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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 12 (June-2 2023) – 180 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Massive changes have occurred in our diet. A growing consumption of vegetal oils rich in omega-6 (ω-6) and a depletion of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) in our food has led to an imbalance between ω-3 and ω-6. In particular, eicosapentaenoic (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio seems to be an indicator of this derangement, whose reduction is associated to the development of metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. Our aim was therefore to investigate the literature on the effects of ω-3 and ω-6 FAs on glucose metabolism. We discussed emerging evidence from pre-clinical studies and from clinical trials. Notably, conflicting results emerged. View this paper
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11 pages, 434 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency and Its Determinants among Women Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment for Infertility in Sweden
by Paulina Maaherra Armstrong, Hanna Augustin, Linnea Bärebring, Amra Osmancevic, Maria Bullarbo, Ann Thurin-Kjellberg and Panagiotis Tsiartas
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122820 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
There is a lack of research on women with infertility in the northern latitudes, where vitamin D insufficiency is high. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D concentration < 50 nmol/L) among women undergoing [...] Read more.
There is a lack of research on women with infertility in the northern latitudes, where vitamin D insufficiency is high. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D concentration < 50 nmol/L) among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Thus, 265 women scheduled for IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) between September 2020 and August 2021 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden, were included. Data on serum 25(OH)D concentration, vitamin D intake, and sun exposure were collected via questionnaires and blood samples. Approximately 27% of the women had 25(OH)D insufficiency, which was associated with longer infertility duration. The likelihood of insufficiency was higher among women from non-Nordic European countries (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.03–8.26, adjusted p = 0.043), the Middle East (OR 9.90, 95% CI 3.32–29.41, adjusted p < 0.001), and Asia (OR 5.49, 95% CI 1.30–23.25, adjusted p = 0.020) than among women from Nordic countries. Women who did not use vitamin D supplements were more likely to have insufficiency compared with supplement users (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.55–7.10, adjusted p = 0.002), and those who avoided sun exposure had higher odds of insufficiency compared to those who stayed “in the sun all the time” (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.22–8.62, adjusted p = 0.018). Women with infertility in northern latitudes and those from non-Nordic countries who avoid sun exposure and do not take vitamin supplements have a higher prevalence of 25(OH)D insufficiency and longer infertility duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Nutrition on Female Reproductive Disorders)
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15 pages, 944 KiB  
Article
Dietary Patterns Associated with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The MyNutritype Study
by Farah Yasmin Hasbullah, Barakatun-Nisak Mohd Yusof, Sangeetha Shyam, Rohana Abdul Ghani and Hannah Izzati Mohamed Khir
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122819 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), which includes type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes, is highly prevalent in women post gestational diabetes mellitus (post-GDM). Dietary patterns have been associated with the risk of developing AGT in women post-GDM, but evidence in Asian populations is sparse. This [...] Read more.
Abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), which includes type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes, is highly prevalent in women post gestational diabetes mellitus (post-GDM). Dietary patterns have been associated with the risk of developing AGT in women post-GDM, but evidence in Asian populations is sparse. This study aimed to determine the association between a posteriori dietary patterns and AGT in women post-GDM. This cross-sectional study recruited 157 women post-GDM (mean age 34.8 years) from Seri Kembangan Health Clinic and Universiti Putra Malaysia. AGT was diagnosed according to the Malaysian Clinical Practice Guidelines using a 75 g 2 h oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c. Food intake was assessed using the 2014 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey food frequency questionnaire. Five dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis: ‘Unhealthy’, ‘Fish-eggs-fruits-vegetables’, ‘Cereals-confectionaries’, ‘Legumes-dairy’, and ‘Meat-sugar-sweetened-beverages’. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and total energy intake, the ‘Cereals-confectionaries’ dietary pattern was significantly associated with AGT (adjusted odds ratio 1.536, p = 0.049). Targeted lifestyle modification, including dietary intervention, for women post-GDM is warranted to reduce their risk of AGT and its complications. Full article
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13 pages, 1563 KiB  
Article
Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Capacity Are Unaltered in Transitional Breast Milk Exposed to Light from Women Giving Birth to Preterm Infants before 32 Weeks of Gestation
by Moa Norrgrann, Malin Hörnfeldt, Faiza Latheef, Ylva Thernström Blomqvist, Anders Larsson, Mattias Paulsson and Barbro Diderholm
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122818 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1581
Abstract
Breast milk (BM) is the primary nutrition for infants and has a high content of lipids. Preterm infants receive expressed BM via tube feeding, and they are frequently treated with phototherapy. When parenteral nutrition (PN) is exposed to light and/or phototherapy, lipid peroxidation [...] Read more.
Breast milk (BM) is the primary nutrition for infants and has a high content of lipids. Preterm infants receive expressed BM via tube feeding, and they are frequently treated with phototherapy. When parenteral nutrition (PN) is exposed to light and/or phototherapy, lipid peroxidation (LPO) increases. By light-protecting PN, morbidity and mortality are reduced in preterm infants through the reduction of oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate whether light-protecting breast milk could reduce LPO. Twelve mothers giving birth to a preterm infants of less than 32 weeks of gestational age were included. Transitional BM was collected and divided into three study groups; light-protected, ward light and phototherapy light. Baseline samples were collected after expression and the exposures started within one hour. Feeding syringe samples were exposed to light for 30 up to 360 min. Nasogastric tube samples were run through a tube under the same light conditions. Samples were stored in −80 °C until analyses of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). There were no significant differences in MDA, 4-HNE or TAC levels observed between the different study groups. This study indicates that the light exposure of expressed transitional BM does not affect LPO and the levels of MDA, 4-HNE or TAC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids in Infants)
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12 pages, 1148 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Study of Complications of Enteral Feeding in Critically Ill Children on Noninvasive Ventilation
by Montserrat Sierra-Colomina, Nagam Anna Yehia, Farhan Mahmood, Christopher Parshuram and Haifa Mtaweh
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2817; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122817 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1339
Abstract
The utilization of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), to support children with respiratory failure and avoid endotracheal intubation, has increased. Current guidelines recommend initiating enteral nutrition (EN) within the first 24–48 h post admission. This practice remains variable among [...] Read more.
