse particles flowing into emitters and fine particles aggregating and cementing in the labyrinth channel, thus relieving the emitter clogging. Therefore, dripline flushing can effectively slow down clogging in muddy water drip irrigation system. The recommended flushing velocity should be set at 0.6 m/s, and the flushing intervals should be shortened. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Rainfall for Two-Jet Collisions in Air
Water 2018, 10(11), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111600
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
Many researchers have studied the energy dissipation characteristics of two-jet collisions in air, but few have studied the related spatial rainfall distribution characteristics. In this paper, in combination with a model experiment and theoretical study, the spatial distributions of rainfall intensity of two-jet [...] Read more.
Many researchers have studied the energy dissipation characteristics of two-jet collisions in air, but few have studied the related spatial rainfall distribution characteristics. In this paper, in combination with a model experiment and theoretical study, the spatial distributions of rainfall intensity of two-jet collisions, with different collision angles and flow ratios, are systematically studied. The experimental results indicated that a larger collision angle corresponds to a larger rainfall intensity distribution. The dimensionless maximum rainfall intensity sharply decreased with the flow ratio, while the maximum rainfall intensity slightly increased when the flow ratio was greater than 1.0. A theoretical equation to compute the location of maximum rainfall intensity is presented. The range of rainfall intensity distribution sharply increased with the flow ratio. When the flow ratio was greater than 1.0, the range of longitudinal distribution slightly increased, whereas the lateral distribution remained unchanged or slowly decreased. A formula to calculate the boundary lines of the x-axis is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of A Streamwise-Lateral Ski-Jump Flow Discharge Spillway
Water 2018, 10(11), 1585; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111585
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
Spillway outlet design is a major issue in hydraulic engineering with high head and large discharge conditions. A new type of design for a streamwise-lateral spillway is proposed for ski-jump flow discharge and energy dissipation in hydraulic engineering. The water in the spillway [...] Read more.
Spillway outlet design is a major issue in hydraulic engineering with high head and large discharge conditions. A new type of design for a streamwise-lateral spillway is proposed for ski-jump flow discharge and energy dissipation in hydraulic engineering. The water in the spillway outlet is constrained by three solid walls with an inclined floor, a horizontal floor on the bottom and a deflected side wall in the lateral direction. The water flow releases in a lateral direction into the plunge pool along the streamwise direction. It generates a free jet in the shape of “∩” in a limited area, causing the water to fully diffuse and stretch in the air simultaneously, and drop into the plunge pool to avoid excessive impact in the plunge pool. The formation mechanism for the flow pattern is analyzed, and the results show that the optimum inclination is an angle range of 30°~45° for a good performance of free ski-jump jet diffusion shape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical and Experimental Comparative Study on the Flow-Induced Vibration of a Plane Gate
Water 2018, 10(11), 1551; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111551
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
A numerical method is applied here to simulate the unstable flow and the vibration of a plane gate. A combination of the large eddy simulation (LES) method and the volume of fluid (VOF) model is used to predict the three-dimensional flow field in [...] Read more.
A numerical method is applied here to simulate the unstable flow and the vibration of a plane gate. A combination of the large eddy simulation (LES) method and the volume of fluid (VOF) model is used to predict the three-dimensional flow field in the vicinity of a plane gate with submerged discharge. The water surface profile, the streamline diagrams, the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy, the power spectrum density curve of the fluctuating pressure coefficient at typical points underneath the gate, and the complete vortex distribution around the gate are obtained by LES-VOF numerical calculation. The vibration parameters of the gate are calculated by the fluid-structure coupling interface transferring the hydrodynamic load. A simultaneous sampling experiment is performed to verify the validity of the algorithm. The calculated results are then compared with experimental data. The difference between the two is acceptable and the conclusions are consistent. In addition, the influence of the vortex in the slot on the flow field and the vibration of the gate are investigated. It is feasible to replace the experiment with the fluid-structure coupling computational method, which is useful for studying the flow-induced vibration mechanism of plane gates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Analysis on the Hydrodynamic Performance of an Artificially Ventilated Surface-Piercing Propeller
Water 2018, 10(11), 1499; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111499
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
When operated under large water immersion, surface piercing propellers are prone to be in heavy load conditions. To improve the hydrodynamic performance of the surface piercing propellers, engineers usually artificially ventilate the blades by equipping a vent pipe in front of the propeller [...] Read more.
