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Open AccessArticle

Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis

NNEdPro Global Centre for Nutrition and Health, St John’s Innovation Centre, Cambridge CB4 0WS, UK
Integrated Cancer Registry of Catania-Messina-Siracusa-Enna, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, 95123 Catania, Italy
Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-008 Krakow, Poland
Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
IDISNA (Navarra’s Health Research Institute, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 890;
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
Objective: To perform a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies investigating the association between long-term coffee intake and risk of hypertension. Methods: An online systematic search of studies published up to November 2016 was performed. Linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses were conducted; potential evidence of heterogeneity, publication bias, and confounding effect of selected variables were investigated through sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. Results: Seven cohorts including 205,349 individuals and 44,120 cases of hypertension were included. In the non-linear analysis, there was a 9% significant decreased risk of hypertension per seven cups of coffee a day, while, in the linear dose–response association, there was a 1% decreased risk of hypertension for each additional cup of coffee per day. Among subgroups, there were significant inverse associations for females, caffeinated coffee, and studies conducted in the US with longer follow-up. Analysis of potential confounders revealed that smoking-related variables weakened the strength of association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. Conclusions: Increased coffee consumption is associated with a modest decrease in risk of hypertension in prospective cohort studies. Smoking status is a potential effect modifier on the association between coffee consumption and risk of hypertension. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; hypertension; risk; cohort; smoking; meta-analysis coffee; hypertension; risk; cohort; smoking; meta-analysis
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Grosso, G.; Micek, A.; Godos, J.; Pajak, A.; Sciacca, S.; Bes-Rastrollo, M.; Galvano, F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. Long-Term Coffee Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2017, 9, 890.

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