Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Buffering High Acid Load Meal with Sodium Bicarbonate on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Humans—A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study
Previous Article in Journal
Suppression of Wnt Signaling and Osteogenic Changes in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Bridging the Gap between Gut Microbial Dysbiosis and Cardiovascular Diseases

1,2,†, 1,3,†, 1,2,†, 1,†, 1, 1 and 1,4,*
Bachelor of Health Sciences (Honours), Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
MD Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
Sr. Principal Scientist, Research Executive Administration, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam 32253, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors should be considered co-first authors and contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 859;
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
PDF [1944 KB, uploaded 10 August 2017]


The human gut is heavily colonized by a community of microbiota, primarily bacteria, that exists in a symbiotic relationship with the host and plays a critical role in maintaining host homeostasis. The consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet has been shown to induce gut dysbiosis and reduce intestinal integrity. Recent studies have revealed that dysbiosis contributes to the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by promoting two major CVD risk factors—atherosclerosis and hypertension. Imbalances in host–microbial interaction impair homeostatic mechanisms that regulate health and can activate multiple pathways leading to CVD risk factor progression. Dysbiosis has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis through metabolism-independent and metabolite-dependent pathways. This review will illustrate how these pathways contribute to the various stages of atherosclerotic plaque progression. In addition, dysbiosis can promote hypertension through vascular fibrosis and an alteration of vascular tone. As CVD is the number one cause of death globally, investigating the gut microbiota as a locus of intervention presents a novel and clinically relevant avenue for future research, with vast therapeutic potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; dysbiosis; cardiovascular disease; probiotics; prebiotics gut microbiota; dysbiosis; cardiovascular disease; probiotics; prebiotics

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lau, K.; Srivatsav, V.; Rizwan, A.; Nashed, A.; Liu, R.; Shen, R.; Akhtar, M. Bridging the Gap between Gut Microbial Dysbiosis and Cardiovascular Diseases. Nutrients 2017, 9, 859.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top