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Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle

Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College London, London W2 1NY, UK
Faculty of Pediatrics, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
The In-FLAME Global Network, an Affiliate of the World Universities Network (WUN), West New York, NJ 07093, USA
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), 46980 Valencia, Spain
Allergy and Immunology, The Kids Research Institute, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW 2145, Australia
Nutricia Research, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
Department of Paediatric Immunology, Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht, 3584 EA Utrecht, The Netherlands
School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
Institute of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiochemistry, Molecular Diagnostics, Philipps University Marburg, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg GmbH Baldingerstr, 35043 Marburg, Germany
Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
Charles Perkins Centre Nepean, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2747, Australia
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-5270, USA
Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
Center for Urban Responses to Environmental Stressors, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1C9, Canada
National Institute for Health Research, Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for NW London, London SW10 9NH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
All authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 894;
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases)
There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content. Existing evidence suggests that modulation of human breast milk composition has potential for preventing allergic diseases in early life. In this review, we discuss associations between breastfeeding/human milk composition and allergy development. View Full-Text
Keywords: breastfeeding; human milk; allergy; allergic diseases; oligosaccharides; microbiome; cytokines; thymus breastfeeding; human milk; allergy; allergic diseases; oligosaccharides; microbiome; cytokines; thymus
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Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Munblit, D.; Peroni, D.G.; Boix-Amorós, A.; Hsu, P.S.; Land, B.V.; Gay, M.C.L.; Kolotilina, A.; Skevaki, C.; Boyle, R.J.; Collado, M.C.; Garssen, J.; Geddes, D.T.; Nanan, R.; Slupsky, C.; Wegienka, G.; Kozyrskyj, A.L.; Warner, J.O. Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle. Nutrients 2017, 9, 894.

AMA Style

Munblit D, Peroni DG, Boix-Amorós A, Hsu PS, Land BV, Gay MCL, Kolotilina A, Skevaki C, Boyle RJ, Collado MC, Garssen J, Geddes DT, Nanan R, Slupsky C, Wegienka G, Kozyrskyj AL, Warner JO. Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle. Nutrients. 2017; 9(8):894.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Munblit, Daniel, Diego G. Peroni, Alba Boix-Amorós, Peter S. Hsu, Belinda Van’t Land, Melvin C. L. Gay, Anastasia Kolotilina, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Robert J. Boyle, Maria Carmen Collado, Johan Garssen, Donna T. Geddes, Ralph Nanan, Carolyn Slupsky, Ganesa Wegienka, Anita L. Kozyrskyj, and John O. Warner. 2017. "Human Milk and Allergic Diseases: An Unsolved Puzzle" Nutrients 9, no. 8: 894.

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