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A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Relative Effectiveness of the Multiple Traffic Light and Nutri-Score Front of Package Nutrition Labels

Eric A. Finkelstein
Felicia Jia Ler Ang
Brett Doble
Wei Han Melvin Wong
1 and
Rob M. van Dam
Program in Health Services and Systems Research, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 807443, Singapore
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore 807443, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The two authors contributed equally to the article.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2236;
Submission received: 25 July 2019 / Revised: 2 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 17 September 2019


The objective of this trial was to test two promising front-of-pack nutrition labels, 1) the United Kingdom’s Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL) label and 2) France’s Nutri-Score (NS), relative to a no-label control. We hypothesized that both labels would improve diet quality but NS would be more effective due to its greater simplicity. We tested this hypothesis via an online grocery store using a 3 × 3 crossover (within-person) design with 154 participants. Outcomes assessed via within person regression models include a modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010 (primary), average Nutri-Score, calories purchased, and singular measures of diet quality of purchase orders. Results show that both labels significantly improve modified AHEI scores relative to Control but neither is statistically superior using this measure. NS performed statistically better than MTL and Control based on average Nutri-Score, yet, unlike MTL it did not statistically reduce calories or sugar from beverages. This suggest that NS may be preferred if the goal is to improve overall diet quality but, because calories are clearly displayed on the label, MTL may perform better if the goal is to reduce total energy intake.

1. Introduction

All nations have seen a significant upward trend in obesity rates over the past several decades, putting populations at increased risk for weight-related chronic diseases and premature mortality [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. As a result, interventions aimed at encouraging healthier food consumption have been pursued by policy-makers worldwide. Singapore, the country of focus for this study, is no exception. In Singapore, 1 in 3 adults are overweight and 1 in 9 have diabetes [9]. These are substantial increases from previous decades [10]. To counter these trends, the government is considering several options. One policy under consideration is mandatory front-of-pack (FOP) labeling on nutrition content ( FOP labeling has been established as an effective tool to improve diet quality [11,12] and is now mandated in several countries including Chile and Ecuador [13], while numerous others, including Australia and New Zealand, have introduced voluntary labelling to complement the Nutrition Information Panel (NIP) appearing on the back of many products.
Two labels not currently used but under consideration in Singapore are the United Kingdom’s Multiple Traffic Light (MTL) label (Figure 1, left panel) and France’s Nutri-Score (NS) label (Figure 1, right panel). For each food/beverage, the MTL separately presents major nutrient information with individual color-coded ratings for each nutrient based on reference intakes and the guidelines set out by the European Food Information Council. Contrarily, the French NS label presents a single summary score representing the overall diet quality for each food/beverage on a five-point color-coded scale from green (best) to red (worst) using the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system.
Both labels have been shown to be effective against no label control conditions or against other FOP labels [14]. However, only hypothetical head-to-head studies that do not involve actual purchases have been conducted [15,16]. These studies, based on hypothetical purchases, suggest that NS may outperform MTL in promoting overall diet quality, possibly because of the high cognitive load required to understand the MTL and because seeing multiple attributes, with some good and some bad, may create decisional conflicts [17]. NS resolves both of these concerns by providing a single summary measure of the diet quality of the food/beverage. Therefore, although we hypothesize that both the MTL and NS labels will improve overall diet quality, as measured via a modified version of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) or the weighted (by servings) average Nutri-Score of the shopping basket (with A = 5 and E = 1), relative to a no-label Control, we expect the effect will be greater for the NS label. AHEI-2010 is a validated index of diet quality and higher scores have been strongly associated with lower risk of major chronic diseases [7]. However, for singular measures of diet quality, including total and per serving values of: sugar (g), energy (kcal), fat (g), saturated fat (g), sodium (mg), fiber (g) and protein (g), we hypothesize that MTL will outperform NS as those who care specifically about these measures will see the values directly on the MTL label along with the percentage of daily recommended intakes.
We also hypothesize that being hungry or in an unhappy mood at the time of shopping moderates the effectiveness of the labels. This is possible as negative mood and hunger have been associated with greater impulsivity [18]. Thus, shoppers with these attributes may be more likely to ignore the labels altogether. We also test for moderating effects of education and income. Those with greater education may be more likely to pay attention to and use the labels [19,20] and because healthier foods tend to be more expensive [21], income may also moderate the effect of any FOP label. As healthier foods tend to be more expensive, we also test whether either label increases total expenditure per shopping trip ($) and calorie per dollar (kcal/dollar). We test these hypotheses using an experimental online grocery store in Singapore where food is purchased and delivered to participants’ homes.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Design and Participants

