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Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition Methodology & Assessment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 31336

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health, and Leisure (CIAFEL), Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
2. Laboratory for Integrative and Translational Research in Population Health, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
3. School of Life Sciences and Environment, University of Trás-os-Montes, and Alto Douro (UTAD), 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: nutrition; dietary patterns; nutritional epidemiology; obesity; diet assessment; dietary surveys
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Coimbra Health School (ESTeSC), Polytechnic University of Coimbra, 3045-093 Coimbra, Portugal
2. GreenUPorto—Sustainable Agrifood Production Research Centre, 4200-465 Vairão, Portugal
3. Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: nutrition; dietary patterns; dietary surveys; sustainable diets; food classification; food waste; school meals; food consumption

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutritional epidemiology is an area of research that examines how diet influences health and the occurrence of disease in humans. A broad range of epidemiological methods, from questionnaires to biochemical indicators, have been used to measure diet in numerous ways, including by macronutrient and micronutrient composition, by food items/groups, by food indexes, by eating behaviours and by dietary patterns. Due to the nature and complexity of diets, no one method can estimate dietary intake without error; however, the assessment of dietary intake is integral to determining the role of diet in human health. In response, dietary surveys have been used largely in several nutritional research studies to collect information on the dietary intake of individuals or groups. Ultimately, findings from dietary surveys may contribute to establishing policies and programmes to promote healthy eating and, thereby, better health.

Despite progress in developing better methods in the last several years, integrating, for example, innovative technology or simple, rapid and feasible metrics, methods that contribute to the improved measurement and monitoring of healthy diets are still needed.

Potential topics for this Special Issue may include the development and validation of methods and tools for characterizing dietary and nutritional factors or the association between adherence to dietary patterns, diet adequacy and nutritional adequacy, using novel dietary methods and their relationship to human health.

Dr. Sandra Abreu
Dr. Margarida Liz Martins
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dietary metrics
  • diet assessment
  • nutrition surveys
  • validity
  • food intake
  • nutrient intake
  • diet adequacy
  • nutrition

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (16 papers)

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18 pages, 2167 KiB  
Article
Optimization of a Food List for Food Frequency Questionnaires Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming: A Proof of Concept Based on Data from the Second German National Nutrition Survey
by Julia Blaurock, Thorsten Heuer and Kurt Gedrich
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5098; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245098 - 13 Dec 2023
Viewed by 756
Abstract
Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) are important instruments to assess dietary intake in large epidemiological studies. To determine dietary intake correctly, food lists need to be adapted depending on the study aim and the target population. The present work compiles food lists for an [...] Read more.
Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) are important instruments to assess dietary intake in large epidemiological studies. To determine dietary intake correctly, food lists need to be adapted depending on the study aim and the target population. The present work compiles food lists for an FFQ with Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) to minimize the number of foods in the food list. The optimized food lists were compared with the validated eNutri FFQ. The constraints of the MILP aimed to identify food items with a high nutrient coverage in a population and with a high interindividual variability. The optimization was based on data from the second German National Nutrition Survey. The resulting food lists were shorter than the one used in the validated eNutri FFQ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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14 pages, 891 KiB  
Article
The SHED Index: A Validation Study to Assess Sustainable HEalthy Diets in Portugal
by Margarida Liz Martins, Sigal Tepper, Bebiana Marques and Sandra Abreu
Nutrients 2023, 15(24), 5071; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15245071 - 12 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1288
Abstract
This study aims to adapt and validate the Sustainable HEalthy Diet (SHED) Index for the Portuguese adult population, which was developed to assess sustainable and healthy eating patterns. Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire administered through interviews with 347 individuals aged between [...] Read more.
