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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Microbial communities of gut are well known to play vital roles in mammalian physiology. During [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Voluntary Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labelling System on Packaged Food Reformulation: The Health Star Rating System in New Zealand
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080918
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3702 | PDF Full-text (928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interpretive, front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels may encourage reformulation of packaged foods. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the Health Star Rating (HSR), a new voluntary interpretive FOP labelling system, on food reformulation in New Zealand. Annual surveys of packaged food and beverage [...] Read more.
Interpretive, front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels may encourage reformulation of packaged foods. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the Health Star Rating (HSR), a new voluntary interpretive FOP labelling system, on food reformulation in New Zealand. Annual surveys of packaged food and beverage labelling and composition were undertaken in supermarkets before and after adoption of HSR i.e., 2014 to 2016. Outcomes assessed were HSR uptake by food group star ratings of products displaying a HSR label; nutritional composition of products displaying HSR compared with non-HSR products; and the composition of products displaying HSR labels in 2016 compared with their composition prior to introduction of HSR. In 2016, two years after adoption of the voluntary system, 5.3% of packaged food and beverage products surveyed (n = 807/15,357) displayed HSR labels. The highest rates of uptake were for cereals, convenience foods, packaged fruit and vegetables, sauces and spreads, and ‘Other’ products (predominantly breakfast beverages). Products displaying HSR labels had higher energy density but had significantly lower mean saturated fat, total sugar and sodium, and higher fibre, contents than non-HSR products (all p-values < 0.001). Small but statistically significant changes were observed in mean energy density (−29 KJ/100 g, p = 0.002), sodium (−49 mg/100 g, p = 0.03) and fibre (+0.5 g/100 g, p = 0.001) contents of HSR-labelled products compared with their composition prior to adoption of HSR. Reformulation of HSR-labelled products was greater than that of non-HSR-labelled products over the same period, e.g., energy reduction in HSR products was greater than in non-HSR products (−1.5% versus −0.4%), and sodium content of HSR products decreased by 4.6% while that of non-HSR products increased by 3.1%. We conclude that roll-out of the voluntary HSR labelling system is driving healthier reformulation of some products. Greater uptake across the full food supply should improve population diets. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Acute Dose of Specific Grape and Apple Polyphenols Improves Endurance Performance: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind versus Placebo Controlled Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080917
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5576 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenols are thought to be an interesting ergogenic aid for exercise and recovery. However, most studies regarding the effects of polyphenols investigated several days of supplementations. The present work aimed to study the effects of an acute intake of grape and apple polyphenols [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are thought to be an interesting ergogenic aid for exercise and recovery. However, most studies regarding the effects of polyphenols investigated several days of supplementations. The present work aimed to study the effects of an acute intake of grape and apple polyphenols on the capacity to maintain intense exercise, here named endurance performance. Forty-eight physically active men (31 ± 6 years) were included in this study. During the two testing sessions, volunteers completed an endurance test at a high percentage of their maximal aerobic power and time to exhaustion was measured. Respiratory and pain parameters were also monitored. The preceding evening and 1 h before testing, volunteers had to absorb either 500 mg of polyphenols or placebo according to randomization. In comparison with the placebo, the mean duration of the maximal endurance test was significantly increased with polyphenols (+9.7% ± 6.0%, p < 0.05). The maximal perceived exertion was reached later with polyphenols (+12.8% ± 6.8%, p < 0.05). Practically, the present study showed the beneficial effects of grape and apple polyphenols for athletes looking for endurance performance improvements. The specifically designed profile of polyphenols appeared to enhance the capacity to maintain intensive efforts and delay perceived exertion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oil with Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Wastewater Produced by Physical Refining
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080916
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1636 | PDF Full-text (1097 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods [...] Read more.
While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods enriched with natural antioxidants, no data has been available on the production of a phenol-enriched refined olive oil with its own phenolic compounds extracted from wastewater produced during physical refining. In this study; we aimed to: (i) verify the effectiveness of a multi-step extraction process to recover the high-added-value phenolic compounds contained in wastewater derived from the preliminary washing degumming step of the physical refining of vegetal oils; (ii) evaluate their potential application for the stabilization of olive oil obtained with refined olive oils; and (iii) evaluate their antioxidant activity in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of using the refining wastewater as a source of bioactive compounds to improve the nutraceutical value as well as the antioxidant capacity of commercial olive oils. In the conditions adopted, the phenolic content significantly increased in the prototypes of phenol-enriched olive oils when compared with the control oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Potential of Pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) In Vitro and In Vivo
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080915
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2005 | PDF Full-text (2560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of pistachio against oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we investigate if polyphenols extracts from natural raw shelled pistachios (NP) or roasted salted pistachio (RP) kernels have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties at lower doses than reported [...] Read more.
