Special Issue "Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Parenteral Nutrition"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2022).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Giovanna Verlato
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Pediatric Nutrition Service – Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University Hospital, Padova, Italy
Interests: parenteral nutrition; preterm infants; growth; bone status; nutrition in pediatrics; short bowel syndrome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well known that parenteral nutrition (PN), the intravenous infusion of nutrients in the elementary form, is a lifesaving treatment for newborns, children, and adults that do not receive all the required macro- and micronutrients by the enteral route.

The modern era of PN began in the 20th century, with Elman and Dudrick working respectively on protein hydrolysates and lipid emulsion to be infused intravenously. Since then, numerous advancements in PN were developed and are still in progress with the study of different types of lipids and their immunomodulatory influences, amino acid formulations in children and adults, and proper amounts of carbohydrates and micronutrients and their influence on metabolism.

Although PN has become a safe and efficient technique, the incidence of complications related to PN, such as intestinal failure-associated liver disease, remains high, and the assessment of proper intakes using markers has to be continuously performed, especially in rapidly growing newborns and children.

The nutritional research directions for achieving the best PN in newborns, children, and adults include:

  • study of the optimal intake of PN macronutrients and the best trajectory of growth in children
  • possible effects of macro- and micronutrients in PN on newborn and child development
  • quality and quantity of macronutrients and new potential components of PN
  • strategies to prevent and early detect macro- and micronutrient deficiencies in long-term PN
  • prevention of PN complications and, particularly, PN-associated liver disease

Dr. Giovanna Verlato
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • parenteral nutrition
  • macronutrients
  • lipids
  • aminoacids
  • micronutrients
  • metabolism
  • parenteral nutrition associated liver disease

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Neonatal Hyperglycemia Related to Parenteral Nutrition Affects Long-Term Neurodevelopment in Preterm Newborn: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1930; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061930 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
(1) Background: Recent evidence reported a reduced tolerance of macronutrient parenteral intakes in subjects in critically ill conditions. We designed a prospective cohort study to evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia (HG) related to parenteral nutrition (PN) on neurodevelopment (NDV) in survived preterm newborns. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Recent evidence reported a reduced tolerance of macronutrient parenteral intakes in subjects in critically ill conditions. We designed a prospective cohort study to evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia (HG) related to parenteral nutrition (PN) on neurodevelopment (NDV) in survived preterm newborns. (2) Methods: Enrolled newborns with gestational age < 32 weeks or birth weight < 1500 g, were divided in two cohorts: (A) exposed to moderate or severe HG (glucose blood level > 180 mg/dL) in the first week of life; (B) not exposed to HG. We considered as the primary outcome the rate of preterm newborns survived without NDV delay at 24 months of life, evaluated with Bayley Scales of Infants Development III edition. (3) Results: We analyzed 108 (A 32 vs. B 76) at 24 months of life. Newborns in cohort A showed a higher rate of cognitive and motor delay (A 44% vs. B 22 %, p = 0.024; A 38% vs. B 8%, p < 0.001). When adjusting for background characteristics, HG remained a risk factor for motor delay. (4) Conclusions: High nutritional intakes through PN soon after birth increase the risk of HG. The consequences of this severe metabolic complication affect long-term NDV and survival in preterm newborns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Parenteral Nutrition)
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Article
Intravenous Lipid Emulsions Affect Respiratory Outcome in Preterm Newborn: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041243 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
(1) Background: Hypertriglyceridemia (HiTG) is a metabolic complication of intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) infusion. We aimed to evaluate the influence of HiTG on the respiratory outcome of preterm babies; (2) Methods: We enrolled, in a case–control study, newborns with gestational age <32 weeks [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Hypertriglyceridemia (HiTG) is a metabolic complication of intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) infusion. We aimed to evaluate the influence of HiTG on the respiratory outcome of preterm babies; (2) Methods: We enrolled, in a case–control study, newborns with gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 g, over a 3-year period. They were divided into cases and controls; cases were defined by the detection of HiTG defined as serum triglycerides (TG) value >150 mg/dL; (3) Results: We enrolled 40 cases and 105 controls. Cases had an increased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (30.0% vs. 14.3%, p < 0.05) and longer duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (7 days, 95% CI 4–10 days vs. 4 days, 95% CI 1–7 days, p < 0.01) compared to controls. Multivariate analysis confirmed that HiTG independently influenced the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, also in the subgroups with gestational age ≤28 + 6/7 weeks or birth weight ≤1000 g; (4) Conclusion: Newborns with HiTG related to ILEs had a longer duration of invasive mechanical ventilation. Temporary suspension or reduction in ILEs in the case of HiTG is associated with an improvement of respiratory outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Parenteral Nutrition)
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