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Nutrients, Volume 16, Issue 5 (March-1 2024) – 184 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In recent decades, as a result of rising mortality rates due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), there has been a growing urgency to find alternative approaches to conventional pharmaceutical treatment to prevent the onset of chronic diseases. Arthrospira platensis, commonly known as Spirulina, is a blue-green cyanobacterium, classified as a “superfood”, used worldwide as a nutraceutical food supplement due to its remarkable nutritional value, lack of toxicity, and therapeutic effects. Several scientific studies have evaluated the cardioprotective role of Spirulina. This article presents a comprehensive review of the therapeutic benefits of Spirulina in improving cardio- and cerebrovascular health. View this paper
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22 pages, 689 KiB  
Review
Risk of Excess Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation in Offspring
by Xiguang Xu, Ziyu Zhang, Yu Lin and Hehuang Xie
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050755 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Folate, also known as vitamin B9, facilitates the transfer of methyl groups among molecules, which is crucial for amino acid metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Adequate maternal folate supplementation has been widely acknowledged for its pivotal role in promoting cell proliferation and preventing neural [...] Read more.
Folate, also known as vitamin B9, facilitates the transfer of methyl groups among molecules, which is crucial for amino acid metabolism and nucleotide synthesis. Adequate maternal folate supplementation has been widely acknowledged for its pivotal role in promoting cell proliferation and preventing neural tube defects. However, in the post-fortification era, there has been a rising concern regarding an excess maternal intake of folic acid (FA), the synthetic form of folate. In this review, we focused on recent advancements in understanding the influence of excess maternal FA intake on offspring. For human studies, we summarized findings from clinical trials investigating the effects of periconceptional FA intake on neurodevelopment and molecular-level changes in offspring. For studies using mouse models, we compiled the impact of high maternal FA supplementation on gene expression and behavioral changes in offspring. In summary, excessive maternal folate intake could potentially have adverse effects on offspring. Overall, we highlighted concerns regarding elevated maternal folate status in the population, providing a comprehensive perspective on the potential adverse effects of excessive maternal FA supplementation on offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2023 Collection: Dietary, Lifestyle and Children Health)
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20 pages, 5165 KiB  
Article
The Interaction between Human Microbes and Advanced Glycation End Products: The Role of Klebsiella X15 on Advanced Glycation End Products’ Degradation
by Aiying Shi, Xuemeng Ji, Wanhua Li, Lu Dong, Yuekun Wu, Yunhui Zhang, Xiaoxia Liu, Yan Zhang and Shuo Wang
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050754 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are implicated in the occurrence and progression of numerous diseases, with dietary AGEs being particularly associated with intestinal disorders. In this study, methylglyoxal-beta-lactoglobulin AGEs (MGO-β-LG AGEs) were utilized as the exclusive nitrogen source [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are implicated in the occurrence and progression of numerous diseases, with dietary AGEs being particularly associated with intestinal disorders. In this study, methylglyoxal-beta-lactoglobulin AGEs (MGO-β-LG AGEs) were utilized as the exclusive nitrogen source to investigate the interaction between protein-bound AGEs and human gut microbiota. The high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of alterations in peptides containing AGEs within metabolites before and after fermentation elucidated the capacity of intestinal microorganisms to enzymatically hydrolyze long-chain AGEs into short-chain counterparts. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Escherichia-Shigella, and other genera as dominant microbiota at different fermentation times. A total of 187 potential strains of AGE-metabolizing bacteria were isolated from the fermentation broth at various time points. Notably, one strain of Klebsiella exhibited the most robust growth capacity when AGEs served as the sole nitrogen source. Subsequently, proteomics was employed to compare the changes in protein levels of Klebsiella X15 following cultivation in unmodified proteins and proteins modified with AGEs. This analysis unveiled a remodeled amino acid and energy metabolism pathway in Klebsiella in response to AGEs, indicating that Klebsiella may possess a metabolic pathway specifically tailored to AGEs. This study found that fermenting AGEs in healthy human intestinal microbiota altered the bacterial microbiota structure, especially by increasing Klebsiella proliferation, which could be a key factor in AGEs’ role in causing diseases, particularly intestinal inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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10 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Elderly Nutrition: A Qualitative Evaluation of Menus in a Social Solidarity Institution in the North of Portugal
by Sandra Celina Fernandes Fonseca, Suzanne Carvalho Barroso and Maria Cristina Teixeira Santos
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050753 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1204
Abstract
This work addresses the importance of food and nutrition in promoting the health of the elderly population, with a specific focus on the qualitative evaluation of menus provided by a social solidarity institution in Portugal. The aim of this study is to conduct [...] Read more.
This work addresses the importance of food and nutrition in promoting the health of the elderly population, with a specific focus on the qualitative evaluation of menus provided by a social solidarity institution in Portugal. The aim of this study is to conduct a qualitative evaluation of menus furnished by a social solidarity institution situated in the northern region of Portugal in order to prevent and/or treat malnutrition in the elderly. The methodology involves the evaluation of four weekly menus, totaling 28 complete daily menus for the elderly, using the “Avaliação Qualitativa de Ementas Destinadas a Idosos” (AQEDI) tool. This assessment tool comprises six domains: general items, soup, protein suppliers, carbohydrate suppliers, vegetable suppliers, and dessert, each consisting of various parameters. The findings reveal that all menus were classified as “acceptable,” with percentages ranging from 60.73% to 68.84%, and suggest that there exists room for improvement. This study emphasizes the necessity for coordinated efforts within the institution to enhance menu planning, taking into account both nutritional guidelines and sensory aspects of food. Effective coordination within the institution is crucial for maintaining positive aspects and rectifying inadequacies in menu planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Status in Vulnerable Groups)
15 pages, 450 KiB  
Review
A Narrative Review Comparing Nutritional Screening Tools in Outpatient Management of Cancer Patients
by Delia Gil-Andrés and Luis Cabañas-Alite
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050752 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1071
Abstract
Malnutrition during cancer has a negative impact on prognosis and quality of life. Therefore, it is important to identify those patients at higher nutritional risk to prevent its development. There are nutritional screening tools, such as MUST and NRS-2002, that focus on the [...] Read more.