Several reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of pistachio against oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we investigate if polyphenols extracts from natural raw shelled pistachios (NP) or roasted salted pistachio (RP) kernels have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties at lower doses than reported previously, in both in vitro and in vivo models. The monocyte/macrophage cell line J774 was used to assess the extent of protection by NP and RP pistachios against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Moreover, antioxidant activity of NP and RP was assessed in an in vivo model of paw edema in rats induced by carrageenan (CAR) injection in the paw. Results from the in vitro study demonstrated that pre-treatment with NP (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/mL) and RP (0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL) exerted a significant protection against LPS induced inflammation. Western blot analysis showed NP reduced the degradation of IκB-α, although not significantly, whereas both NP and RP decreased the TNF-α and IL-1β production in a dose-dependent way. A significant reduction of CAR-induced histological paw damage, neutrophil infiltration and nitrotyrosine formation was observed in the rats treated with NP. These data demonstrated that, at lower doses, polyphenols present in pistachios possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This may contribute toward a better understanding of the beneficial health effects associated with consumption of pistachios. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Prevention and Therapy of Type 2 Diabetes—What Is the Potential of Daily Water Intake and Its Mineral Nutrients?
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080914
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1901 | PDF Full-text (422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aim to present an overview of the possible influence of drinking water in general and mineral water in particular in improving glycemic parameters in persons with or without type 2 diabetes. We performed a literature search that produced 15 randomized controlled trials [...] Read more.
We aim to present an overview of the possible influence of drinking water in general and mineral water in particular in improving glycemic parameters in persons with or without type 2 diabetes. We performed a literature search that produced 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on this topic with mainly small sample sizes. We also discuss relevant observational and animal studies as well as the effects of important supplements in mineral water such as hydrogencarbonate and magnesium. There is low evidence for the positive effects of water or mineral water in improving glycemic parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic persons, and the results are heterogenous, making it difficult to reach an unequivocal conclusion. Meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies and other observational studies, studies with animal models and interventional studies using hydrogencarbonate and magnesium supplements suggest a probable positive effect of drinking water and mineral water in particular on glycemic parameters, supporting the positive results found in some of the RCTs, especially those substituting diet beverages or caloric beverages with water, or those using bicarbonate and magnesium-rich water. Regarding the high prevalence, the associated suffering and the resulting health expenditures of type 2 diabetes, it is imperative to conduct larger and more rigorous trials to answer the question whether drinking water or mineral water can improve glycemic parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic persons. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Precision Nutrition: A Review of Personalized Nutritional Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080913
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 7507 | PDF Full-text (902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account [...] Read more.
The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account in designing personalized and unbiased nutritional solutions for individuals or population sub-groups. Likewise, a concerted effort among basic, clinical scientists and health professionals will be needed to establish a comprehensive framework allowing the implementation of these new findings at the population level. In a world characterized by an overwhelming increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, tailored nutrition prescription represents a promising approach for both the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome. This review aims to discuss recent works in the field of precision nutrition analyzing most relevant aspects affecting an individual response to lifestyle/nutritional interventions. Latest advances in the analysis and monitoring of dietary habits, food behaviors, physical activity/exercise and deep phenotyping will be discussed, as well as the relevance of novel applications of nutrigenomics, metabolomics and microbiota profiling. Recent findings in the development of precision nutrition are highlighted. Finally, results from published studies providing examples of new avenues to successfully implement innovative precision nutrition approaches will be reviewed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080904
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3252 | PDF Full-text (2513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics’ [...] Read more.
Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics’ efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71–0.88), p < 0.0001). According to feeding type, the beneficial effect of probiotics was confirmed only in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65–0.86), p < 0.0001). Among HM-fed infants, only probiotic mixtures, and not single-strain products, were effective in reducing LOS incidence (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.57–0.80) p < 0.00001). The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Stress and Appetite Responses in Male Power-Trained Athletes during Intensive Training Camp
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080912
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1352 | PDF Full-text (842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An intensive consecutive high-volume training camp may induce appetite loss in athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in stress and appetite responses in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. The measurements at Day 2 and at the end [...] Read more.
