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Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2023) | Viewed by 51808

Special Issue Editor

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, 150 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Interests: public health nutrition; community-based interventions; behavioral theory; cardiovascular disease prevention; healthy aging; communications; qualitative methods; child obesity prevention

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to the United Nations, by 2050 one in six people worldwide will be aged 65 years or older. Diet and physical activity can have a substantial impact on maintaining health, independence, and quality of life as people age. Programming delivered in communities through health centers, senior centers, or social service agencies can help older adults to develop and maintain healthy eating habits and engage in physical activity.

This Special Issue of Nutrients will feature works that describe innovative programming for older adults that can be implemented in various community settings. We seek studies that examine unique ways to improve public health and promote healthy aging. Topics of particular interest include novel intervention approaches, reducing health inequities, and implementation and dissemination. 

Sara C. Folta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • healthy aging
  • community-based interventions
  • diet
  • nutrition
  • exercise
  • physical activity
  • health inequities

Published Papers (18 papers)

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12 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Association between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Chilean Older People Aged 65 Years and Older
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245228 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2570
Abstract
In 2018 the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) updated the definition of sarcopenia, with loss of muscle strength being the primary feature. The objective is to describe and associate sarcopenia and nutritional status in a group of Chilean older [...] Read more.
In 2018 the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) updated the definition of sarcopenia, with loss of muscle strength being the primary feature. The objective is to describe and associate sarcopenia and nutritional status in a group of Chilean older adults aged 65 years and older. Methods: Descriptive, associative and comparative study, with a cross-sectional design and a quanti-qualitative approach. A number of 155 institutionalized and community-dwelling Chilean older people aged 65 years and older participated in the study (year 2018). Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the algorithm proposed by the EWGSOP2. Muscle strength, muscle quantity and physical performance were assessed; Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) were used. Variables were described according to sex and age groups (65–69; 70–79; and ≥80 years). The association between sarcopenia and nutritional status was studied by the application of multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age and sex. Results: 49.7% and 5.2% of older adults had probable sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia, respectively; 52.9% and 7% had malnutrition by excess and by deficit, respectively, according to their BMI; and 33.5% had malnutrition according to the MNA. Participants with obesity had 3.2 times more risk of presenting sarcopenia, versus subjects with normal nutritional status (OR: 3.2; 95% CI; 1.24; 8.26). Conclusion: Sarcopenia, as defined by the criteria of the EWGSOP2, depends on the nutritional status according to BMI in older people, with obese individuals being at greater risk of suffering from sarcopenia. Nearly 50% had probable sarcopenia, a condition that could be detected early with the purpose of taking preventive measures, such a nutritional approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
9 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Dietary Diversity and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5062; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235062 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2673
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to associate the anti-inflammatory dietary diversity and depressive symptoms among a nationwide sample of Chinese older adults. We used data from the 2018 wave of Chinese longitudinal healthy longevity survey (CLHLS). We assessed depressive symptoms using the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to associate the anti-inflammatory dietary diversity and depressive symptoms among a nationwide sample of Chinese older adults. We used data from the 2018 wave of Chinese longitudinal healthy longevity survey (CLHLS). We assessed depressive symptoms using the 10 items of the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale (CES-D-10). Based on the dietary diversity index (DDI) generated by previous studies, we construct two novel indicators: the protein-enriched dietary diversity index diet (PEDDI) and the anti-inflammatory dietary diversity index diet (AIDDI). We used multivariate logistic models to evaluate the associations of DDI, PEDDI, and AIDDI with depressive symptoms, statistically adjusted for a range of potential confounders. A total of 12,192 participants (mean age 83.6 years) were included in the analysis. We found that participants with a higher score of DDI (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.89–0.92) and PEDDI (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88–0.93) showed lower odds of having depressive symptoms, while the association between AIDDI and depressive symptoms was more marked (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.78–0.83). The associations remained in subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses. The results indicate that intaking diversified diet, particularly anti-inflammatory foods, may be associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms. The findings of this study, if confirmed as causal, provide evidence that an intervention of adopting an anti-inflammatory diversified diet may reduce the burden of depression among older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
12 pages, 482 KiB  
Article
Temporal Trends in Incidence of Nutritional Deficiency among Older Adults in China: A Secondary Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2019
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5008; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235008 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1474
Abstract
Nutritional deficiency is prevalent among the elderly, and it is associated with many adverse health consequences. China is rapidly moving toward an aging society with a large population; however, evidence on the epidemiological trends in nutritional deficiency among the Chinese elderly is limited. [...] Read more.
