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Nutrients, Volume 15, Issue 13 (July-1 2023) – 255 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Prolonged fatigue is associated with non-pathological causes and lacks an established therapeutic approach. The current study is aimed at assessing the efficacy of a new food supplement (Improve™) based on a chemically characterized pomegranate extract and hydro-soluble vitamins (B complex and C). UHPLC-HRMS analysis of pomegranate extract showed the presence of 59 compounds, with gallotannins and ellagitannins being the most abundant phytochemicals. For the clinical study, 58 subjects were randomized into two groups, 1 and 2 (n = 29, each), which received either the food supplement or placebo. View this paper
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11 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Dietary Acid Load Is Not Associated with Serum Testosterone in Men: Insights from the NHANES
by Maximilian Andreas Storz and Alvaro Luis Ronco
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133075 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1599
Abstract
The dietary acid load (DAL) is a novel marker of overall diet quality, which has been associated with overweight, type 2 diabetes and altered glucocorticoid secretion. A potential association with sex hormones is thus not inconceivable. We investigated whether DAL was associated with [...] Read more.
The dietary acid load (DAL) is a novel marker of overall diet quality, which has been associated with overweight, type 2 diabetes and altered glucocorticoid secretion. A potential association with sex hormones is thus not inconceivable. We investigated whether DAL was associated with serum total testosterone concentrations of men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The DAL scores, including the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP), were estimated and compared between participants with low and normal testosterone levels. The investigated sample encompassed n = 377 males with a mean age of 49.50 years. Approximately 73% of the sample were of Non-Hispanic White origin. None of the examined DAL scores showed significant associations with serum testosterone levels. We observed no significant differences in the crude DAL scores between individuals with low testosterone levels and individuals with normal testosterone levels. Multivariate regression models adjusting for covariates confirmed the lack of associations between the PRAL and serum testosterone. Our results are of particular importance for those individuals who wish to lower their DAL in light of the presumable health effects of a more alkaline diet. Our data suggest that diet modifications toward a lower intake of animal protein and refined grains (which consecutively translates into a lower DAL) may not negatively affect men’s testosterone levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Support for Human Fertility)
11 pages, 695 KiB  
Article
Effect of Lactobacillus sakei OK67 in Reducing Body and Visceral Fat in Lifestyle-Modified Overweight Individuals: A 12-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
by Seong-Jun Oh, Young-Gyu Cho, Dong-Hyun Kim and Yun-Ha Hwang
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3074; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133074 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Obesity is a global health problem that affects the quality of life. It is a multidimensional chronic risk factor for major medical conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. This clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of Lactobacillus sakei OK67 (DW2010), a lactic [...] Read more.
Obesity is a global health problem that affects the quality of life. It is a multidimensional chronic risk factor for major medical conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. This clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of Lactobacillus sakei OK67 (DW2010), a lactic acid bacterium, in reducing body and visceral fat in overweight individuals (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 and <30 kg/m2), aged 20–60 years. A total of 100 subjects placed in a lifestyle modification program were randomly assigned to receive either DW2010 (2.0 g/day, 1.0 × 1010 CFU) or a placebo for 12 weeks. The efficacy of DW2010 was evaluated by measuring body fat mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and visceral fat area using computed tomography. After 12 weeks, the change in body fat in the DW2010 group was not markedly different from that in the placebo group. However, visceral fat area decreased more in the DW2010 group than in the placebo group (p = 0.035). During the clinical trial, no major adverse events were reported. Moreover, no statistical differences were observed in the biochemical parameters of the DW2010 and placebo groups. Overall, we concluded that the intake of DW2010 for 12 weeks is safe and potentially reduces visceral fat in lifestyle-modified overweight subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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17 pages, 3410 KiB  
Article
Pharmacokinetic Analyses of Liposomal and Non-Liposomal Multivitamin/Mineral Formulations
by Joungbo Ko, Choongsung Yoo, Dante Xing, Drew E. Gonzalez, Victoria Jenkins, Broderick Dickerson, Megan Leonard, Kay Nottingham, Jacob Kendra, Ryan Sowinski, Christopher J. Rasmussen and Richard B. Kreider
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3073; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133073 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5696
Abstract
Recent research supports previous contentions that encapsulating vitamins and minerals with liposomes help improve overall bioavailability. This study examined whether ingesting a liposomal multivitamin and mineral supplement (MVM) differentially affects the appearance and/or clearance of vitamins and minerals in the blood compared to [...] Read more.
Recent research supports previous contentions that encapsulating vitamins and minerals with liposomes help improve overall bioavailability. This study examined whether ingesting a liposomal multivitamin and mineral supplement (MVM) differentially affects the appearance and/or clearance of vitamins and minerals in the blood compared to a non-liposomal MVM supplement. In a double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced manner, 34 healthy men and women fasted for 12 h. Then, they ingested a non-liposomal (NL) or liposomal (L) MVM supplement and a standardized snack. Venous blood samples were obtained at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after MVM ingestion and analyzed for a panel of vitamins and minerals. Plasma levels of vitamins and minerals and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were analyzed using general linear model statistics with repeated measures. The observed values were also entered into pharmacokinetic analysis software and analyzed through univariate analysis of variance with repeated measure contrasts. The results revealed an overall treatment x time interaction effect among the vitamins and minerals evaluated (p = 0.051, ηp2 = 0.054, moderate effect). Differences between treatments were also observed in volume distribution area (vitamin E, iron), median residence time (vitamin E, iron), volume distribution area (iron), volume of distribution steady state (vitamin A, E, iron), clearance rates (vitamin A, E), elimination phase half-life (vitamin E, iron), distribution/absorption phase intercept (vitamin A), and distribution/absorption phase slope and rate (vitamin C, calcium). Vitamin volume distribution was lower with liposomal MVM ingestion than non-liposomal MVM sources, suggesting greater clearance and absorption since similar amounts of vitamins and minerals were ingested. These findings indicate that coating a MVM with liposomes affects individual nutrient pharmacokinetic profiles. Additional research should evaluate how long-term supplementation of liposomal MVM supplements may affect vitamin and mineral status, nutrient function, and/or health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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33 pages, 798 KiB  
Systematic Review
Does Native Vitamin D Supplementation Have Pleiotropic Effects in Patients with End-Stage Kidney Disease? A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials
by Nathan G. Pilkey, Olivia Novosel, Angélique Roy, Tristin E. Wilson, Jaya Sharma, Sono Khan, Sanjana Kapuria, Michael A. Adams and Rachel M. Holden
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3072; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133072 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
Vitamin D has been shown to have multiple pleiotropic effects beyond bone and mineral metabolism, with purported roles in cardiovascular disease, cancer, and host immunity. Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD); however, current clinical practice has favored [...] Read more.