An intensive consecutive high-volume training camp may induce appetite loss in athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the changes in stress and appetite responses in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. The measurements at Day 2 and at the end of a 9-day intensive training camp (Camp1 and Camp2, respectively) were compared with those of the resting period (Rest) and the regular training period (Regular; n = 13). The stress state was assessed based on plasma cortisol level, salivary immunoglobulin A level, and a profile of mood states score. The sensation of appetite was assessed using visual analog scale scores, and fasting plasma acylated ghrelin, insulin, and glucose were measured. The cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at Camp2 (466.7 ± 60.7 nmol∙L−1) than at Rest (356.3 ± 100.9 nmol∙L−1; p = 0.002) or Regular (361.7 ± 111.4 nmol∙L−1; p = 0.003). Both prospective and actual food consumption significantly decreased at Camp2, and acylated ghrelin concentration was significantly lower at Camp1 (34.2 ± 8.0 pg∙mL−1) and Camp2 (32.0 ± 8.7 pg∙mL−1) than at Rest (47.2 ± 11.2 pg∙mL−1) or Regular (53.4 ± 12.6 pg∙mL−1). Furthermore, the change in acylated ghrelin level was negatively correlated with the change in cortisol concentration. This study’s findings suggest that an early-phase physiological stress response may decrease the acylated ghrelin level in male power-trained athletes during an intensive training camp. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Polyphenolic Nutrients in Cancer Chemoprevention and Metastasis: Role of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal (EMT) Pathway
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080911
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2880 | PDF Full-text (2729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has received significant interest as a novel target in cancer prevention, metastasis, and resistance. The conversion of cells from an epithelial, adhesive state to a mesenchymal, motile state is one of the key events in the development of cancer [...] Read more.
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has received significant interest as a novel target in cancer prevention, metastasis, and resistance. The conversion of cells from an epithelial, adhesive state to a mesenchymal, motile state is one of the key events in the development of cancer metastasis. Polyphenols have been reported to be efficacious in the prevention of cancer and reversing cancer progression. Recently, the antimetastatic efficacy of polyphenols has been reported, thereby expanding the potential use of these compounds beyond chemoprevention. Polyphenols may affect EMT pathways, which are involved in cancer metastasis; for example, polyphenols increase the levels of epithelial markers, but downregulate the mesenchymal markers. Polyphenols also alter the level of expression and functionality of important proteins in other signaling pathways that control cellular mesenchymal characteristics. However, the specific proteins that are directly affected by polyphenols in these signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to analyze current evidence regarding the role of polyphenols in attenuating EMT-mediated cancer progression and metastasis. We also discuss the role of the most important polyphenol subclasses and members of the polyphenols in reversing metastasis and targeting EMT. Finally, limitations and future directions to improve our understanding in this field are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adapting the Healthy Eating Index 2010 for the Canadian Population: Evidence from the Canadian Community Health Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080910
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2156 | PDF Full-text (879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) has been made. [...] Read more.
The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) is a diet quality index shown to be associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Older versions of the HEI have been adapted for Canadian populations; however, no Canadian modification of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) has been made. The aims of this study were: (a) to develop a Canadian adaptation of the HEI-2010 (i.e., Healthy Eating Index-Canada 2010 (HEI-C 2010)) by adapting the recommendations of the HEI-2010 to Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) 2007; (b) to evaluate the validity and reliability of the HEI-C 2010; and (c) to examine relationships between HEI-C 2010 scores with diet quality and the likelihood of being obese. Data from 12,805 participants (≥18 years) were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association between compliance to the HEI-C 2010 recommendations and the likelihood of being obese, adjusting for errors in self-reported dietary data. The total mean error-corrected HEI-C 2010 score was 50.85 ± 0.35 out of 100. Principal component analysis confirmed multidimensionality of the HEI-C 2010, while Cronbach’s α = 0.78 demonstrated internal reliability. Participants in the fourth quartile of the HEI-C 2010 with the healthiest diets were less likely to consume refined grains and empty calories and more likely to consume beneficial nutrients and foods (p-trend < 0.0001). Lower adherence to the index recommendations was inversely associated with the likelihood of being obese; this association strengthened after correction for measurement error (Odds Ratio: 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.17–1.71). Closer adherence to Canada’s Food Guide 2007 assessed through the HEI-C 2010 was associated with improved diet quality and reductions in the likelihood of obesity when energy intake and measurement errors were taken into account. Consideration of energy requirements and energy density in future updates of Canada’s Food Guide are important and necessary to ensure broader application and usability of dietary quality indexes developed based on this national nutrition guideline. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nut Allergy in Two Different Areas of Spain: Differences in Clinical and Molecular Pattern
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080909
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1714 | PDF Full-text (1372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Different clinical and molecular patterns of food allergy have been reported in different areas of the world. The aim of the study is to evaluate differences in allergen patterns among nut-allergic patients in two different areas of Spain. Material and methods: A [...] Read more.
Introduction: Different clinical and molecular patterns of food allergy have been reported in different areas of the world. The aim of the study is to evaluate differences in allergen patterns among nut-allergic patients in two different areas of Spain. Material and methods: A total of 77 patients with nut allergy from two different regions of Spain (Madrid and Asturias) were evaluated. Results: Hazelnut, peanut, and walnut were the three most frequent nuts eliciting allergy in both regions, but in a different order. Patients from Madrid experienced systemic reactions more often than patients from Asturias (73.5% Madrid vs. 50.0%, p < 0.05). The percentage of sensitizations to LTP (Lipid Transfer Protein) was higher than Bet v 1 (p < 0.05) in the Madrid area. The percentage of sensitizations in Asturias area was similar to LTP than Bet v 1 (Pru p 3 46.4%, Bet v 1 42.9%, ns). Bet v 1 was the predominant allergen involved among hazelnut-allergic patients (56.2%), while LTP was more common in peanut-allergic patients (61.5%). Conclusion: Walnut, hazelnut, and peanut were the most frequent nuts eliciting allergy in Spain. Despite this, important differences in molecular pattern were appreciated not only between both regions, but also among nut-allergic patients in Asturias. The different molecular pattern was linked to the frequency of systemic symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Longitudinal Associations of High-Fructose Diet with Cardiovascular Events and Potential Risk Factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080872
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1539 | PDF Full-text (776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between fructose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess possible association of dietary intakes of fructose with the risk of CVD events in a prospective population-based study. Participants without CVD (n = 2369) were [...] Read more.