Participants were recruited via Facebook and Instagram advertisements from September to November 2018. Prospective participants were directed from digital posters to the study website and asked to complete an online screener to determine eligibility. Prospective participants were offered the chance to participate if they were residing in Singapore, 21 years of age or above, and registered RedMart (a large on-line retailer in Singapore) shoppers. Recruiting existing online grocery shoppers ensured that participants would be familiar and comfortable with online shopping.
Those interested and eligible were asked to complete: 1) a registration form containing name, mobile phone number, and email address; 2) an online consent form; and 3) after obtaining consent, a baseline demographics questionnaire. The study purpose and research hypotheses were not revealed to participants until their participation concluded, as this could have influenced their purchasing behavior. All participants received a debriefing summary with full details of the study upon study completion. Upon completion of all forms, the website created the participant’s account and unique participant identification number (PID) for use throughout the study. Participants then received an automated email with their unique login details and were asked to logon to the NUSMart online grocery store to complete the first of three shopping tasks.
NUSMart is an online experimental grocery store developed by the study team and used to run the present trial ( At the time of the trial, NUSMart contained over 4,000 products commonly purchased in local supermarkets (food and beverages only) in Singapore. Food and beverage items are sorted into various categories, such as dairy products, carbonated soft drinks, fresh meats and seafood, and snacks. Participants are able to add and remove products to and from their online grocery cart and review their cumulative total cart cost. The online grocery store was designed to mirror actual online grocery stores available in Singapore such as Fairprice Online ( and RedMart ( in look and feel. All products include pictures of the item, retail prices and product descriptions. Nutrition Information Panels and product information are available on click-through.
Over the course of three weeks, participants logged on to the NUSMart website once a week and were asked to purchase their weekly groceries with a minimum spend of $50 and maximum spend of $100. Each participant therefore shopped a total of three times during the study, including one shop in each of three shopping conditions. A minimum and maximum spend ensured that participants completed a typical weekly grocery order and that no outliers would skew the data.
Participants shopped with the knowledge that, for each shop, they had no more than a 1 in 3 chance of being required to purchase the chosen foods using their credit card. The requirement to purchase would only be revealed upon spinning a digital “Wheel of Purchase” after hitting the checkout button that allowed for recording their weekly shop. This design was chosen to increase the likelihood that the purchases were an accurate reflection of the participants’ actual shopping patterns, lending credibility of the results over alternative designs that rely only on hypothetical shops. The grocery orders that needed to be fulfilled were repurchased by the study team and delivered via RedMart.
Upon completion of each order, participants completed a short post-shop survey to establish their mood and how hungry they were at the time of placing their order. This information was analyzed to test if these variables moderated the influence of the labels. Participants that completed all study elements were compensated with a $75 Lazada electronic gift voucher (a popular eCommerce website in Singapore,
The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board, National University of Singapore (S-18-189) and registered on under the number NCT03761342. All investigations were conducted according to the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki and all participants provided written (electronically online) informed consent before being enrolled in the study.