Vitamin D has been shown to have multiple pleiotropic effects beyond bone and mineral metabolism, with purported roles in cardiovascular disease, cancer, and host immunity. Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD); however, current clinical practice has favored the use of the active hormone. Whether vitamin D deficiency should be corrected in patients with ESKD remains unclear, as few randomized trials have been conducted. In this systematic review, we summarize the current evidence examining whether vitamin D supplementation improves outcomes, beyond mineral metabolism, in patients with ESKD. Data from randomized controlled trials of adults with ESKD were obtained by searching Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Web of Science Core Collection from inception to February 2023. Twenty-three trials composed of 2489 participants were identified for inclusion. Data were synthesized by two independent reviewers and summarized in tables organized by outcome. Outcomes included measures of mortality, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, muscle strength/function, nutrition, patient well-being, and outcomes specific to ESKD including erythropoietin usage, pruritus, and dialysis access maturation. The Cochrane risk of Bias Tool (RoB 2, 2019) was used to assess study quality. Overall, our findings indicate a minimal and varied benefit of native vitamin D supplementation. From the largest studies included, we determine that vitamin D has no demonstrated effect on patient-reported measures of well-being or utilization of erythropoietin, nor does it change levels of the inflammation biomarker C-reactive protein. Included trials were heterogeneous with regards to outcomes, and the majority studied small participant populations with a relatively short follow-up. We conclude that vitamin D supplementation corrects vitamin D deficiency and is safe and well-tolerated in humans with ESKD. However, it is not clear from clinical trials conducted to date that a causal pathway exists between 25(OH)D and pleiotropic effects that is responsive to vitamin D treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Vitamin D in Chronic Diseases)
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41 pages, 4806 KiB  
Systematic Review
An Evaluation of Food and Nutrient Intake among Pregnant Women in The Netherlands: A Systematic Review
by Sovianne ter Borg, Nynke Koopman and Janneke Verkaik-Kloosterman
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3071; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133071 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3475
Abstract
Nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the health of the (unborn) child. This systematic review provides an updated overview of the available food and nutrient intake data for pregnant women in The Netherlands and an evaluation based on the current [...] Read more.
Nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the health of the (unborn) child. This systematic review provides an updated overview of the available food and nutrient intake data for pregnant women in The Netherlands and an evaluation based on the current recommendations. Embase, MEDLINE, and national institute databases were used. Articles were selected if they had been published since 2008 and contained data on food consumption, nutrient intake, or the status of healthy pregnant women. A qualitative comparison was made with the 2021 Dutch Health Council recommendations and reference values. A total of 218 reports were included, representing 54 individual studies. Dietary assessments were primarily performed via food frequency questionnaires. Protein, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C, iron, calcium, and magnesium intakes seemed to be adequate. For folate and vitamin D, supplements were needed to reach the recommended intake. The reasons for concern are the low intakes of fruits, vegetables, and (fatty) fish, and the intakes of alcohol, sugary drinks, and salt. For several foods and nutrients, no or limited intake data were found. High-quality, representative, and recent data are needed to evaluate the nutrient intake of pregnant women in order to make accurate assessments and evaluations, supporting scientific-based advice and national nutritional policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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19 pages, 1012 KiB  
Review
Effects of Unconventional Work and Shift Work on the Human Gut Microbiota and the Potential of Probiotics to Restore Dysbiosis
by Aroa Lopez-Santamarina, Alicia del Carmen Mondragon, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas, Eva Maria Santos, Jose Julio Porto-Arias, Alberto Cepeda and Jose Manuel Miranda
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3070; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133070 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3392
Abstract
The work environment is a factor that can significantly influence the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota of workers, in many cases leading to gut dysbiosis that will result in serious health problems. The aim of this paper was to provide a [...] Read more.
The work environment is a factor that can significantly influence the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota of workers, in many cases leading to gut dysbiosis that will result in serious health problems. The aim of this paper was to provide a compilation of the different studies that have examined the influence of jobs with unconventional work schedules and environments on the gut microbiota of workers performing such work. As a possible solution, probiotic supplements, via modulation of the gut microbiota, can moderate the effects of sleep disturbance on the immune system, as well as restore the dysbiosis produced. Rotating shift work has been found to be associated with an increase in the risk of various metabolic diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Sleep disturbance or lack of sleep due to night work is also associated with metabolic diseases. In addition, sleep disturbance induces a stress response, both physiologically and psychologically, and disrupts the healthy functioning of the gut microbiota, thus triggering an inflammatory state. Other workers, including military, healthcare, or metallurgy workers, as well as livestock farmers or long-travel seamen, work in environments and schedules that can significantly affect their gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Environment and Its Effects on Human Nutrition and Health)
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17 pages, 675 KiB  
Article
Influence of 12-Week Concurrent Training on Exosome Cargo and Its Relationship with Cardiometabolic Health Parameters in Men with Obesity
by Brisamar Estébanez, Francisco J. Amaro-Gahete, Cristina Gil-González, Javier González-Gallego, María J. Cuevas and David Jiménez-Pavón
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3069; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133069 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1837
Abstract
Exosome release varies depending on the physiological state of the cell, so they could play a fundamental role in obesity, the biggest pandemic in today’s societies. The beneficial effects that physical activity has both on weight and cardiovascular parameters may be mediated by [...] Read more.
Exosome release varies depending on the physiological state of the cell, so they could play a fundamental role in obesity, the biggest pandemic in today’s societies. The beneficial effects that physical activity has both on weight and cardiovascular parameters may be mediated by exosomes released in response to exercise. Thus, we aimed (I) to study the influence of a 12-week CT intervention on exosome cargo modifications in men with obesity and (II) to determine whether changes in exosomes after the intervention were related to changes in cardiometabolic health parameters in our cohorts. An experimental, controlled design was performed in twelve (nine with valid data) adult male obese patients (mean values: 41.6 years old, 97.6 kg and 32.4 kg/m2) who were randomly divided into a control group (n = 4) and a training group (n = 5), which completed 36 sessions of CT (concurrent training) for 12 weeks. Before and after the training period, cardiometabolic health parameters were evaluated and blood samples to measure exosomes and proteins were drawn. No changes were observed in the levels of any exosomal markers and proteins; however, associations of changes between CD81 and both fat mass and weight, Flot-1 and VO2max, HSP70 and both CRP and left ventricle diastolic diameter or CD14 and leptin were found (all p ≤ 0.05). Although the current CT was not able to clearly modify the exosome cargo, a certain medium to large clinical effect was manifested considering the nature of this study. Moreover, the associations found between the promoted changes in cardiometabolic parameters and exosome-carried proteins could indicate a relationship to be considered for future treatments in patients with obesity. Full article
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17 pages, 2787 KiB  
Protocol
Ketogenic-Mimicking Diet as a Therapeutic Modality for Bipolar Disorder: Biomechanistic Rationale and Protocol for a Pilot Clinical Trial
by Jeffrey L. B. Bohnen, Travis P. Wigstrom, Alexis M. Griggs, Stiven Roytman, Rebecca R. Paalanen, Hailemicael A. Andrews, Nicolaas I. Bohnen, Jacob J. H. Franklin and Melvin G. McInnis
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3068; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133068 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4006
Abstract
There is growing interest in the investigation of ketogenic diets as a potential therapy for bipolar disorder. The overlapping pharmacotherapies utilized for both bipolar disorder and seizures suggest that a mechanistic overlap may exist between these conditions, with fasting and the ketogenic diet [...] Read more.