Nutritional deficiency is prevalent among the elderly, and it is associated with many adverse health consequences. China is rapidly moving toward an aging society with a large population; however, evidence on the epidemiological trends in nutritional deficiency among the Chinese elderly is limited. Data on the incidence of nutritional deficiency among Chinese adults aged 65 years or above from 1990 to 2019 were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 database. We used the joinpoint regression method to estimate the average annual percentage change (AAPC) and to describe trend patterns. Age, period, and cohort effects were determined using age–period–cohort models. From 1990 to 2019, the incidence of vitamin A deficiency and iodine deficiency among Chinese older adults decreased from 1784.12 and 8.20 to 304.27 and 7.26 per 100,000, with AAPCs of −0.41 (−0.44, −0.38)% and −5.86 (−6.29, −5.43)%, respectively. A continually increasing trend was seen for incidence rates of protein-energy malnutrition, from 1342.02 to 2275.87 per 100,000 person-years, with an AAPC of 1.70 (1.40, 2.01)%. These trends were more pronounced among men than women. A strong age effect and birth cohort effect were present. Specifically, the population that was older or born later had a lower incidence of deficiencies in vitamin A and iodine but a higher incidence of protein-energy malnutrition. The results show a substantial reduction in vitamin A and iodine deficiencies among the Chinese elderly, and health policies and public awareness are needed to address the burden of protein-energy malnutrition in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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24 pages, 4231 KiB  
Article
Implementing DASH-Aligned Meals and Self-Measured Blood Pressure to Reduce Hypertension at Senior Centers: A RE-AIM Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4890; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224890 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Low-income, minority seniors face high rates of hypertension that increase cardiovascular risk. Senior centers offer services, including congregate meals, that can be a valuable platform to reach older adults in underserved communities. We implemented two evidence-based interventions not previously tested in this setting: [...] Read more.
Low-income, minority seniors face high rates of hypertension that increase cardiovascular risk. Senior centers offer services, including congregate meals, that can be a valuable platform to reach older adults in underserved communities. We implemented two evidence-based interventions not previously tested in this setting: DASH-aligned congregate meals and Self-Measured Blood Pressure (SMBP), to lower blood pressure (BP) at two senior centers serving low-income, racially diverse communities. The study enrolled congregate meal program participants, provided training and support for SMPB, and nutrition and BP education. DASH-aligned meals delivered 40% (lunch) or 70% (breakfast and lunch) of DASH requirements/day. Primary outcomes were change in BP, and BP control, at Month 1. Implementation data collected included client characteristics, menu fidelity, meal attendance, SMBP adherence, meal satisfaction, input from partner organizations and stakeholders, effort, and food costs. We used the RE-AIM framework to analyze implementation. Study Reach included 94 older, racially diverse participants reflecting neighborhood characteristics. Effectiveness: change in systolic BP at Month 1 trended towards significance (−4 mmHg, p = 0.07); change in SMBP reached significance at Month 6 (−6.9 mmHg, p = 0.004). We leveraged existing community-academic partnerships, leading to Adoption at both target sites. The COVID pandemic interrupted Implementation and Maintenance and may have attenuated BP effectiveness. DASH meals served were largely aligned with planned menus. Meal attendance remained consistent; meal satisfaction was high. Food costs increased by 10%. This RE-AIM analysis highlights the acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of this DASH/SMBP health intervention to lower BP at senior centers. It encourages future research and offers important lessons for organizations delivering services to older adults and addressing cardiovascular risk among vulnerable populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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19 pages, 1828 KiB  
Article
Obesity in Caucasian Seniors on the Rise: Is It Truly Harmful? Results of the PolSenior2 Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4621; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214621 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality; however, data suggest that in old age, obesity is not detrimental. The study’s objective was to verify whether obesity frequency still increases in Polish Caucasian seniors and to verify the “obesity paradox”. [...] Read more.