2.2. Interventions and Outcomes

The study was a crossover trial where all participants were exposed once to three shopping conditions in random order. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six intervention sequences via random permuted blocks of size three with equal allocation for the six sequences (see Appendix A Table A8) by a computer program. Participants were blinded to intervention allocation, which was allocated via the NUSMart system. Allocation results were recorded within NUSMart and all investigators were blinded to group allocation.
Arm 1 was a Control condition that mirrors a traditional web-grocery store with back-of-pack NIPs, but with no FOP labels. Arm 2 (MTL condition): is similar to Arm 1, with Multiple Traffic Light labels displayed on the FOP of all products. MTL was applied based on the NFP without modification of the original algorithm [22]. Arm 3 (NS condition) is similar to Arm 2, with Nutri-Score labels instead of MTL labels displayed on the FOP of all products. For the 3343 foods in the store, Nutri-Score was applied without modification of the original algorithm [23]. 26% (876 products) received an A grade, 12% (409 products) received a B grade, 26% (880 products) received a C grade, 25% (849 products) received a D grade, and 9.8% (329 products) received an E grade. For the 832 beverages, we applied a modified score based on the Singapore Health Promotion Board’s (HPB) proprietary scoring system that maintains a greater focus on calories and sugar content and aims to provide a greater distribution of scores compared to using NS without modification. Using NS without modification, 87% of drinks would have been assigned a D or E grade. Under the modified scoring: 29% that contained no sugar were assigned an A grade, 11% received a B grade, 3% received a C grade, 3% received a D grade, and 54% received an E grade. Appendix A Table A9 shows the full list of beverages and their scores. Figure 2 shows an example of the NUSMart storefront with a sample of the MTL and NS labels as they appeared on the same fictional product in each condition.
Prior to each shopping trip, a 60-second introductory video briefly explaining the MTL or NS labels was shown to participants in the corresponding condition. This sought to educate shoppers about how to read and understand each label, given that the local population has limited exposure to and education on the MTL and NS labeling schemes. The store was set up such that a participant could not shop until the videos were viewed.
All outcomes were calculated using the sales orders submitted by participants via the online system. The primary outcome is diet quality per shopping trip, as measured by a modified index of diet quality, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010). The AHEI-2010 is an updated measure of diet quality from the original Alternate Healthy Eating Index. It was constructed based on foods and nutrients predictive of chronic disease risk that incorporate current scientific evidence on diet and health; higher scores on the AHEI-2010 are strongly associated with a lower risk of major chronic diseases and cardiovascular mortality [7]. Eleven of 13 AHEI-2010 components, including vegetables, fruits, whole grains, sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juice, nuts and legumes, red/processed meat, trans fat, long-chain fats and sodium are scored from 0 (worst) to 10 (best) were used for the present study. We dropped alcohol because it is not sold in our store and polyunsaturated fatty acids, as this information was not available. Therefore a maximum score of 90 (perfect diet quality) as compared to the usual maximum of 110 was employed. As we were calculating the scores on a weekly grocery purchase for the household, we divided the grocery purchase by the number of adult household members and by seven days to obtain the “per-day-per-person” consumption. Our secondary measure of diet quality, average Nutri-Score of the shopping basket, weighted by serving size, was calculated by applying A = 5 down to E = 1 for each food purchased. Other secondary outcomes included per serving and total values of calories, saturated fat, total fat, sodium, and sugar, and to quantify the effect of the labels, total spend and calories per dollar spent.