There is growing interest in the investigation of ketogenic diets as a potential therapy for bipolar disorder. The overlapping pharmacotherapies utilized for both bipolar disorder and seizures suggest that a mechanistic overlap may exist between these conditions, with fasting and the ketogenic diet representing the most time-proven therapies for seizure control. Recently, preliminary evidence has begun to emerge supporting a potential role for ketogenic diets in treating bipolar disorder. Notably, some patients may struggle to initiate a strict diet in the midst of a mood episode or significant life stressors. The key question addressed by this pilot clinical trial protocol is if benefits can be achieved with a less restrictive diet, as this would allow such an intervention to be accessible for more patients. Recent development of so-called ketone esters, that once ingested is converted to natural ketone bodies, combined with low glycemic index dietary changes has the potential to mimic two foundational components of therapeutic ketosis: high levels of ketones and minimal spiking of glucose/insulin. This pilot clinical trial protocol thus aims to investigate the effect of a ‘ketogenic-mimicking diet’ (combining supplementation of ketone esters with a low glycemic index dietary intervention) on neural network stability, mood, and biomarker outcomes in the setting of bipolar disorder. Positive findings obtained via this pilot clinical trial protocol may support future target engagement studies of ketogenic-mimicking diets or related ketogenic interventions. A lack of positive findings, in contrast, may justify a focus on more strict dietary interventions for future research. Full article
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11 pages, 607 KiB  
Article
25OHVitamin D Levels in a Canarian Pediatric Population with and without Type 1 Diabetes: The Role of Acidosis
by Yeray Nóvoa-Medina, Marta Barreiro-Bautista, Marta Perdomo-Quinteiro, Jesús María González-Martín, Sofía Quinteiro-González, Ángela Domínguez, María Cabrera, Sara López, Svetlana Pavlovic and Ana M. Wägner
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3067; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133067 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
The role of Vitamin D in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is controversial. The Canary Islands have the highest incidence of childhood-onset T1D in Spain and one of the highest in Europe. We aimed to evaluate 25OHVitamin D concentrations in a [...] Read more.
The role of Vitamin D in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is controversial. The Canary Islands have the highest incidence of childhood-onset T1D in Spain and one of the highest in Europe. We aimed to evaluate 25OHVitamin D concentrations in a Canarian pediatric population, to assess the existence of seasonal variation, to study their association with T1D, and to evaluate the role of acidosis in its levels. In a retrospective, case-control study, we obtained data from 146 T1D patients (<15 years of age) and 346 control children; 25OHVitamin D concentrations were assessed in serum by automatic ChemiLuminescence ImmunoAssay technology. We found significantly higher 25OHVitamin D levels in the summer and autumn months and an inverse correlation between T1D and age; 25OHVitamin D sufficiency was similar in both groups (44.5% vs. 45.1%), with significant differences in the percentage of patients presenting vitamin D deficiency (11.6% (T1D) vs. 16.4% (controls)). When stratified according to the presence of ketoacidosis at sampling, only patients with acidosis showed lower 25OHVitamin D concentrations than controls. Despite its subtropical geographic location, Vitamin D deficiency is frequent in children in Gran Canaria, and 25OHVitamin D concentrations show seasonal variation. After adjusting for acidosis, no differences were found between children with and without T1D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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12 pages, 7574 KiB  
Article
Sex-Specific Differences in Left Ventricular Mass and Volumes with Body Mass Index among Children Aged 6 to 8: A Cross-Sectional Study in China
by Huidi Xiao, Wen Shu, Menglong Li, Liyuan Xu, Nubiya Amaerjiang, Jiawulan Zunong, Sten H. Vermund, Dayong Huang, Mei Chong and Yifei Hu
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3066; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133066 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
Few studies have examined the sex differences in left ventricle (LV) structure and physiology from early life stages. We aimed to assess the role of sex and overweight/obesity on left ventricular mass (LVM) and LV volume in Chinese children without preexisting cardiovascular risk [...] Read more.
Few studies have examined the sex differences in left ventricle (LV) structure and physiology from early life stages. We aimed to assess the role of sex and overweight/obesity on left ventricular mass (LVM) and LV volume in Chinese children without preexisting cardiovascular risk factors. We selected 934 healthy children aged 6–8 years from an existing cohort in Beijing, China. Linear regression models were used to regress body mass index (BMI), fat mass, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and visceral fat area (VFA) with LVM, left ventricle end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and end-systolic volume (LVESV). Higher BMI, fat mass, waist circumference, VFA, and stroke volume (SV) predicted higher LVM, LVEDV, and LVESV in both sexes. Multivariable analysis showed that boys with an elevated BMI had greater LV hypertrophy. LVEDV and LVESV were higher among boys than among girls and increased with higher BMI in both boys and girls. LVEDV and LVESV were associated with VFA in boys. We observed sex differences in LVM, LVESV, and LVEDV among prepubertal children, independent of obesity, with higher values observed in boys. Sex differences in cardiac structure in children may help explain the higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in male adults. Whether interventions to reduce childhood obesity can improve the trajectory of cardiac dynamics is worth investigating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2023 Collection: Dietary, Lifestyle and Children Health)
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14 pages, 2079 KiB  
Article
Infant Feeding Pattern Clusters Are Associated with Childhood Health Outcomes
by Ju Hee Kim, Eun Lee, Eun Kyo Ha, Gi Chun Lee, Jeewon Shin, Hey-Sung Baek, Sun-Hee Choi, Youn Ho Shin and Man Yong Han
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3065; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133065 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1506
Abstract
(1) Background: Feeding behavior habits have a pattern with a certain tendency during infancy. We aimed to identify the associations between feeding patterns in infancy and the subsequent 10-year childhood disease burden. (2) Methods: Data from 236,372 infants were obtained from the national [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Feeding behavior habits have a pattern with a certain tendency during infancy. We aimed to identify the associations between feeding patterns in infancy and the subsequent 10-year childhood disease burden. (2) Methods: Data from 236,372 infants were obtained from the national health insurance and screening program records in South Korea. Parent-administered questionnaires during infancy provided details on the feeding type and types/frequency of complementary food for analyzing feeding patterns. The outcomes were all-cause hospitalization and the development of 15 representative childhood diseases until the age of 10 years. Anthropometric measurements obtained at 6 years of age were analyzed. To estimate outcome risks while considering multiple risk factors, we employed a Cox proportional hazard and modified Poisson regression. (3) Results: Three clusters were identified: high prevalence of breastfeeding with regular exposure to a variety of solid foods (n = 116,372, cluster 1), similar prevalence of breastfeeding and formula feeding with less exposure to solid foods (n = 108,189, cluster 2), and similar prevalence of breastfeeding and formula feeding with the least exposure to solid foods in infancy (n = 11,811, cluster 3). Compared with cluster 1, children in clusters 2 and 3 had increased risks of all-cause hospitalization (hazard ratio (HR), (95% confidence interval (CI)), 1.04 (1.03–1.06) and 1.08 (1.05–1.11), respectively). Children in clusters 2 and 3 had an increased risk of upper respiratory infection, pneumonia, and gastroenteritis, as well as neurobehavioral diseases. Overweight/obesity at the age of 6 years was associated with clusters 2 and 3. (4) Conclusions: Feeding patterns in infancy were associated with an increased risk of childhood disease burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lifestyle and Chronic Disease in Early Life)
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19 pages, 1846 KiB  
Review
Defining NAD(P)(H) Catabolism
by Jyothi Dhuguru, Ryan W. Dellinger and Marie E. Migaud
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3064; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133064 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2488
Abstract
Dietary vitamin B3 components, such as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, are precursors to the ubiquitous redox cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ levels are thought to decline with age and disease. While the drivers of this decline remain under intense [...] Read more.