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality; however, data suggest that in old age, obesity is not detrimental. The study’s objective was to verify whether obesity frequency still increases in Polish Caucasian seniors and to verify the “obesity paradox”. Five thousand and fifty-seven community-dwelling individuals aged ≥ 65 years completed a detailed medical questionnaire, underwent measurements of the body mass index (BMI) and the waist circumference (WC), and an evaluation of physical and cognitive performances. Over a decade, general obesity increased by 2.1%, mostly due to a 3.9% increase in men. Abdominal obesity increased by 1.0%, mainly due to males, in whom it increased by 3.9%. Obesity increased the risk of several aging-related diseases, but this effect was less pronounced in the oldest-old. Obesity did not adversely affect the physical and cognitive functioning or mortality. Through a multivariable analysis, the BMI and WC remained the independent predictors of the Katz Activities of Daily Living score (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively) and Mini-Mental State Examination score (both p < 0.001). The Kaplan–Meier survival curves revealed that overweight and obesity classes 1 and 2 were associated with the lowest mortality. Through a multivariable analysis, overweight, class 1 obesity, and abdominal obesity remained the independent predictors of a decreased mortality (all p < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that overweight and obesity are not detrimental in seniors, including the oldest-old. We suggest that the anthropometric values defining obesity should be modified for age-advanced people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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13 pages, 670 KiB  
Article
Association of Body Mass Index with Risk of Household Catastrophic Health Expenditure in China: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 4014; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14194014 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1276
Abstract
Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) is a major obstacle to achieving universal health coverage, and body mass index (BMI) is linked to both health and economy. We aimed to explore the association of BMI with the risk of CHE to provide advice for reducing [...] Read more.
Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) is a major obstacle to achieving universal health coverage, and body mass index (BMI) is linked to both health and economy. We aimed to explore the association of BMI with the risk of CHE to provide advice for reducing CHE. We used national cohort data from the China Family Panel Studies, which comprised 33,598 individuals (14,607 households) from 25 provinces between 2010 to 2018. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confident interval (CI) for CHE in participants at underweight, overweight, and obesity, compared with those at normal weight. Restricted cubic splines were employed to model the association of continuous BMI scale with risk of CHE. We found that families with female household heads at underweight had a 42% higher risk of CHE (aHR = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.16–1.75), and those at overweight had a 26% increased risk of CHE (aHR = 1.26, 95%CI: 1.09–1.47), compared with those at normal weight. A weak U-shaped curve for the association of continuous BMI with risk of CHE in female-headed households (p for non-linear = 0.0008) was observed, which was not significant in male-headed households (p for non-linear = 0.8725). In female-headed households, underweight and overweight BMI are connected with a higher risk of CHE. Concerted efforts should be made to keep a normal BMI to prevent CHE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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17 pages, 1652 KiB  
Article
The Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Iodine Deficiency in Canadian Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(13), 2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14132570 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3853
Abstract
Iodine is a trace micronutrient that is critical for normal thyroid function and human health. Inadequate dietary intake is associated with cognitive impairment, infertility, growth retardation and iodine deficiency disorders in affected populations. Herein, we examined the prevalence of iodine deficiency in adults [...] Read more.