This study aims to adapt and validate the Sustainable HEalthy Diet (SHED) Index for the Portuguese adult population, which was developed to assess sustainable and healthy eating patterns. Data were collected using a web-based questionnaire administered through interviews with 347 individuals aged between 18 and 65 years old. The SHED Index evaluates 30 items, allowing for the assessment and scoring of sustainable and healthy eating patterns. The higher the SHED Index score, the more sustainable and healthier the diet. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the participants’ dietary intake. The criterion validity was examined by testing the relationship between the SHED Index score and adherence to the Mediterranean Diet. Reproducibility was assessed by determining agreement and reliability with test–retest. Construct validity was confirmed based on established criteria. A higher SHED Index score was associated with moderate to high adherence to the Mediterranean diet, while it was inversely related to the proportion of animal-sourced foods in the overall food intake (r = −0.281, p < 0.001). Good reliability and agreement were found for the SHED Index score. Our findings suggest that the SHED Index is a valid and reliable tool for assessing sustainable and healthy diets in the Portuguese adult population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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12 pages, 1095 KiB  
Article
Validity and Reproducibility of Food Group-Based Food Frequency Questionnaires in Assessing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Habits among Chinese Middle-School Students
by Junyao Yi, Guoye Song, Zhenghao Lin, Yuting Peng and Jieshu Wu
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 3928; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15183928 - 10 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Assessing the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is crucial for reducing obesity; however, a simple but relatively accurate method for determining added sugar consumption among school adolescents is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a [...] Read more.
Assessing the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is crucial for reducing obesity; however, a simple but relatively accurate method for determining added sugar consumption among school adolescents is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a food group-based food frequency questionnaire (FG-FFQ) for SSBs in assessing SSB consumption and added sugar among middle-school students. A total of 242 school students completed the FG-FFQs twice and four discontinuous 24-h dietary records (24HDR) over a three-month period. A weighted average approach was used to obtain the average sugar content in the sugary drink food group (FG). Correlation coefficient, weighted kappa statistic, misclassification analysis, and Bland–Altman plot were used to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of the FG-FFQ. Linear regression was utilized to obtain the calibration formulas. The average content of added sugar in sugary drink FG was 8.1 g/100 mL. SSB consumption frequency, consumption amount, and added sugar had correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.87, and 0.87, respectively, in the validity analysis (p < 0.05). The majority of scatter plots were covered by 95% confidence intervals in the Bland–Altman bias analysis. The intra-class correlation coefficient of SSB consumption frequency and Spearman correlation coefficient of SSB consumption amount and added sugar were 0.74, 0.81, and 0.90, respectively, in the reproducibility analysis (p < 0.05). Results produced by the FG-FFQ calibration formula were more comparable to 24HDR. The FG-FFQ for SSB consumption showed acceptable validity and reproducibility, making it a viable instrument for epidemiological studies on sugary drinks in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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21 pages, 1226 KiB  
Article
Beverage Consumption Patterns among U.S. Adolescents and Adults from a New 24-h Beverage Recall Survey Compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017–2018
by Xiaoyu Bi, Benjamin J. K. Davis, Leila M. Barraj, Devanathan Srinivasan, Parvati Mahadev, Preeti Mathew, Dibyendu Mishra, Carolyn G. Scrafford, Nga L. Tran and Maia M. Jack
Nutrients 2023, 15(16), 3561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15163561 - 12 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Beverages are major dietary components of the United States (U.S.) population. Understanding the current consumption pattern of beverages is an important element in supporting healthy diets. Our objective was to assess the validity of the 24-h beverage consumption recall data collected in 2021 [...] Read more.
Beverages are major dietary components of the United States (U.S.) population. Understanding the current consumption pattern of beverages is an important element in supporting healthy diets. Our objective was to assess the validity of the 24-h beverage consumption recall data collected in 2021 through a self-administered online questionnaire (referred to as the American Beverage Association-Brandscapes Worldwide survey, ABA-BSW) by comparing it to the 24-h dietary recall data collected in the 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Summary statistics on the reported consumption amounts and consumption occasions (COs) of 13 beverage types (e.g., bottled water, carbonated soft drinks (CSD), tea, and others) by participants aged 13–64 years were compared between ABA-BSW (n = 20,553) and NHANES (n = 4437). The average daily consumption amount among consumers of all 13 beverage types combined was higher in ABA-BSW than in NHANES (1903 mL/day vs. 1704 mL/day). Within each beverage type, the average daily consumption amounts among consumers were generally lower in ABA-BSW except for CSD, plant-based drinks, and still juices and fruit-flavored drinks. Compared to NHANES, ABA-BSW participants reported consuming a wider variety of beverage groups, a higher number of COs per day, and lower consumption amounts within a given CO. Overall, beverage consumption patterns observed in ABA-BSW and NHANES were generally similar, supporting the design and implementation of the former survey. Further, the ABA-BSW data provide additional information on the within-day temporal beverage consumption patterns among adolescents and adults in the U.S. Differences in the observed consumption patterns between the surveys may be the result of various factors, including the survey implementation method, a consumption pattern shift between the survey time periods, beverage type availability, and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dietary patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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19 pages, 1640 KiB  
Article
Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Web-Based Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health—Next Generations MAX Study
by Agnetha Linn Rostgaard-Hansen, Susanne Rosthøj, Carl Brunius, Sjurdur Frodi Olsen, Anne Ahrendt Bjerregaard, Janet Elisabeth Cade, Anne Tjønneland, Rikard Landberg and Jytte Halkjær
Nutrients 2023, 15(10), 2389; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15102389 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 1480
Abstract
The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is designed to capture an individual’s habitual dietary intake and is the most applied method in nutritional epidemiology. Our aim was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the FFQ used in the Diet, Cancer, and Health—Next [...] Read more.