The utilization of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), to support children with respiratory failure and avoid endotracheal intubation, has increased. Current guidelines recommend initiating enteral nutrition (EN) within the first 24–48 h post admission. This practice remains variable among PICUs due to perceptions of a lack of safety data and the potential increase in respiratory and gastric complications. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the association between EN and development of extraintestinal complications in children 0–18 years of age on NIV for acute respiratory failure. Of 332 patients supported with NIV, 249 (75%) were enterally fed within the first 48 h of admission. Respiratory complications occurred in 132 (40%) of the total cohort and predominantly in non-enterally fed patients (60/83, 72% vs. 72/249, 29%; p < 0.01), and they occurred earlier during ICU admission (0 vs. 2 days; p < 0.01). The majority of complications were changes in the fraction of inspired oxygen (220/290, 76%). In the multivariate evaluation, children on bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) (23/132, 17% vs. 96/200, 48%; odds ratio [OR] = 5.3; p < 0.01), receiving a higher fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (0.42 vs. 0.35; OR = 6; p = 0.03), and with lower oxygen saturation (SpO2) (91% vs. 97%; OR = 0.8; p < 0.01) were more likely to develop a complication. Time to discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) was longer for patients with complications (11 vs. 3 days; OR = 1.12; p < 0.01). The large majority of patients requiring NIV can be enterally fed without an increase in respiratory complications after an initial period of ICU stabilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Practices and Outcomes in Pediatric Patients)
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8 pages, 617 KiB  
Brief Report
Culinary Medicine eConsults Pair Nutrition and Medicine: A Feasibility Pilot
by Jaclyn L. Albin, Milette Siler and Heather Kitzman
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122816 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2594
Abstract
The global impact of diet-sensitive disease demands innovative nutrition education for health professionals and widespread, reimbursable clinical models to apply nutrition to practice. Interprofessional collaboration across disciplines and the optimization of emerging telemedicine consultation strategies, including electronic consultation (eConsult), merge to deliver vital [...] Read more.
The global impact of diet-sensitive disease demands innovative nutrition education for health professionals and widespread, reimbursable clinical models to apply nutrition to practice. Interprofessional collaboration across disciplines and the optimization of emerging telemedicine consultation strategies, including electronic consultation (eConsult), merge to deliver vital innovation in the delivery of nutrition-based clinical care. Aligning with an existing eConsult infrastructure in the institutional electronic health record (EHR), a physician–dietitian team developed a novel Culinary Medicine eConsult. During a pilot phase, the service was introduced to primary care clinicians, and a response algorithm for eConsults was created. During the 12-month pilot phase, the Culinary Medicine team completed 25 eConsults from 11 unique primary care clinicians with a 76% (19/25) insurance reimbursement rate. Topics varied from dietary strategies for preventing and managing common metabolic diseases to specific dietary influences on microbiome health and disease flares. Requesting clinicians reported time saved in their clinic encounters and high patient satisfaction with expert nutrition guidance. EConsults in Culinary Medicine promote the integration of interprofessional nutrition care into existing clinical structures and empower enhanced access to the vital domain of dietary health. EConsults deliver timely answers to clinical questions and create opportunities for further innovation in care delivery as communities, health systems, and payors seek solutions to the growing burden of diet-sensitive diseases. Full article
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17 pages, 593 KiB  
Article
Sexual Function and Depressive Symptoms in Young Women with Euthyroid Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Receiving Vitamin D, Selenomethionine and Myo-Inositol: A Pilot Study
by Robert Krysiak, Karolina Kowalcze, Witold Szkróbka and Bogusław Okopień
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2815; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122815 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
Thyroid autoimmunity is associated with an increased risk of sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to compare sexual functioning and depressive symptoms in women with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis receiving different treatments. The study included euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroiditis, untreated or receiving [...] Read more.
Thyroid autoimmunity is associated with an increased risk of sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to compare sexual functioning and depressive symptoms in women with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis receiving different treatments. The study included euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroiditis, untreated or receiving vitamin D, selenomethionine, or myo-inositol. Apart from measuring antibody titers and hormone levels, all participants completed questionnaires evaluating female sexual function (FSFI) and depressive symptoms (BDI-II). In untreated women, the overall FSFI scores and domain scores for desire, arousal, lubrication, and sexual satisfaction were lower than in women receiving vitamin D, selenomethionine, and myo-inositol. In the vitamin D-treated women, the total FSFI scores and scores for desire and arousal were higher than in women receiving the remaining micronutrients. The BDI-II score was lowest in the vitamin D-treated women and highest in the untreated patients with thyroiditis. Vitamin D-treated women were also characterized by lower antibody titers and higher testosterone levels than the women receiving the remaining micronutrients. There were no differences in sexual functioning and depressive symptoms between the selenomethionine- and myo-inositol-treated women. The study results suggest that although all antibody-lowering treatments are associated with better sexual functioning and well-being in young women with euthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis, the greatest benefits are observed in patients receiving vitamin D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fat-Soluble Vitamins for Disease Prevention and Management)
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14 pages, 4306 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Consumption of Sucralose Induces Hepatic Insulin Resistance through an Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2-Dependent Pathway
by Meng-Jie Tsai, Chung-Hao Li, Hung-Tsung Wu, Hsin-Yu Kuo, Chung-Teng Wang, Hsiu-Ling Pai, Chih-Jen Chang and Horng-Yih Ou
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2814; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122814 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5526
Abstract
Sugar substitutes have been recommended to be used for weight and glycemic control. However, numerous studies indicate that consumption of artificial sweeteners exerts adverse effects on glycemic homeostasis. Although sucralose is among the most extensively utilized sweeteners in food products, the effects and [...] Read more.