When operated under large water immersion, surface piercing propellers are prone to be in heavy load conditions. To improve the hydrodynamic performance of the surface piercing propellers, engineers usually artificially ventilate the blades by equipping a vent pipe in front of the propeller disc. In this paper, the influence of artificial ventilation on the hydrodynamic performance of surface piercing propellers under full immersion conditions was investigated using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The numerical results suggest that the effect of artificial ventilation on the pressure distribution on the blades decreases along the radial direction. And at low advancing speed, the thrust, torque as well as the efficiency of the propeller are smaller than those without ventilation. However, with the increase of the advancing speed, the efficiency of the propeller rapidly increases and can be greater than the without-ventilation case. The numerical results demonstrates the effectiveness of the artificial ventilation approach for improving the hydrodynamic performance of the surface piercing propellers for high speed planning crafts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Investigation on the Hydraulic Properties of the Skimming Flow over Pooled Stepped Spillway
Water 2018, 10(10), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101478
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Pooled stepped spillway is known for high aeration efficiency and energy dissipation, but the understanding for the effects of pool weir configuration on the flow properties and energy loss is relatively limited, so RNG kε εturbulence model with VOF method was [...] Read more.
Pooled stepped spillway is known for high aeration efficiency and energy dissipation, but the understanding for the effects of pool weir configuration on the flow properties and energy loss is relatively limited, so RNG k ε εturbulence model with VOF method was employed to simulate the hydraulic characteristics of the stepped spillways with four types of pool weirs. The calculated results suggested the flow in the stepped spillway with staggered configuration of` two-sided pooled and central pooled steps (TP-CP) was highly three dimensional and created more flow instabilities and vortex structures, leading to 1.5 times higher energy dissipation rate than the fully pooled configuration (FP-FP). In FP-FP configuration, the stepped spillway with fully pooled and two-sided pooled steps (FP-TP) and the spillway with fully pooled and central pooled steps (FP-CP), the pressure on the horizontal step surfaces presented U-shaped variation, and TP-CP showed the greatest pressure fluctuation. For FP-TP and FP-CP, the vortex development in the transverse direction presented the opposite phenomenon, and the maximum vortex intensity in TP-CP occurred at Z/W = 0.25, while FP-FP illustrated no significant change in the transverse direction. The overlaying flow velocity distribution in the spanwise direction demonstrated no obvious difference among FP-FP, FP-TP, and FP-CP, while the velocity in TP-CP increased from the axial plane to the sidewalls, but the maximum velocity for all cases were approximately the same. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Study of Cavitation Bubble Collapse near a Wall by the Modified Lattice Boltzmann Method
Water 2018, 10(10), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101439
Received: 2 September 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, an improved lattice Boltzmann Shan‒Chen model coupled with Carnahan-Starling equation of state (C-S EOS) and the exact differential method (EDM) force scheme is used to simulate the cavitation bubble collapse in the near-wall region. First, the collapse of a single [...] Read more.
In this paper, an improved lattice Boltzmann Shan‒Chen model coupled with Carnahan-Starling equation of state (C-S EOS) and the exact differential method (EDM) force scheme is used to simulate the cavitation bubble collapse in the near-wall region. First, the collapse of a single cavitation bubble in the near-wall region was simulated; the results were in good agreement with the physical experiment and the stability of the model was verified. Then the simulated model was used to simulate the collapse of two cavitation bubbles in the near-wall region. The main connection between the two cavitation bubble centre lines and the wall surface had a 45° angle and parallel and the evolution law of cavitation bubbles in the near-wall region is obtained. Finally, the effects of a single cavitation bubble and double cavitation bubble on the wall surface in the near-wall region are compared, which can be used to study the method to reduce the influence of cavitation on solid materials in practical engineering. The cavitation bubble collapse process under a two-dimensional pressure field is visualized, and the flow field is used to describe the morphological changes of cavitation bubble collapse in the near-wall region. The improved lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) Shan‒Chen model has many advantages in simulating cavitation problems, and will provide a reference for further simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Experimental Optimization of Gate-Opening Modes to Minimize Near-Field Vibrations in Hydropower Stations
Water 2018, 10(10), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101435
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
Multi-Horizontal-Submerged Jets are successfully applied to dissipate energy within a large-scale hydropower station. However, notable near-field vibrations are generated when releasing high discharges through the gates, which is generally typical in a flooding case scenario. Under these conditions, the magnitude of the vibrations [...] Read more.