The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is designed to capture an individual’s habitual dietary intake and is the most applied method in nutritional epidemiology. Our aim was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the FFQ used in the Diet, Cancer, and Health—Next Generations cohort (DCH-NG). We included 415 Danish women and men aged 18–67 years. Spearman’s correlations coefficients, Bland–Altman limits of agreement and cross-classification between dietary intakes estimated from the FFQ administered at baseline (FFQbaseline), and the mean of three 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) and the FFQ administered after 12 months (FFQ12 months) were determined. Nutrient intakes were energy-adjusted by Nutrient Density and Residual methods. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0.18–0.58 for energy and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, and the percentage of participants classified into the same quartile ranged from 28–47% between the FFQbaseline and the 24-HDRs. For the FFQ12 months compared with FFQbaseline, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.52–0.88 for intakes of energy, energy-adjusted nutrients, and food groups, and the proportion of participants classified into the same quartiles ranged from 43–69%. Overall, the FFQ provided a satisfactory ranking of individuals according to energy, nutrient, and food group intakes, making the FFQ suitable for use in epidemiological studies investigating diet in relation to disease outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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13 pages, 2991 KiB  
Article
Pilot Study to Estimate Dietary Fiber Intake in Adults Residing in Chile
by Carla Guzmán, Jonathan Espinoza and Fabiola Fuentealba
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15040900 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
Dietary fiber has been associated with health benefits; therefore, the availability of validated tools to assess food consumption associated with high-fiber foods would allow the quantification of the intake of this functional nutrient, the identification of risk groups and target populations, and the [...] Read more.
Dietary fiber has been associated with health benefits; therefore, the availability of validated tools to assess food consumption associated with high-fiber foods would allow the quantification of the intake of this functional nutrient, the identification of risk groups and target populations, and the development of public policies and/or programs aimed at improving the health of the population. In this study, a fiber intake short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was translated into Spanish, and its content validity was determined by a group of experts, to subsequently conduct a pilot test including 198 subjects aged 36 ± 12.5 years, residing in Chile (46 men and 150 women), with the purpose of quantifying dietary fiber intake. The global assessment of the FFQ revealed a validity coefficient of 0.98 ± 0.02; after the application of the pilot, the mean dietary fiber intake in adult Chilean residents was 12.3 g per day, with similar results to those found in the National Food Consumption Survey 2010 (12.5 g per day in men, and 11.5 g in women). The FFQ is a quick and valid tool to classify people on the basis of their habitual dietary fiber intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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16 pages, 349 KiB  
Article
Improving Pregnant Women’s Iodine Intake Estimates and Its Prevalence of Inadequacy through the Use of Salt and Seasoning Covariates
by Débora L. F. Silva, Sandra P. Crispim, Claudia C. B. Almeida, Vanessa Schrubbe, Francilene M. Azevedo, Franciane R. de Faria, Nathalia Pizato, Renata J. Pereira, Mariana de S. Macedo and Sylvia do C. C. Franceschini
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15040846 - 7 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1656
Abstract
(1) Measuring usual iodine intake is a complex task due to the food consumption variability and its natural concentration in food. Therefore, the use of covariates to adjust statistical methods to estimate usual intake could improve the estimates obtained through dietary surveys. This [...] Read more.