Dietary vitamin B3 components, such as nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, are precursors to the ubiquitous redox cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ levels are thought to decline with age and disease. While the drivers of this decline remain under intense investigation, strategies have emerged seeking to functionally maintain NAD+ levels through supplementation with NAD+ biosynthetic intermediates. These include marketed products, such as nicotinamide riboside (NR) and its phosphorylated form (NMN). More recent developments have shown that NRH (the reduced form of NR) and its phosphorylated form NMNH also increases NAD+ levels upon administration, although they initially generate NADH (the reduced form of NAD+). Other means to increase the combined levels of NAD+ and NADH, NAD(H), include the inhibition of NAD+-consuming enzymes or activation of biosynthetic pathways. Multiple studies have shown that supplementation with an NAD(H) precursor changes the profile of NAD(H) catabolism. Yet, the pharmacological significance of NAD(H) catabolites is rarely considered although the distribution and abundance of these catabolites differ depending on the NAD(H) precursor used, the species in which the study is conducted, and the tissues used for the quantification. Significantly, some of these metabolites have emerged as biomarkers in physiological disorders and might not be innocuous. Herein, we review the known and emerging catabolites of the NAD(H) metabolome and highlight their biochemical and physiological function as well as key chemical and biochemical reactions leading to their formation. Furthermore, we emphasize the need for analytical methods that inform on the full NAD(H) metabolome since the relative abundance of NAD(H) catabolites informs how NAD(H) precursors are used, recycled, and eliminated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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15 pages, 814 KiB  
Article
The Association between Liver Enzymes and Mortality Stratified by Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An Analysis of NHANES III
by Saskia Rita Grob, Flurina Suter, Verena Katzke and Sabine Rohrmann
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3063; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133063 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Associations between liver enzymes or De Ritis ratio (DRR; aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) and mortality stratified by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which have rarely been analyzed in previous studies, were investigated using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III [...] Read more.
Associations between liver enzymes or De Ritis ratio (DRR; aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) and mortality stratified by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which have rarely been analyzed in previous studies, were investigated using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988–1994). Participants without risk factors for liver diseases other than NAFLD were linked with National Death Index records through 2019 (n = 11,385) and divided into two cohorts with or without NAFLD, based on ultrasound examination. Liver enzyme concentrations were categorized into sex-specific deciles and subsequently grouped (AST and ALT: 1–3, 4–9, 10; gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT): 1–8, 9–10). DRR was categorized into tertiles. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for confounders were fitted to estimate associations with mortality. Compared with low levels, high GGT and DRR in participants with and without NAFLD had significantly higher hazard ratios for all-cause mortality. Compared with intermediate concentrations, low ALT showed higher all-cause mortality in participants with and without NAFLD, whereas low AST had higher HR in participants without NAFLD and high AST in those with NAFLD. Mortality was associated with liver enzymes or DRR in participants both with and without NAFLD, indicating that the relationship is not mediated solely by hepatocellular damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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18 pages, 1236 KiB  
Article
Impact of Lung-Related Polygenic Risk Scores on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Risk and Their Interaction with w-3 Fatty Acid Intake in Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals
by Ki-Song Kim and Sunmin Park
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3062; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133062 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex, progressive respiratory disorder with persistent airflow limitation and tissue destruction. We aimed to explore the genetic impact of COPD and its interaction with nutrient intake in 8840 middle-aged and elderly individuals from the Ansan/Ansung cohorts. [...] Read more.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex, progressive respiratory disorder with persistent airflow limitation and tissue destruction. We aimed to explore the genetic impact of COPD and its interaction with nutrient intake in 8840 middle-aged and elderly individuals from the Ansan/Ansung cohorts. Participants were diagnosed with COPD if the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) was less than 0.7 using spirometry, and if they were previously diagnosed with COPD by a physician. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were performed to screen for genetic variants associated with COPD risk. Among them, we selected the genetic variants that exhibited interactions using the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) method. The polygenic risk score (PRS) was computed by summing the number of risk alleles in the SNP-SNP interaction models that adhered to specific rules. Subsequently, participants were categorized into low-PRS, medium-PRS, and high-PRS groups. The participants with COPD exhibited significantly lower FEV1/FVC ratios (0.64) than those without COPD (0.82). It was positively associated with inflammation markers (serum C-reactive protein and white blood cell levels). A higher proportion of COPD participants were smokers and engaged in regular exercise. The 5-SNP model consisted of FAM13A_rs1585258, CAV1_rs1997571, CPD_rs719601, PEPD_rs10405598, and ITGA1_rs889294, and showed a significant association with COPD risk (p < 0.001). Participants in the high-PRS group of this model had a 2.2-fold higher risk of COPD than those in the low-PRS group after adjusting for covariates. The PRS interacted with w-3 fatty acid intake and exercise, thus influencing the risk of COPD. There was an increase in COPD incidence among individuals with a higher PRS, particularly those with low consumption of w-3 fatty acid and engaged in high levels of exercise. In conclusion, adults with a high-PRS are susceptible to COPD risk, and w-3 fatty acid intake and exercise may impact the risk of developing COPD, potentially applying to formulate precision medicines to prevent COPD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutrition for Genetic Disorders)
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16 pages, 4696 KiB  
Article
Anti-Adipogenic Activity of Rhaponticum carthamoides and Its Secondary Metabolites
by Velislava Todorova, Martina S. Savova, Stanislava Ivanova, Kalin Ivanov and Milen I. Georgiev
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3061; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133061 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
Besides their common use as an adaptogen, Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin. rhizome and its root extract (RCE) are also reported to beneficially affect lipid metabolism. The main characteristic secondary metabolites of RCE are phytoecdysteroids. In order to determine an RCE’s phytoecdysteroid profile, a [...] Read more.
Besides their common use as an adaptogen, Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin. rhizome and its root extract (RCE) are also reported to beneficially affect lipid metabolism. The main characteristic secondary metabolites of RCE are phytoecdysteroids. In order to determine an RCE’s phytoecdysteroid profile, a novel, sensitive, and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated. Moreover, a comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of RCE and its secondary metabolites on adipogenesis and adipolysis. The evaluation of the anti-adipogenic and lipolytic effects was performed using human Simpson–Golabi–Behmel syndrome cells, where lipid staining and measurement of released glycerol and free fatty acids were employed. The HPTLC method confirmed the presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), ponasterone A (PA), and turkesterone (TU) in RCE. The observed results revealed that RCE, 20E, and TU significantly reduced lipid accumulation in human adipocytes, demonstrating their anti-adipogenic activity. Moreover, RCE and 20E were found to effectively stimulate basal lipolysis. However, no significant effects were observed with PA and TU applications. Based on our findings, RCE and 20E affect both lipogenesis and lipolysis, while TU only restrains adipogenesis. These results are fundamental for further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition in Health Improvement)
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14 pages, 937 KiB  
Systematic Review
Coffee Consumption and Risk of Hypertension in Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Parisa Hajihashemi, Amanda Maria de Sousa Romeiro, Noushin Mohammadifard, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Cesar de Oliveira and Erika Aparecida Silveira
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133060 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5503
Abstract
Objectives: The association between coffee intake and hypertension (HTN) risk is controversial. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at summarizing the current evidence on the association of coffee with hypertension risk in observational studies. Methods: PubMed/Medline and Web of Science were searched [...] Read more.