Sugar substitutes have been recommended to be used for weight and glycemic control. However, numerous studies indicate that consumption of artificial sweeteners exerts adverse effects on glycemic homeostasis. Although sucralose is among the most extensively utilized sweeteners in food products, the effects and detailed mechanisms of sucralose on insulin sensitivity remain ambiguous. In this study, we found that bolus administration of sucralose by oral gavage enhanced insulin secretion to decrease plasma glucose levels in mice. In addition, mice were randomly allocated into three groups, chow diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with sucralose (HFSUC), to investigate the effects of long-term consumption of sucralose on glucose homeostasis. In contrast to the effects of sucralose with bolus administration, the supplement of sucralose augmented HFD-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. In addition, we found that administration of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 inhibitor reversed the effects of sucralose on glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in mice. Moreover, blockade of taste receptor type 1 member 3 (T1R3) by lactisole or pretreatment of endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitors diminished sucralose-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells. Taken together, sucralose augmented HFD-induced insulin resistance in mice, and interrupted insulin signals through a T1R3-ERK1/2-dependent pathway in the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association between Sugar Intake and Type 2 Diabetes Risk)
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14 pages, 3629 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Potential Relative Bioaccessibility of Zinc Supplements—In Vitro Studies
by Justyna Ośko, Wiktoria Pierlejewska and Małgorzata Grembecka
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122813 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3545
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the potential relative bioaccessibility of zinc (Zn) from selected dietary supplements during in vitro digestion. The bioaccessibility of Zn was evaluated in dietary supplements differing in the pharmaceutical form, content, dose, and chemical form of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the potential relative bioaccessibility of zinc (Zn) from selected dietary supplements during in vitro digestion. The bioaccessibility of Zn was evaluated in dietary supplements differing in the pharmaceutical form, content, dose, and chemical form of the element. The content of Zn was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The applied method was validated, and results were characterised by good linearity (R2 = 0.998), recovery (109%), and accuracy (0.02%). As a result of the tests conducted, it was found that the bioaccessibility of Zn from dietary supplements varied and ranged from 1.1% to 9.4%. The highest bioaccessibility was found for zinc diglycinate and the lowest for zinc sulphate. In 9 out of 10 tested dietary supplements, the determined Zn content was higher than the one declared by the producer (up to 161%). The estimated tolerable upper intake level (UL) was exceeded by five of the analysed dietary supplements (123–146%). The analysed dietary supplements were assessed in terms of compliance with the information contained on the product packaging, based on current Polish and European legal regulations. The qualitative assessment was performed according to the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Link between Dietary Minerals and Human Health)
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25 pages, 1297 KiB  
Review
Beyond Seasoning—The Role of Herbs and Spices in Rheumatic Diseases
by Sofia Charneca, Ana Hernando, Patrícia Costa-Reis and Catarina Sousa Guerreiro
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2812; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122812 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3756
Abstract
Although we have witnessed remarkable progress in understanding the biological mechanisms that lead to the development of rheumatic diseases (RDs), remission is still not achieved in a substantial proportion of patients with the available pharmacological treatment. As a consequence, patients are increasingly looking [...] Read more.
Although we have witnessed remarkable progress in understanding the biological mechanisms that lead to the development of rheumatic diseases (RDs), remission is still not achieved in a substantial proportion of patients with the available pharmacological treatment. As a consequence, patients are increasingly looking for complementary adjuvant therapies, including dietary interventions. Herbs and spices have a long historical use, across various cultures worldwide, for both culinary and medicinal purposes. The interest in herbs and spices, beyond their seasoning properties, has dramatically grown in many immune-mediated diseases, including in RDs. Increasing evidence highlights their richness in bioactive molecules, such as sulfur-containing compounds, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic diterpenes, and vitamins, as well as their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumorigenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. Cinnamon, garlic, ginger, turmeric, and saffron are the most popular spices used in RDs and will be explored throughout this manuscript. With this paper, we intend to provide an updated review of the mechanisms whereby herbs and spices may be of interest in RDs, including through gut microbiota modulation, as well as summarize human studies investigating their effects in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, and Fibromyalgia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Nutrition in Rheumatic Diseases)
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16 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Raisin Supplement on Cognitive Performance, Quality of Life, and Functional Activities in Healthy Older Adults—Randomized Clinical Trial
by María José Rodrigo-Gonzalo, Susana González-Manzano, María Carmen Pablos-Hernández, Roberto Méndez-Sánchez, Begoña Ayuda Duran, Jesús González-Sánchez, Fausto Barbero-Iglesias, Ana María González-Paramás and José Ignacio Recio-Rodríguez
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2811; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122811 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3214
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consuming 50 g of raisins on cognitive performance, quality of life, and functional activities in healthy older adults. This is a parallel randomized controlled clinical trial, in which 80 subjects over 70 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consuming 50 g of raisins on cognitive performance, quality of life, and functional activities in healthy older adults. This is a parallel randomized controlled clinical trial, in which 80 subjects over 70 years of age participated. For 6 months, the intervention group (IG; n = 40) consumed 50 g of raisins per day added to their usual diet, whereas the control group (CG; n = 40) received no supplement. All variables were measured at baseline and at 6 months. Cognitive performance assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) test shows a difference of 3.27 points (95% CI 1.59 to 4.96), p ≤ 0.001, favorable to the IG, after the intervention. Among the cognitive performances, an improvement is observed in the IG in orientation, assessed both with the MOCA test 0.49 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.87), p = 0.014, and with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test, 0.36 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.70), p = 0.038. In visuospatial/executive capacity and in language, improvements were also observed in the IG, 1.36 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.95), p = 0.001, and 0.54 points (95% CI 0.12 to 0.96), p = 0.014, respectively. Immediate and delayed recall, assessed with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, improved in the IG. In addition, the IG showed a better quality of life and greater autonomy in instrumental activities of daily living after 6 months. No significant changes were observed in the rest of the variables analyzed. Therefore, the consumption of 50 g of raisins produces a slight improvement in cognitive performance, quality of life, and functional activities in the elderly. Full article
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15 pages, 4002 KiB  
Article
Hydroethanolic Extract of Fritillariae thunbergii Bulbus Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by Enhancing Intestinal Barrier Integrity
by Ami Lee, You Chul Chung, Kwang-Youn Kim, Chan Ho Jang, Kwang Hoon Song and Youn-Hwan Hwang
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122810 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC), an inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, has rapidly increased in Asian countries over several decades. To overcome the limitations of conventional drug therapies, including biologics for UC management, the development of herbal medicine-derived products has received [...] Read more.
The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC), an inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, has rapidly increased in Asian countries over several decades. To overcome the limitations of conventional drug therapies, including biologics for UC management, the development of herbal medicine-derived products has received continuous attention. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial effects of a hydroethanolic extract of Fritillariae thunbergii Bulbus (FTB) in a mouse model of DSS-induced UC. The DSS treatment successfully induced severe colonic inflammation and ulceration. However, the severity of colitis was reduced by the oral administration of FTB. Histopathological examination showed that FTB alleviated the infiltration of inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils and macrophages), damage to epithelial and goblet cells in the colonic mucosal layer, and fibrotic lesions. Additionally, FTB markedly reduced the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and extracellular matrix remodeling. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that FTB alleviated the decrease in occludin and zonula occludens-1 expression induced by DSS. In a Caco-2 monolayer system, FTB treatment improved intestinal barrier permeability in a dose-dependent manner and increased tight junction expression. Overall, FTB has potential as a therapeutic agent through the improvement of tissue damage and inflammation severity through the modulation of intestinal barrier integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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14 pages, 547 KiB  
Article
Maternal Diet Quality and Prenatal Depressive Symptoms: The Moderating Role of Economic Well-Being
by Peiyi Wang, Ilona S. Yim and Karen L. Lindsay
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122809 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
Prenatal depression is prevalent and adversely impacts maternal and infant health. This study addresses a critical literature gap and investigates the association between maternal diet quality and prenatal depressive symptoms, as well as the moderating effect of economic well-being on this link. A [...] Read more.