2.3. Statistical Methods

A power calculation revealed that 140 participants were required to detect effect sizes of 0.30 or larger between arms. The calculation assumed a two-tailed test, a significance level of 0.05, power of 0.90, adjustment for 3 comparisons, and a cross-over design.
Data is analyzed from an intention-to-treat approach that conforms to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) standards for reporting of randomized trials. The primary analysis employs the following first-differenced model:
Δ M o d i f i e d   A H E I i s = α + β N S N S + ϵ i s .
The first difference model exploits the repeated observations of individuals by differencing away, and thus controlling for, time invariant heterogeneity (e.g., age, health consciousness etc.) between individuals. In this specification, the dependent variable is the difference in modified AHEI scores in each treatment condition and the Control condition. The constant term, α , measures the difference in the Modified AHEI score for the MTL condition relative to the control shop. N S is a dummy variable that is set to one for shops where NS labels appeared on all products. ϵ i s is the error term. The subscripts are for each individual, i, and each shop, s. Each participant generates two observations (NS vs control and MTL vs control). This model is then estimated via ordinary least squares (OLS) with errors clustered at the individual level, so as to account for correlation between repeated shops for the same individuals. Secondary outcomes are analyzed using the same model. With the exception of the modified AHEI-2010, which is a composite measure of the entire basket, we also run the above models separately for foods and beverages. AHEI-2010 should not be run for food and beverages separately since the index scores are dependent on dietary components that span all major food and drink groups, and are not scored in isolation.
In line with our hypotheses, we conduct the following tests:
  • α > 0 , Testing for whether the outcome is significantly greater in MTL than control;
  • α + β N S > 0 , Testing for whether the outcome is significantly greater in NS than control;
  • β N S > 0 , Testing for whether the difference in outcome is greater for NS than for MTL.
To test the moderating effects of mood, hunger, income and level of education, we interacted moderators with the treatment dummy, resulting in the below model:
Δ M o d i f i e d   A H E I i s = α + β N S N S + β M M o d e r a t o r + β i n t M o d e r a t o r N S + ϵ i s ,
where Moderator values greater than or equal to the median values for hunger and mood are considered hungry and happy respectively. β M > 0 tests for whether the moderators (i.e., hungry, happy, high income, high level of education) differentially influence the relationship between MTL and AHEI scores. β M + β i n t > 0 tests this relationship for NS. Each moderator regression was run separately. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 15.

3. Results

3.1. Sample

Participant flow and corresponding sample sizes are presented in Figure 3. 168 participants were recruited to participate in the study. 145 completed all three shops. 14 did not place any order, 7 placed one and 2 placed two orders. Using the first difference model, we could analyze those with at least two purchases but not those with only one, resulting in an analysis sample of 147 participants. Table 1 presents the characteristics of this sample. The sample was largely of Chinese ethnicity (93.51%) and the mean age was 34.40 years (standard deviation (SD) = 6.88). The average body mass index (BMI) was 23.31 kg/m2 (SD = 4.07). The majority (68.83%) were female. The characteristics of participants who dropped out did not differ from the analysis sample. The completed CONSORT checklist can be accessed as Supplementary Materials.
Table 2 presents the unadjusted values of the primary and secondary outcomes for the Control. Regression output testing for differences between conditions is reported in Table 3.
The mean modified AHEI-2010 score was 41.81 in Control. Consistent with our hypothesis, both labels showed statistically significant increases in modified AHEI-2010 scores (Table 3). The estimated increase was 1.09 in NS (p = 0.04) and 1.16 in MTL (p = 0.04) compared to Control. Contrary to expectations, the effect was not significantly different between labels. The mean Nutri-Score was 3.41. There was an increase in Nutri-Score by 0.33 points (p < 0.01) in NS compared to Control and, consistent with our hypothesis, by 0.31 points (p < 0.01) compared to the estimated effect of MTL. The difference in average Nutri-Score of 0.02 between MTL and control was not statistically significant (p = 0.06).
There were no significant moderating effects of mood, hunger, education, or income on the modified AHEI-2010 or average Nutri-Scores, suggesting that these factors did not differentially influence the effect of labelling on diet quality for on-line shopping. The results can be found in Table A7 in the Appendix A.

3.2. Estimated Treatment Effect on Secondary Outcomes

In MTL, consistent with our hypothesis, calories decreased by 19.75 kcal/serving (p = 0.01), fat decreased by 1.03g/serving (p = 0.03) and protein decreased by 0.83g/serving (p = 0.01) compared to Control. In NS relative to Control, total saturated fats per order decreased by an estimated 29.29 g (p = 0.01). No other differences were statistically significant. These results can be found in Table A1 and Table A2 of the Appendix A.

3.3. Treatment Effect on Foods

For the analyses on food items only, there was a significant effect of the NS condition on average Nutri-Score (0.21, p = 0.02) and total saturated fats (–29.79g, p = 0.01) relative to control. MTL led to a significant decrease of calories per serving by 20.56kcal/serving (p = 0.02) and fats per serving by 1.02g/serving (p = 0.03) relative to control. No other differences were statistically significant. Results of the food-only analyses can be found in Table A3 and Table A4 in the Appendix A.