The relationship between fructose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess possible association of dietary intakes of fructose with the risk of CVD events in a prospective population-based study. Participants without CVD (n = 2369) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and followed a mean of 6.7 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary total fructose (TF) intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the risk of CVD across tertiles of dietary fructose. Linear regression models were used to indicate association of fructose intakes with changes of CVD risk factors over the study period. The mean age of participants (43.5% men) was 38.1 ± 13.3 years at baseline. During an average of 6.7 ± 1.4 years of follow-up, 79 participants experienced CVD outcomes. The mean daily intake of TF was 6.4 ± 3.7% of total energy (3.6 ± 2.0 from AF and 2.7 ± 1.8 from NF). Higher consumption of TF (≥7.4% vs. <4.5% of total energy) was accompanied with an increased risk of CVD (HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.04–3.15); higher energy intake from AF was also related to incidence of CVD (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.04–3.12), whereas NF was not associated with the risk of CVD outcomes. Both AF and TF were also related to changes of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, waist circumference, serum insulin and creatinine levels, as well as HDL-C. Our data provides further evidence regarding undesirable effects of fructose intake in relation to risk of CVD events. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Effect of Anthocyanin-Rich Foods or Extracts on Vascular Function in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080908
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2543 | PDF Full-text (3076 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anthocyanins are of interest due to their anti-oxidative and vasodilatory properties. Earlier reviews have shown that berries and other anthocyanin rich foods or extracts can improve vascular health, however the effect of anthocyanins on vascular function has not yet been reviewed. To address [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are of interest due to their anti-oxidative and vasodilatory properties. Earlier reviews have shown that berries and other anthocyanin rich foods or extracts can improve vascular health, however the effect of anthocyanins on vascular function has not yet been reviewed. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials examining anthocyanin-rich foods or extracts on measures of vascular reactivity and/or stiffness in adults. Data from 24 studies were pooled as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Anthocyanin consumption significantly improved flow-mediated dilation (FMD) following acute (SMD: 3.92%, 95% CI: 1.47, 6.38, p = 0.002; I2 = 91.8%) and chronic supplementation (SMD: 0.84%, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.12, p = 0.000; I2 = 62.5%). Pulse wave velocity was improved following acute supplementation only (SMD: −1.27 m/s, 95% CI: −1.96, −0.58, p = 0.000; I2 = 17.8%). These results support the findings of previous reviews that anthocyanin rich foods or extracts may indeed improve vascular health, particularly with respect to vascular reactivity measured by FMD. More research is required to determine the optimal dosage, and the long-term effects of consumption. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Multi-Targeted Molecular Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Polyphenols: An Opportunity for a Global Approach to Obesity
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080907
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 20 August 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2528 | PDF Full-text (4963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Improper diet can alter gene expression by breaking the energy balance equation and changing metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers, which can result in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. The pleiotropic effects of dietary plant polyphenols are capable of counteracting by modulating different [...] Read more.
Improper diet can alter gene expression by breaking the energy balance equation and changing metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers, which can result in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. The pleiotropic effects of dietary plant polyphenols are capable of counteracting by modulating different key molecular targets at the cell, as well as through epigenetic modifications. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS)-derived polyphenols are known to ameliorate various obesity-related conditions. Recent evidence leads to propose the complex nature of the underlying mechanism of action. This multi-targeted mechanism includes the regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways, transcription factors, hormones and peptides, digestive enzymes, as well as epigenetic modifications. This article reviews the accumulated evidence on the multiple anti-obesity effects of HS polyphenols in cell and animal models, as well as in humans, and its putative molecular targets. In silico studies reveal the capacity of several HS polyphenols to act as putative ligands for different digestive and metabolic enzymes, which may also deserve further attention. Therefore, a global approach including integrated and networked omics techniques, virtual screening and epigenetic analysis is necessary to fully understand the molecular mechanisms of HS polyphenols and metabolites involved, as well as their possible implications in the design of safe and effective polyphenolic formulations for obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080906
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2358 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be divided into two groups. The first includes the diagnosed eating disorders (EDs), i.e., diseases specifically identified by defined signs and symptoms for which a degree of severity has been established, such as [...] Read more.