Prenatal depression is prevalent and adversely impacts maternal and infant health. This study addresses a critical literature gap and investigates the association between maternal diet quality and prenatal depressive symptoms, as well as the moderating effect of economic well-being on this link. A cross-sectional design was used, including 43 healthy pregnant women in the second trimester aggregated from two research projects. Prenatal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Dietary quality was evaluated using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls, from which the Adapted Dietary Inflammatory Index (ADII) and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 were derived. Economic well-being was indicated by the income-to-poverty ratio. A higher HEI-2015 (adherence to dietary guidelines; β = −0.53, p = 0.01) and negative ADII (anti-inflammatory diet; β = 0.40, p = 0.06) were associated with fewer prenatal depressive symp-toms. Among pregnant women with worse economic well-being, a pro-inflammatory diet was as-sociated with more prenatal depressive symptoms (b = 1.69, p = 0.004), but among those with better economic well-being, the association was not significant (b = 0.51, p = 0.09). Dietary interventions aimed at reducing dietary inflammation might hold some promise for improving mental health among pregnant women who are economically vulnerable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Association between Diet, Exercise and Mental Health)
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15 pages, 3655 KiB  
Article
Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Chronic Coronary Syndrome Patients
by Tianyu Li, Peizhi Wang, Xiaozeng Wang, Zhenyu Liu, Zheng Zhang, Yongzhen Zhang, Zhifang Wang, Yingqing Feng, Qingsheng Wang, Xiaogang Guo, Xiaofang Tang, Jingjing Xu, Ying Song, Yan Chen, Na Xu, Yi Yao, Ru Liu, Pei Zhu, Yaling Han and Jinqing Yuan
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122808 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
Limited evidence exists on the combined and mediating effects of systemic inflammation on the association between insulin resistance and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes and chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). This secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort included 4419 diabetic CCS patients. [...] Read more.
Limited evidence exists on the combined and mediating effects of systemic inflammation on the association between insulin resistance and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes and chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). This secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort included 4419 diabetic CCS patients. Triglyceride–glucose index (TyG) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were applied to evaluate insulin resistance and systemic inflammation, respectively. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac event (MACE). Associations of TyG and hsCRP with cardiovascular events were estimated using Cox regression. A mediation analysis was performed to assess whether hsCRP mediates the relationship between TyG and cardiovascular events. Within a median 2.1-year follow-up period, 405 MACEs occurred. Patients with high levels of TyG and hsCRP experienced the highest MACE risk (hazard ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–2.70, p = 0.002) compared to individuals with low levels of both markers. HsCRP significantly mediated 14.37% of the relationship between TyG and MACE (p < 0.001). In diabetic CCS patients, insulin resistance and systemic inflammation synergically increased the risk of cardiovascular events, and systemic inflammation partially mediated the association between insulin resistance and clinical outcomes. Combining TyG and hsCRP can help identify high-risk patients. Controlling inflammation in patients with insulin resistance may bring added benefits. Full article
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13 pages, 1536 KiB  
Article
Comparative Assessment of the Nutritional Profile of Meat Products and Their Plant-Based Analogues
by Judit Costa-Catala, Natalia Toro-Funes, Oriol Comas-Basté, Salvador Hernández-Macias, Sònia Sánchez-Pérez, M. Luz Latorre-Moratalla, M. Teresa Veciana-Nogués, Victòria Castell-Garralda and M. Carmen Vidal-Carou
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2807; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122807 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3198
Abstract
Vegetarian and vegan diets are increasingly being adopted in Spain, a trend mainly driven by ethical concerns for animal welfare and the environment. This has resulted in a growing market for plant-based substitutes of meat products. However, available data on the nutritional value [...] Read more.
Vegetarian and vegan diets are increasingly being adopted in Spain, a trend mainly driven by ethical concerns for animal welfare and the environment. This has resulted in a growing market for plant-based substitutes of meat products. However, available data on the nutritional value of such meat analogues in Mediterranean countries are still limited. In this study, the labelling information of four categories of plant-based meat analogues (n = 100) and the corresponding conventional meat products (n = 48) available on the Spanish market was surveyed and compared. The nutrient content of plant-based meat analogues varied significantly, due to the wide range of ingredients used in their formulation. Some of these products were found to have a low protein content, which in others was enhanced by the addition of cereals and legumes. Compared to the meat products, the plant-based analogues contained lower levels of total fat as well as saturated fat, which ranged from 30% of total fat in burgers to less than 15% in meatballs, sausages, and nuggets; in contrast, they contained higher amounts of fiber and complex carbohydrates. Overall, the meat analogues cannot be considered as nutritionally equivalent substitutes to conventional meat products due to a high variability of protein content and other nutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 2nd FINUT Conference 2022)
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20 pages, 2628 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effects of n-3 PUFA Supplementation on Bone Metabolism Markers and Body Bone Mineral Density in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of RCTs
by Jie Gao, Chenqi Xie, Jie Yang, Chunyan Tian, Mai Zhang, Zhenquan Lu, Xiangyuan Meng, Jing Cai, Xiaofei Guo and Tianlin Gao
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2806; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122806 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Supplemental n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on bone metabolism have yielded inconsistent results. This study aimed to examine the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. A systematic [...] Read more.
