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Special Issue "Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. J. Alfredo Martínez

Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Physiology, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nutritional control of metabolism; the nutritional utilization of functional foods; the evaluation of nutritional status in different populations; nutrition and inflammation; and cell, animal and human .experimental. interventional and epidemiological studies in obesity
Guest Editor
Prof. M. Angeles Zulet

Centre for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain; Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Physiology, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de la Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
E-Mail
Interests: obesity; metabolic syndrome; NAFLD; personalized nutrition; dietary strategy; health promotion; nutritional intervention; Mediterranean diet; macronutrient distribution; diet quality; hypocaloric diet; weight loss; inflammation; oxidative stress; nutrigenomic; nutrigenetic; metabolomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Precision nutrition is an emerging concept encompassing an integrated action considering, not only the genetic/epigenetic make-up and ethnic aspects of individuals, but other personalized phenotypical features, such as family and individual clinical issues, previous diseases, and therapeutic treatments, perinatal nutrition, food likes/dislikes, allergies/intolerances, lifestyle attitudes and patterns, social and cultural circumstances or religious beliefs, etc.

In this context, chronic disease prevalence is a global public health problem itself, which is also accompanied by a number of complications, including insulin resistance, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, fatty liver, inflammatory, oxidative status and inmunocompetence disturbances, and other adverse manifestations related to metabolic syndrome, which may need individualized nutritional approaches.

Therefore, the current special issue attempts to provide specific nutritional strategies to prevent or treat complications associated to metabolic syndrome features concerning diabetes, vascular events, liver diseases, dyslipemia, and cancer with a precision nutrition scope.

Prof. Dr. J. Alfredo Martínez
Prof. M. Angeles Zulet
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • NAFLD
  • Hypertension
  • Inflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Microbiota
  • Dietary patterns
  • Nutritional intervention
  • Precision nutrition
  • Personalization
  • Chrononutrition
  • Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Developmental Programming of Obesity and Liver Metabolism by Maternal Perinatal Nutrition Involves the Melanocortin System
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091041
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. [...] Read more.
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. Female mice heterozygous for Mc4r fed an obesogenic or a control diet for 5 weeks were mated with heterozygous males, with the same diet continued throughout pregnancy and lactation, generating four offspring groups: control wild type (C_wt), control knockout (C_KO), obese wild type (Ob_wt), and obese knockout (Ob_KO). At 21 days, offspring were genotyped, weaned onto a control diet, and sacrificed at 6 months old. Offspring phenotypic characteristics, plasma biochemical profile, liver histology, and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Mc4r_ko offspring showed higher body, liver and adipose tissue weights respect to the wild type animals. Histological examination showed mild hepatic steatosis in offspring group C_KO. The expression of hepatic genes involved in regulating inflammation, fibrosis, and immune cell infiltration were upregulated by the absence of the Mc4r gene. These results demonstrate that maternal obesogenic feeding during the perinatal period programs offspring obesity development with involvement of the Mc4r system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Protein Diet Score, Including Plant and Animal Protein, Investigating the Association with HbA1c and eGFR—The PREVIEW Project
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070763
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Higher-protein diets have been advocated for body-weight regulation for the past few decades. However, the potential health risks of these diets are still uncertain. We aimed to develop a protein score based on the quantity and source of protein, and to examine the [...] Read more.
Higher-protein diets have been advocated for body-weight regulation for the past few decades. However, the potential health risks of these diets are still uncertain. We aimed to develop a protein score based on the quantity and source of protein, and to examine the association of the score with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses were based on three population studies included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World): NQplus, Lifelines, and the Young Finns Study. Cross-sectional data from food-frequency questionnaires (n = 76,777 subjects) were used to develop a protein score consisting of two components: 1) percentage of energy from total protein, and 2) plant to animal protein ratio. An inverse association between protein score and HbA1c (slope −0.02 ± 0.01 mmol/mol, p < 0.001) was seen in Lifelines. We found a positive association between the protein score and eGFR in Lifelines (slope 0.17 ± 0.02 mL/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.0001). Protein scoring might be a useful tool to assess both the effect of quantity and source of protein on health parameters. Further studies are needed to validate this newly developed protein score. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Alterations in Circulating Amino Acid Metabolite Ratio Associated with Arginase Activity Are Potential Indicators of Metabolic Syndrome: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070740
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1027 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Upregulated arginase activity, which competes with nitric oxide synthase (NOS), impairs nitric oxide production and has been implicated in various metabolic disorders. This study examined whether circulating amino acid metabolite ratios are associated with arginase and NOS activities and whether arginine bioavailability is [...] Read more.