Multi-Horizontal-Submerged Jets are successfully applied to dissipate energy within a large-scale hydropower station. However, notable near-field vibrations are generated when releasing high discharges through the gates, which is generally typical in a flooding case scenario. Under these conditions, the magnitude of the vibrations varies when applying different gate-opening modes. To investigate and find optimized gate-opening modes to reduce the near-field vibration, multiple combinations were tested by varying gate-opening modes and hydraulic conditions. For each of the tests conducted, fluctuating pressures acting on side-walls and bottoms of a stilling basin were measured. The collected datasets were used to determine the maximum and minimum fluctuating pressure values associated with the correspondent gate-opening mode and a detailed comparison between each of the gate-opening modes was completed. The paper presents the quantitative analysis of the discharge ratio’s effect on fluctuating pressures. It also investigates the influence of different gate-opening modes by including side to middle spillways and upper to lower spillways configurations. The flow pattern evolutions triggered by each different gate-opening mode are discussed and optimal configurations that minimize near-field vibrations at high discharges are recommended to support both the design of new systems and assessment of the performance of existing ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Aerators: Characteristics of the Air Bubbles
Water 2018, 10(10), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101430
Received: 26 August 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
Three-dimensional aerators are often used in hydraulic structures to prevent cavitation damage via enhanced air entrainment. However, the mechanisms of aeration and bubble dispersion along the developing shear flow region on such aerators remain unclear. A double-tip conductivity probe is employed in present [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional aerators are often used in hydraulic structures to prevent cavitation damage via enhanced air entrainment. However, the mechanisms of aeration and bubble dispersion along the developing shear flow region on such aerators remain unclear. A double-tip conductivity probe is employed in present experimental study to investigate the air concentration, bubble count rate, and bubble size downstream of a three-dimensional aerator involving various approach-flow features and geometric parameters. The results show that the cross-sectional distribution of the air bubble frequency is in accordance with the Gaussian distribution, and the relationship between the air concentration and bubble frequency obeys a quasi-parabolic law. The air bubble frequency reaches an apex at an air concentration (C) of approximately 50% and decreases to zero as C = 0% and C = 100%. The relative location of the air-bubble frequency apex is 0.210, 0.326 and 0.283 times the thickness of the layers at the upper, lower and side nappes, respectively. The air bubble chord length decreases gradually from the air water interface to the core area. The air concentration increases exponentially with the bubble chord length. The air bubble frequency distributions can be fit well using a “modified” gamma distribution function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Python Scripting Techniques for Control and Automation of HEC-RAS Simulations
Water 2018, 10(10), 1382; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101382
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of the paper was to present selected techniques for the control of river flow and sediment transport computations with the programming language Python. The base software for modeling of river processes was the well-known and widely used HEC-RAS. The concepts were [...] Read more.
The purpose of the paper was to present selected techniques for the control of river flow and sediment transport computations with the programming language Python. The base software for modeling of river processes was the well-known and widely used HEC-RAS. The concepts were tested on two models created for a single reach of the Warta river located in the central part of Poland. The ideas described were illustrated with three examples. The first was a basic simulation of a steady flow run from the Python script. The second example presented automatic calibration of model roughness coefficients with Nelder-Mead simplex from the SciPy module. In the third example, the sediment transport was controlled by Python script. Sediment samples were accessed and changed in the sediment data file stored in XML format. The results of the sediment simulation were read from HDF5 files. The presented techniques showed good effectiveness of this approach. The paper compared the developed techniques with other, earlier approaches to control of HEC-RAS computations. Possible further developments were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Flaring Gate Piers on Discharge Coefficient for Finite Crest-Length Weirs
Water 2018, 10(10), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101349
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 25 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
The use of flaring gate piers (FGPs) along with finite crest-length weirs changes the shape of plunging jets and increases the efficiency of energy dissipation in some projects; however, the FGPs may affect the discharge capacity. In this study, the flow pattern and [...] Read more.
The use of flaring gate piers (FGPs) along with finite crest-length weirs changes the shape of plunging jets and increases the efficiency of energy dissipation in some projects; however, the FGPs may affect the discharge capacity. In this study, the flow pattern and discharge coefficient were experimentally investigated under different conditions by varying the weir lengths Lw, contraction ratio β, contraction angle θ, and water heads H. A comparative analysis of the weirs with and without FGPs was performed. For the finite crest-length weirs with FGPs, the water-surface profiles in the flow channel were backwater curves. Moreover, the plunging jets leaving the weir became narrower and then subsequently diffused largely in the transverse and longitudinal directions in air. The discharge coefficients of the weirs with FGPs were approximately equal for various weir lengths. Moreover, following the earlier studies on traditional finite crest-length weirs, a discharge-coefficient equation was developed for the weir with an FGP in this study. The results showed that in the weirs with FGPs, the discharge coefficients clearly increased with the increase in the contraction ratio and water head, but the changes in their values along with the contraction angle were neglected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Collapsing Mechanisms of the Typical Cohesive Riverbank along the Ningxia–Inner Mongolia Catchment
Water 2018, 10(9), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091272
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
As one of the major sediment sources in rivers, bank collapse often occurs in the Ningxia–Inner Mongolia catchment and, to date, it caused substantial social, economic and environmental problems in both local areas and downstream locations. To provide a better understanding of this [...] Read more.