Eating problems in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be divided into two groups. The first includes the diagnosed eating disorders (EDs), i.e., diseases specifically identified by defined signs and symptoms for which a degree of severity has been established, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, pica, and rumination. The second is the group of disordered eating symptoms (DES), which include behaviors such as dieting for weight loss, binge eating, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and laxative or diuretic use; these behaviors cannot be categorized as complete diseases, and, although apparently mild, they must be closely evaluated because they can evolve into true EDs. In this review, present knowledge about the clinical relevance of EDs and DES and the possible preventive and therapeutic measures used to reduce their impact on the course of T1D will be discussed. As adolescents with diabetes are at higher risk of eating disturbances and consequently for higher rates of disease complications, care providers should pay attention to clinical warning signs that raise suspicion of disturbed eating to refer these patients early to an expert in nutrition and mental health disorders. To ensure the best care for adolescents with T1D, diabetes teams should be multidisciplinary and include a pediatric diabetologist, a skilled nurse, a dietician, and a psychologist. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
Dynamic Energy Balance: An Integrated Framework for Discussing Diet and Physical Activity in Obesity Prevention—Is it More than Eating Less and Exercising More?
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080905
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3755 | PDF Full-text (1001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA [...] Read more.
Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA are important for weight management, they may not fully understand their impact on energy flux and how diet alters energy expenditure and energy expenditure alters diet. Many nutrition educators have little training in exercise science; thus, they may not have the knowledge essential to understanding the benefits of PA for health or weight management beyond burning calories. This paper highlights the importance of advancing nutrition educators’ understanding about PA, and its synergistic role with diet, and the value of incorporating a dynamic energy balance approach into obesity-prevention programs. Five key points are highlighted: (1) the concept of dynamic vs. static energy balance; (2) the role of PA in weight management; (3) the role of PA in appetite regulation; (4) the concept of energy flux; and (5) the integration of dynamic energy balance into obesity prevention programs. The rationale for the importance of understanding the physiological relationship between PA and diet for effective obesity prevention programming is also reviewed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cognitive Food Processing in Binge-Eating Disorder: An Eye-Tracking Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080903
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1885 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in binge-eating disorder (BED); however, more evidence on attentional engagement and disengagement and processing of multiple attention-competing stimuli is needed. This study aimed to examine visual attention to food and non-food stimuli in BED. In n [...] Read more.
Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in binge-eating disorder (BED); however, more evidence on attentional engagement and disengagement and processing of multiple attention-competing stimuli is needed. This study aimed to examine visual attention to food and non-food stimuli in BED. In n = 23 participants with full-syndrome and subsyndromal BED and n = 23 individually matched healthy controls, eye-tracking was used to assess attention to food and non-food stimuli during a free exploration paradigm and a visual search task. In the free exploration paradigm, groups did not differ in their initial fixation position. While both groups fixated non-food stimuli significantly longer than food stimuli, the BED group allocated significantly more attention towards food than controls. In the visual search task, groups did not differ in detection times. However, a significant detection bias for food was found in full-syndrome BED, but not in controls. An increased initial attention towards food was related to greater BED symptomatology and lower body mass index (BMI) only in full-syndrome BED, while a greater maintained attention to food was associated with lower BMI in controls. The results suggest food-biased visual attentional processing in adults with BED. Further studies should clarify the implications of attentional processes for the etiology and maintenance of BED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessReview
The Role of MicroRNAs in the Chemopreventive Activity of Sulforaphane from Cruciferous Vegetables
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080902
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2452 | PDF Full-text (2096 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colorectal cancer is an increasingly significant cause of mortality whose risk is linked to diet and inversely correlated with cruciferous vegetable consumption. This is likely to be partly attributable to the isothiocyanates derived from eating these vegetables, such as sulforaphane, which is extensively [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer is an increasingly significant cause of mortality whose risk is linked to diet and inversely correlated with cruciferous vegetable consumption. This is likely to be partly attributable to the isothiocyanates derived from eating these vegetables, such as sulforaphane, which is extensively characterised for cytoprotective and tumour-suppressing activities. However, its bioactivities are likely to extend in complexity beyond those currently known; further insight into these bioactivities could aid the development of sulforaphane-based chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic strategies. Evidence suggests that sulforaphane modulates the expression of microRNAs, many of which are known to regulate genes involved at various stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. Based upon existing knowledge, there exist many plausible mechanisms by which sulforaphane may regulate microRNAs. Thus, there is a strong case for the further investigation of the roles of microRNAs in the anti-cancer effects of sulforaphane. There are several different types of approach to the wide-scale profiling of microRNA differential expression. Array-based methods may involve the use of RT-qPCR or complementary hybridisation probe chips, and tend to be relatively fast and economical. Cloning and deep sequencing approaches are more expensive and labour-intensive, but are worth considering where viable, for their greater sensitivity and ability to detect novel microRNAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Applying a Consumer Behavior Lens to Salt Reduction Initiatives
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080901
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1517 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reformulation of food products to reduce salt content has been a central strategy for achieving population level salt reduction. In this paper, we reflect on current reformulation strategies and consider how consumer behavior determines the ultimate success of these strategies. We consider the [...] Read more.