Upregulated arginase activity, which competes with nitric oxide synthase (NOS), impairs nitric oxide production and has been implicated in various metabolic disorders. This study examined whether circulating amino acid metabolite ratios are associated with arginase and NOS activities and whether arginine bioavailability is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Data related to arginase and NOS activities were collected from non-diabetic Koreans without cardiovascular disease (n = 1998) in the Ansan–Ansung cohorts (2005–2006). Subsequently, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. With the increase in the number of MetS risk factors, ratios of circulating amino acid metabolites, such as those of ornithine/citrulline, proline/citrulline, and ornithine/arginine, also significantly increased, whereas arginine bioavailability significantly decreased. These metabolite ratios and arginase bioavailability were also significantly correlated with MetS risk-related parameters, which remained significant after adjusting for covariates. In addition, logistic regression analysis revealed that high ratios of circulating metabolites and low arginine bioavailability, which indicated increased arginase activity, were significantly associated with a high MetS risk. This study demonstrated that altered ratios of circulating amino acid metabolites indicates increased arginase activity and decreased arginine bioavailability, both of which can be potential markers for MetS risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fruit Fiber Consumption Specifically Improves Liver Health Status in Obese Subjects under Energy Restriction
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070667
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevalence of non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to evaluate the influence of two energy-restricted diets on non-invasive markers and scores of liver damage in obese individuals with features of MS after six months [...] Read more.
The prevalence of non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to evaluate the influence of two energy-restricted diets on non-invasive markers and scores of liver damage in obese individuals with features of MS after six months of follow-up and to assess the role of fiber content in metabolic outcomes. Seventy obese individuals from the RESMENA (Reduction of Metabolic Syndrome in Navarra) study were evaluated at baseline and after six months of energy-restricted nutritional intervention (American Heart Association (AHA) and RESMENA dietary groups). Dietary records, anthropometrical data, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and routine laboratory measurements were analyzed by standardized methods. Regarding liver status, cytokeratin-18 fragments and several non-invasive scores of fatty liver were also assessed. The RESMENA strategy was a good and complementary alternative to AHA for the treatment of obesity-related comorbidities. Participants with higher insoluble fiber consumption (≥7.5 g/day) showed improvements in fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HIS), and NAFLD liver fat score (NAFLD_LFS), while gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and transaminases evidenced significant improvements as a result of fruit fiber consumption (≥8.8 g/day). Remarkably, a regression model evidenced a relationship between liver status and fiber from fruits. These results support the design of dietary patterns based on the consumption of insoluble fiber and fiber from fruits in the context of energy restriction for the management of obese patients suffering fatty liver disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genistein Supplementation and Cardiac Function in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a Pilot Strain-Echo Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9060584
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Genistein, a soy-derived isoflavone, may improve cardiovascular risk profile in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but few literature data on its cardiac effects in humans are available. The aim of this sub-study of a randomized double-blind case-control study was to analyze the [...] Read more.
Genistein, a soy-derived isoflavone, may improve cardiovascular risk profile in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but few literature data on its cardiac effects in humans are available. The aim of this sub-study of a randomized double-blind case-control study was to analyze the effect on cardiac function of one-year genistein dietary supplementation in 22 post-menopausal patients with MetS. Participants received 54 mg/day of genistein (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) in combination with a Mediterranean-style diet and regular exercise. Left ventricular (LV) systolic function was assessed as the primary endpoint, according to conventional and strain-echocardiography measurements. Also, left atrial (LA) morphofunctional indices were investigated at baseline and at the final visit. Results were expressed as median with interquartile range (IQ). A significant improvement of LV ejection fraction (20.3 (IQ 12.5) vs. −1.67 (IQ 24.8); p = 0.040)), and LA area fractional change (11.1 (IQ 22.6) vs. 2.8 (9.5); p = 0.034)) were observed in genistein patients compared to the controls, following 12 months of treatment. In addition, body surface area indexed LA systolic volume and peak LA longitudinal strain significantly changed from basal to the end of the study in genistein-treated patients. One-year supplementation with 54 mg/day of pure genistein improved both LV ejection fraction and LA remodeling and function in postmenopausal women with MetS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Are miRNA-103, miRNA-107 and miRNA-122 Involved in the Prevention of Liver Steatosis Induced by Resveratrol?