Malnutrition during cancer has a negative impact on prognosis and quality of life. Therefore, it is important to identify those patients at higher nutritional risk to prevent its development. There are nutritional screening tools, such as MUST and NRS-2002, that focus on the patient on admission to hospital. However, most patients will develop malnutrition in the outpatient or ambulatory setting. This study aims to determine which nutritional screening tool is most effective in assessing nutritional risk in the outpatient oncology patient, highlighting the parameters analysed by these tools. Seventeen articles were reviewed, with the most important variables being tumour location, tumour stage, age, and gender, as well as recent weight loss, dietary intake, and digestive disorders. The Nutriscore, NRS-2002, and MUST tools are considered suitable, but the choice varies depending on these parameters. MNA is suitable for elderly patients, while SNAQ was not considered reliable in this population. In conclusion, MUST, NRS-2002, and Nutriscore are suitable tools, but their choice depends on specific characteristics. There is currently no universal tool for nutritional risk assessment in outpatients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer and Nutrition: From Epidemiology to Medical Nutrition Therapy)
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13 pages, 651 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intakes among Children Aged 1–5 Years in the United States
by Adi Noiman, Seung Hee Lee, Kristin J. Marks, Mary Ellen Grap, Carrie Dooyema and Heather C. Hamner
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050751 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 914
Abstract
To describe child, caregiver, and household characteristics associated with fruit and vegetable intakes among US children aged 1–5 years, we examined fruit and vegetable intakes (less than daily vs. daily) using data from the 2021 National Survey of Children’s Health among children aged [...] Read more.
To describe child, caregiver, and household characteristics associated with fruit and vegetable intakes among US children aged 1–5 years, we examined fruit and vegetable intakes (less than daily vs. daily) using data from the 2021 National Survey of Children’s Health among children aged 1–5 years. Multiple logistic regression provided adjusted odds ratios for factors associated with (1) daily fruit and (2) daily vegetable intakes. Among children aged 1–5 years, 68% (n = 11,124) consumed fruit daily, and 51% (n = 8292) consumed vegetables daily. Both daily fruit and daily vegetable intake were associated with child age, child race and ethnicity, and frequency of family meals. For example, children who ate a family meal 4–6 days/week (aOR 0.69; 95% CI 0.57, 0.83) or 0–3 days/week (aOR 0.57; 95% CI 0.46, 0.72) were less likely to consume fruit daily compared to children who had a family meal every day. Participation in food assistance programs, food insufficiency, and household income were not significantly associated with odds of daily fruit or daily vegetable intake in the adjusted models. Several factors were associated with daily fruit and vegetable intake among children aged 1–5. Strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in early childhood may consider these child, caregiver, and household characteristics. Pediatric healthcare providers, early childhood education centers, and families of young children may be important partners in this work. Full article
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15 pages, 623 KiB  
Article
Exploring Diet and Nutrient Insufficiencies across Age Groups: Insights from a Population-Based Study of Brazilian Adults
by Mauro Fisberg, Lais Duarte Batista, Agatha Nogueira Previdelli, Gerson Ferrari and Regina Mara Fisberg
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050750 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 976
Abstract
Assessing dietary inadequacies can contribute to understanding the nutritional vulnerabilities of a country. This study aimed to investigate nutrient intakes and micronutrient inadequacies in the Brazilian adult population, with an interest in different age subgroups. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 1812 individuals [...] Read more.
Assessing dietary inadequacies can contribute to understanding the nutritional vulnerabilities of a country. This study aimed to investigate nutrient intakes and micronutrient inadequacies in the Brazilian adult population, with an interest in different age subgroups. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 1812 individuals aged 19 to 65 years from a population-based study with a representative sample of Brazilian adults. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h food recalls, and the probabilities of inadequate intake were estimated using the Dietary Reference Intake targets. Adequate macronutrient intake was over 99% for proteins, 84.7% for carbohydrates, and 80.7% for total fats. There was a high probability of inadequacy (above 90%) for vitamins D and E, but vitamin D inadequacy was very similar between the sexes. In contrast, vitamin E was more likely to be inadequately consumed among women. A high probability of inadequacies (above 85%) of calcium and magnesium were found in the population, regardless of age group. Except for iron, the probability of an inadequacy of other minerals increased with age. The results showed a relevant proportion of nutrient inadequacies, with those most at risk being women and older individuals, helping with the better targeting and monitoring of public-health policies that address nutritional problems in the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health, Nutritional Behavior and Nutritional Status)
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12 pages, 2516 KiB  
Article
Effects of Kiwifruit Dietary Fibers on Pasting Properties and In Vitro Starch Digestibility of Wheat Starch
by Yaqi Wang, Yaoyi Pan, Chang Zhou, Wenru Li and Kunli Wang
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050749 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 693
Abstract
In this study, the roles of kiwifruit soluble/insoluble dietary fiber (SDF/IDF, respectively) in the pasting characteristics and in vitro digestibility of wheat starch were explored. According to RVA and rheological tests, the IDF enhanced the wheat starch viscosity, decreased the gelatinization degree of [...] Read more.
In this study, the roles of kiwifruit soluble/insoluble dietary fiber (SDF/IDF, respectively) in the pasting characteristics and in vitro digestibility of wheat starch were explored. According to RVA and rheological tests, the IDF enhanced the wheat starch viscosity, decreased the gelatinization degree of the starch granules, and exacerbated starch retrogradation. The addition of SDF in high quantities could reduce the starch gelatinization level, lower the system viscosity, and exacerbate starch retrogradation. Through determining the leached amylose content and conducing scanning electron microscopy, the IDF and SDF added in high quantities was combined with the leached amylose wrapped around the starch granules, which reduced the leached amylose content and decreased the gelatinization degree of the starch granules. The Fourier transform infrared results showed that the addition of both the IDF and SDF resulted in an enhancement in hydrogen bonding formed by the hydroxyl groups of the system. The in vitro digestion results strongly suggested that both the IDF and SDF reduced the wheat starch digestibility. The above findings are instructive for the application of both IDF and SDF in starchy functional foods. Full article
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18 pages, 3711 KiB  
Article
Cross-Sectional Analysis of Infant Diet, Outcomes, Consumer Behavior and Parental Perspectives to Optimize Infant Feeding in Response to the 2022 U.S. Infant Formula Shortage
by Karla Damian-Medina, Karina Cernioglo, Maha Waheed, Dina M. DiMaggio, Anthony F. Porto and Jennifer T. Smilowitz
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050748 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1308
Abstract
In May of 2022, millions of U.S. parents encountered uncertainty in safely feeding their infants due to the infant formula shortage. Methods: An anonymous, electronic, cross-sectional, retrospective survey was used. Results: U.S. parents (n = 178) whose infants were ~10 weeks old [...] Read more.