Objectives: The association between coffee intake and hypertension (HTN) risk is controversial. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at summarizing the current evidence on the association of coffee with hypertension risk in observational studies. Methods: PubMed/Medline and Web of Science were searched for observational studies up to February 2023. Observational studies which assessed the risk of HTN in the highest category of coffee consumption in comparison with the lowest intake were included in the current meta-analysis (registration number: CRD42022371494). The pooled effect of coffee on HTN was evaluated using a random-effects model. Results: Twenty-five studies i.e., thirteen cross-sectional studies and twelve cohorts were identified to be eligible. Combining 13 extracted effect sizes from cohort studies showed that higher coffee consumption was associated with 7% reduction in the risk of HTN (95% CI: 0.88, 0.97; I2: 22.3%), whereas combining 16 effect sizes from cross-sectional studies illustrated a greater reduction in HTN risk (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.87; I2 = 63.2%). These results varied by studies characteristics, such as the region of study, participants’ sex, study quality, and sample size. Conclusions: An inverse association was found between coffee consumption and hypertension risk in both cross-sectional and cohort studies. However, this association was dependent on studies characteristics. Further studies considering such factors are required to confirm the results of this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods and Hypertension)
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19 pages, 918 KiB  
Review
A Triterpenoid Lupeol as an Antioxidant and Anti-Neuroinflammatory Agent: Impacts on Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer’s Disease
by Jun Sung Park, Inayat Ur Rehman, Kyonghwan Choe, Riaz Ahmad, Hyeon Jin Lee and Myeong Ok Kim
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3059; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133059 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3091
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease illustrated by neuronal dysfunctions, leading to memory weaknesses and personality changes mostly in the aged population worldwide. The exact cause of AD is unclear, but numerous studies have addressed the involvement of oxidative stress [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease illustrated by neuronal dysfunctions, leading to memory weaknesses and personality changes mostly in the aged population worldwide. The exact cause of AD is unclear, but numerous studies have addressed the involvement of oxidative stress (OS), induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), to be one of the leading causes in developing AD. OS dysregulates the cellular homeostasis, causing abnormal protein and lipid metabolism. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in modulating the antioxidant system and decreases the neuronal ROS level, thus playing an important therapeutic role in neurodegenerative diseases, especially in AD. Hence, medicinal herbs and their extracts have received global attention as a commercial source of antioxidants Lupeol. Lupeol is a pentacyclic triterpenoid and has many biological functions. It is available in fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants. It has shown effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and higher blood–brain barrier permeability. Also, the binding and inhibitory potentials of Lupeol have been investigated and proved to be effective against certain receptor proteins and enzymes in AD studies by computational molecular docking approaches. Therefore, AD-related research has gained interest in investigating the therapeutic effects of Lupeol. However, despite its beneficial effects in AD, there is still a lack of research in Lupeol. Hence, we compiled in this analysis all preclinical research that looked at Lupeol as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent for AD. Full article
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11 pages, 3022 KiB  
Article
Hepatic and Skeletal Muscle Autophagy Marker Levels in Rat Models of Prenatal and Postnatal Protein Restriction
by Irena Santosa, Hiromichi Shoji, Yoshiteru Arai, Kentaro Awata, Kazuhide Tokita and Toshiaki Shimizu
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3058; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133058 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) leads to adult-onset metabolic syndrome. Intrauterine and early postnatal caloric restriction ameliorates the risk in animal models. To understand the underlying mechanism, we compared autophagic marker levels between offspring with FGR and those with prenatal and early postnatal protein [...] Read more.
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) leads to adult-onset metabolic syndrome. Intrauterine and early postnatal caloric restriction ameliorates the risk in animal models. To understand the underlying mechanism, we compared autophagic marker levels between offspring with FGR and those with prenatal and early postnatal protein restriction (IPPR). We postulated that FGR would impair, whereas IPPR would help regulate, autophagy in neonatal rats. This study involved control (Con), FGR offspring (Pre), and IPPR offspring groups (Pre + Post); n = 5/group. We assessed the abundance of autophagy markers in the liver and skeletal muscles. At birth, the Pre group pups had lower levels of some autophagy-related proteins, with increased p62 expression and a low microtubule-associated protein light chain beta (LC3-II:LC3-I) ratio. This finding suggests a lower hepatic autophagy flux in FGR offspring than the Con group. The hepatic levels of autophagy proteins were considerably decreased in the Pre and Pre + Post groups at 21 days of age compared to the Con group, but the LC3-II:LC3-I ratio was higher in the Pre + Post group than in the Con and Pre groups. The muscle levels of beclin-1, LC3-II, and p62 were lower in the Pre group pups, with no difference in the LC3-II:LC3-I ratio among the groups. An imbalance in the nutritional environment is associated with downstream autophagic flux, thus suggesting that FGR offspring will have impaired autophagic flux, and that post-natal nutrition restriction might help reduce this risk. Full article
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14 pages, 318 KiB  
Article
Body Composition and Phase Angle: How to Improve Nutritional Evaluation in Juvenile Dermatomyositis Patients
by Camila Pugliese, Artur Figueiredo Delgado, Katia Tomie Kozu, Lucia Maria de Arruda Campos, Nadia Emi Aikawa, Clovis Artur Silva and Adriana Maluf Elias
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3057; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133057 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aimed to assess body composition (BC) using bioelectrical impedance and food intake in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) patients. Associations between BC and physical activity, disease activity/cumulative damage and health-related quality of life parameters were also evaluated; (2) Methods: This was [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aimed to assess body composition (BC) using bioelectrical impedance and food intake in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) patients. Associations between BC and physical activity, disease activity/cumulative damage and health-related quality of life parameters were also evaluated; (2) Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 30 consecutive JDM patients (18 female and 12 male) and 24 healthy volunteers (14 female and 10 male) of both sexes followed at our pediatric rheumatology unit. The gathering of anthropometric and dietary data, and the performance of physical activity and bioelectrical impedance were undertaken in face-to-face meetings and through questionnaires. Clinical and therapeutic data were collected from medical records according to information from routine medical appointments; (3) Results: The frequency of high/very high body fat was significantly higher in controls compared with JDM patients (66.7% vs. 91.7%; p = 0.046). The median phase angle was significantly lower in patients compared with controls (5.2 ± 1.3 vs. 6.1 ± 1.0; p = 0.016). Body fat and lean mass were positively correlated with disease duration (rs = +0.629, p < 0.001 and rs = +0.716, p < 0.001, respectively) and phase angle (PhA) (rs = +0.400, p = 0.029 and rs = +0.619, p < 0.001, respectively). JDM patients with PhA ≥ 5.5 presented higher lean mass when compared with patients with PhA < 5.5 (p = 0.001); (4) Conclusions: Bioelectrical impedance can be a useful auxiliary exam in the medical and nutritional follow-up of JDM patients, because it seems to impact functional ability. These findings may assist professionals when advising JDM patients about the importance of physical activity and healthy eating in the preservation of lean mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
26 pages, 702 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review of the Effect of Honey on Human Health
by Marta Palma-Morales, Jesús R. Huertas and Celia Rodríguez-Pérez
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3056; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133056 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 8137
Abstract
Honey is a nutritious, healthy, and natural food, to which antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties have been attributed, mainly due to its content of phenolic compounds. The aim of this review is to analyze the available evidence of the effect of honey on [...] Read more.