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9040360
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the reduction in liver fat previously observed in our laboratory in a cohort of rats which had been fed an obesogenic diet was mediated by changes in the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-103-3p, miRNA-107-3p [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the reduction in liver fat previously observed in our laboratory in a cohort of rats which had been fed an obesogenic diet was mediated by changes in the expression of microRNA (miRNA)-103-3p, miRNA-107-3p and miRNA-122-5p, which represent 70% of total miRNAs in the liver, as well as in their target genes. The expression of the three analysed miRNAs was reduced in rats treated with resveratrol. A reduction in sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and an increase in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) were observed in resveratrol-treated rats. No changes were found in fatty acid synthase (FAS). In cultured hepatocytes, SREBP1 protein was increased after the transfection of each miRNA. FAS protein expression was decreased after the transfection of miRNA-122-5p, and CPT1a protein was down-regulated by the over-expression of miRNA-107-3p. This study provides new evidences which show that srebf1 is a target gene for miRNA-103-3p and miRNA-107-3p, fasn a target gene for miRNA-122-5p and cpt1a a target gene for miRNA-107-3p. Moreover, the reduction in liver steatosis induced by resveratrol in rats fed an obesegenic diet is mediated, at least in part, by the increase in CPT1a protein expression and activity, via a decrease in miRNA-107-3p expression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Integration of Traditional and Metabolomics Biomarkers Identifies Prognostic Metabolites for Predicting Responsiveness to Nutritional Intervention against Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030233
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 4 March 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Various statistical approaches can be applied to integrate traditional and omics biomarkers, allowing the discovery of prognostic markers to classify subjects into poor and good prognosis groups in terms of responses to nutritional interventions. Here, we performed a prototype study to identify metabolites [...] Read more.
Various statistical approaches can be applied to integrate traditional and omics biomarkers, allowing the discovery of prognostic markers to classify subjects into poor and good prognosis groups in terms of responses to nutritional interventions. Here, we performed a prototype study to identify metabolites that predict responses to an intervention against oxidative stress and inflammation, using a data set from a randomized controlled trial evaluating Korean black raspberry (KBR) in sedentary overweight/obese subjects. First, a linear mixed-effects model analysis with multiple testing correction showed that four-week consumption of KBR significantly changed oxidized glutathione (GSSG, q = 0.027) level, the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to GSSG (q = 0.039) in erythrocytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, q = 0.006) and interleukin-6 (q = 0.006) levels in plasma, and seventeen NMR metabolites in urine compared with those in the placebo group. A subsequent generalized linear mixed model analysis showed linear correlations between baseline urinary glycine and N-phenylacetylglycine (PAG) and changes in the GSH:GSSG ratio (p = 0.008 and 0.004) as well as between baseline urinary adenine and changes in MDA (p = 0.018). Then, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a two-metabolite set (glycine and PAG) had the strongest prognostic relevance for future interventions against oxidative stress (the area under the curve (AUC) = 0.778). Leave-one-out cross-validation confirmed the accuracy of prediction (AUC = 0.683). The current findings suggest that a higher level of this two-metabolite set at baseline is useful for predicting responders to dietary interventions in subjects with oxidative stress and inflammation, contributing to the emergence of personalized nutrition. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Fatty Acids Consumption: The Role Metabolic Aspects Involved in Obesity and Its Associated Disorders
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101158
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are [...] Read more.
Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are proposed to treat and prevent these disorders. Some studies demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (SFA) are considered detrimental for treating these disorders. A high fat diet rich in palmitic acid, a SFA, is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and it may also increase atherosclerosis parameters. On the other hand, a high intake of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids may promote positive effects, especially on triglyceride levels and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are effective at limiting the hepatic steatosis process through a series of biochemical events, such as reducing the markers of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, increasing the gene expression of lipid metabolism, decreasing lipogenic activity, and releasing adiponectin. This current review shows that the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, MUFA, and PUFA, and especially EPA and DHA, which can be applied as food supplements, may promote effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as on metabolic inflammation, gut microbiota, and hepatic metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Precision Nutrition for Targeting Lipid Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101076
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer is a multistage and multifactorial condition with genetic and environmental factors modulating tumorogenesis and disease progression. Nevertheless, cancer is preventable, as one third of cancer deaths could be avoided by modifying key risk factors. Nutrients can directly affect fundamental cellular processes and [...] Read more.
Cancer is a multistage and multifactorial condition with genetic and environmental factors modulating tumorogenesis and disease progression. Nevertheless, cancer is preventable, as one third of cancer deaths could be avoided by modifying key risk factors. Nutrients can directly affect fundamental cellular processes and are considered among the most important risk factors in colorectal cancer (CRC). Red and processed meat, poultry consumption, fiber, and folate are the best-known diet components that interact with colorectal cancer susceptibility. In addition, the direct association of an unhealthy diet with obesity and dysbiosis opens new routes in the understanding of how daily diet nutrients could influence cancer prognosis. In the “omics” era, traditional nutrition has been naturally evolved to precision nutrition where technical developments have contributed to a more accurate discipline. In this sense, genomic and transcriptomic studies have been extensively used in precision nutrition approaches. However, the relation between CRC carcinogenesis and nutrition factors is more complex than originally expected. Together with classical diet-nutrition-related genes, nowadays, lipid-metabolism-related genes have acquired relevant interest in precision nutrition studies. Lipids regulate very diverse cellular processes from ATP synthesis and the activation of essential cell-signaling pathways to membrane organization and plasticity. Therefore, a wide range of tumorogenic steps can be influenced by lipid metabolism, both in primary tumours and distal metastasis. The extent to which genetic variants, together with the intake of specific dietary components, affect the risk of CRC is currently under investigation, and new therapeutic or preventive applications must be explored in CRC models. In this review, we will go in depth into the study of co-occurring events, which orchestrate CRC tumorogenesis and are essential for the evolution of precision nutrition paradigms. Likewise, we will discuss the application of precision nutrition approaches to target lipid metabolism in CRC. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Bariatric Surgery and Precision Nutrition
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9090974
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three [...] Read more.
