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Polyphenolic Nutrients in Cancer Chemoprevention and Metastasis: Role of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal (EMT) Pathway

1
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
2
Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, St. John’s University Queens, New York, NY 11432, USA
3
Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088, USA
4
Medicinal chemistry Division, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical education and Research (RIPER)-Autonomous, Anantapur 515721, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080911
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has received significant interest as a novel target in cancer prevention, metastasis, and resistance. The conversion of cells from an epithelial, adhesive state to a mesenchymal, motile state is one of the key events in the development of cancer metastasis. Polyphenols have been reported to be efficacious in the prevention of cancer and reversing cancer progression. Recently, the antimetastatic efficacy of polyphenols has been reported, thereby expanding the potential use of these compounds beyond chemoprevention. Polyphenols may affect EMT pathways, which are involved in cancer metastasis; for example, polyphenols increase the levels of epithelial markers, but downregulate the mesenchymal markers. Polyphenols also alter the level of expression and functionality of important proteins in other signaling pathways that control cellular mesenchymal characteristics. However, the specific proteins that are directly affected by polyphenols in these signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to analyze current evidence regarding the role of polyphenols in attenuating EMT-mediated cancer progression and metastasis. We also discuss the role of the most important polyphenol subclasses and members of the polyphenols in reversing metastasis and targeting EMT. Finally, limitations and future directions to improve our understanding in this field are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; chemoprevention; cancer; metastasis; epithelial mesenchymal transition polyphenols; chemoprevention; cancer; metastasis; epithelial mesenchymal transition
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Amawi, H.; Ashby, C.R., Jr.; Samuel, T.; Peraman, R.; Tiwari, A.K. Polyphenolic Nutrients in Cancer Chemoprevention and Metastasis: Role of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal (EMT) Pathway. Nutrients 2017, 9, 911.

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