3.4. Treatment Effect on Beverages

For the analyses on beverages only, NS improves average Nutri-Score by 0.72 (p < 0.01), with NS having a significantly higher effect than MTL by 0.52 (p = 0.01). Similar to the total basket, relative to control, MTL reduced calories, fats and protein per serving by -15.48 kcal (p = 0.01), −0.55g (p = 0.03) and −0.76 g (p = 0.01), respectively. MTL also decreased total sugar purchased by −66.83 g (p = 0.03). Results of the drinks-only analyses can be found in Table A5 and Table A6 in the Appendix A.

4. Discussion

Front-of-pack labeling has been identified by the Singapore government as one of four promising strategies to tackle nutrition-related diseases. Our results show that both the Multiple Traffic Lights and Nutri-Score labeling scheme employed led to statistically significant improvements in diet quality relative to no-labelling based on mean modified AHEI-2010 scores and average Nutri-Score. In the Singapore Chinese population, a 10-point higher AHEI-2010 was associated with a 21% lower risk of coronary artery disease [24]. Thus, assuming a linear relationship between improvements in AHEI and reductions in coronary artery disease, the observed 1.16 point improvement, were it to be sustained on a population level, could be associated with as much as a 2.4% decrease in coronary artery disease, which is a relative large effect for a low-cost intervention. Testing the effects of the label on risk factors for non-communicable diseases should be an area of future research. Neither label was superior to each other in terms of modified AHEI-2010 scores, but NS performed better than MTL in terms of average Nutri-Score. This should not be surprising given that the average Nutri-Score most closely tracks what consumers saw on the NS label.
These results provide support for implementation of either label if the goal is to improve overall diet quality as assessed via modified AHEI-2010 and average Nutri-Score. However, if the goal is to reduce intake of calories or improve intake of a specific nutrient, MTL may be preferred. Unlike NS, MTL showed statistically significant reductions in calories and fats per serving purchased relative to control in the full basket, and reductions in total sugar purchased for beverages. This result should not be surprising if we believe calories, sugar and fat are what consumers are most concerned about. MTL allows these nutrients to be seen directly on the label along with per serving values as a percentage of daily recommended values, whereas NS only shows a summary measure that masks potential benefits (i.e., decreases) in these individual nutrient domains. As a result, if the goal is to decrease calorie and sugar intake or rates of obesity, as opposed to improve overall diet quality, MTL may be preferred. Our results did not show MTL to be statistically different in these specific domains relative to NS, but this may be due to a lack of statistical power.
Moderator analyses revealed no differential effects by mood, hunger, education or income on measures of diet quality. Although other studies have found mood and hunger to influence impulsivity and attentiveness when shopping for food [18,25,26,27,28], and these may influence the effects of FOP labels, this effect may be attenuated for on-line shopping where purchases and consumption and more disconnected. The lack of differential effects by education and income is encouraging as it suggests all shoppers may equally benefit from the labels. However, all moderating results should be viewed with caution given that the study may have been underpowered to identify these differences.
This study had several strengths including its within-person randomized controlled trial design, a fully functional online grocery store with thousands of products to choose from, and actual delivery of orders for a subset of shops so that consumer shopping behavior was more likely to mimic an actual purchase. However, the study also has several potential limitations. Shopping was limited to one shop per condition and results may differ with repeated shops. The relative effectiveness of each label may also differ if the underlying algorithms used to define the labels were modified or if alternative summary measures of diet quality were used. AHEI is an accepted measure of diet quality at the individual level but is less frequently used to assess the quality of shopping baskets. Average Nutri-Score is less common but, as we show in Appendix A Table A10, baskets that score better in this value also score better in AHEI and in each measure of diet quality listed on the NFP. However, as it is (by design) most strongly correlated with the NS label, it is biased in favor of this label. Future studies should consider alternative measures of overall diet quality. On-line shopping may also differ from in-store shopping, making it difficult to generalize the findings of this study to brick-and-mortar stores. Our sample is also not representative of the broader population. It includes a greater percentage of females, Chinese, and those with university education. Future studies should test these labels over repeated purchases and in different shopping venues, including on-line and in-person grocery and convenience stores, and with a broader subset of the population to explore whether results are sustained and generalizable and to identify which population subsets (e.g., dieters, more nutrition knowledgeable) are most likely to benefit from each type of label. Furthermore, showing participants the 60-second introductory videos may have primed them to shop for healthier products. However, given their lack of exposure to these labels we found it necessary to educate them on how to use the new labels as would occur with any effort to implement such labels in Singapore. As a final limitation, it is worth noting that our trial focused on the effects of FOP labelling on consumer choices, but effective labels could also encourage suppliers to reformulate (a positive outcome) and/or change prices in ways that may undermine some of the positive effects of the label. Real world studies are needed to explore these effects.