(1) Measuring usual iodine intake is a complex task due to the food consumption variability and its natural concentration in food. Therefore, the use of covariates to adjust statistical methods to estimate usual intake could improve the estimates obtained through dietary surveys. This study aims to evaluate the influence of salt and seasoning usage covariates on the estimates of usual iodine intake and the prevalence of its inadequacy. (2) A cross-sectional study was conducted with Brazilian pregnant women’s food consumption data obtained with 24-h recall (n = 2247). The usual iodine intake was adjusted for intraindividual variability, supplement use, temporal effects, data collection methods, and sociodemographic characteristics with the tool UCD/NCI SIMPLE in the SAS software. Then, salt and seasoning usage covariates were used to adjust the distribution. The harmonized intake reference values for populations were used to assess intake adequacy. (3) The adjustments for salt and seasoning usage yielded a higher mean of usual iodine intakes. The only exception was the adjustment for the “habit of adding salt to meals after preparing/cooking”, which produced a lower mean of usual intake and increased the prevalence of insufficient intake. (4) Salt and seasoning usage covariates affect the estimates evaluated. However, more studies are necessary to evaluate the influence observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
12 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Self-Completed and Interviewer-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in Cancer Survivors: Sampling Bias and Differential Reporting
by Rana Conway, Gabriella Heuchan, Helen Croker, Sara Esser, Victoria Ireland, Phillippa Lally, Rebecca Beeken and Abigail Fisher
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5236; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245236 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Self-completed 24 h dietary recalls (24-HRs) are increasingly used for research and national dietary surveillance. It is unclear how difficulties with self-completion affect response rates and sample characteristics. This study identified factors associated with being unable to self-complete an online 24-HR but willing [...] Read more.
Self-completed 24 h dietary recalls (24-HRs) are increasingly used for research and national dietary surveillance. It is unclear how difficulties with self-completion affect response rates and sample characteristics. This study identified factors associated with being unable to self-complete an online 24-HR but willing to do so with an interviewer. Baseline 24-HRs from the ASCOT Trial were analysed (n = 1224). Adults who had been diagnosed with cancer in the past seven years and completed treatment, were invited to self-complete 24-HRs online using myfood24®. Non-completers were offered an interviewer-administered 24-HR. One third of participants willing to provide dietary data, were unable to self-complete a 24-HR. This was associated with being older, non-white and not educated to degree level. Compared to interviewer-administered 24-HRs, self-completed 24-HRs included 25% fewer items and reported lower intakes of energy, fat, saturated fat and sugar. This study highlights how collection of dietary data via online self-completed 24-HRs, without the provision of an alternative method, contributes to sampling bias. As dietary surveys are used for service and policy planning it is essential to widen inclusion. Optimisation of 24-HR tools might increase usability but interviewer-administered 24-HRs may be the only suitable option for some individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
13 pages, 5848 KiB  
Article
Association between Dietary Behaviors and BMI Stratified by Sex and the ALDH2 rs671 Polymorphism in Japanese Adults
by Maki Igarashi, Shun Nogawa, Tsuyoshi Hachiya, Kyohei Furukawa, Shoko Takahashi, Huijuan Jia, Kenji Saito and Hisanori Kato
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5116; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235116 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2723
Abstract
The rs671 polymorphism, unique to East Asians, is well known to change the sensitivity to alcohol. Moreover, this polymorphism is associated not only with alcohol intake but also with several dietary behaviors (DBs), chronic diseases, and BMI, but the triadic association among the [...] Read more.
The rs671 polymorphism, unique to East Asians, is well known to change the sensitivity to alcohol. Moreover, this polymorphism is associated not only with alcohol intake but also with several dietary behaviors (DBs), chronic diseases, and BMI, but the triadic association among the rs671 genotype, DBs, and BMI is unclear. This study included 12,271 Japanese subjects and aimed to observe this three-way association using the rs671 polymorphism, data of 56 DBs, and BMI. All analyses were stratified by participant sex. First, linear regression analyses resulted in significant associations between 18 and 21 DBs and BMI in males and females, respectively. Next, genetic heterogeneity was observed in all sub-groups via interaction analysis of the rs671 genotype stratified by drinking habits. Finally, we observed the characteristics of BMI-related DBs based on the rs671 genotype via stepwise regression analyses stratified by the rs671 genotype and drinking habits. Notably, positive associations were observed between lactobacillus beverage intake and BMI among participants with the rs671 polymorphism AA genotype in both sexes. This study suggests that the rs671 polymorphism modifies the association between DBs and BMI independently of drinking habits, providing evidence for the potential use of rs671 polymorphism information for precision nutrition with East Asians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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14 pages, 548 KiB  
Article
The Arabic Version of the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire among Saudi Population: Translation and Validation
by Mona A. Alruwaitaa, Aldanah Alshathri, Lama Alajllan, Norah Alshahrani, Wejdan Alotaibi, Iffat Elbarazi and Madhawi M. Aldhwayan
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4705; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214705 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2866
Abstract
Inherited individual differences in eating behaviors known as “appetitive traits” can be measured using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ). The AEBQ can be used to assess individuals that require intervention regarding their weight, eating habits, and for the identification of eating disorders. [...] Read more.