Supplemental n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on bone metabolism have yielded inconsistent results. This study aimed to examine the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on bone metabolism markers and bone mineral density through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCO databases, updated to 1 March 2023. The intervention effects were measured as standard mean differences (SMD) and mean differences (MD). Additionally, n-3 PUFA with the untreated control, placebo control, or lower-dose n-3 PUFA supplements were compared, respectively. Further, 19 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (22 comparisons, n = 2546) showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly increased blood n-3 PUFA (SMD: 2.612; 95% CI: 1.649 to 3.575). However, no significant effects were found on BMD, CTx-1, NTx-1, BAP, serum calcium, 25(OH)D, PTH, CRP, and IL-6. Subgroup analyses showed significant increases in femoral neck BMD in females (0.01, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), people aged <60 years (0.01, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.01), and those people in Eastern countries (0.02, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.03), and for 25(OH)D in people aged ≥60 years (0.43, 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.74), treated with n-3 PUFA only (0.36, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.66), and in studies lasting ≤6 months (0.29, 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.47). NTx-1 decreased in both genders (−9.66, 95% CI: −15.60 to −3.71), and serum calcium reduction was found in studies lasting >6 months (−0.19, 95% CI: −0.37 to −0.01). The present study demonstrated that n-3 PUFA supplementation might not have a significant effect on bone mineral density or bone metabolism markers, but have some potential benefits for younger postmenopausal subjects in the short term. Therefore, additional high-quality, long-term randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are warranted to fully elucidate the potential benefits of n-3 PUFA supplementation, as well as the combined supplementation of n-3 PUFA, on bone health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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17 pages, 1740 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D Deficiency in Chronic Childhood Disorders: Importance of Screening and Prevention
by Madhura Joshi and Suma Uday
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2805; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122805 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
Vitamin D plays a vital role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism and maintaining bone health. A state of prolonged or profound vitamin D deficiency (VDD) can result in rickets in children and osteomalacia in children and adults. Recent studies have demonstrated the [...] Read more.
Vitamin D plays a vital role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism and maintaining bone health. A state of prolonged or profound vitamin D deficiency (VDD) can result in rickets in children and osteomalacia in children and adults. Recent studies have demonstrated the pleiotropic action of vitamin D and identified its effects on multiple biological processes in addition to bone health. VDD is more prevalent in chronic childhood conditions such as long-standing systemic illnesses affecting the renal, liver, gastrointestinal, skin, neurologic and musculoskeletal systems. VDD superimposed on the underlying disease process and treatments that can adversely affect bone turnover can all add to the disease burden in these groups of children. The current review outlines the causes and mechanisms underlying poor bone health in certain groups of children and young people with chronic diseases with an emphasis on the proactive screening and treatment of VDD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Vitamin D in Chronic Diseases)
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14 pages, 1497 KiB  
Article
Do Patients Benefit from Micronutrient Supplementation following Pancreatico-Duodenectomy?
by Mary E. Phillips, Kathryn H. Hart, Adam E. Frampton and M. Denise Robertson
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2804; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122804 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2063
Abstract
Pancreatico-duodenectomy (PD) includes resection of the duodenum and use of the proximal jejunum in a blind loop, thus reducing the absorptive capacity for vitamins and minerals. Several studies have analysed the frequency of micronutrient deficiencies, but there is a paucity of data on [...] Read more.
Pancreatico-duodenectomy (PD) includes resection of the duodenum and use of the proximal jejunum in a blind loop, thus reducing the absorptive capacity for vitamins and minerals. Several studies have analysed the frequency of micronutrient deficiencies, but there is a paucity of data on those taking routine supplements. A retrospective review of medical notes was undertaken on 548 patients under long-term follow-up following PD in a tertiary hepato-pancreatico-biliary centre. Data were available on 205 patients from 1–14 years following PD, and deficiencies were identified as follows: vitamin A (3%), vitamin D (46%), vitamin E (2%), iron (42%), iron-deficiency anaemia (21%), selenium (3%), magnesium (6%), copper (1%), and zinc (44%). Elevated parathyroid hormone was present in 11% of cases. There was no significant difference over time (p > 0.05). Routine supplementation with a vitamin and mineral supplement did appear to reduce the incidence of biochemical deficiency in vitamin A, vitamin E, and selenium compared to published data. However, iron, vitamin D, and zinc deficiencies were prevalent despite supplementation and require surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Nutritional Intervention in Chronic Diseases)
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14 pages, 2599 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Formula Ameliorates Renal Dysfunction Indicators, Glycemic Levels, and Blood Pressure in a Diabetic Nephropathy Mouse Model
by Yi-Wei Kuo, Yen-Yu Huang, Shin-Yu Tsai, Jiu-Yao Wang, Jia-Hung Lin, Zun-Jie Syu, Hui-Shan Wang, Yu-Chieh Hsu, Jui-Fen Chen, Ko-Chiang Hsia and Hsieh-Hsun Ho
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122803 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
One-third of patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience diabetic nephropathy (DN), which worsens the progression of renal dysfunction. However, preventive measures for DN are lacking. Lactobacillus acidophilus TYCA06, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis BLI-02, and Bifidobacterium bifidum VDD088 probiotic strains have been [...] Read more.
One-third of patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience diabetic nephropathy (DN), which worsens the progression of renal dysfunction. However, preventive measures for DN are lacking. Lactobacillus acidophilus TYCA06, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis BLI-02, and Bifidobacterium bifidum VDD088 probiotic strains have been demonstrated to delay CKD progression. This study evaluated their biological functions to stabilize blood-glucose fluctuations and delay the deterioration of renal function. The db/db mice were used to establish a DN animal model. This was supplemented with 5.125 × 109 CFU/kg/day (high dose) or 1.025 × 109 CFU/kg/day (low dose) mixed with probiotics containing TYCA06, BLI-02, and VDD088 for 8 weeks. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, blood glucose, and urine protein were analyzed. Possible mechanisms underlying the alleviation of DN symptoms by probiotic strains were evaluated through in vitro tests. Animal experiments revealed that BUN, serum creatinine, and blood glucose upon probiotic administration were significantly lower than in the control group. The rate of change of urine protein decreased significantly, and blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and renal fibrosis were improved. In vitro testing indicated that TYCA06 and BLI-02 significantly increased acetic acid concentration. TYCA06, BLI-02, and VDD088 were associated with better antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and glucose consumption activities relative to the control. A combination of the probiotics TYCA06, BLI-02, and VDD088 attenuated renal function deterioration and improved blood-glucose fluctuation in a diabetes-induced CKD mouse model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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13 pages, 2978 KiB  
Article
A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of a Diabetic Diet Containing the Rare Sugar D-Allulose in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind, Crossover Study
by Kensaku Fukunaga, Takafumi Yoshimura, Hitomi Imachi, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Takanobu Saheki, Seisuke Sato, Nao Saheki, Wenyi Jiang and Koji Murao
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122802 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7219
Abstract
High sugar consumption increases the risk of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Regarding the diet of patients with diabetes, artificial sweeteners are considered a safe alternative to sugar; however, there is also a risk that artificial sweeteners exacerbate glucose metabolism. D-allulose (C-3 isomer [...] Read more.