5. Conclusions

Both the MTL and Nutri-Score front-of-pack labels improved dietary quality according to the modified AHEI-2010, providing support for implementation of either label if the goal is to improve overall diet quality. NS outperforms MTL and no FOP labels in average Nutri-Score but, unlike MTL, does not reduce calories, suggesting that MTL may be preferred to NS if the goal is to reduce caloric intake and obesity rates.

Supplementary Materials

The following are available online at Table S1: CONSORT 2010 checklist of information to include when reporting a randomised trial.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, E.A.F. and F.J.L.A.; methodology, E.A.F. and R.M.v.D.; software, F.J.L.A.; validation, E.A.F., B.D.; formal analysis, W.H.M.W.; investigation, E.A.F., F.J.L.A.; resources, F.J.L.A.; data curation, B.D., W.H.M.W.; writing—original draft preparation, F.J.L.A.; writing—review and editing, E.A.F, F.J.L.A., B.D., R.M.v.D. and W.H.M.W.; visualization, W.H.M.W.; supervision, E.A.F.; project administration, F.J.L.A.; funding acquisition, E.A.F.


This work was funded by the National Medical Research Council (grant number NMRC-HSRG-0060-2016). The National Medical Research Council had no role in the study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation of the data; or the writing of the report. The research was conducted independently of the funders.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Appendix A