Inherited individual differences in eating behaviors known as “appetitive traits” can be measured using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ). The AEBQ can be used to assess individuals that require intervention regarding their weight, eating habits, and for the identification of eating disorders. Arabic eating behavior assessment tools are few. This study, therefore, aimed to translate and validate the AEBQ in Arabic language (AEBQ-Ar) and to confirm the factor structure while assessing the internal consistency of all subscales. Participants completed the AEBQ-Ar and reported their sociodemographic data online. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s α. Correlations between AEBQ-Ar subscales and body mass index (BMI) were done using Pearson’s correlation. A sample of 596 adults, mean age of 35.61 ± 12.85 years, was recruited from Saudi Arabia. The 6-factor structure was the best model, excluding emotional under- eating subscale and merging enjoyment of food and food responsiveness subscales. Internal consistency was acceptable for all subscales (Cronbach’s α = 0.89–0.66). Emotional over- eating was positively associated with BMI, and slowness in eating was negatively associated with BMI. The AEBQ-Ar with 6-subscales appears to be a valid and reliable psychometric questionnaire to assess appetitive traits in Arabic speakers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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12 pages, 486 KiB  
Article
Comparing the Usability of the Web-Based 24-h Dietary Recall R24W and ASA24-Canada-2018 among French-Speaking Adults from Québec
by Catherine Laramée, Simone Lemieux, Julie Robitaille and Benoît Lamarche
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4543; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214543 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Automated, self-administered, Web-based 24-h dietary recall tools are increasingly available for nutrition research in different settings, particularly in epidemiological studies and national surveys because of their practicality and efficiency. However, the usability of different 24-h dietary recall tools must be assessed and compared [...] Read more.
Automated, self-administered, Web-based 24-h dietary recall tools are increasingly available for nutrition research in different settings, particularly in epidemiological studies and national surveys because of their practicality and efficiency. However, the usability of different 24-h dietary recall tools must be assessed and compared for use in specific populations as it is a major driver of the response rate and retention of participants. The primary aim of this study was to compare the usability of two validated, self-administered, web-based 24-h dietary recall tools available for the Canadian population: the R24W and the 2018 Canadian version of the ASA24. The R24W was developed in French for primary use in the province of Québec, Canada while the ASA24 was developed in English for primary use in the USA and recently adapted and translated for use in French-speaking Canadian adults. Whether the R24W and the ASA24-Canada-2018 yield similar nutritional data was also tested. In this randomized crossover study, 48 women and 20 men (mean age of 35 ± 14 years; range: 19–79 years) recruited in the province of Quebec completed the R24W and the ASA24-Canada-2018 in French twice on each occasion. Participants also completed the System Usability Scale (SUS), a reliable and valid scale giving a global view of subjective assessments of usability. Mean SUS score as well as mean dietary intakes of energy, nutrients and food groups generated by each tool were compared using mixed model analyses for repeated measures. On a scale of 0 to 100, the mean SUS scores (±SD) for the R24W and the ASA24-Canada-2018 were 81 ± 2 and 58 ± 2, respectively (p < 0.0001). 84% of participants stated that they would prefer to use the R24W if they were invited to complete additional 24-h dietary recalls. No significant difference was found between the R24W and the ASA24-Canada-2018 for the intake of energy, proteins, lipids, saturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, fibers, sodium and vegetables and fruits. In sum, while the R24W and the ASA24-Canada-2018 generate comparable self-reported dietary intake data, the R24W showed a better usability than the ASA24-Canada-2018 in a sample of French-speaking adults from the province of Quebec. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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14 pages, 439 KiB  
Article
Relative Validity of the Meal-Based Diet History Questionnaire for Estimating Nutrient Intake among Japanese Women and Men aged 30–76 Years
by Kentaro Murakami, Nana Shinozaki, Nana Kimoto, Shizuko Masayasu and Satoshi Sasaki