High sugar consumption increases the risk of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Regarding the diet of patients with diabetes, artificial sweeteners are considered a safe alternative to sugar; however, there is also a risk that artificial sweeteners exacerbate glucose metabolism. D-allulose (C-3 isomer of d-fructose), which is a rare sugar, has been reported to have antidiabetic and antiobesity effects. In this study, the efficacy of a diabetic diet containing D-allulose was investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes using an intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring system (isCGM). This study was a validated, prospective, single-blind, randomized, crossover comparative study. Comparison of peak postprandial blood glucose (PPG) levels after consumption of a standard diabetic diet and a diabetic diet containing 8.5 g of D-allulose was the primary endpoint. A D-allulose-containing diabetic diet improved PPG levels in type two diabetes patients compared with a strictly energy-controlled diabetic diet. The results also showed a protective effect on endogenous pancreatic insulin secretory capacity owing to reduced insulin requirement. In patients with type two diabetes mellitus, diabetic diets containing 8.5 g D-allulose were effective in improving PPG levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Dietary Intervention and Glycemic Control in Diabetes)
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14 pages, 1070 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Health Status of Spanish Schoolchildren Based on Nutrimetry, Lifestyle and Intestinal Parasites
by Estephany Tapia-Veloz, Marisa Guillén, María Trelis, Tannia Valeria Carpio-Arias and Mónica Gozalbo
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2801; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122801 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Malnutrition in Spanish schoolchildren, and its relationship with lifestyles, has been studied, but Nutrimetry (a nutritional status indicator), and data on intestinal parasitism and its risk factors, have never before been taken into account. A total of 206 children aged 3–11 years, from [...] Read more.
Malnutrition in Spanish schoolchildren, and its relationship with lifestyles, has been studied, but Nutrimetry (a nutritional status indicator), and data on intestinal parasitism and its risk factors, have never before been taken into account. A total of 206 children aged 3–11 years, from two schools in the Valencian Community, participated. Demographic characteristics, diet, lifestyles, behavioural habits and anthropometric (weight, height) and coproparasitological data were collected. Nutrimetry was used to analyse nutritional status. Statistical analyses were performed to ascertain associations between lifestyle, selected parasite species and nutritional status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association of the suspected risk factors with the presence of intestinal parasitism. The prevalence of overweight was 32.6%. A total of 43.9% had a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, for which mean daily intake was 2428.7 kcal. Intestinal parasitism was identified in 49.5% of the children (Giardia duodenalis: 28.6%). The source of drinking water was found to be a risk factor for intestinal parasitism. No positive association between the variables analysed and nutritional status could be confirmed. Nutrimetry is a good indicator for a complete analysis of nutritional status. It highlights the prevalence of overweight. Intestinal parasitism was identified in almost half of the participants and is a variable that should not be underestimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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15 pages, 9696 KiB  
Article
Effects of Melatonin Supplementation on Lipid Metabolism and Body Fat Accumulation in Ovariectomized Rats
by Ling-Wen Hsu and Yi-Wen Chien
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122800 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Postmenopausal obesity is a rising problem. Melatonin (Mel) is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that regulates the circadian rhythms and improves obesity. In this experiment, ovariectomized (OVX) rats were used as a menopause model to explore the effects of Mel supplementation [...] Read more.
Postmenopausal obesity is a rising problem. Melatonin (Mel) is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that regulates the circadian rhythms and improves obesity. In this experiment, ovariectomized (OVX) rats were used as a menopause model to explore the effects of Mel supplementation on lipid metabolism, body fat accumulation, and obesity. Nine-week-old female rats underwent an OVX surgery and were assigned to the following groups: control group (C), low-dose group (L, 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) Mel), medium-dose group (M, 20 mg/kg BW Mel), and high-dose group (H, 50 mg/kg BW Mel), administered by gavage for 8 weeks. The results showed that the OVX rats supplemented with low, medium, and high doses of Mel for 8 weeks exhibited reduced BW gain, perirenal fat mass, and gonads fat mass, and an increased serum irisin level. Low and high doses of Mel induced brite/beige adipocytes in the white adipose tissues. In addition, the messenger RNA levels of the fatty acid synthesis enzymes were significantly reduced after the high-dose Mel supplementation. Thus, Mel can reduce the hepatic fatty acid synthesis and promote the browning of white adipose tissues through irisin; thereby, improving obesity and body fat accumulation in OVX rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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20 pages, 4260 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Concentration of 51 Elements in the Liver and in Various Parts of the Human Brain—Profiling of the Mineral Status
by Jacek Baj, Beata Kowalska, Wojciech Flieger, Elżbieta Radzikowska-Büchner, Alicja Forma, Marcin Czeczelewski, Paweł Kędzierawski, Kaja Karakuła, Michał Flieger, Dariusz Majerek, Grzegorz Teresiński, Ryszard Maciejewski and Jolanta Flieger
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2799; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122799 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
The anthropogenic environment and diet introduce many metals into the human body, both essential and toxic. Absorption leads to systemic exposure and accumulation in body fluids and tissues. Both excess and deficiency of trace elements are health hazards. The primary aim of the [...] Read more.
The anthropogenic environment and diet introduce many metals into the human body, both essential and toxic. Absorption leads to systemic exposure and accumulation in body fluids and tissues. Both excess and deficiency of trace elements are health hazards. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentration of 51 elements in liver samples and 11 selected brain regions obtained at post-mortem examination from a population of adults living in south-eastern Poland (n = 15). A total of 180 analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in two independent replicates. The collected data show very high individual variability in the content of the investigated elements. Macroelements such as sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, and zinc occurred in the highest concentrations and with the greatest statistically significant variations. Although the elemental content of the brain and liver differed significantly, the strongest positive correlation between liver and polus frontalis was observed for the essential element selenium (0.9338) and the strongest negative one for manganese (−0.4316) and lanthanum (−0.5110). The brain areas studied have different requirements for phosphorus, manganese, iron, and molybdenum. In addition, males had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher brain content of lanthanides and actinides than females. The results of this study show that the inhabitants of south-eastern Poland are exposed to a fairly uniform accumulation of aluminum and vanadium in the brain, which have the highest affinity to the thalamus dorsalis. This result proves that there is environmental exposure to these elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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20 pages, 6929 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation of Ancientino Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis by Improving Intestinal Barrier Function and Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
by Meng Liu, Yuhui Wang, Guoqiang Guan, Xi Lu, Yizhun Zhu and Xiaoqun Duan
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2798; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122798 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
Ancientino, a complex dietary fiber supplement mimicking the ancient diet, has improved chronic heart failure, kidney function, and constipation. However, its effect on ulcerative colitis is unknown. This study explores the impact of Ancientino on colitis caused by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and [...] Read more.