In May of 2022, millions of U.S. parents encountered uncertainty in safely feeding their infants due to the infant formula shortage. Methods: An anonymous, electronic, cross-sectional, retrospective survey was used. Results: U.S. parents (n = 178) whose infants were ~10 weeks old during the shortage completed the survey. Of parents, 81% switched formulas during the shortage, 87% switched because they could not find the formula they typically used, 34% switched 3–5 times, 29% of parents visited ≥4 stores/24 h and 26% of parents traveled >20 miles/24 h to purchase formula. Use of infant formula increased (p < 0.01); in infants requiring specialty formula, use of intact cow’s milk formula increased (p < 0.05) and use of premature infant formulas decreased (p < 0.05). Infants relying on specialty formulas experienced at least one undesirable outcome compared with non-specialty users. Parents used social media, relatives/friends and healthcare providers for support during the shortage, but their helpfulness scores were suboptimal. Parents reported the need for greater infant formula availability, free prenatal lactation education and postpartum lactation support. Conclusions: Government, regulatory and healthcare policy oversight are needed to protect the infant feeding system, including more commercially available products, access to banked donor milk and lactation support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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20 pages, 19233 KiB  
Article
Supplementing Ryegrass Ameliorates Commercial Diet-Induced Gut Microbial Dysbiosis-Associated Spleen Dysfunctions by Gut–Microbiota–Spleen Axis
by Qasim Ali, Sen Ma, Boshuai Liu, Jiakuan Niu, Mengqi Liu, Ahsan Mustafa, Defeng Li, Zhichang Wang, Hao Sun, Yalei Cui and Yinghua Shi
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050747 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 820
Abstract
The type and composition of food strongly affect the variation and enrichment of the gut microbiota. The gut–microbiota–spleen axis has been developed, incorporating the spleen’s function and maturation. However, how short-chain fatty-acid-producing gut microbiota can be considered to recover spleen function, particularly in [...] Read more.
The type and composition of food strongly affect the variation and enrichment of the gut microbiota. The gut–microbiota–spleen axis has been developed, incorporating the spleen’s function and maturation. However, how short-chain fatty-acid-producing gut microbiota can be considered to recover spleen function, particularly in spleens damaged by changed gut microbiota, is unknown in geese. Therefore, the gut microbial composition of the caecal chyme of geese was assessed by 16S rRNA microbial genes, and a Tax4Fun analysis identified the enrichment of KEGG orthologues involved in lipopolysaccharide production. The concentrations of LPS, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant/oxidant enzymes, and immunoglobulins were measured from serum samples and spleen tissues using ELISA kits. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was employed to detect the Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1–Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Keap1-Nrf2), B cell and T cell targeting markers, and anti-inflammatory/inflammatory cytokines from the spleen tissues of geese. The SCFAs were determined from the caecal chyme of geese by using gas chromatography. In this study, ryegrass-enriched gut microbiota such as Eggerthellaceae, Oscillospiraceae, Rikenellaceae, and Lachnospiraceae attenuated commercial diet-induced gut microbial alterations and spleen dysfunctions in geese. Ryegrass significantly improved the SCFAs (acetic, butyric, propionic, isovaleric, and valeric acids), AMPK pathway-activated Nrf2 redox signaling cascades, B cells (B220, CD19, and IgD), and T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8, and IL-2, with an exception of IL-17 and TGF-β) to activate anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM) in geese. In conclusion, ryegrass-improved reprogramming of the gut microbiota restored the spleen functions by attenuating LPS-induced oxidative stress and systemic inflammation through the gut–microbiota–spleen axis in geese. Full article
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21 pages, 300 KiB  
Article
The Association of Total Meat Intake with Cardio-Metabolic Disease Risk Factors and Measures of Sub-Clinical Atherosclerosis in an Urbanising Community of Southern India: A Cross-Sectional Analysis for the APCAPS Cohort
by Hemant Mahajan, Poppy Alice Carson Mallinson, Judith Lieber, Santhi Bhogadi, Santosh Kumar Banjara, Vadde Sudhakar Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy, Bharati Kulkarni and Sanjay Kinra
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050746 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 843
Abstract
Aim: Meat is commonly consumed in India; however, in comparison to Western settings, it is eaten in relatively lower quantities and with minimal processing. The association between meat intake and cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs) and their risk factors in India is currently uncertain. We [...] Read more.
Aim: Meat is commonly consumed in India; however, in comparison to Western settings, it is eaten in relatively lower quantities and with minimal processing. The association between meat intake and cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs) and their risk factors in India is currently uncertain. We examined whether meat intake is associated with risk factors for CMDs and the measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in urbanising villages in southern India. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 6012 adults (52.3% male) participating in the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents’ Study (APCAPS), which is a large prospective, intergenerational cohort study in Southern India that began with the long-term follow-up of the Hyderabad Nutrition Trial (1987–1990). We used cross-sectional data from the third wave of data collection conducted in 2010–2012, where total meat intake was assessed using 100-item, semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). The FFQs were validated using multiple weighed 24 h dietary recalls. The main predictor, ‘total meat intake’, was calculated as the sum of chicken, red meat, and fish consumption. The risk factors for CMDs [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, total cholesterol, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein] and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis [Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Pulse Wave Velocity, and Augmentation Index] were assessed using standardised clinical procedures. Stratified by gender, the association of meat intake with the risk factors of CMDs and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis was examined using linear multilevel models with random intercept at the household level. Results: The mean (SD) age of the male (n = 3128) and female participants (n = 2828) was 34.09 years (15.55) and 34.27 years (12.73), respectively. The median (IQR) intake of meat was 17.79 g/day (8.90, 30.26) in males and 8.90 g/day (4.15, 18.82) in females. In males, a 10 g increase in total meat intake/1000 Kcal/day was positively associated with DBP, BMI, WC, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides, whereas in females, a 10 g increase in total meat intake/1000 Kcal/day was positively associated with SBP, DBP, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides. There was no relationship between meat consumption and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusions: Meat intake had a linear positive association with CMD risk factors among the relatively younger Indian population who were consuming meat at lower levels compared to their European counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health)
11 pages, 2524 KiB  
Article
Taurine Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Human Endocardial Endothelium Morphological Remodeling and the Increase in Cytosolic and Nuclear Calcium and ROS
by Danielle Jacques and Ghassan Bkaily
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050745 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Endocardial endothelium (EE) is a layer of cells covering the cardiac cavities and modulates cardiomyocyte function. This cell type releases several cardioactive factors, including Angiotensin II (Ang II). This octopeptide is known to induce cardiac hypertrophy. However, whether this circulating factor also induces [...] Read more.
Endocardial endothelium (EE) is a layer of cells covering the cardiac cavities and modulates cardiomyocyte function. This cell type releases several cardioactive factors, including Angiotensin II (Ang II). This octopeptide is known to induce cardiac hypertrophy. However, whether this circulating factor also induces EE hypertrophy is not known. Taurine is known to prevent cardiac hypertrophy. Whether this endogenous antioxidant prevents the effect of Ang II on human EE (hEE) will be verified. Using quantitative fluorescent probe imaging for calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS), our results show that Ang II induces (10−7 M, 48 h treatment) an increase in hEE cell (hEEC) volume and its nucleus. Pretreatment with 20 mM of taurine prevents morphological remodeling and increases intracellular calcium and ROS. These results suggest that the reported Ang II induces cardiac hypertrophy is associated with hEEC hypertrophy. This later effect is prevented by taurine by reducing intracellular calcium and ROS overloads. Thus, taurine could be an excellent tool for preventing Ang II-induced remodeling of hEECs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Lipoproteins and Cardiovascular Diseases)
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12 pages, 827 KiB  
Article
Effects of Enteric-Coated Formulation of Sodium Bicarbonate on Bicarbonate Absorption and Gastrointestinal Discomfort
by Fang-Lin Jiang, Dong-Ho Jeong, Seon-Ho Eom, Hae-Moon Lee, Bong-Jin Cha, Ju-Seong Park, RyoonKyoung Kwon, Jeong-Yeon Nam, Hyun-Seon Yu, Su-Hak Heo, Chul-Hyun Kim and Keon-Hyoung Song
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050744 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 833
Abstract
Sodium bicarbonate is used as an ergogenic supplement to enhance people’s performances in various exercises. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intestinal delivery of sodium bicarbonate on bicarbonate absorption and associated side effects in an experimental human trial. After preparing and [...] Read more.
