The relationship between fructose and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess possible association of dietary intakes of fructose with the risk of CVD events in a prospective population-based study. Participants without CVD (n
= 2369) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and followed a mean of 6.7 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary total fructose (TF) intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the risk of CVD across tertiles of dietary fructose. Linear regression models were used to indicate association of fructose intakes with changes of CVD risk factors over the study period. The mean age of participants (43.5% men) was 38.1 ± 13.3 years at baseline. During an average of 6.7 ± 1.4 years of follow-up, 79 participants experienced CVD outcomes. The mean daily intake of TF was 6.4 ± 3.7% of total energy (3.6 ± 2.0 from AF and 2.7 ± 1.8 from NF). Higher consumption of TF (≥7.4% vs. <4.5% of total energy) was accompanied with an increased risk of CVD (HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.04–3.15); higher energy intake from AF was also related to incidence of CVD (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.04–3.12), whereas NF was not associated with the risk of CVD outcomes. Both AF and TF were also related to changes of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, waist circumference, serum insulin and creatinine levels, as well as HDL-C. Our data provides further evidence regarding undesirable effects of fructose intake in relation to risk of CVD events.
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