Ancientino, a complex dietary fiber supplement mimicking the ancient diet, has improved chronic heart failure, kidney function, and constipation. However, its effect on ulcerative colitis is unknown. This study explores the impact of Ancientino on colitis caused by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and its mechanisms. Data analyses showed that Ancientino alleviated bodyweight loss, colon shortening and injury, and disease activity index (DAI) score, regulated levels of inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6)), reduced intestinal permeability (d-lactate and endotoxin), fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (FITC-dextran), and diamine oxidase (DAO), repaired colonic function (ZO-1 and occludin), and suppressed oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) in vivo and in vitro. In short, this study demonstrated that Ancientino alleviates colitis and exerts an anticolitis effect by reducing inflammatory response, suppressing oxidative stress, and repairing intestinal barrier function. Thus, Ancientino may be an effective therapeutic dietary resource for ulcerative colitis. Full article
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14 pages, 1554 KiB  
Article
Injectable Lipid Emulsion and Clinical Outcomes in Patients Exclusively Receiving Parenteral Nutrition in an ICU: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using a Japanese Medical Claims Database
by Hideto Yasuda, Yuri Horikoshi, Satoru Kamoshita, Akiyoshi Kuroda and Takashi Moriya
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122797 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1771
Abstract
Guidelines for the nutritional management of critically ill patients recommend the use of injectable lipid emulsion (ILE) as part of parenteral nutrition (PN). The ILE’s impact on outcomes remains unclear. Associations between prescribed ILE and in-hospital mortality, hospital readmission, and hospital length of [...] Read more.
Guidelines for the nutritional management of critically ill patients recommend the use of injectable lipid emulsion (ILE) as part of parenteral nutrition (PN). The ILE’s impact on outcomes remains unclear. Associations between prescribed ILE and in-hospital mortality, hospital readmission, and hospital length of stay (LOS) in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) were investigated. Patients who were ≥18 years old in an ICU from January 2010 through June 2020, receiving mechanical ventilation, and fasting for >7 days, were selected from a Japanese medical claims database and divided, based on prescribed ILE during days from 4 to 7 of ICU admission, into 2 groups, no-lipid and with-lipid. Associations between the with-lipid group and in-hospital mortality, hospital readmission, and hospital LOS were evaluated relative to the no-lipid group. Regression analyses and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and regression coefficients, and hazard ratios (HR) were adjusted for patient characteristics and parenteral energy and amino acid doses. A total of 20,773 patients were evaluated. Adjusted OR and HR (95% confidence interval) for in-hospital mortality were 0.66 (0.62–0.71) and 0.68 (0.64–0.72), respectively, for the with-lipid group relative to the no-lipid group. No significant differences between the two groups were observed for hospital readmission or hospital LOS. The use of ILE for days 4 to 7 in PN prescribed for critically ill patients, who were in an ICU receiving mechanical ventilation and fasting for more than 7 days, was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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13 pages, 944 KiB  
Article
Association of Drinking Herbal Tea with Activities of Daily Living among Elderly: A Latent Class Analysis
by Liyuan Tao, Jiaojiao Liao, Rui Zheng, Xiaoyu Zhang and Hongcai Shang
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122796 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2588
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore whether drinking herbal tea and tea would positively benefit activities of daily living (ADL) in the elderly. We used data from the Chinese longitudinal healthy longevity survey (CLHLS) to explore the association. Drinking herbal tea [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore whether drinking herbal tea and tea would positively benefit activities of daily living (ADL) in the elderly. We used data from the Chinese longitudinal healthy longevity survey (CLHLS) to explore the association. Drinking herbal tea and drinking tea were divided into three groups using latent class analysis (LCA): frequently, occasionally, and rarely. ADL disability was measured by the ADL score. Multivariate COX proportional hazards models with competing risks were used to explore the impact of drinking herbal tea and tea on ADL disability, statistically adjusted for a range of potential confounders. A total of 7441 participants (mean age 81.8 years) were included in this study. The proportions of frequently and occasionally drinking herbal tea were 12.0% and 25.7%, respectively. Additionally, 29.6% and 28.2% of participants reported drinking tea, respectively. Multivariate COX regression showed that compared with rarely drinking, frequently drinking herbal tea could effectively reduce the incidence of ADL disability (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.93, p = 0.005), whereas tea drinking had a relatively weaker effect (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.83–0.99, p = 0.040). Subgroup analysis found that frequently drinking herbal tea was more protective for males under 80 years old (HR = 0.74 and 0.79, respectively), while frequently drinking tea was somewhat protective for women (HR = 0.92). The results indicate that drinking herbal tea and tea may be associated with a lower incidence of ADL disability. However, the risks associated with using Chinese herb plants still deserve attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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18 pages, 4396 KiB  
Review
Natural Products for the Immunotherapy of Glioma
by Qi Huang, Xier Pan, Wenhao Zhu, Wen Zhao, Hongzhi Xu and Kaili Hu
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122795 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
Glioma immunotherapy has attracted increasing attention since the immune system plays a vital role in suppressing tumor growth. Immunotherapy strategies are already being tested in clinical trials, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), vaccines, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T cell) therapy, and virus [...] Read more.
Glioma immunotherapy has attracted increasing attention since the immune system plays a vital role in suppressing tumor growth. Immunotherapy strategies are already being tested in clinical trials, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), vaccines, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T cell) therapy, and virus therapy. However, the clinical application of these immunotherapies is limited due to their tremendous side effects and slight efficacy caused by glioma heterogeneity, antigen escape, and the presence of glioma immunosuppressive microenvironment (GIME). Natural products have emerged as a promising and safe strategy for glioma therapy since most of them possess excellent antitumor effects and immunoregulatory properties by reversing GIME. This review summarizes the status of current immunotherapy strategies for glioma, including their obstacles. Then we discuss the recent advancement of natural products for glioma immunotherapy. Additionally, perspectives on the challenges and opportunities of natural compounds for modulating the glioma microenvironment are also illustrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Cancer)
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12 pages, 1702 KiB  
Article
Glutamine Supplementation Preserves Glutamatergic Neuronal Activity in the Infralimbic Cortex, Which Delays the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment in 3×Tg-AD Female Mice
by Ji Hyeong Baek, Jae Soon Kang, Miyoung Song, Dong Kun Lee and Hyun Joon Kim
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2794; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122794 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
It was recently found that glutamine (Gln) supplementation activates glutamatergic neurotransmission and prevents chronic-stress-induced mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we evaluated the effects of Gln on glutamatergic activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and the onset of cognitive impairment in a [...] Read more.