Reformulation of food products to reduce salt content has been a central strategy for achieving population level salt reduction. In this paper, we reflect on current reformulation strategies and consider how consumer behavior determines the ultimate success of these strategies. We consider the merits of adopting a ‘health by stealth’, silent approach to reformulation compared to implementing a communications strategy which draws on labeling initiatives in tandem with reformulation efforts. We end this paper by calling for a multi-actor approach which utilizes co-design, participatory tools to facilitate the involvement of all stakeholders, including, and especially, consumers, in making decisions around how best to achieve population-level salt reduction. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Interaction Study of Omega-3 PUFAs and Other Fatty Acids on Inflammatory Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Health in the Framingham Heart Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080900
Received: 16 July 2017 / Revised: 5 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1583 | PDF Full-text (1310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Numerous genetic loci have been identified as being associated with circulating fatty acid (FA) levels and/or inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular health (e.g., C-reactive protein). Recently, using red blood cell (RBC) FA data from the Framingham Offspring Study, we conducted a genome-wide association study [...] Read more.
Numerous genetic loci have been identified as being associated with circulating fatty acid (FA) levels and/or inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular health (e.g., C-reactive protein). Recently, using red blood cell (RBC) FA data from the Framingham Offspring Study, we conducted a genome-wide association study of over 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 22 RBC FAs (and associated ratios), including the four Omega-3 FAs (ALA, DHA, DPA, and EPA). Our analyses identified numerous causal loci. In this manuscript, we investigate the extent to which polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels moderate the relationship of genetics to cardiovascular health biomarkers using a genome-wide interaction study approach. In particular, we test for possible gene–FA interactions on 9 inflammatory biomarkers, with 2.5 million SNPs and 12 FAs, including all Omega-3 PUFAs. We identified eighteen novel loci, including loci which demonstrate strong evidence of modifying the impact of heritable genetics on biomarker levels, and subsequently cardiovascular health. The identified genes provide increased clarity on the biological functioning and role of Omega-3 PUFAs, as well as other common fatty acids, in cardiovascular health, and suggest numerous candidate loci for future replication and biological characterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Choline Supplementation Normalizes Fetal Adiposity and Reduces Lipogenic Gene Expression in a Mouse Model of Maternal Obesity
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080899
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1800 | PDF Full-text (1379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Maternal obesity increases fetal adiposity which may adversely affect metabolic health of the offspring. Choline regulates lipid metabolism and thus may influence adiposity. This study investigates the effect of maternal choline supplementation on fetal adiposity in a mouse model of maternal obesity. C57BL/6J [...] Read more.
Maternal obesity increases fetal adiposity which may adversely affect metabolic health of the offspring. Choline regulates lipid metabolism and thus may influence adiposity. This study investigates the effect of maternal choline supplementation on fetal adiposity in a mouse model of maternal obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF) diet or a control (NF) diet and received either 25 mM choline supplemented (CS) or control untreated (CO) drinking water for 6 weeks before timed-mating and throughout gestation. At embryonic day 17.5, HF feeding led to higher (p < 0.05) percent total body fat in fetuses from the HFCO group, while the choline supplemented HFCS group did not show significant difference versus the NFCO group. Similarly, HF feeding led to higher (p < 0.05) hepatic triglyceride accumulation in the HFCO but not the HFCS fetuses. mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as Acc1, Fads1, and Elovl5, as well as the transcription factor Srebp1c that favors lipogenesis were downregulated (p < 0.05) by maternal choline supplementation in the HFCS group, which may serve as a mechanism to reduce fat accumulation in the fetal liver during maternal HF feeding. In summary, maternal choline supplementation improves indices of fetal adiposity in obese dams at late gestation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Status of Residents in Taiyuan, China and Influencing Factors
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080898
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1326 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported worldwide. Residents of Taiyuan, China, were predicted to be at high risk of vitamin D deficiency due to its high latitude, heavy air pollution, and cultural sun avoidance. This study investigated the vitamin D [...] Read more.