Sodium bicarbonate is used as an ergogenic supplement to enhance people’s performances in various exercises. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intestinal delivery of sodium bicarbonate on bicarbonate absorption and associated side effects in an experimental human trial. After preparing and assessing enteric-coated and uncoated sodium bicarbonate tablet formulations, pharmacokinetic analysis and gastrointestinal symptom tests were performed after oral administration in the human body. The dose required to increase blood bicarbonate concentration over 5 mmol∙L−1 for the purpose of improving performance during high-intensity exercise was also determined. Enteric-coated tablet formulation protects sodium bicarbonate under acidic conditions and releases bicarbonate in the intestine. Enteric-coated tablet formulation also reduced the oral dose required to achieve a blood bicarbonate concentration over 5 mmol∙L−1 from 300 mg∙kg−1 of uncoated tablet formulation to 225 mg∙kg−1. Gastrointestinal discomfort was significantly decreased for the group given 225 mg∙kg−1 enteric-coated tablets compared to that given 300 mg∙kg−1 uncoated tablets. These results suggest that enteric-coated tablet formulation could reduce the oral dose required in order to achieve a blood bicarbonate concentration over 5 mmol∙L−1 by 25%, from 300 mg∙kg−1 to 225 mg∙kg−1, along with its ability to reduce gastrointestinal discomfort associated with the dosage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimizing Nutrition for Sports)
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12 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
Differences in Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels at Diagnosis of Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes
by Monica Marino, Tiziana Galeazzi, Rosaria Gesuita, Salima Ricci, Carlo Catassi, Valentino Cherubini and Elena Lionetti
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050743 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 846
Abstract
Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the vitamin D levels, evaluated as plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of children with a new diagnosis of celiac disease (CD), of children with a new onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and in children with [...] Read more.
Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the vitamin D levels, evaluated as plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D of children with a new diagnosis of celiac disease (CD), of children with a new onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and in children with CD at diagnosis of T1D (T1D&CD). Methods: In this single-center observational study, we collected data for four groups of children and adolescents: T1D, CD, T1D&CD, and a control group (CG). The CG included schoolchildren who had negative results during a mass screening campaign for CD and were not diagnosed for T1D, according to RIDI Marche registry data, were considered for the purposes of this study. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D2, and 25(OH)D3 were considered as the parameters for evaluating vitamin D nutritional status, and the date of measurement was recorded to analyze vitamin D level seasonality. Vitamin D nutritional status was categorized as follows: severe deficiency (<10 ng/mL), deficiency (<20 ng/mL), insufficiency (20–29 ng/mL), or sufficiency/adequacy (≥30 ng/mL). The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the groups. The association of 25(OH)D levels with health conditions and seasonal differences of 25(OH)D levels was analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. Results: The number of children enrolled for the present study was 393: 131 in the CG, 131 CD, 109 T1D, and 22 T1D&CD. Significantly lower levels of vitamin D were displayed for children with CD, T1D, or both the diseases. Interestingly, severe vitamin D deficiency was detected in no children with CD, 1.5% of children in the CG, in 24.4% with T1D, and 31.8% with T1D&CD (p < 0.001). As expected, the CG children vitamin D levels were significantly influenced by seasonality. Contrarily, no seasonal differences were reported in children with CD, T1D, and T1D&CD. Multiple regression analysis showed that children with T1D and T1D&CD had lower 25(OH)D levels of 9.9 ng/mL (95% CI: 5.4; 14.5) and 14.4 ng/mL (95% CI: 6.2–22.7) compared to CG children (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results showed low levels of vitamin D diagnosis of T1D, CD, and T1D&CD; however, severe deficiency was only reported in children with T1D and T1D&CD. More studies are needed to better understand the role of this deficiency in children newly diagnosed with CD and T1D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Immunobiology of Celiac Disease)
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16 pages, 772 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Immunochemical Characterization of a Water-Soluble Gluten Peptide Fraction for Improving the Diagnosis of Celiac Disease
by Niklas Meyer, Boris Illarionov, Markus Fischer and Herbert Wieser
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050742 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 581
Abstract
The diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) is complex and requires a multi-step procedure (symptoms, serology, duodenal biopsy, effect of a gluten-free diet, and optional genetic). The aim of the study was to contribute to the improvement of CD diagnosis by preparing a water-soluble [...] Read more.
The diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) is complex and requires a multi-step procedure (symptoms, serology, duodenal biopsy, effect of a gluten-free diet, and optional genetic). The aim of the study was to contribute to the improvement of CD diagnosis by preparing a water-soluble gluten peptide fraction (called Solgluten) and by selecting gluten-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the detection of gluten immunogenic gluten peptides (GIPs) in urine and blood serum spiked with Solgluten. Food-grade Solgluten was prepared by the extraction of a peptic digest of vital gluten with water, centrifugation, and freeze-drying. The process was relatively easy, repeatable, and cheap. The content of gliadin-derived GIPs was 491 mg/g. Solgluten was used as antigenic material to compare two competitive ELISA kits (R7021 and K3012) and two sandwich ELISA kits (M2114 and R7041) in their quality regarding the quantitation of GIPs in urine and blood serum. The quality parameters were the reactivity, sensitivity, coefficients of variation and determination, and curve shape. The evaluation of the kits showed a number of discrepancies in individual quality parameters measured in urine and serum. Due to the lowest limit of quantitation and the highest coefficient of determination, M2114 may be the first choice, while R7021 appeared to be less suitable because of the high coefficients of variation and unfavorable curve progression. The results set the stage for improving CD diagnosis by supplementing conventional blood tests with oral provocation with Solgluten and subsequent ELISA measurement of GIPs that could support the no-biopsy approach and by better assessing the effect of a gluten-free diet by monitoring adherence to the diet by measuring GIPs in urine and blood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Immunobiology of Celiac Disease)
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20 pages, 1468 KiB  
Review
Zingiber Officinale Roscoe: The Antiarthritic Potential of a Popular Spice—Preclinical and Clinical Evidence
by Joanna Szymczak, Bogna Grygiel-Górniak and Judyta Cielecka-Piontek
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050741 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
The health benefits of ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) have been known for centuries. Recently, ginger root has gained more attention due to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Many of the bioactive components of ginger may have therapeutic benefits in treating [...] Read more.