Honey is a nutritious, healthy, and natural food, to which antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties have been attributed, mainly due to its content of phenolic compounds. The aim of this review is to analyze the available evidence of the effect of honey on humans. Forty-eight clinical trials published between 1985 and 2022 were analyzed, with a total of 3655 subjects. More beneficial effects of honey intake than no or negative effects on different cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, glucose tolerance, mucositis caused by chemo-radiotherapy, cough in children and wound healing, among others have been observed. Although the number of studies conducted to date is limited and the different investigations are not standardized, beneficial effects of honey intake have been observed, especially when its intake replaces the intake of other sweeteners. In addition, honey could be a safe adjuvant to be administered alongside drugs used for certain diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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23 pages, 1127 KiB  
Review
Looking for the Ideal Probiotic Healing Regime
by Alexandra Menni, Moysis Moysidis, Georgios Tzikos, George Stavrou, Joulia K. Tsetis, Anne D. Shrewsbury, Eirini Filidou and Katerina Kotzampassi
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3055; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133055 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2048
Abstract
Wound healing is a multi-factorial response to tissue injury, aiming to restore tissue continuity. Numerous recent experimental and clinical studies clearly indicate that probiotics are applied topically to promote the wound-healing process. However, the precise mechanism by which they contribute to healing is [...] Read more.
Wound healing is a multi-factorial response to tissue injury, aiming to restore tissue continuity. Numerous recent experimental and clinical studies clearly indicate that probiotics are applied topically to promote the wound-healing process. However, the precise mechanism by which they contribute to healing is not yet clear. Each strain appears to exert a distinctive, even multi-factorial action on different phases of the healing process. Given that a multi-probiotic formula exerts better results than a single strain, the pharmaceutical industry has embarked on a race for the production of a formulation containing a combination of probiotics capable of playing a role in all the phases of the healing process. Hence, the object of this review is to describe what is known to date of the distinctive mechanisms of each of the most studied probiotic strains in order to further facilitate research toward the development of combinations of strains and doses, covering the whole spectrum of healing. Eleven probiotic species have been analyzed, the only criterion of inclusion being a minimum of two published research articles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Probiotics in Surgery)
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18 pages, 4283 KiB  
Article
Potent Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Enhancement of Nostoc commune Vaucher Polysaccharide Supplementation Ameliorates Acute Ulcerative Colitis in Mice Mediated by Gut Microbiota
by Min Guo, Dehai Xing, Jin Wang, Ying Zhang, Zhuoyu Li and Xiangying Jiao
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3054; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133054 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1865
Abstract
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is evolving into a global burden with a substantially increasing incidence in developing countries. It is characterized by inflammation confined to mucosa and is recognized as an intestinal barrier disease. The intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in UC pathogenesis. [...] Read more.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is evolving into a global burden with a substantially increasing incidence in developing countries. It is characterized by inflammation confined to mucosa and is recognized as an intestinal barrier disease. The intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in UC pathogenesis. N. commune has long been appreciated as a healthy food and supplement worldwide and polysaccharides account for 60%. Here, we examined the amelioration of N. commune polysaccharides against acute colitis in mice induced by DSS and assessed the mediating role of gut microbiota. An integrated analysis of microbiome, metabolomics, and transcriptomics fully elaborated it markedly enhanced intestinal mucosal barrier function, including: increasing the relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, uncultured_bacterium_g__norank_f__Muribaculaceae, and unclassified_g__norank_f__norank_o__Clostridia_UCG-014; decreasing microbiota-derived phosphatidylcholines and thromboxane 2 levels mapped to arachidonic acid metabolism; improving mucin2 biosynthesis and secretion; enhancing ZO-1 and occludin expression; reducing neutrophil infiltration; regulating the level of colitis-related inflammatory cytokines; involving inflammation and immune function-associated signaling pathways. Further, the mediation effect of gut microbiota was evaluated by administering a cocktail of antibiotics. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that N. commune polysaccharides predominantly reinforced the gut microbiota-mediated intestinal mucosal barrier to confer protection against UC and exhibited dramatic prebiotic-like functions, providing an alternative or complementary treatment for UC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Polysaccharides and Gut Microbiota)
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17 pages, 1818 KiB  
Article
How Attention Changes in Response to Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing
by Thomas J. Hosang, Sylvain Laborde, Andreas Löw, Michael Sprengel, Niels Baum and Thomas Jacobsen
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3053; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133053 - 6 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Research investigating the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinsing on neurocognitive functions is currently limited and has yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we employed the event-related potential (ERP) electroencephalography technique to investigate the effect of CHO mouth rinsing on electrophysiological correlates of [...] Read more.