High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported worldwide. Residents of Taiyuan, China, were predicted to be at high risk of vitamin D deficiency due to its high latitude, heavy air pollution, and cultural sun avoidance. This study investigated the vitamin D status of office workers, and explored the potential determinants of capillary 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration as well as the relationship between 25(OH)D and metabolic syndrome. Two hundred participants, aged 20 to 80 years, were recruited. Capillary dried blood spot (DBS) 25(OH)D was measured; together with anthropometric (height, weight, and waist circumference), biochemical (serum lipid profile and fasting glucose) measures and a lifestyle questionnaire. Thirty-four percent of participants had 25(OH)D concentrations below 30 nmol/L, indicating deficient vitamin D status. Women’s 25(OH)D (median; 32.7 nmol/L (upper and lower quartile; 25.8, 43.8)) was significantly lower than men (44.0 nmol/L (32.3, 55.4)) (p < 0.01). Female gender, higher fasting glucose, and increased smoking (p < 0.05) were negatively associated with 25(OH)D concentration. However, there was no association found between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 25(OH)D concentration and no significant difference in vitamin D status between men or women with MetS compared to healthy individuals. Vitamin D deficiency was common in urban residents of Taiyuan in winter and more so in women than men. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Resveratrol in Hepatitis C Patients Treated with Pegylated-Interferon-α-2b and Ribavirin Reduces Sleep Disturbance
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080897
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. Aim: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C [...] Read more.
Background: Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment have shown to be risk factors for sleep disorder health-related quality of life. Aim: To determine whether the effects of resveratrol on sleep disorders were associated with different tests in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Peg-IFN-α and RBV. Patients and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial, 30 subjects (Group A) with chronic hepatitis received Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (1.5 mg/kg per week), Ribavirin and placebo (N-acetylcysteine 600 mg and lactoferrin 23.6 g), while 30 subjects (Group B) received the same dosage of Pegylated-Interferon-α2b, Ribavirin and association of N-acetylcysteine 600 mg, lactoferrin 23.6 g and Resveratrol 19.8 mg for 12 months. All subjects underwent laboratory exams and questionnaires to evaluate mood and sleep disorders (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)). Results: The comparison between Group A and Group B showed significant differences after six months in C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001); after 12 months in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p < 0.0001) Viremia (p < 0.0001), HAI (p < 0.0012) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001); and at follow up in AST (p < 0.0001), Viremia (p < 0.0026) and C-reactive protein (p < 0.0001). Significant differences were observed after 12 month and follow-up in General Health Questionnaire, after 1, 6, 12 and follow-up in Profile of Mood States, after 6, 12, follow-up in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Conclusions: Supplementation with Resveratrol decreased General Health Questionnaire score and reduced sleep disorders in patients treated with Peg–IFN-α and RBV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Choline Intake and Its Food Sources in the Diet of Romanian Kindergarten Children
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080896
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 12 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the usual intake and food sources of choline in a group of Romanian kindergarten children. A cross-sectional study was performed among 71 children aged 4–6 years from four kindergartens from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Dietary intake data [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to assess the usual intake and food sources of choline in a group of Romanian kindergarten children. A cross-sectional study was performed among 71 children aged 4–6 years from four kindergartens from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Dietary intake data were collected by means of three-day food records. The mean (SD) daily intake of choline was 215 (32) mg/day, 22.5% of the participants fulfilling the adequate intake (AI) for children 4–6 years of age of 250 mg of choline per day. The main food sources were meat (mainly poultry), eggs, grains, cereals, and baked products (mainly bread), and dairy products (mainly milk). The results of the logistic regression analyses show that an appropriate consumption of choline/day was statistically significantly associated with the consumption of at least one egg per three days (OR = 7.5, p < 0.05), a minimum of two portions of milk or dairy products per day (500 mL milk or yoghurt, or 60 g of cheese/day) (OR = 4.4, p < 0.05), and at least one portion of meat/day (90 g/day) (OR = 14.4, p < 0.05). The results underline the need for future surveys in this field, as well as actions to encourage an appropriate diet for children, including an appropriate content of choline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
Open AccessArticle
Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Renal Failure: Role of eNOS Activation and of Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080895
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1752 | PDF Full-text (2562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a key vascular alteration in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated whether n-3 PUFA could reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD by improving endothelial [...] Read more.
Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a key vascular alteration in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated whether n-3 PUFA could reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD by improving endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and oxidative stress. Methods: 5/6 nephrectomized male Wistar rats (CKD; n = 10) and sham operated animals (SHAM; n = 10) were treated for 6 weeks with standard diet. An additional group of CKD rats were fed an n-3 PUFA enriched diet (CKD + PUFA; n = 10). We then measured endothelium-dependent (EDD) and -independent vasodilation, markers of endothelial function and of oxidative stress in thoracic aortas. Results: Compared to SHAM, in CKD aortas EDD and eNOS expression were reduced (p < 0.05) and 3-nitrotyrosine levels were increased, while expression of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX4 and p22phox was similar. In-vitro incubation with Tiron failed to reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD. In CKD + PUFA, EDD improved (p < 0.05) compared with CKD rats, while blockade of eNOS by L-NAME worsened EDD. These effects were accompanied by increased (p < 0.05) eNOS and reduced (p < 0.05) expression of NOX4 and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicate that n-3 PUFA improve endothelial dysfunction by restoring NO bioavailability in CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessReview
Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080894
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, [...] Read more.