The health benefits of ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) have been known for centuries. Recently, ginger root has gained more attention due to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Many of the bioactive components of ginger may have therapeutic benefits in treating inflammatory arthritis. Their properties seem especially helpful in treating diseases linked to persistent inflammation and pain, symptoms present in the course of the most prevalent rheumatic diseases, such as osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This review analyzes the current knowledge regarding ginger’s beneficial anti-inflammatory effect in both in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials. The drug delivery systems to improve ginger’s bioavailability and medicinal properties are discussed. Understanding ginger’s beneficial aspects may initiate further studies on improving its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy and achieving more a comprehensive application in medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
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13 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Dietary Habits and Depression in Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Moderating Role of Physical Exercise
by Kai Wei, Shaohui Lin, Junjie Yang and Chunbo Li
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050740 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Background: Healthy diets and physical exercise, two modifiable lifestyle factors, are protective against depression in older adults. This study aimed to investigate whether physical exercise may influence the associations of dietary habits with depression in Chinese community-dwelling older adults. Methods: In the 2018 [...] Read more.
Background: Healthy diets and physical exercise, two modifiable lifestyle factors, are protective against depression in older adults. This study aimed to investigate whether physical exercise may influence the associations of dietary habits with depression in Chinese community-dwelling older adults. Methods: In the 2018 wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, 12,708 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years were included for analyses. Older adults’ dietary habits (including daily intake of food components such as fruits, vegetables, animal oil, and so on) and physical exercise were assessed. Depression was evaluated via the 10 item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D-10) scale. The influences of physical exercise on the associations of dietary habits with depression were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for confounders. Results: Older adults who took physical exercise had a significantly decreased probability of depression (adjusted OR = 0.73, p < 0.001). As for dietary habits, the intake of fruits, vegetables, eggs, nut products, mushrooms or algae, and vitamins were inversely associated with the prevalence of depression (adjusted ORs = 0.61–0.81; p-values: from <0.001 to 0.025), while animal oil was positively associated with it (adjusted OR = 1.52, p < 0.001). When stratified by physical exercise, older adults who ate fruits or vegetables had consistent decreased risk of depression, no matter whether they took physical exercise or not (adjusted ORs = 0.52–0.70), while the intake of eggs, nut products, and vitamins were inversely associated, and animal oil was consistently positively associated with depression only in older adults who did not take physical exercise (adjusted ORs = 0.79, 0.68, 0.63, and 1.67, respectively). Conclusions: Physical exercise may conceal the potential protective effects of some healthy dietary habits in terms of depression and counteract the detrimental effects of the unhealthy habits. Some dietary habits may be considered as alternative protective measures for depression in community-dwelling older adults when physical exercise cannot be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Population Aging in Asia)
11 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Combined Effect of Early Nutrition Therapy and Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial
by Yohei Oyama, Hiroomi Tatsumi, Hiroko Takikawa, Natsuko Taniguchi and Yoshiki Masuda
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050739 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 945
Abstract
The effectiveness of rehabilitation programs (RP) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation remains controversial. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of exercise and nutritional therapy. This study aimed to determine the effects of combined nutritional therapy on the physical function [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of rehabilitation programs (RP) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation remains controversial. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of exercise and nutritional therapy. This study aimed to determine the effects of combined nutritional therapy on the physical function and nutritional status of patients with COPD exacerbation who underwent early RP. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations. Patients were assigned to receive a regular diet in addition to RP (control group) or RP and nutrition therapy (intervention group). Physical function, including quadricep strength and body composition, was assessed. The intervention group was administered protein-rich oral nutritional supplements. A total of 38 patients with negligible baseline differences were included in the analysis. The intervention group showed a notably greater change in quadriceps strength. Lean body mass and skeletal muscle indices markedly decreased in the control group but were maintained in the intervention group. Logistic regression analysis identified nutritional therapy as a significant factor associated with increased muscle strength. No serious adverse events were observed in either group. Therefore, nutritional therapy combined with RP is safe and effective for improving exercise function while maintaining body composition in patients with COPD exacerbation. Full article
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16 pages, 1804 KiB  
Article
The Cerebellar Response to Visual Portion Size Cues Is Associated with the Portion Size Effect in Children
by Bari A. Fuchs, Alaina L. Pearce, Barbara J. Rolls, Stephen J. Wilson, Emma J. Rose, Charles F. Geier, Hugh Garavan and Kathleen L. Keller
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050738 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1390
Abstract
The neural mechanisms underlying susceptibility to eating more in response to large portions (i.e., the portion size effect) remain unclear. Thus, the present study examined how neural responses to portion size relate to changes in weight and energy consumed as portions increase. Associations [...] Read more.
The neural mechanisms underlying susceptibility to eating more in response to large portions (i.e., the portion size effect) remain unclear. Thus, the present study examined how neural responses to portion size relate to changes in weight and energy consumed as portions increase. Associations were examined across brain regions traditionally implicated in appetite control (i.e., an appetitive network) as well as the cerebellum, which has recently been implicated in appetite-related processes. Children without obesity (i.e., BMI-for-age-and-sex percentile < 90; N = 63; 55% female) viewed images of larger and smaller portions of food during fMRI and, in separate sessions, ate four meals that varied in portion size. Individual-level linear and quadratic associations between intake (kcal, grams) and portion size (i.e., portion size slopes) were estimated. The response to portion size in cerebellar lobules IV–VI was associated with the quadratic portion size slope estimated from gram intake; a greater response to images depicting smaller compared to larger portions was associated with steeper increases in intake with increasing portion sizes. Within the appetitive network, neural responses were not associated with portion size slopes. A decreased cerebellar response to larger amounts of food may increase children’s susceptibility to overeating when excessively large portions are served. Full article
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29 pages, 818 KiB  
Review
Complementary Feeding: Tradition, Innovation and Pitfalls
by Maria Elena Capra, Nicola Mattia Decarolis, Delia Monopoli, Serena Rosa Laudisio, Antonella Giudice, Brigida Stanyevic, Susanna Esposito and Giacomo Biasucci
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050737 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1689
Abstract
According to WHO, “complementary feeding (CF) is the process starting when breast milk alone or infant formula alone is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of infants, and therefore, other foods and liquids are needed, along with breast human milk or [...] Read more.