Iodine is a trace micronutrient that is critical for normal thyroid function and human health. Inadequate dietary intake is associated with cognitive impairment, infertility, growth retardation and iodine deficiency disorders in affected populations. Herein, we examined the prevalence of iodine deficiency in adults (median age of 61 years) based on the analysis of 24 h urine samples collected from 800 participants in four clinical sites across Canada in the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study. Urinary iodide together with thiocyanate and nitrate were measured using a validated capillary electrophoresis assay. Protective/risk factors associated with iodine deficiency were identified using a binary logistic regression model, whereas daily urinary iodine concentration (24 h UIC, μg/L) and urinary iodine excretion (24 h UIE, μg/day) were compared using complementary statistical methods with covariate adjustments. Overall, our Canadian adult cohort had adequate iodine status as reflected by a median UIC of 111 μg/L with 11.9% of the population <50 μg/L categorized as having moderate to severe iodine deficiency. Iodine adequacy was also evident with a median 24 h UIE of 226 μg/day as a more robust metric of iodine status with an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 7.1% (< 95 μg/day) and a tolerable upper level (UL) of 1.8% (≥1100 μg/day) based on Canadian dietary reference intake values. Participants taking iodine supplements (OR = 0.18; p = 6.35 × 10−5), had greater 24 h urine volume (OR = 0.69; p = 4.07 × 10−4), excreted higher daily urinary sodium (OR = 0.71; p = 3.03 × 10−5), and/or were prescribed thyroxine (OR = 0.33; p = 1.20 × 10−2) had lower risk for iodine deficiency. Self-reported intake of dairy products was most strongly associated with iodine status (r = 0.24; p = 2.38 × 10−9) after excluding for iodine supplementation and T4 use. Participants residing in Quebec City (OR = 2.58; p = 1.74 × 10−4) and Vancouver (OR = 2.54; p = 3.57 × 10−4) were more susceptible to iodine deficiency than Hamilton or Ottawa. Also, greater exposure to abundant iodine uptake inhibitors from tobacco smoking and intake of specific goitrogenic foods corresponded to elevated urinary thiocyanate and nitrate, which were found for residents from Quebec City as compared to other clinical sites. Recent public health policies that advocate for salt restriction and lower dairy intake may inadvertently reduce iodine nutrition of Canadians, and further exacerbate regional variations in iodine deficiency risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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11 pages, 314 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Dietary Macronutrients Intake and the ATHLOS Healthy Ageing Scale: Results from the Polish Arm of the HAPIEE Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(12), 2454; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14122454 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
Background: Despite extensive research, our knowledge on the relationship between nutrition and healthy ageing is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between the intake of macronutrients and a single measure of healthy ageing (ATHLOS Healthy Ageing Scale). Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Despite extensive research, our knowledge on the relationship between nutrition and healthy ageing is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between the intake of macronutrients and a single measure of healthy ageing (ATHLOS Healthy Ageing Scale). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from 9906 randomly selected citizens of Krakow (Poland) who were 45–69 years of age and participants of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study. Macronutrient intake was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. ATHLOS Health Ageing Scale was estimated from 41 variables in pooled data from 16 cohorts. Standardized beta coefficients were estimated using multivariable linear regression models. Results: In multivariable adjusted models, there were significant positive associations between the ATHLOS Healthy Ageing Scale score and intake of protein (b = 0.030, 95% CI 0.001; 0.059 in men; b = 0.056, 95% CI 0.027; 0.085 in women), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (b = 0.042, 95% CI 0.013; 0.071 in men; b = 0.035, 95% CI 0.006; 0.064 in women), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (b = 0.053, 95% CI 0.024; 0.082 in men; b = 0.063, 95% CI 0.034; 0.092 in women), and omega-3 PUFA (b = 0.031, 95% CI 0.002;0.060 in men; b = 0.054, 95% CI 0.026; 0.082 in women). Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with the ATHLOS Healthy Ageing Scale in women. Total fat intake was positively associated with the ATHLOS Healthy Ageing Scale in men. Conclusions: A number of nutrients were associated with the healthy ageing score, suggesting that dietary habits may play an important role in healthy ageing. Further research in other settings and with a prospective design is strongly warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
17 pages, 1684 KiB  
Article
Association between Dysphagia and Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091812 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3658
Abstract
Background: Increasing bodies of epidemiological evidence indicate potential associations between dysphagia and the risk of frailty in older adults. We hypothesized that older adults with symptoms of dysphagia might have a higher prevalence of frailty or prefrailty than those without dysphagia. Methods: We [...] Read more.