There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content. Existing evidence suggests that modulation of human breast milk composition has potential for preventing allergic diseases in early life. In this review, we discuss associations between breastfeeding/human milk composition and allergy development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Omega–3 Long-Chain Fatty Acids in the Heart, Kidney, Liver and Plasma Metabolite Profiles of Australian Prime Lambs Supplemented with Pelleted Canola and Flaxseed Oils
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080893
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1505 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to ascertain whether human health beneficial omega–3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in heart, kidney and liver can be enhanced by supplementing prime lambs with graded levels of canola and [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to ascertain whether human health beneficial omega–3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) content in heart, kidney and liver can be enhanced by supplementing prime lambs with graded levels of canola and flaxseed oil. Health status of the lambs, as a consequence of the supplementation, was also investigated by examining their plasma metabolites. Sixty purebred and first-cross lambs were allocated to one of five treatments of lucerne hay basal diet supplemented with isocaloric and isonitrogenous wheat-based pellets without oil inclusion (Control) or graded levels of canola oil at 2.5% (2.5C), 5% (5C), flaxseed oil at 2.5% (2.5F) and 5% (5F) in a completely randomised design. Pre-slaughter blood, post-slaughter kidney, liver and heart samples were analysed for plasma metabolite and fatty acid profiles. Summations of docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 LC-PUFA were enhanced in the liver and kidney of 5F supplemented lambs with a marked decrease in n-6/n-3 ratio and significant breed differences detected. There were generally no deleterious impacts on animal health status. A combination of 5% oil supplementation and lamb genetics is an effective and strategic management tool for enhancing n-3 LC-PUFA contents of heart, kidney and liver without compromising lamb health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents: Does Dietary Quality Play a Role?
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080892
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2515 | PDF Full-text (1032 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables and determine whether they vary [...] Read more.
Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables and determine whether they vary by generation, sex, dietary quality, or by the age of the children. The study sample consisted of 1435 families (1007 mothers, 438 fathers, 1035 daughters, and 1080 sons) from the multi-center I.Family study. Dietary intake was assessed in parents and their 2–19 years old children using repeated 24-h dietary recalls, from which the usual energy and food intakes were estimated with the U.S. National Cancer Institute Method. Food items were categorized as healthy or unhealthy based on their sugar, fat, and fiber content. Interclass and intraclass correlations were calculated for relative pairs. Familiality was estimated using variance component methods. Parent–offspring (r = 0.11–0.33), sibling (r = 0.21–0.43), and spouse (r = 0.15–0.33) correlations were modest. Parent–offspring correlations were stronger for the intake of healthy (r = 0.33) than unhealthy (r = 0.10) foods. Familiality estimates were 61% (95% CI: 54–68%) for the intake of fruit and vegetables and the sum of healthy foods and only 30% (95% CI: 23–38%) for the sum of unhealthy foods. Familial factors explained a larger proportion of the variance in healthy food intake (71%; 95% CI: 62–81%) in younger children below the age of 11 than in older children equal or above the age of 11 (48%; 95% CI: 38–58%). Factors shared by family members such as genetics and/or the shared home environment play a stronger role in shaping children’s intake of healthy foods than unhealthy foods. This suggests that family-based interventions are likely to have greater effects when targeting healthy food choices and families with younger children, and that other sorts of intervention are needed to address the intake of unhealthy foods by children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Consistency of Eating Rate, Oral Processing Behaviours and Energy Intake across Meals
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080891
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1956 | PDF Full-text (2233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Faster eating has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and the current study tested whether eating rate is consistent within an individual and linked to energy intake across multiple meals. Measures of ad libitum intake, eating rate, and oral processing at [...] Read more.
Faster eating has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and the current study tested whether eating rate is consistent within an individual and linked to energy intake across multiple meals. Measures of ad libitum intake, eating rate, and oral processing at the same or similar test meal were recorded on four non-consecutive days for 146 participants (117 male, 29 female) recruited across four separate studies. All the meals were video recorded, and oral processing behaviours were derived through behavioural coding. Eating behaviours showed good to excellent consistency across the meals (intra-class correlation coefficients > 0.76, p < 0.001) and participants who ate faster took larger bites (β ≥ 0.39, p < 0.001) and consistently consumed more energy, independent of meal palatability, sex, body composition and reported appetite (β ≥ 0.17, p ≤ 0.025). Importantly, eating faster at one meal predicted faster eating and increased energy intake at subsequent meals (β > 0.20, p < 0.05). Faster eating is relatively consistent within individuals and is predictive of faster eating and increased energy intake at subsequent similar meals consumed in a laboratory context, independent of individual differences in body composition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080890
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3205 | PDF Full-text (1267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Objective: To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential [...] Read more.
Objective: To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. Results: Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose–response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Conclusions: Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Full article
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