It was recently found that glutamine (Gln) supplementation activates glutamatergic neurotransmission and prevents chronic-stress-induced mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we evaluated the effects of Gln on glutamatergic activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and the onset of cognitive impairment in a triple-transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mouse model (3×Tg-AD). Female 3×Tg-AD mice were fed a normal diet (3×Tg) or a Gln-supplemented diet (3×Tg+Gln) from 2 to 6 months of age. Glutamatergic neuronal activity was analyzed at 6 months, and cognitive function was examined at 2, 4, and 6 months. 3×Tg mice exhibited a decrease in glutamatergic neurotransmission in the infralimbic cortex, but 3×Tg+Gln mice did not. The 3×Tg group showed MCI at 6 months of age, but the 3×Tg+Gln group did not. The expressions of amyloid peptide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and IBA-1 were not elevated in the infralimbic cortex in the 3×Tg+Gln group. Therefore, a Gln-supplemented diet could delay the onset of MCI even in a mouse model predisposed to cognitive impairment and dementia through genetic modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules, 2nd Volume)
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13 pages, 2206 KiB  
Systematic Review
Maternal Exercise Impacts Offspring Metabolic Health in Adulthood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Animal Studies
by Lu Ding, Jieying Liu, Liyuan Zhou and Xinhua Xiao
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122793 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Maternal exercise benefits offspring’s metabolic health with long-term repercussions. Here, we systematically reviewed the effects of maternal exercise on offspring obesity outcomes in adulthood. The primary outcome is body weight. The secondary outcomes are glucose and lipid profiles. Two independent authors performed a [...] Read more.
Maternal exercise benefits offspring’s metabolic health with long-term repercussions. Here, we systematically reviewed the effects of maternal exercise on offspring obesity outcomes in adulthood. The primary outcome is body weight. The secondary outcomes are glucose and lipid profiles. Two independent authors performed a search in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. A total of nine studies with 17 different cohorts consisting of 369 animals (two species) were included. Study quality was assessed using the SYRCLE risk of bias. The PRISMA statement was used to report this systematic review. The results showed that maternal exercise contributes to improved glucose tolerance, reduced insulin concentration, and lower total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels in adult offspring in mice, which are independent of maternal body weight and offspring dietary condition. Additionally, in rats, maternal exercise leads to a higher body weight in adult offspring, which might be attributed to the high-fat diet of offspring after weaning. These findings further support the metabolic beneficial role of maternal exercise on offspring in adulthood, although the issue of translating the results to the human population is still yet to be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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30 pages, 732 KiB  
Review
Effectiveness of Theory-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Interventions in Aging Latino Adults: A Scoping Review
by Ana Maafs-Rodríguez and Sara C. Folta
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122792 - 18 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1929
Abstract
In the United States (US), Latino individuals older than 50 years face health disparities compared to their White counterparts. Considering the rising life expectancy and the projected increase of older Latino adults in the US, this scoping review aimed to determine the effectiveness [...] Read more.
In the United States (US), Latino individuals older than 50 years face health disparities compared to their White counterparts. Considering the rising life expectancy and the projected increase of older Latino adults in the US, this scoping review aimed to determine the effectiveness of theory-based and culturally relevant strategies that promote healthy aging in Latinos. Web of Science and PubMed databases were searched between December 2022 and February 2023 for peer-reviewed articles assessing healthy aging interventions tailored to community-dwelling aging Latino adults. We included nine studies describing the effects of seven interventions on physical activity- or nutrition-related outcomes. Although not always statistically significant, interventions had a beneficial impact on well-being indicators. The most commonly used behavioral theories were Social Cognitive Theory and Attribution Theory. Latino cultural elements in these studies included partnering with community organizations that serve Latinos (such as Catholic churches), delivery of in-person bilingual group sessions by trusted community members (such as promotoras or Latino dance instructors), and incorporating values such as family and religion into the health curriculum, among others. Future strategies that promote healthy aging in Latino adults should proactively culturally adapt the theoretical foundations and the design, recruitment, and implementation processes to ensure their relevance and effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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18 pages, 788 KiB  
Review
A Scoping Review on the Association between Night Eating Syndrome and Physical Health, Health-Related Quality of Life, Sleep and Weight Status in Adults
by Sai Janani Sakthivel, Phillipa Hay and Haider Mannan
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122791 - 18 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3171
Abstract
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterised by recurrent episodes of night eating, evident through excessive food consumption after the evening meal or eating after awakening from sleep, often associated with significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. This scoping review was conducted according to [...] Read more.
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterised by recurrent episodes of night eating, evident through excessive food consumption after the evening meal or eating after awakening from sleep, often associated with significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. This scoping review was conducted according to PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews) guidelines. The search was conducted through the use of PubMed, Medline (OVID) and SCOPUS, to identify relevant articles published within the last 10 years. Search terms including “Night eating*” OR “NES” and Boolean phrases were used to refine the search. Additionally, the age of participants was restricted to 18 years and above, to ensure only adult participants were included. The abstracts of the remaining articles were used to screen for those that were relevant. From a total of 663 citations, 30 studies assessing night eating syndrome met the inclusion criteria to be included in the review. We found inconsistent associations of NES with higher body mass index (BMI), less physical activity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and poorer quality of sleep. These inconsistencies may have been due to the use of different measurement methods, lack of power from small sample sizes of NES in some studies and varying ages of participants, with associations being more likely to be found in higher-quality, representative populations than in university student samples. There were no associations of NES with T2DM in clinical populations and with hypertension, OSA and metabolic syndrome, but sample sizes were small. The impacts of NES on these medical conditions should be addressed in future, using well-sized and long-term studies involving representative populations of adults. In conclusion, NES likely has negative impacts on BMI, T2DM, physical activity, and sleep quality, which in turn may increase cardio-metabolic risk. However, further research is needed to elucidate the interaction between NES and its associated features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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