Background: Increasing bodies of epidemiological evidence indicate potential associations between dysphagia and the risk of frailty in older adults. We hypothesized that older adults with symptoms of dysphagia might have a higher prevalence of frailty or prefrailty than those without dysphagia. Methods: We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant studies published through 20 April 2022. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that examined the associations between dysphagia and the existence of frailty or prefrailty in community-dwelling, facility-dwelling, or hospitalized adults aged 50 years or older were synthesized. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate study quality. Results: The meta-analysis comprised 12 cohorts, including 5,503,543 non-frailty participants and 735,303 cases of frailty or prefrailty. Random-effect meta-analysis demonstrated a significant association between dysphagia and the risk of frailty and prefrailty (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.51–4.20). In addition, we observed consistent results across the subgroups and heterogeneity assessments. Conclusions: We propose including dysphagia assessment as a critical factor in the cumulative deficit model for identifying frailty in older adults. Understanding dysphagia and the potential role of nutritional supplements in older adults may lead to improved strategies for preventing, delaying, or mitigating frailty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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14 pages, 3340 KiB  
Article
Implementing a Community-Based Initiative to Improve Nutritional Intake among Home-Delivered Meal Recipients
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14050944 - 23 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Home-delivered meal (HDM) recipients are a highly vulnerable group of older adults at risk for malnutrition and subsequent health decline. To help HDM recipients increase their nutritional intake, HDM agencies may provide expanded meal options that allow older adults to have greater autonomy [...] Read more.
Home-delivered meal (HDM) recipients are a highly vulnerable group of older adults at risk for malnutrition and subsequent health decline. To help HDM recipients increase their nutritional intake, HDM agencies may provide expanded meal options that allow older adults to have greater autonomy over their meal selection; however, the extent to which recipients are able to select nutritious meals that are responsive to their health complexities is unknown. This study examined the nutritional content of meals selected by HDM recipients enrolled in an expanded menu plan through a large HDM agency. Data were drawn from a retrospective chart review of 130 HDM recipients who had the option of selecting their own HDM meals and frequency of meal delivery. Findings indicate that older adults who selected their own meals chose meals that were significantly lower in protein, potassium, fat, and calories. The lack of these nutrients suggests that older adults enrolled in expanded menu plans should be referred to registered dietitian nutritionists who can provide skilled guidance in meal selection. To address this need, we also describe and provide preliminary data representing a referral program designed to connect HDM recipients to dietetic services with the goal of optimizing older adult nutrition and health-related outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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9 pages, 621 KiB  
Article
Combined Evaluation of Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index and Modified Creatinine Index for Predicting Mortality in Patients on Hemodialysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040752 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and modified creatinine index (mCI) are surrogate markers of protein-energy wasting in patients receiving hemodialysis. We aimed to examine whether a combined evaluation of these indices improved mortality prediction in this population. We retrospectively investigated 263 hemodialysis [...] Read more.
