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Open AccessArticle

The Effects of Dairy Intake on Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the study.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092237
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 11 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 17 September 2019
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased in the US over the last several years. The consumption of low-fat dairy foods has been linked with decreasing the risk of DM but studies have yet to show a clear correlation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of dairy intake on homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), waist circumference, and body weight. In MEDLINE and Embase, we identified and reviewed 49 relevant RCTs: 30 had appropriate data format for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Using the Review Manager 5 software, we calculated the pooled standardized mean differences comparing dairy dietary interventions to control for our outcomes of interest. For HOMA-IR (794 individuals), we found a mean difference of −1.21 (95% CI −1.74 to −0.67; p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 92%). For waist circumference (1348 individuals), the mean difference was −1.09 cm (95% CI 1.68 to −0.58; p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 94%). For body weight (2362 individuals), the dairy intake intervention group weighed 0.42 kg less than control (p-value < 0.00001; I2 = 92%). Our findings suggest that dairy intake, especially low-fat dairy products, has a beneficial effect on HOMA-IR, waist circumference, and body weight. This could impact dietary recommendations to reduce DM risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy intake; insulin resistance; weight loss; waist circumference; diet; low-fat dairy dairy intake; insulin resistance; weight loss; waist circumference; diet; low-fat dairy
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Sochol, K.M.; Johns, T.S.; Buttar, R.S.; Randhawa, L.; Sanchez, E.; Gal, M.; Lestrade, K.; Merzkani, M.; Abramowitz, M.K.; Mossavar-Rahmani, Y.; Melamed, M.L. The Effects of Dairy Intake on Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2237.

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