Table A1. Regression with dietary quality outcomes and per serving outcomes (N, the number of differences = 292, n, the number of individuals =147).
Table A1. Regression with dietary quality outcomes and per serving outcomes (N, the number of differences = 292, n, the number of individuals =147).
OutcomeMean per Serving Values
AHEI-2010Avg NSEnergy (kcal)Sugar (g)Fats (g)Sat. Fats (g)Sodium (mg)Fiber (g)Protein (g)
β A NS (incremental effect of NS over MTL)−0.070.31 **11.43−0.13−0.640.0817.070.030.66
α (MTL vs. Control)1.16*0.0219.75 *−0.59−1.03 *−0.29−30.46−0.02−0.83 *
β A + α (Effect of NS)1.09*0.33 **−8.32−0.72−0.39−0.22−13.390.01−0.17
* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01
Table A2. Regression with total value outcomes (N = 292, n =147).
Table A2. Regression with total value outcomes (N = 292, n =147).
OutcomeTotal Values
Energy (kcal)Sugar (g)Fats (g)Sat. Fats (g)Sodium (mg)Fiber (g)Protein (g)Total expenditure ($)kcal/$
β A NS (incremental effect of NS over MTL)199.153.35−33.83−9.85−1729.906.908.60−0.515.28
α (MTL vs. Control)−951.39−52.0236.89−19.44−266.530.80−67.970.26−8.08
β A +   α (Effect of NS)−752.2−48.673.07−29.29 **−19967.70−59.38−0.25−2.81
* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
Table A3. Regression for foods only dietary quality and per serving values as outcomes (N = 287, n = 146).
Table A3. Regression for foods only dietary quality and per serving values as outcomes (N = 287, n = 146).
OutcomeMean per Serving Values
Avg NSEnergy (kcal)Sugar (g)Fats (g)Sat. Fats (g)Sodium (mg)Fiber (g)Protein (g)
β A NS (incremental effect of NS over MTL)0.31 **10.34−0.900.39−0.095.83−0.010.52
α (MTL vs. Control)−0.10−20.56 *0.38−1.02 *−0.24−38.58−0.04−1.16
β A +   α (Effect of NS)0.21 *−10.22−0.52−0.64−0.33−32.75−0.05−0.64
* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
Table A4. Regression for foods only with total values and cost as outcome (N = 287, n = 146).
Table A4. Regression for foods only with total values and cost as outcome (N = 287, n = 146).
OutcomeTotal Values
Energy (kcal)Sugar (g)Fats (g)Sat. Fats (g)Sodium (mg)Fiber (g)Protein (g)Total expenditure ($)Kcal/$
β A NS (incremental effect of NS over MTL)303.782.50−32.55−10.97−1705.245.1816.02−0.2332.32
α (MTL vs. Control)−799.41−9.4236.48−18.83−204.485.24−67.581.13−29.36
β A +   α (Effect of NS)−6.92−495.63.94−29.79 **−191010.4242.940.902.96
* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
Table A5. Regression for beverages only with dietary quality and per serving values outcomes (N = 190, n = 111).
Table A5. Regression for beverages only with dietary quality and per serving values outcomes (N = 190, n = 111).
OutcomeMean per Serving Values
Avg NSEnergy (kcal)Sugar (g)Fats (g)Sat. Fats (g)Sodium (mg)Fiber (g)Protein (g)
β A NS (incremental effect of NS over MTL)0.52 **9.340.120.87 *0.70 **10.62 *0.130.48
α (MTL vs. Control)0.20−15.48 **−1.83−0.55 **−0.18−4.30−0.06−0.76 **
β A +   α (Effect of NS)0.72 **−6.14−1.710.310.526.310.07−0.28
* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
Table A6. Regression for beverages only with total values and cost as outcome (N = 190, n = 111).
Table A6. Regression for beverages only with total values and cost as outcome (N = 190, n = 111).
OutcomeTotal Values
Energy (kcal)Sugar (g)Fats (g)Sat. Fats (g)Sodium (mg)Fiber (g)Protein (g)Total expenditure ($)Calorie/$
β A NS (incremental effect of NS over MTL)186.9728.095.036.04−24.551.84−2.510.7820.93
α (MTL vs. Control)−374.78−66.83 *−5.16−3.81−194.26−4.82−9.60−1.48−1.52
β A +   α (Effect of NS)−187.8−38.74−0.142.23−218.8−2.98−12.12−0.70−10.60
* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
Table A7. Regression with moderator analyses (N = 287, n = 146).
Table A7. Regression with moderator analyses (N = 287, n = 146).