According to WHO, “complementary feeding (CF) is the process starting when breast milk alone or infant formula alone is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of infants, and therefore, other foods and liquids are needed, along with breast human milk or a breastmilk substitute”. CF is one of the most important “critical and sensitive periods” in human life: indeed, timing and approaches to solid foods introduction in an infant’s nutrition are of utmost importance as potential epigenetic factors from infancy to adulthood. CF is also deeply influenced by each country and single-family traditions, culture, and beliefs. The aim of our narrative review is to analyze traditional CF practices, including innovative and alternative ones that emerged in the last decades, such as baby-led weaning or plant-based weaning, and to evaluate their effects on the risk of developing non-communicable diseases. Moreover, we will discuss pitfalls and misunderstandings that pediatricians frequently have to face when dealing with complementary feeding. Health care professionals must not have prejudices against parents’ wishes or traditions about CF; rather, they should support and educate them in case of any alternative CF choice, always pursuing the infant’s adequate growth, neuro- and taste development, and the achievement of correct eating behavior as the primary goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Feeding and Weaning Practices)
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18 pages, 5816 KiB  
Article
Proteomic Profiling of Plasma- and Gut-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Obesity
by Pedro Baptista Pereira, Estefania Torrejón, Inês Ferreira, Ana Sofia Carvalho, Akiko Teshima, Inês Sousa-Lima, Hans Christian Beck, Bruno Costa-Silva, Rune Matthiesen, Maria Paula Macedo and Rita Machado de Oliveira
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050736 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Obesity entails metabolic alterations across multiple organs, highlighting the role of inter-organ communication in its pathogenesis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are communication agents in physiological and pathological conditions, and although they have been associated with obesity comorbidities, their protein cargo in this context remains [...] Read more.
Obesity entails metabolic alterations across multiple organs, highlighting the role of inter-organ communication in its pathogenesis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are communication agents in physiological and pathological conditions, and although they have been associated with obesity comorbidities, their protein cargo in this context remains largely unknown. To decipher the messages encapsulated in EVs, we isolated plasma-derived EVs from a diet-induced obese murine model. Obese plasma EVs exhibited a decline in protein diversity while control EVs revealed significant enrichment in protein-folding functions, highlighting the importance of proper folding in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Previously, we revealed that gut-derived EVs’ proteome holds particular significance in obesity. Here, we compared plasma and gut EVs and identified four proteins exclusively present in the control state of both EVs, revealing the potential for a non-invasive assessment of gut health by analyzing blood-derived EVs. Given the relevance of post-translational modifications (PTMs), we observed a shift in chromatin-related proteins from glycation to acetylation in obese gut EVs, suggesting a regulatory mechanism targeting DNA transcription during obesity. This study provides valuable insights into novel roles of EVs and protein PTMs in the intricate mechanisms underlying obesity, shedding light on potential biomarkers and pathways for future research. Full article
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12 pages, 1487 KiB  
Review
Quercetin in the Prevention of Induced Periodontal Disease in Animal Models: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Markus Laky, Muazzez Arslan, Xilei Zhu, Xiaohui Rausch-Fan, Andreas Moritz, Anton Sculean, Brenda Laky, Christoph A. Ramseier, Alexandra Stähli and Sigrun Eick
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050735 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1126
Abstract
Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition initiated by oral bacteria and is associated with several systemic diseases. Quercetin is an anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial poly-phenol present in various foods. The aim of this meta-analysis was the evaluation of the effects of quercetin administration in [...] Read more.
Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition initiated by oral bacteria and is associated with several systemic diseases. Quercetin is an anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial poly-phenol present in various foods. The aim of this meta-analysis was the evaluation of the effects of quercetin administration in animal models of experimental periodontitis. Methods: A systematic search was performed in electronic databases using the following search terms: “periodontitis” or “periodontal disease” or “gingivitis” and “quercetin” or “cyanidanol” or “sophoretin” or “pentahydroxyflavone”. In vivo preclinical animal models of experimental periodontal disease with a measurement of alveolar bone loss were included in the analysis. The risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the SYRCLE tool. Results: The systematic search yielded 335 results. Five studies were included, four of them qualified for a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that quercetin administration decreased alveolar bone loss (τ2 = 0.31, 1.88 mm 95%CI: 1.09, 2.67) in experimental periodontal disease animal models. However, the risk of bias assessment indicated that four SYRCLE domains had a high risk of bias. Conclusions: Quercetin diminishes periodontal bone loss and prevents disease progression in animal models of experimental periodontal disease. Quercetin might facilitate periodontal tissue hemostasis by reducing senescent cells, decreasing oxidative stress via SIRT1-induced autophagy, limiting inflammation, and fostering an oral bacterial microenvironment of symbiotic microbiota associated with oral health. Future research will show whether and how the promising preclinical results can be translated into the clinical treatment of periodontal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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12 pages, 19872 KiB  
Article
GFRAL Is Widely Distributed in the Brain and Peripheral Tissues of Mice
by Karoline Fichtner, Hermann Kalwa, Miao-Miao Lin, Yuanyuan Gong, Anne Müglitz, Michael Kluge and Ute Krügel
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050734 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 989
Abstract
In 2017, four independent publications described the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor alpha-like (GFRAL) as receptor for the growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15, also MIC-1, NAG-1) with an expression exclusively in the mice brainstem area postrema (AP) and nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) [...] Read more.
In 2017, four independent publications described the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor alpha-like (GFRAL) as receptor for the growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15, also MIC-1, NAG-1) with an expression exclusively in the mice brainstem area postrema (AP) and nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) where it mediates effects of GDF15 on reduction of food intake and body weight. GDF15 is a cell stress cytokine with a widespread expression and pleiotropic effects, which both seem to be in contrast to the reported highly specialized localization of its receptor. This discrepancy prompts us to re-evaluate the expression pattern of GFRAL in the brain and peripheral tissues of mice. In this detailed immunohistochemical study, we provide evidence for a more widespread distribution of this receptor. Apart from the AP/NTS region, GFRAL-immunoreactivity was found in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus arcuatus and peripheral tissues including liver, small intestine, fat, kidney and muscle tissues. This widespread receptor expression, not taken into consideration so far, may explain the multiple effects of GDF-15 that are not yet assigned to GFRAL. Furthermore, our results could be relevant for the development of novel pharmacological therapies for physical and mental disorders related to body image and food intake, such as eating disorders, cachexia and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Image, Nutrition and Mental Health)
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12 pages, 1252 KiB  
Article
Diet Pattern Analysis in Alzheimer’s Disease Implicates Gender Differences in Folate–B12–Homocysteine Axis on Cognitive Outcomes
by Chi-Ping Ting, Mi-Chia Ma, Hsin-I Chang, Chi-Wei Huang, Man-Chun Chou and Chiung-Chih Chang
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050733 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
Background & Aims: Low plasma B12 and folate levels or hyperhomocysteinemia are related to cognitive impairment. This study explores the relationships among diet pattern, blood folate–B12–homocysteine levels, and cognition measurement in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) while exploring whether a gender effect may exist. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background & Aims: Low plasma B12 and folate levels or hyperhomocysteinemia are related to cognitive impairment. This study explores the relationships among diet pattern, blood folate–B12–homocysteine levels, and cognition measurement in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) while exploring whether a gender effect may exist. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 592 AD patients (246 males, 346 females) and the demographic data, blood biochemical profiles, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for quantitative assessment of dietary frequency were collected. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to explore the associations among dietary patterns, blood profiles, and cognition. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression model, stratified by gender, was constructed to analyze the weighting of possible confounders. Results: Higher MMSE scores were related to higher frequencies of coffee/tea and higher educational levels, body mass index, and younger age. The SEM model revealed a direct influence of dietary frequencies (skimmed milk, thin pork, coffee/tea) and blood profiles (homocysteine, B12, and folate) on cognitive outcomes. At the same time, the influence of dietary pattern on cognition was not mediated by folate–B12–homocysteine levels. In males, a direct influence on the MMSE is attributed to B12, while in females, homocysteine is considered a more critical factor. Conclusions: Dietary patterns and blood profiles are both associated with cognitive domains in AD, and there are gender differences in the associations of dietary patterns and the levels of B12 and homocysteine. To enhance the quality of dietary care and nutritional status for individuals with dementia, our study results still require future validations with multi-center and longitudinal studies. Full article
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12 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Exploring Alcohol-Related Behaviours in an Adult Sample with Anorexia Nervosa and Those in Recovery
by Zara Smalley, Maria Livanou, Bethan Dalton, Olivia Patsalos, Jessica Wilks, Johanna Louise Keeler, Janet Treasure, Ulrike Schmidt, Grace Hill and Hubertus Himmerich
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050732 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 819
Abstract
While individuals with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) often present with a higher rate of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) than the general population, it is unclear whether this extends to AN. This cross-sectional study examined differences in alcohol-related behaviours, measured [...] Read more.