As one of the major sediment sources in rivers, bank collapse often occurs in the Ningxia–Inner Mongolia catchment and, to date, it caused substantial social, economic and environmental problems in both local areas and downstream locations. To provide a better understanding of this phenomenon, this study consisted of modifying the existing Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model (BSTEM), commonly used to investigate similar phenomena, introducing new assumptions and demonstrating its applicability by comparing numerical results obtained against field data recorded at six gauging stations (Qingtongxia, Shizuishan, Bayan Gol, Sanhuhekou, Zhaojunfen, and Toudaoguai). Furthermore, the impact of multiple factors typical of flood and dry seasons on the collapse rate was investigated, and insights obtained should be taken into consideration when completing future projects of river adaptation and river restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on the Impact Characteristics of Cavitation Bubble Collapse on a Wall
Water 2018, 10(9), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091262
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a hydrodynamic phenomenon, cavitation is a main concern in many industries such as water conservancy, the chemical industry and medical care. There are many studies on the generation, development and collapse of cavitation bubbles, but there are few studies on the variation [...] Read more.
As a hydrodynamic phenomenon, cavitation is a main concern in many industries such as water conservancy, the chemical industry and medical care. There are many studies on the generation, development and collapse of cavitation bubbles, but there are few studies on the variation of the cyclic impact strength on walls from the collapse of cavitation bubbles. In this paper, a high-speed dynamic acquisition and analysis system and a pressure measuring system are combined to study the impact of a cavitation bubble generated near a wall for various distances between the cavitation bubble and the wall. The results show that (1) with the discriminating criteria of the impact pressure borne by the wall, the critical conditions for the generation of a micro-jet in the collapse process of the cavitation bubbles are obtained, and therefore collapses of cavitation bubbles near the wall are mainly divided into primary impact area collapses, secondary impact area collapses and slow release area collapses; (2) it can be seen from the impact strength of the cavitation bubble collapse on the wall surface that the impact of cavitation bubbles on the wall surface during the first collapse decreases as γ (the dimensionless distance between the cavitation bubble and the wall) increases, but the impact of the second collapse on the wall surface increases first and then decreases sharply. When γ is less than 1.33, the impact on the wall surface is mainly from the first collapse. When γ is between 1.33 and 2.37, the impact on the wall surface is mainly from the second collapse. These conclusions have potential theoretical value for the utilization or prevention and control technologies for cavitation erosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Analytical Solution of One-Dimensional Gravity Wave Model Equations Using Dam-Break Experimental Measurements
Water 2018, 10(9), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091261
Received: 19 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
The one-dimensional gravity wave model (GWM) is the result of ignoring the convection term in the Saint-Venant Equations (SVEs), and has the characteristics of fast numerical calculation and low stability requirements. To study its performances and limitations in 1D dam-break flood, this paper [...] Read more.
The one-dimensional gravity wave model (GWM) is the result of ignoring the convection term in the Saint-Venant Equations (SVEs), and has the characteristics of fast numerical calculation and low stability requirements. To study its performances and limitations in 1D dam-break flood, this paper verifies the model using a dam-break experiment. The experiment was carried out in a large-scale flume with depth ratios (initial downstream water depth divided by upstream water depth) divided into 0 and 0.1~0.4. The data were collected by image processing technology, and the hydraulic parameters, such as water depth, flow discharge, and wave velocity, were selected for comparison. The experimental results show that the 1D GWM performs an area with constant hydraulic parameters, which is quite different from the experimental results in the dry downstream case. For a depth ratio of 0.1, the second weak discontinuity point, which is connected to the steady zone in the 1D GWM, moves upstream, which is contrary to the experimental situation. For depth ratios of 0.2~0.4, the moving velocity of the second weak discontinuity point is faster than the experimental value, while the velocity of the shock wave is slower. However, as the water depth ratio increases, the hydraulic parameters calculated by 1D GWM in the steady zone gradually approach the experimental value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Precipitation Evolution from Desert to Oasis Using Information Entropy Theory: A Case Study in Tarim Basin of Northwestern China
Water 2018, 10(9), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091258
Received: 25 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
The cold-wet effect of oasis improves the extreme natural conditions of the desert areas significantly. However, the relationship between precipitation and the width of oasis is challenged by the shortage of observed data. In this study, the evolution of annual precipitation from desert [...] Read more.