The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and modified creatinine index (mCI) are surrogate markers of protein-energy wasting in patients receiving hemodialysis. We aimed to examine whether a combined evaluation of these indices improved mortality prediction in this population. We retrospectively investigated 263 hemodialysis patients divided into two groups, using 91.2 and 20.16 mg/kg/day as cut-off values of GNRI and mCI, respectively. The resultant four groups were reshuffled into four subgroups defined using combinations of cut-off values of both indices and were followed up. During the follow-up period (median: 3.1 years), 103 patients died (46/103, cardiovascular causes). Lower GNRI and lower mCI were independently associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 4.96, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.10–7.94, and aHR 1.92, 95% CI 1.22–3.02, respectively). The aHR value for the lower GNRI and lower mCI group vs. the higher GNRI and higher mCI group was 7.95 (95% CI 4.38–14.43). Further, the addition of GNRI and mCI to the baseline risk assessment model significantly improved the C-index of all-cause mortality (0.801 to 0.835, p = 0.025). The simultaneous evaluation of GNRI and mCI could be clinically useful to stratify the risk of mortality and to improve the predictability of mortality in patients on hemodialysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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13 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
Dietary Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dioxins and Its Relationship to Telomere Length in Subjects Older Than 55 Years from the SUN Project
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020353 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may influence telomere length (TL), which is considered as a marker of biological age associated with the risk of chronic disease. We hypothesized that dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins could affect TL. Our aim [...] Read more.
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may influence telomere length (TL), which is considered as a marker of biological age associated with the risk of chronic disease. We hypothesized that dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins could affect TL. Our aim was to evaluate the association of dietary exposure to PCBs and dioxins with TL. In this cross-sectional study of 886 subjects older than 55 y (mean age: 67.7; standard deviation (SD): 6.1; 27% women) from the “Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” (SUN) project. TL was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and dietary PCBs and dioxins exposure was collected using a validated 136-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression models were used to control for potential confounding factors. Shorter TL was associated with dietary total PCBs (SD of T/S ratio/(ng/day) = −0.30 × 10−7; 95% CI, −0.55 × 10−7 to −0.06 × 10−7), dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) (SD of T/S ratio/(pg WHO TEQ (Toxic Equivalents)/day) = −6.17 × 10−7; 95% CI, −11.30 × 10−7 to −1.03 × 10−7), and total TEQ exposure (SD of T/S ratio/(pg WHO TEQ/day) = −5.02 × 10−7; 95% CI, −9.44 × 10−7 to −0.61 × 10−7), but not with dioxins (SD of T/S ratio/(pg WHO TEQ/day) = −13.90 × 10−7; 95% CI, −37.70 × 10−7 to 9.79 × 10−7). In this sample of middle-aged and older Spanish adults, dietary exposure to total PCBs and DL-PCBs alone and together with dioxins was associated with shorter TL. Further longitudinal studies, preferably with POPs measured in biological samples, are needed to confirm this finding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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7 pages, 227 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Eating Alone and Poor Appetite Using the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020337 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3002
Abstract
One prominent factor associated with malnutrition is poor appetite. In Japan, the number of older adults living alone has increased annually. Those living alone tended to eat alone, which may lead to poor appetite. This study aimed to investigate the association between eating [...] Read more.
One prominent factor associated with malnutrition is poor appetite. In Japan, the number of older adults living alone has increased annually. Those living alone tended to eat alone, which may lead to poor appetite. This study aimed to investigate the association between eating alone and poor appetite using an index called the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ). We surveyed 818 people aged 70 and over in Takashimadaira, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, Japan, in 2016. Comparisons were made between two groups, a poor appetite group (n = 295) and a good appetite group (n = 523), and results indicate that the poor appetite group had a higher rate of eating alone than the good appetite group (38.0% vs. 20. 1%: p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression (OR; 95%CI) was performed and poor appetite was significantly associated with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) score (1.707; 1.200–2.427), the number of medications (1.061; 1.007–1.118), JST score (0.894; 0.841–0.950), the indication of “very healthy” on a self-rated health scale (0.343; 0.152–0.774), and reports of eating alone (1.751; 1.130–2.712). Our results suggest that eating alone is associated with a poor appetite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
20 pages, 3593 KiB  
Article
Socioeconomic, Eating- and Health-Related Limitations of Food Consumption among Polish Women 60+ Years: The ‘ABC of Healthy Eating’ Project
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010051 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3163
Abstract
The study aimed at identifying the socioeconomic, eating- and health-related limitations and their associations with food consumption among Polish women 60+ years old. Data on the frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, dairy, meat, poultry, fish, legumes, eggs, water and beverages industrially unsweetened [...] Read more.