Research investigating the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinsing on neurocognitive functions is currently limited and has yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we employed the event-related potential (ERP) electroencephalography technique to investigate the effect of CHO mouth rinsing on electrophysiological correlates of visuospatial attention. Using a double-blind, non-nutritive sweetener (NNS)-controlled, within-subjects design, 53 young adults performed a standard cognitive task (modified Simon task) on two separate days in a fasted state (16 h). Intermittently, mouth rinsing was performed either with a CHO (glucose, 18%, 30 mL) or an NNS solution (aspartame, 0.05%, 30 mL). Results revealed that relative to NNS, electrophysiological correlates of both more bottom-up controlled visuospatial attention (N1pc-ERP component) were decreased in response to CHO rinsing. In contrast, compared to NNS, more top-down controlled visuospatial attention (N2pc-ERP component) was increased after CHO rinsing. Behavioral performance, however, was not affected by mouth rinsing. Our findings suggest that orosensory signals can impact neurocognitive processes of visuospatial attention in a fasted state. This may suggest a central mechanism underlying the ergogenic effects of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on endurance performance could involve modulations of attentional factors. Methodologically, our study underlines that understanding the effects of carbohydrate mouth rinsing at the central level may require combining neuroscientific methods and manipulations of nutritional states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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11 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Determinant of Osteoporosis Preventive Behaviors among Perimenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study to Explore the Role of Knowledge and Health Beliefs
by Wafaa T. Elgzar, Mohammed H. Nahari, Samiha H. Sayed and Heba A. Ibrahim
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3052; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133052 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Osteoporosis is a silent chronic disease, and many people did not discover it until they were diagnosed with a fracture. Therefore, regular scanning and appropriate Osteoporosis Preventive Behaviors (OPB) are the management cornerstone. OPB is strongly affected by personal knowledge and health beliefs. [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is a silent chronic disease, and many people did not discover it until they were diagnosed with a fracture. Therefore, regular scanning and appropriate Osteoporosis Preventive Behaviors (OPB) are the management cornerstone. OPB is strongly affected by personal knowledge and health beliefs. This study explores the role of knowledge and health beliefs as determinants of OPB among perimenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was performed on 1075 perimenopausal women in Najran City, Saudi Arabia, from January 2023 to March 2023. The data collection instrument is a self-reported questionnaire consisting of basic data, the OPB scale, an osteoporosis knowledge assessment tool, and the osteoporosis health belief scale. The current study results showed that approximately one-quarter (27.8%) of the study participants had high OPB with an overall mean of 20.83 ± 5.08 grade. The group practicing high OPB demonstrated a higher knowledge mean (11.37 ± 2.99) than the low OPB group (9.93 ± 3.51). In addition, all health beliefs constructs significantly differed among the low and high OPB groups (p ˂ 0.05). The participant’s age, occupational status, educational level, attendance of training courses, and history of bone fractures were significantly associated with high OPB. Osteoporosis knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, exercises’ perceived benefits, and health motivations are positive predictors of high OPB (p ˂ 0.05). The study concluded that osteoporosis-related knowledge and health beliefs—especially perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, exercises’ perceived benefits, and health motivations—are positive predictors of high OPB. The health belief model can be an effective tool used to determine high-risk groups who practice low OPB and build need-based educational interventions. Full article
14 pages, 474 KiB  
Article
Associated Factors of Exclusive Breastfeeding Intention among Pregnant Women in Najran, Saudi Arabia
by Heba A. Ibrahim, Mohammed A. Alshahrani, DaifAllah D. Al-Thubaity, Samiha H. Sayed, Sultan A. Almedhesh and Wafaa T. Elgzar
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133051 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
The exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) intention conceived by pregnant women is the most important predictor of breastfeeding (BF) initiation, duration, and continuation. This study explores the associated factors of EBF intention among pregnant women. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from November 2022 [...] Read more.
The exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) intention conceived by pregnant women is the most important predictor of breastfeeding (BF) initiation, duration, and continuation. This study explores the associated factors of EBF intention among pregnant women. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from November 2022 to January 2023 with 382 pregnant women who came to the outpatient clinic in the Maternal and Children Hospital (MCH). Four instruments were used for data collection: the Infant Feeding Intention scale, the Gender-Friendly BF Knowledge scale (GFBKS), the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude scale (IIFAS), and the basic data questionnaire. The study findings indicated that 51.8% and 75.9% of gravida women had adequate knowledge and a positive attitude regarding BF. Furthermore, 56.3% of the participants had a high intention for EBF. Binary logistic regression illustrated that occupational status, antenatal care, plan for the current pregnancy, BF practice, last child delivery mode, medical disorder during the current pregnancy, age, BF knowledge, and attitude are potential predictors. The goodness of fit test revealed that 46.8% of the EBF intention could be anticipated through the positive pre-mentioned factors. The low EBF intention is modifiable by addressing the previously positive predictors. BF educational interventions should be tailored based on EBF intention predictors in order to be effective and lead to behavior change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Feeding Practices and Parenting)
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15 pages, 1168 KiB  
Systematic Review
Evidence-Based Dietary Practices to Improve Osteoarthritis Symptoms: An Umbrella Review
by Ashley N. Buck, Heather K. Vincent, Connie B. Newman, John A. Batsis, Lauren M. Abbate, Katie F. Huffman, Jennifer Bodley, Natasha Vos, Leigh F. Callahan and Sarah P. Shultz
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133050 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3157
Abstract
While there is some research investigating whole foods or diets that are easily understood and accessible to patients with osteoarthritis, specific nutrients or nutraceuticals are more commonly identified. Unfortunately, guidelines and evidence surrounding individual nutrients, extracts, and nutraceuticals are conflicting and are more [...] Read more.
While there is some research investigating whole foods or diets that are easily understood and accessible to patients with osteoarthritis, specific nutrients or nutraceuticals are more commonly identified. Unfortunately, guidelines and evidence surrounding individual nutrients, extracts, and nutraceuticals are conflicting and are more difficult to interpret and implement for patients with osteoarthritis. The purpose of this umbrella review is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the existing evidence of whole foods and dietary patterns effects on osteoarthritis-related outcomes to inform evidence-based recommendations for healthcare professionals and identify areas where more research is warranted. A literature search identified relevant systematic reviews/meta-analyses using five databases from inception to May 2022. Five systematic reviews/meta-analyses were included in the current umbrella review. Most evidence supported the Mediterranean diet improving osteoarthritis-related outcomes (e.g., pain, stiffness, inflammation, biomarkers of cartilage degeneration). There was little to no evidence supporting the effects of fruits and herbs on osteoarthritis-related outcomes; however, there was some suggestion that specific foods could potentiate symptom improvement through antioxidative mechanisms. The overall lack of homogeneity between the studies limits the conclusions that can be made and highlights the need for quality research that can identify consumer-accessible foods to improve osteoarthritis-related symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Nutrition in Rheumatic Diseases)
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17 pages, 6420 KiB  
Article
Dietary Protein Regulates Female Estrous Cyclicity Partially via Fibroblast Growth Factor 21
by Yaxue Cao, Min Yang, Jie Song, Xuemei Jiang, Shengyu Xu, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Yan Lin, Chao Jin, Bin Feng, De Wu, Lun Hua and Yong Zhuo
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3049; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133049 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone predominantly released in the liver, has emerged as a critical endocrine signal of dietary protein intake, but its role in the control of estrous cyclicity by dietary protein remains uncertain. To investigated the role of FGF21 [...] Read more.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone predominantly released in the liver, has emerged as a critical endocrine signal of dietary protein intake, but its role in the control of estrous cyclicity by dietary protein remains uncertain. To investigated the role of FGF21 and hypothalamic changes in the regulation of estrous cyclicity by dietary protein intake, female adult Sprague-Dawley rats with normal estrous cycles were fed diets with protein contents of 4% (P4), 8% (P8), 13% (P13), 18% (P18), and 23% (P23). FGF21 liver-specific knockout or wild-type mice were fed P18 or P4 diets to examine the role of liver FGF21 in the control of estrous cyclicity. Dietary protein restriction resulted in no negative effects on estrous cyclicity or ovarian follicular development when the protein content was greater than 8%. Protein restriction at 4% resulted in decreased bodyweight, compromised Kiss-1 expression in the hypothalamus, disturbed estrous cyclicity, and inhibited uterine and ovarian follicular development. The disturbed estrous cyclicity in rats that received the P4 diet was reversed after feeding with the P18 diet. Liver Fgf21 mRNA expressions and serum FGF21 levels were significantly increased as dietary protein content decreased, and loss of hepatic FGF21 delayed the onset of cyclicity disruption in rats fed with the P4 diet, possibly due to the regulation of insulin-like growth factor-1. Collectively, severe dietary protein restriction results in the cessation of estrous cyclicity and ovarian follicle development, and hepatic FGF21 and hypothalamic Kiss-1 were partially required for this process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Proteins and Amino Acids)
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19 pages, 1937 KiB  
Article
Serotonin Transporter (SERT) Expression Modulates the Composition of the Western-Diet-Induced Microbiota in Aged Female Mice
by Mirjam Bloemendaal, Ekaterina Veniaminova, Daniel C. Anthony, Anna Gorlova, Priscilla Vlaming, Adel Khairetdinova, Raymond Cespuglio, Klaus Peter Lesch, Alejandro Arias Vasquez and Tatyana Strekalova
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3048; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133048 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
Background. The serotonin transporter (SERT), highly expressed in the gut and brain, is implicated in metabolic processes. A genetic variant of the upstream regulatory region of the SLC6A4 gene encoding SERT, the so-called short (s) allele, in comparison with the long (l) allele, [...] Read more.
