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Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Renal Failure: Role of eNOS Activation and of Oxidative Stress

1
Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, 34149 Trieste, Italy
2
Animal Facility, University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080895
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a key vascular alteration in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Omega 3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated whether n-3 PUFA could reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD by improving endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and oxidative stress. Methods: 5/6 nephrectomized male Wistar rats (CKD; n = 10) and sham operated animals (SHAM; n = 10) were treated for 6 weeks with standard diet. An additional group of CKD rats were fed an n-3 PUFA enriched diet (CKD + PUFA; n = 10). We then measured endothelium-dependent (EDD) and -independent vasodilation, markers of endothelial function and of oxidative stress in thoracic aortas. Results: Compared to SHAM, in CKD aortas EDD and eNOS expression were reduced (p < 0.05) and 3-nitrotyrosine levels were increased, while expression of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX4 and p22phox was similar. In-vitro incubation with Tiron failed to reverse endothelial dysfunction in CKD. In CKD + PUFA, EDD improved (p < 0.05) compared with CKD rats, while blockade of eNOS by L-NAME worsened EDD. These effects were accompanied by increased (p < 0.05) eNOS and reduced (p < 0.05) expression of NOX4 and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicate that n-3 PUFA improve endothelial dysfunction by restoring NO bioavailability in CKD. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega 3 PUFA; endothelial dysfunction; renal disease; nitric oxide; superoxide omega 3 PUFA; endothelial dysfunction; renal disease; nitric oxide; superoxide
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Zanetti, M.; Gortan Cappellari, G.; Barbetta, D.; Semolic, A.; Barazzoni, R. Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Renal Failure: Role of eNOS Activation and of Oxidative Stress. Nutrients 2017, 9, 895.

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