The cold-wet effect of oasis improves the extreme natural conditions of the desert areas significantly. However, the relationship between precipitation and the width of oasis is challenged by the shortage of observed data. In this study, the evolution of annual precipitation from desert to oasis was explored by the model establishment and simulation in Tarim Basin of northwestern China. The model was developed from the principle of maximum information entropy, and was calibrated by the China Meteorological Forcing Dataset with a high spatial resolution of 0.1° from 1990 to 2010. The model performs well in describing the evolution of annual precipitation from the desert to oasis when the oasis is wide enough, and the R2 is generally more than 0.90 and can be up to 0.99. However, it fails to simulate the seasonal precipitation evolution because of the non-convergence solved by nonlinear fitting and the unfixed upper boundary condition solved by the least square method. Through the simulation with the parameters obtained from the nonlinear fitting, the basic patterns, four stages of precipitation evolution with the oasis width increasing, are revealed at annual scale, and the current stages of these oases are also uncovered. Therefore, the establishment of the model and the simulated results provide a deeper insight from the perspective of informatics to understand the regional precipitation evolution of the desert–oasis system. These results are not only helpful in desertification prevention, but also helpful in fusing multisource data, especially in extreme drought desert areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Bubble Characteristics on Chute Spillway Bottom
Water 2018, 10(9), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091129
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
Chute aerators introduce a large air discharge through air supply ducts to prevent cavitation erosion on spillways. There is not much information on the microcosmic air bubble characteristics near the chute bottom. This study was focused on examining the bottom air-water flow properties [...] Read more.
Chute aerators introduce a large air discharge through air supply ducts to prevent cavitation erosion on spillways. There is not much information on the microcosmic air bubble characteristics near the chute bottom. This study was focused on examining the bottom air-water flow properties by performing a series of model tests that eliminated the upper aeration and illustrated the potential for bubble variation processes on the chute bottom. In comparison with the strong air detrainment in the impact zone, the bottom air bubble frequency decreased slightly. Observations showed that range of probability of the bubble chord length tended to decrease sharply in the impact zone and by a lesser extent in the equilibrium zone. A distinct mechanism to control the bubble size distribution, depending on bubble diameter, was proposed. For bubbles larger than about 1–2 mm, the bubble size distribution followed a—5/3 power-law scaling with diameter. Using the relationship between the local dissipation rate and bubble size, the bottom dissipation rate was found to increase along the chute bottom, and the corresponding Hinze scale showed a good agreement with the observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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Open AccessCase Report
A Comprehensive Method of Calculating Maximum Bridge Scour Depth
Water 2018, 10(11), 1572; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111572
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
Recently, the issues of scour around a bridge have become prominent because of the recurrent occurrence of extreme weather events. Thus, a bridge must be designed with the appropriate protection measures to prevent failure due to scour for the high flows to which [...] Read more.
Recently, the issues of scour around a bridge have become prominent because of the recurrent occurrence of extreme weather events. Thus, a bridge must be designed with the appropriate protection measures to prevent failure due to scour for the high flows to which it may be subjected during such extreme weather events. However, the current scour depth estimation by several recommended equations shows inaccurate results in high flow. One possible reason is that the current scour equations are based on experiments using free-surface flow even though extreme flood events can cause bridge overtopping flow in combination with submerged orifice flow. Another possible reason is that the current practice for the maximum scour depth ignores the interaction between different types of scour, local and contraction scour, when in fact these processes occur simultaneously. In this paper, laboratory experiments were carried out in a compound shape channel using a scaled down bridge model under different flow conditions (free, submerged orifice, and overtopping flow). Based on the findings from laboratory experiments coupled with widely used empirical scour estimation methods, a comprehensive way of predicting maximum scour depth is suggested which overcomes the problem regarding separate estimation of different scour depths and the interaction of different scour components. Furthermore, the effect of the existence of a pier bent (located close to the abutment) on the maximum scour depth was also investigated during the analysis. The results show that the location of maximum scour depth is independent of the presence of the pier bent but the amount of the maximum scour depth is relatively higher due to the discharge redistribution when the pier bent is absent rather than present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydraulics and Hydroinformatics)
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