Background. The serotonin transporter (SERT), highly expressed in the gut and brain, is implicated in metabolic processes. A genetic variant of the upstream regulatory region of the SLC6A4 gene encoding SERT, the so-called short (s) allele, in comparison with the long (l) allele, results in the decreased function of this transporter, altered serotonergic regulation, an increased risk of psychiatric pathology and type-2 diabetes and obesity, especially in older women. Aged female mice with the complete (Sert−/−: KO) or partial (Sert+/−: HET) loss of SERT exhibit more pronounced negative effects following their exposure to a Western diet in comparison to wild-type (Sert+/+: WT) animals. Aims. We hypothesized that these effects might be mediated by an altered gut microbiota, which has been shown to influence serotonin metabolism. We performed V4 16S rRNA sequencing of the gut microbiota in 12-month-old WT, KO and HET female mice that were housed on a control or Western diet for three weeks. Results. The relative abundance of 11 genera was increased, and the abundance of 6 genera was decreased in the Western-diet-housed mice compared to the controls. There were correlations between the abundance of Streptococcus and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 and the expression of the pro-inflammatory marker Toll-like-Receptor 4 (Tlr4) in the dorsal raphe, as well as the expression of the mitochondrial activity marker perixome-proliferator-activated-receptor-cofactor-1b (Ppargc1b) in the prefrontal cortex. Although there was no significant impact of genotype on the microbiota in animals fed with the Control diet, there were significant interactions between diet and genotype. Following FDR correction, the Western diet increased the relative abundance of Intestinimonas and Atopostipes in the KO animals, which was not observed in the other groups. Erysipelatoclostridium abundance was increased by the Western diet in the WT group but not in HET or KO animals. Conclusions. The enhanced effects of a challenge with a Western diet in SERT-deficient mice include the altered representation of several gut genera, such as Intestinimonas, Atopostipes and Erysipelatoclostridium, which are also implicated in serotonergic and lipid metabolism. The manipulation of these genera may prove useful in individuals with the short SERT allele. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Neuropsychiatric Diseases)
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16 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
A Qualitative Examination of the Detroit Community Food Response to COVID-19
by Michelle M. Gilleran, Aeneas O. Koosis, Alex B. Hill and Alyssa W. Beavers
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133047 - 6 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic increased the need for food assistance due to surging unemployment, the closure of in-person schooling, and other factors. This posed a historic challenge to organizations that address food insecurity: meeting the surging need for food while minimizing COVID-19 transmission. This [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic increased the need for food assistance due to surging unemployment, the closure of in-person schooling, and other factors. This posed a historic challenge to organizations that address food insecurity: meeting the surging need for food while minimizing COVID-19 transmission. This study aimed to identify how food insecurity program operations changed during the pandemic and to examine the facilitators/successes and barriers/challenges to operations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff at 13 organizations involved in addressing food insecurity in Detroit during the pandemic. Interviews were coded by two coders, summarized, and then used to create matrices and concept map displays for each organization. We found that nearly all programs changed to a contactless food distribution format, and most programs experienced an increase in demand for food. Common successes/facilitators included keeping clients and staff safe from COVID-19 and waivers that eased program rules. Common challenges/barriers included the increased need for labor and food. Lack of funding was a barrier for some organizations, and others that experienced an increase in funding reported that it facilitated their work. This research identified the needs of programs addressing food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic, which can inform future disaster planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
12 pages, 960 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Data on Free Use of Fruits and Vegetables Containing Phenylalanine 76–100 mg/100 g of Food in 16 Children with Phenylketonuria: 6 Months Follow-Up
by Alex Pinto, Anne Daly, Júlio César Rocha, Catherine Ashmore, Sharon Evans, Richard Jackson, Mary Hickson and Anita MacDonald
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 3046; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15133046 - 6 Jul 2023
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Abstract
In phenylketonuria (PKU), a previous intervention study assessing the patients ability to tolerate fruits and vegetables containing phenylalanine 76–100 mg/100 g without limit or measurement, found that an extra 50 mg/day phenylalanine, but not 100 mg/day, was tolerated from these fruits and vegetables. [...] Read more.
In phenylketonuria (PKU), a previous intervention study assessing the patients ability to tolerate fruits and vegetables containing phenylalanine 76–100 mg/100 g without limit or measurement, found that an extra 50 mg/day phenylalanine, but not 100 mg/day, was tolerated from these fruits and vegetables. In a further 6-month extension study, we examined the effect of the ‘free’ use of this group of fruits and vegetables on blood phenylalanine control. For 6 months, the patients ate fruits and vegetables containing phenylalanine 76–100 mg/100 g without limit or measurement. Three-day diet diaries and the patients’ weights were collected monthly. Blood phenylalanine spots were collected weekly aiming for blood phenylalanine levels <360 μmol/L. Retrospective blood phenylalanine was collected 6 months pre-trial. All 16 patients (69% females) from the intervention study took part in the extension study. Most of the patients (n = 14/16) had classical PKU with a median age of 10.5 years (range: 6–13). There was no statistically significant difference in the median blood phenylalanine pre-study (270, range: 50–760 μmol/L) compared to the 6-month extension study (250, range: 20–750 μmol/L) (p= 0.4867). The patients had a median of 21 and 22 bloodspots, pre- and post-trial, respectively. In the extension study, the patients had an actual mean intake of 11 g/day (4–37) natural protein and 65 g/day (60–80) protein equivalent from a protein substitute. The mean phenylalanine intake was 563 mg/day (200–1850) with only 19 mg/day (0–146) phenylalanine from fruits and vegetables containing phenylalanine 76–100 mg/100 g. The weight z-scores remained unchanged (1.52 vs. 1.60, p = 0.4715). There was no adverse impact on blood phenylalanine control when fruits and vegetables containing phenylalanine 76–100 mg/100 g were eaten without limit or measurement. However, the fruits and vegetable portion sizes eaten were small (60 g/week). Further longitudinal work is necessary to examine the ‘free’ use of fruits and vegetables containing phenylalanine 76–100 mg/100 g on metabolic control in patients with PKU. Full article
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