The study aimed at identifying the socioeconomic, eating- and health-related limitations and their associations with food consumption among Polish women 60+ years old. Data on the frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, dairy, meat, poultry, fish, legumes, eggs, water and beverages industrially unsweetened were collected with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®) and were expressed in the number of servings consumed per day or week. Three indexes: the Socioeconomic Status Index (SESI), the Eating-related Limitations Score (E-LS) and the Health-related Limitations Score (H-LS) were developed and applied. SESI was created on the base of two variables: place of residence and the self-reported economic situation of household. E-LS included: difficulties with self-feeding, decrease in food intake due to digestive problems, chewing or swallowing difficulties, loss of appetite, decrease in the feeling the taste of food, and feeling satiety, whereas H-LS included: physical function, comorbidity, cognitive function, psychological stress and selected anthropometric measurements. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the socioeconomic, eating-, and health-related limitations of food consumption. Lower socioeconomic status (vs. higher) was associated with a lower chance of consuming fruit/vegetables ≥ 2 servings/day (OR = 0.25) or consuming dairy ≥ 1 serving/day (OR = 0.32). The existence of multiple E-LS limitations (vs. few) was associated with a lower chance of consuming fruit/vegetables ≥ 2 servings/day (OR = 0.72), consuming dairy ≥ 1 serving/day (OR = 0.55) or consuming water and beverages industrially unsweetened ≥6 cups/day (OR = 0.56). The existence of multiple H-LS limitations was associated with a lower chance of consuming fruit/vegetables ≥ 2 servings/day (OR = 0.79 per 1 H-LS point increase) or consuming dairy ≥ 1 serving/day (OR = 0.80 per 1 H-LS point increase). Limitations found in the studied women were related to insufficient consumption of selected groups of food, which can lead to malnutrition and dehydration. There is a need for food policy actions, including practical educational activities, to eliminate barriers in food consumption, and in turn to improve the nutritional and health status of older women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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13 pages, 423 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Decreased Mineral Intake Due to Oral Frailty and Bone Mineral Density: Findings from Shika Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041193 - 05 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2755
Abstract
The relationship between oral frailty (OF) and bone mineral density is unclear. This cross-sectional study analyzed the relationship between mineral intake and bone mineral density in middle-aged and older people with pre-oral and OF. The participants, which included 240 people aged 40 years [...] Read more.
The relationship between oral frailty (OF) and bone mineral density is unclear. This cross-sectional study analyzed the relationship between mineral intake and bone mineral density in middle-aged and older people with pre-oral and OF. The participants, which included 240 people aged 40 years and older, completed the three oral questions on the Kihon Checklist (KCL), which is a self-reported comprehensive health checklist, the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ), and the osteo-sono assessment index (OSI). A two-way analysis of covariance on oral function and OSI indicated that the intake of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, squid/octopus/shrimp/shellfish, carrots/pumpkins, and mushroom was significantly lower in the OF and low-OSI groups than in the non-OF and high-OSI groups. A multiple logistic regression analysis for OF showed that potassium, magnesium, phosphorous and carrots/pumpkins were significantly associated with OF in the low-OSI group but not in the high-OSI group. These results demonstrated that the decrease in mineral intake due to OF was associated with decreased bone mineral density, suggesting that the maintenance of oral function prevents a decrease in bone mineral density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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Review

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30 pages, 732 KiB  
Review
Effectiveness of Theory-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Interventions in Aging Latino Adults: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2023, 15(12), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15122792 - 18 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1425
Abstract
In the United States (US), Latino individuals older than 50 years face health disparities compared to their White counterparts. Considering the rising life expectancy and the projected increase of older Latino adults in the US, this scoping review aimed to determine the effectiveness [...] Read more.