While individuals with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) often present with a higher rate of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) than the general population, it is unclear whether this extends to AN. This cross-sectional study examined differences in alcohol-related behaviours, measured using the Alcohol Use Identification Test (AUDIT), between AN participants (n = 58), recovered AN (rec-AN) participants (n = 25), and healthy controls (n = 57). Statistical models controlled for age and ethnicity. The relationship between alcohol-related behaviours with ED psychopathology and with depression was also assessed. The findings indicated that acute AN participants were not at greater risk of AUD than healthy controls. However, rec-AN participants displayed greater total audit scores than those with acute AN, and more alcohol-related behaviours than healthy controls. Acute AN participants consumed significantly less alcohol than both the healthy control group and rec-AN group. No associations were found between ED psychopathology and alcohol-related behaviours in the AN group or rec-AN. This highlights alcohol as a potential coping mechanism following AN recovery. Clinicians should consider assessments for AUD and targeted interventions aimed at encouraging healthy coping mechanisms in this group. Future studies should look at alcohol use as a moderating factor for AN recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
18 pages, 1446 KiB  
Article
Stunting and Underweight among Adolescent Girls of Indigenous Communities in Telangana, India: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Padmaja Ravula, Kavitha Kasala, Soumitra Pramanik and Aravazhi Selvaraj
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050731 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1248
Abstract
India’s indigenous groups remain vulnerable to malnutrition, despite economic progress, reflecting the reliance on traditional agriculture and the problems of poverty and inadequate education and sanitation. This mixed-methods study analyzed the incidence, causes and determinants of chronic malnutrition, measured through stunting, thinness and [...] Read more.
India’s indigenous groups remain vulnerable to malnutrition, despite economic progress, reflecting the reliance on traditional agriculture and the problems of poverty and inadequate education and sanitation. This mixed-methods study analyzed the incidence, causes and determinants of chronic malnutrition, measured through stunting, thinness and underweight among adolescent indigenous girls in Telangana. Using 2017 data on 695 girls aged 11–18 years from 2542 households, the analysis showed that 13% had normal nutritional status, while 87% were stunted, underweight or thin. Early adolescents (11–14 years) had higher underweight prevalence (24.4%), while late adolescents (15–18 years) showed greater stunting (30%). Regressions identified key influencing factors. Higher education levels of heads of households and the girls themselves alongside household toilet access significantly improved nutritional status and reduced stunting and underweight. The sociocultural emphasis on starchy staple-based diets and early marriage also impacted outcomes. Tackling this crisis requires mainstreaming nutrition across development agendas via comprehensive policies, education, communication and community participation. Further research can guide context-specific solutions. But, evidence-based investments in indigenous education, livelihoods, sanitation and women’s empowerment are the first steps. Nutrition-sensitive development is indispensable for indigenous groups to fully participate in and benefit from India’s progress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Screening and Assessment of Different Populations)
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15 pages, 923 KiB  
Article
Association between Beverage Consumption and Environmental Sustainability in an Adult Population with Metabolic Syndrome
by Silvia García, Margalida Monserrat-Mesquida, Emma Argelich, Lucía Ugarriza, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Inmaculada Bautista, Jesús Vioque, María Dolores Zomeño, Dolores Corella, Xavier Pintó, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Lidia Daimiel, J. Alfredo Martínez, Stephanie Nishi, Estefanía Herrera-Ramos, Sandra González-Palacios, Montserrat Fitó, Eva M. Asensio, Marta Fanlo-Maresma, Naomi Cano-Ibáñez, Esther Cuadrado-Soto, Itziar Abete, Josep A. Tur and Cristina Bouzasadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050730 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Beverages are an important part of the diet, but their environmental impact has been scarcely assessed. The aim of this study was to assess how changes in beverage consumption over a one-year period can impact the environmental sustainability of the diet. This is [...] Read more.
Beverages are an important part of the diet, but their environmental impact has been scarcely assessed. The aim of this study was to assess how changes in beverage consumption over a one-year period can impact the environmental sustainability of the diet. This is a one-year longitudinal study of 55–75-year-old participants with metabolic syndrome (n = 1122) within the frame of the PREDIMED-Plus study. Food and beverage intake were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and a validated beverage-specific questionnaire. The Agribalyse® 3.0.1 database was used to calculate environmental impact parameters such as greenhouse gas emission, energy, water, and land use. A sustainability beverage score was created by considering the evaluated environmental markers. A higher beverage sustainability score was obtained when decreasing the consumption of bottled water, natural and packed fruit juice, milk, and drinkable dairy, soups and broths, sorbets and jellies, soft drinks, tea without sugar, beer (with and without alcohol), and wine, as well as when increasing the consumption of tap water and coffee with milk and without sugar. Beverage consumption should be considered when assessing the environmental impact of a diet. Trial registration: ISRCTN, ISRCTN89898870. Registered 5 September 2013. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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19 pages, 2264 KiB  
Review
A Narrative Review Exploring the Similarities between Cilento and the Already Defined “Blue Zones” in Terms of Environment, Nutrition, and Lifestyle: Can Cilento Be Considered an Undefined “Blue Zone”?
by Silvana Mirella Aliberti, Antonio Donato, Richard H. W. Funk and Mario Capunzo
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050729 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 2320
Abstract
Longevity is rightly considered one of the greatest achievements of modern society, not only as a function of lifespan, but, more importantly, as a function of healthspan. There are Longevity Blue Zones (LBZs), regions around the world, such as in Okinawa, Japan; the [...] Read more.