Nutrients 2022, 14(20), 4270; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14204270 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative validity of the Meal-based Diet History Questionnaire (MDHQ) for estimating nutrient intake. Dietary data were obtained from 111 Japanese women and 111 Japanese men, using the online MDHQ and the 4-non-consecutive-day weighed dietary [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative validity of the Meal-based Diet History Questionnaire (MDHQ) for estimating nutrient intake. Dietary data were obtained from 111 Japanese women and 111 Japanese men, using the online MDHQ and the 4-non-consecutive-day weighed dietary record (DR). The number of nutrients (total n = 46) showing no significant mean differences between estimates from the online MDHQ and DR (with energy adjustment by the density model) was 17 among women and 12 among men. The median value (25th and 75th percentiles) of the Pearson correlation coefficients between the online MDHQ and DR estimates was 0.54 (0.35–0.57) among women and 0.45 (0.25–0.53) among men. Bland–Altman plots for energy-providing nutrients indicated wide limits of agreement (and proportional bias for protein) with overall underestimation of protein and fat and overestimation of carbohydrate by the online MDHQ. Similar results were found when the paper version of the MDHQ (completed after the DR) was examined. For example, the median value of the Pearson correlation coefficients was 0.54 for women and 0.45 for men. This study suggests that the MDHQ has an acceptable ability to rank individuals according to intakes of a wide range of nutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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14 pages, 695 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the New Individual Fatty Acid Dataset for UK Biobank: Analysis of Intakes and Sources in 207,997 Participants
by Rebecca K. Kelly, Zoe Pollard, Heather Young, Carmen Piernas, Marleen Lentjes, Angela Mulligan, Inge Huybrechts, Jennifer L. Carter, Timothy J. Key and Aurora Perez-Cornago
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3603; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173603 - 31 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2587
Abstract
The Oxford WebQ is an online 24 h dietary assessment tool used by several large prospective studies. This study describes the creation of the new individual fatty acid (FA) dataset for the Oxford WebQ and reports intakes and sources of dietary individual FAs [...] Read more.
The Oxford WebQ is an online 24 h dietary assessment tool used by several large prospective studies. This study describes the creation of the new individual fatty acid (FA) dataset for the Oxford WebQ and reports intakes and sources of dietary individual FAs in the UK Biobank. Participants who completed ≥1 (maximum of five) 24 h dietary assessments were included (n = 207,997). Nutrient intakes were obtained from the average of all completed 24 h dietary assessments. Nutrient data from the UK McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods and the US Department of Agriculture food composition tables were used to calculate intakes of 21 individual FAs. The individual FA dataset included 10 saturated fatty acids (SFAs), 4 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and 7 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; including alpha-linolenic (18:3), eicosapentaenoic (20:5), and docosahexaenoic (22:6) acids). Palmitic (16:0; mean ± standard deviation (SD): 13.5 ± 5.7 g/d) and stearic (18:0; 5.2 ± 2.5) acids were the main contributors to SFAs, and the main sources of these were cereals and cereal products (mostly desserts/cakes/pastries), milk and milk products (mostly cheese and milk), and meat and meat products. Oleic acid (18:1; 24.2 ± 9.8) was the main MUFA, derived mainly from cereals and cereal products, and meat and meat products. Linoleic acid (18:2; 9.7 ± 4.3) was the main PUFA, derived mostly from cereals and cereal products, and vegetables (including potatoes) and vegetable dishes. The individual FA dataset for the Oxford WebQ will allow future investigations on individual FAs and disease risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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14 pages, 1495 KiB  
Article
The Discovery of Data-Driven Temporal Dietary Patterns and a Validation of Their Description Using Energy and Time Cut-Offs
by Luotao Lin, Jiaqi Guo, Yitao Li, Saul B. Gelfand, Edward J. Delp, Anindya Bhadra, Elizabeth A. Richards, Erin Hennessy and Heather A. Eicher-Miller
Nutrients 2022, 14(17), 3483; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14173483 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
Data-driven temporal dietary patterning (TDP) methods were previously developed. The objectives were to create data-driven temporal dietary patterns and assess concurrent validity of energy and time cut-offs describing the data-driven TDPs by determining their relationships to BMI and waist circumference (WC). The first [...] Read more.