In the United States (US), Latino individuals older than 50 years face health disparities compared to their White counterparts. Considering the rising life expectancy and the projected increase of older Latino adults in the US, this scoping review aimed to determine the effectiveness of theory-based and culturally relevant strategies that promote healthy aging in Latinos. Web of Science and PubMed databases were searched between December 2022 and February 2023 for peer-reviewed articles assessing healthy aging interventions tailored to community-dwelling aging Latino adults. We included nine studies describing the effects of seven interventions on physical activity- or nutrition-related outcomes. Although not always statistically significant, interventions had a beneficial impact on well-being indicators. The most commonly used behavioral theories were Social Cognitive Theory and Attribution Theory. Latino cultural elements in these studies included partnering with community organizations that serve Latinos (such as Catholic churches), delivery of in-person bilingual group sessions by trusted community members (such as promotoras or Latino dance instructors), and incorporating values such as family and religion into the health curriculum, among others. Future strategies that promote healthy aging in Latino adults should proactively culturally adapt the theoretical foundations and the design, recruitment, and implementation processes to ensure their relevance and effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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14 pages, 1092 KiB  
Review
On the Centennial of Vitamin D—Vitamin D, Inflammation, and Autoimmune Thyroiditis: A Web of Links and Implications
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5032; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235032 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
The 100th anniversary of the discovery of vitamin D3 (VitD3) coincides with significant recent advances in understanding its mechanism of action along with accumulating knowledge concerning its genomic and nongenomic activities. A close relationship between VitD3 and the immune system, including both types [...] Read more.
The 100th anniversary of the discovery of vitamin D3 (VitD3) coincides with significant recent advances in understanding its mechanism of action along with accumulating knowledge concerning its genomic and nongenomic activities. A close relationship between VitD3 and the immune system, including both types of immunity, innate and adaptive, has been newly identified, while low levels of VitD3 have been implicated in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). Active 1,25(OH)2 D3 is generated in immune cells via 1-α-hydroxylase, subsequently interacting with the VitD3 receptor to promote transcriptional and epigenomic responses in the same or adjacent cells. Despite considerable progress in deciphering the role of VitD3 in autoimmunity, its exact pathogenetic involvement remains to be elucidated. Finally, in the era of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), brief mention is made of the possible links between VitD3 deficiency and risks for severe COVID-19 disease. This review aims to commemorate the centennial of the discovery of VitD3 by updating our understanding of this important nutrient and by drawing up a framework of guidance for VitD3 supplementation, while emphasizing the necessity for personalized treatment in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. A tailored approach based on the specific mechanisms underlying VitD3 deficiency in different diseases is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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18 pages, 1094 KiB  
Review
The Potential Roles of Probiotics, Resistant Starch, and Resistant Proteins in Ameliorating Inflammation during Aging (Inflammaging)
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040747 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 10251
Abstract
Aging is typically accompanied by biological and physiological changes that alter cellular functions. Two of the most predominant phenomena in aging include chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) and changes in the gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis). Although a direct causal relationship has not been established, [...] Read more.
Aging is typically accompanied by biological and physiological changes that alter cellular functions. Two of the most predominant phenomena in aging include chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) and changes in the gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis). Although a direct causal relationship has not been established, many studies have reported significant reductions in inflammation during aging through well-maintained gut health and microbial balance. Prebiotics and probiotics are known to support gut health and can be easily incorporated into the daily diet. Unfortunately, few studies specifically focus on their significance in reducing inflammation during aging. Therefore, this review summarizes the scientific evidence of the potential roles of probiotics and two types of prebiotics, resistant starch and resistant proteins, in later age. Studies have demonstrated that the oral consumption of bacteria that may contribute to anti-inflammatory response, such as Bifidobacterium spp., Akkermansia munichipilla, and Faecalis praunitzii, contributes significantly to the suppression of pro-inflammatory markers in elderly humans and aged animals. Colonic fermentation of resistant starch and proteins also demonstrates anti-inflammatory activity owing to the production of butyrate and an improvement in the gut microbiota composition. Collectively, probiotics, resistant starch, and resistant proteins have the potential to promote healthy aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health Nutrition and Healthy Aging)
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