Longevity is rightly considered one of the greatest achievements of modern society, not only as a function of lifespan, but, more importantly, as a function of healthspan. There are Longevity Blue Zones (LBZs), regions around the world, such as in Okinawa, Japan; the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica; Loma Linda, California; Icaria, Greece; and Ogliastra, Sardinia, that are characterized by a significant percentage of residents who live exceptionally long lives, often avoiding age-related disability to a significantly higher degree than in the Western way of life. Longevity is not a universal phenomenon, so if there are places in the world with characteristics similar to the LBZs, it is important to identify them in order to better understand what other factors, in addition to the known ones, might contribute to a long and healthy life. This narrative review aims to identify common factors between Cilento and the five LBZs, taking into account environmental, nutritional, and lifestyle factors. Articles from 2004 to the present, limited to studies published in English, German, and Italian, were searched in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The co-authors agreed on 18 final reference texts. In order to evaluate the similarities between Cilento and the LBZs, a descriptive comparative approach was used. Cilento and the LBZs share several common factors, including a hilly altitude ranging from 355 to 600 m; a mild climate throughout the year, with temperatures between 17.4 and 23.5 degrees Celsius; traditional professions, such as agriculture and animal husbandry; and a predominantly Mediterranean or plant-based diet, with typical recipes based on legumes, tubers, vegetables, and extra virgin olive oil. Additionally, maintenance of strong intergenerational family relationships, religious devotion, and social relationships within the community are also prevalent. Given the similarities to Cilento, one might wonder if this is an LBZ waiting to be discovered. The lessons learned from this discovery could be applied to the general population to protect them from non-communicable chronic diseases and help slow the aging process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Adequacy and Health Outcome)
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14 pages, 2341 KiB  
Article
Adipose Tissue Quantification Improves the Prognostic Value of GLIM Criteria in Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients
by Geum Jong Song, Hyein Ahn, Myoung Won Son, Jong Hyuk Yun, Moon-Soo Lee and Sang Mi Lee
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050728 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
The present study investigated whether the risk of recurrence after curative surgery could be further stratified by combining the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria and changes in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue mass after surgery in patients with advanced [...] Read more.
The present study investigated whether the risk of recurrence after curative surgery could be further stratified by combining the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria and changes in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue mass after surgery in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). This study retrospectively analyzed 302 patients with AGC who underwent curative surgery. Based on the GLIM criteria, patients were classified into malnourished and non-malnourished groups. The cross-sectional areas of SAT and VAT were measured from preoperative and 6-month post-operative computed tomography (CT) images. Multivariate survival analyses demonstrated that GLIM-defined malnutrition (p = 0.008) and loss of VAT after surgery (p = 0.008) were independent risk factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS). Evaluation of the prognostic value of combining the two independent predictors showed that malnourished patients with a marked loss of VAT had the worst 5-year RFS rate of 35.2% (p < 0.001). Preoperative GLIM-defined malnutrition and a loss of VAT during the first 6 months after surgery were independent predictors for RFS in patients with AGC. Changes in the VAT area after surgery could further enhance the prognostic value of the GLIM criteria for predicting the risk of gastric cancer recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer and Nutrition: From Epidemiology to Medical Nutrition Therapy)
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11 pages, 629 KiB  
Article
The Association of Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms with COVID-19 Severity
by Nikolaos Tentolouris, Charoula Achilla, Ioanna A. Anastasiou, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Anastasios Tentolouris, Dimitrios Basoulis, Ourania Kosta, Alexandros Lambropoulos, Maria P. Yavropoulou, Anthoula Chatzikyriakidou and Edward B. Jude
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050727 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 973
Abstract
Background: Association studies of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms with COVID-19 severity have produced inconsistent results in different populations. Herein we examined VDR gene polymorphisms in a Caucasian Greek cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: This was a case-control study in a tertiary university [...] Read more.
Background: Association studies of vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms with COVID-19 severity have produced inconsistent results in different populations. Herein we examined VDR gene polymorphisms in a Caucasian Greek cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: This was a case-control study in a tertiary university hospital in Greece including 137 COVID-19 patients with varying disease severities and 72 healthy individuals. In total 209 individuals were genotyped for the FokI (rs10735810), ApaI (rs7975232), TaqI (rs731236) and BsmI (rs1544410) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the VDR gene by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLPs). Statistical analyses were performed to determine the association between genotype and disease severity, adjusting for various confounding factors. Results: Genotype distribution of the studied VDR SNPs in the control group was in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. The TaqI variant was differentially distributed between controls and COVID-19 patients according to the additive model (p = 0.009), and the CC genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk for severe COVID-19 according to the recessive model [OR: 2.52, 95%CI:1.2–5.29, p = 0.01]. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a robust association of COVID-19 severity and TaqI polymorphism in the recessive model even after adjusting for multiple confounders, including age, sex and CRP levels [Adj.OR:3.23, 95%CI:1.17–8.86, p = 0.023]. The distribution of FokI, ApaI and BsmI genotypes was similar between COVID-19 patients and controls. Conclusions: The CC genotype of TaqI polymorphism is significantly associated with an increased risk for severe COVID-19 independently of age, sex or degree of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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16 pages, 7089 KiB  
Article
Trends in Calcium Intake among the US Population: Results from the NHANES (1999–2018)
by Zhongyi Yu, Yaqi Li, Djibril M. Ba, Susan J. Veldheer, Liang Sun, Tingting Geng and Xiang Gao
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050726 - 02 Mar 2024
Viewed by 987
Abstract
Inadequate calcium intake is common in the US. Trends in calcium intake among the US population have been less studied, especially in more recent years. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2000 to 2017–2018 to study trends [...] Read more.
Inadequate calcium intake is common in the US. Trends in calcium intake among the US population have been less studied, especially in more recent years. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2000 to 2017–2018 to study trends in calcium derived from diet and dietary supplements among the US population aged 2 years, stratified by sex, age group, race, and ethnicity. Among the 80,880 participants included in our study, a substantial portion consistently lacked sufficient calcium intake, even when considering calcium from supplements. Concerning trends were observed over the more recent ten years (2009–2018), with decreased dietary calcium intake and no significant improvement in the prevalence of dietary calcium intake < Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or the prevalence of taking calcium-containing dietary supplements among them. Decreasing trends in dietary calcium intake were more concerning among men, children, and non-Hispanic Whites. Attention should be given to subgroups with higher calcium intake requirements (e.g., 9–18 years and 60+ years), and subgroups with low levels of dietary calcium and a low prevalence of obtaining calcium from dietary supplements (e.g., the non-Hispanic Black subgroup). Concerning trends of calcium intake were observed among the US population from 2009 to 2018. Tailored guidance on dietary choices and dietary supplement use is required to change consumers’ behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health, Nutritional Behavior and Nutritional Status)
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