This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient’s genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment. We include investigations that demonstrate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with obesity phenotypes and their influence on weight loss after bariatric surgery. We also present reports on how significant weight loss induced by bariatric surgery impacts telomere length, and we discuss studies on the existence of an epigenetic signature associated with surgery outcomes and specific gene methylation profile, which may help to predict weight loss after a surgical procedure. Finally, we show articles which evidence that bariatric surgery may affect expression of numerous genes involved in different metabolic pathways and consequently induce functional and taxonomic changes in gut microbial communities. The role nutritional genomics plays in responses to weight loss after bariatric surgery is evident. Better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in this process is necessary for successful weight management and maintenance. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Precision Nutrition: A Review of Personalized Nutritional Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080913
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account [...] Read more.
The translation of the growing increase of findings emerging from basic nutritional science into meaningful and clinically relevant dietary advices represents nowadays one of the main challenges of clinical nutrition. From nutrigenomics to deep phenotyping, many factors need to be taken into account in designing personalized and unbiased nutritional solutions for individuals or population sub-groups. Likewise, a concerted effort among basic, clinical scientists and health professionals will be needed to establish a comprehensive framework allowing the implementation of these new findings at the population level. In a world characterized by an overwhelming increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, tailored nutrition prescription represents a promising approach for both the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome. This review aims to discuss recent works in the field of precision nutrition analyzing most relevant aspects affecting an individual response to lifestyle/nutritional interventions. Latest advances in the analysis and monitoring of dietary habits, food behaviors, physical activity/exercise and deep phenotyping will be discussed, as well as the relevance of novel applications of nutrigenomics, metabolomics and microbiota profiling. Recent findings in the development of precision nutrition are highlighted. Finally, results from published studies providing examples of new avenues to successfully implement innovative precision nutrition approaches will be reviewed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Hydroxytyrosol in the Prevention of the Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9030306
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Virgin olive oil (VOO) constitutes the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet. VOO is rich in oleic acid, displaying health-promoting properties, but also contains minor bioactive components, especially phenolic compounds. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main polyphenol of olive oil, has been reported [...] Read more.
Virgin olive oil (VOO) constitutes the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet. VOO is rich in oleic acid, displaying health-promoting properties, but also contains minor bioactive components, especially phenolic compounds. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main polyphenol of olive oil, has been reported to be the most bioactive component. This review aims to compile the results of clinical, animal and cell culture studies evaluating the effects of HT on the features of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (body weight/adiposity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia/insulin resistance) and associated complications (oxidative stress and inflammation). HT was able to improve the lipid profile, glycaemia, and insulin sensitivity, and counteract oxidative and inflammatory processes. Experimental studies identified multiple molecular targets for HT conferring its beneficial effect on health in spite of its low bioavailability. However, rodent experiments and clinical trials with pure HT at biologically relevant concentrations are still lacking. Moreover, the roles of intestine and its gut microbiota have not been elucidated. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessCommentary
The Role of the Japanese Traditional Diet in Healthy and Sustainable Dietary Patterns around the World
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020173
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As incomes steadily increase globally, traditional diets have been displaced by diets that are usually animal-based with a high content of “empty calories” or refined sugars, refined fats, and alcohol. Dietary transition coupled with the expansion of urbanization and lower physical activity have [...] Read more.
As incomes steadily increase globally, traditional diets have been displaced by diets that are usually animal-based with a high content of “empty calories” or refined sugars, refined fats, and alcohol. Dietary transition coupled with the expansion of urbanization and lower physical activity have been linked to the global growth in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and life style-related non-communicable diseases. The challenge is in how to reverse the trend of high consumption of less healthy food by more healthful and more environmentally sustainable diets. The increasing recognition that each individual has specific needs depending on age, metabolic condition, and genetic profile adds complexity to general nutritional considerations. If we were to promote the consumption of low-energy and low salt but nutritious diets, taste becomes a relevant food quality. The Japanese traditional diet (Washoku), which is characterized by high consumption of fish and soybean products and low consumption of animal fat and meat, relies on the effective use of umami taste to enhance palatability. There may be a link between Washoku and the longevity of the people in Japan. Thus Washoku and umami may be valuable tools to support healthy eating. Full article
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