Data-driven temporal dietary patterning (TDP) methods were previously developed. The objectives were to create data-driven temporal dietary patterns and assess concurrent validity of energy and time cut-offs describing the data-driven TDPs by determining their relationships to BMI and waist circumference (WC). The first day 24-h dietary recall timing and amounts of energy for 17,915 U.S. adults of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2016 were used to create clusters representing four TDPs using dynamic time warping and the kernel k-means clustering algorithm. Energy and time cut-offs were extracted from visualization of the data-derived TDPs and then applied to the data to find cut-off-derived TDPs. The strength of TDP relationships with BMI and WC were assessed using adjusted multivariate regression and compared. Both methods showed a cluster, representing a TDP with proportionally equivalent average energy consumed during three eating events/day, associated with significantly lower BMI and WC compared to the other three clusters that had one energy intake peak/day at 13:00, 18:00, and 19:00 (all p < 0.0001). Participant clusters of the methods were highly overlapped (>83%) and showed similar relationships with obesity. Data-driven TDP was validated using descriptive cut-offs and hold promise for obesity interventions and translation to dietary guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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18 pages, 899 KiB  
Article
Relative Validity of Food Intake in Each Meal Type and Overall Food Intake Derived Using the Meal-Based Diet History Questionnaire against the 4-Day Weighed Dietary Record in Japanese Adults
by Kentaro Murakami, Nana Shinozaki, Nana Kimoto, Shizuko Masayasu and Satoshi Sasaki
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153193 - 4 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3390
Abstract
We examined the relative validity of food intake for each meal type (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks) and overall food intake obtained through the Meal-based Diet History Questionnaire (MDHQ). In total, 222 Japanese adults (111 for each sex) aged 30–76 years completed the [...] Read more.
We examined the relative validity of food intake for each meal type (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks) and overall food intake obtained through the Meal-based Diet History Questionnaire (MDHQ). In total, 222 Japanese adults (111 for each sex) aged 30–76 years completed the web version of the MDHQ and then the 4-non-consecutive-day weighed dietary record (DR). The number of major food groups (n = 24 in total) for which no statistically significant difference was observed between median intakes estimated using the DR and MDHQ ranged from 8 (snacks) to 12 (dinner) among women, and from 8 (breakfast) to 13 (lunch) among men. The median values of the Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the MDHQ and DR estimates ranged from 0.28 (dinner) to 0.54 (breakfast) among women, and from 0.24 (dinner) and 0.60 (breakfast) among men. Bland–Altman analyses generally showed wide limits of agreement and proportional bias. Similar results were obtained using the paper version of the MDHQ, which was completed after conducting the DR. In conclusion, the MDHQ has a satisfactory ability to estimate median intake and rank individuals according to consumption for many food groups, despite a limited ability to estimate food group intakes on an individual level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Review

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30 pages, 985 KiB  
Review
A Scoping Review of Nutritional Biomarkers Associated with Food Security
by Lev Krasnovsky, Aidan P. Crowley, Fawaz Naeem, Lucy S. Wang, Gary D. Wu and Ariana M. Chao
Nutrients 2023, 15(16), 3576; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15163576 - 14 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Food insecurity affects more than 40 million individuals in the United States and is linked to negative health outcomes due, in part, to poor dietary quality. Despite the emergence of metabolomics as a modality to objectively characterize nutritional biomarkers, it is unclear whether [...] Read more.
Food insecurity affects more than 40 million individuals in the United States and is linked to negative health outcomes due, in part, to poor dietary quality. Despite the emergence of metabolomics as a modality to objectively characterize nutritional biomarkers, it is unclear whether food security is associated with any biomarkers of dietary quality. This scoping review aims to summarize studies that examined associations between nutritional biomarkers and food security, as well as studies that investigated metabolomic differences between people with and without food insecurity. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and AGRICOLA were searched through August 2022 for studies describing food insecurity and metabolic markers in blood, urine, plasma, hair, or nails. The 78 studies included consisted of targeted assays quantifying lipids, dietary nutrients, heavy metals, and environmental xenobiotics as biochemical features associated with food insecurity. Among those biomarkers which were quantified in at least five studies, none showed a consistent association with food insecurity. Although three biomarkers of dietary quality have been assessed between food-insecure versus food-secure populations, no studies have utilized untargeted metabolomics to characterize patterns of small molecules that distinguish between these two populations. Further studies are needed to characterize the dietary quality profiles of individuals with and without food insecurity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology)
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