AHEI-2010Avg NSAHEI-2010Avg NSAHEI-2010Avg NSAHEI-2010Avg NS
β A (NS)−0.420.27−1.580.210.310.36 **−0.600.23
β 2 (Moderator)−1.85−0.34 *1.810.131.79−0.14−0.82−0.28
β 3 (Moderator × NS)0.750.10−3.19 *0.19−1.15−0.160.620.10
β 2 +   β 3 −1.10−0.24−1.380.170.640.18−0.19−0.18
α (Constant)2.08 **0.190.25−0.040.580.071.860.26
* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
Table A8. Six intervention sequences via random permuted blocks of size three with equal allocation.
Table A8. Six intervention sequences via random permuted blocks of size three with equal allocation.
Group NumberFirst shopSecond ShopThird Shop
Table A9. Product names and Nutri-Score grades of all beverages sold on NUSMart.
Table A9. Product names and Nutri-Score grades of all beverages sold on NUSMart.
Product NameAssigned Grade
Gold Kili 2-in-1 Kopi Premium Coffee Mixture Bag with Sugar AddedB
Nutrisoy Plain SoymilkB
Magnolia Fresh MilkB
Nutrisoy Fresh Soyamilk—Reduced SugarB
Polleney Pure Soybean Powder No Added SugarB
Dilmah Premium Quality 100% Pure Ceylon TeaA
Marigold 0% Fat Yoghurt Drink—StrawberryB
Indocafe White CoffeeE
Gold Kili Instant 2-in-1 EspressccinoE
Living Planet Full Cream Organic Dairy MilkE
Mirinda OrangeE
Ceres Secrets of the Valley 100% JuiceE
Red Bull Classic Energy Drink 25% Less SugarB
MILO UHT Chocolate Malt Packet DrinkE
Meiji Lowfat MilkE
Meiji Lowfat MilkE
Indocafe 3 in 1 CoffeemixE
Regilait Milk PowderE
Lipton Tea GranulesA
Magnolia Low Fat Hi Cal MilkB
Nature 2000 Green Rooibos TeaA
Marigold Peel Fresh No Sugar Added Juice Drink - OrangeB
Pokka Jasmine Green TeaA
Sunkist Orange Juice—No Added SugarC
Segafredo Espresso Casa Coffee BeansA
Boncafe All Day Coffee BeansA
Pocari Sweat Ion Supply DrinkE
Marigold Peel Fresh No Sugar Added Juice Drink - OrangeB
Vitasoy Original Soy DrinkB
Sunkist Premium 100% Orange JuiceC
Farmhouse Low Fat MilkE
Greenfields Skim MilkE
Marigold Low Fat UHT MilkB
Coca-Cola Zero SugarA
Milo Australian Recipe Malt DrinkE
Greenfields Low Fat MilkE
Gold Kili Instant 3-in-1 Milk TeaE
Farmhouse Fresh UHT MilkA
Pocari Sweat ION Supply DrinkE
Marigold 100% Apple JuiceD
Cowhead UHT Pure Lite MilkE
Cowhead UHT Pure MilkE
7-UP Revive OriginalE
Robert Timms Premium Rich and Smooth Freeze Dried CoffeeA
Nescafe Milk Coffee Original CanE
Robinsons Orange and Mango No Added SugarE
Chen Jiah Juang Mulberry Vinegar DrinkE
Meiji Chocolate Flavour MilkE
Orangina Sparkling Citrus BeverageE
Yeo’s Bandung DrinkB
F&N Fruit Tree Fresh Carrot with Wolfberry—No Added SugarC
F&N Fruit Tree Fresh Orange - No Added SugarC
Milo UHT Malt DrinkE
Marigold Peel Fresh No Sugar Added Juice Drink—PowerberriesC
Lipton Yellow Label Tea (Enveloped Bag)A
H-TWO-O Sparkling Isotonic DrinkD
Marigold Kiwi Juice DrinkC
Pokka Pomegranate JuiceE
Cadbury 3in1 Hot Chocolate DrinkE
Pokka Sparklin’ Fuji Apple Sparkling Fruit DrinkE
Super Regular 3-in-1 CoffeeMixE
Tipco 100% Beetroot Formula Mixed Vegetable and Fruit JuiceE
Marigold Peel Fresh No Sugar Added Juice Drink—Powerveggies and Mixed FruitsE
Charlie’s Fresh Squeezed Orange JuiceE
Original Juice Co Pineapple Juice (Not From Concentrate)E
Pureharvest Organic Aussie Dream Rice MilkE
Marigold Plant Sterols Plus HL MilkA
Boncafe Espresso Gourmet Ground CoffeeA
Schweppes Lemon Lime and Bitters Pet BottleE
Meiji Fresh MilkA
Society TeaA
Meiji Lowfat Chocolate MilkE
Swiss Miss Marshmallow 3 in 1 Hot Chocolate Drink SachetsE
Yeo’s Chrysanthemum Light TeaB
Boncafe Colombiana Instant CoffeeE
Bushells Classic Gourmet Instant CoffeeE
Super Rich 3-in-1 CoffeeMixE
Old Town 3-in-1 White Milk TeaE
Hsiang Yuan Instant Chrysanthemum Drink with GojiB
Basilur Tea Tea Book Volume I TeaA
Marigold Full Cream UHT MilkB
Aquarius Isotonic DrinkB
Pukka Organic Three Mint TeaA
Marigold Peel Fresh No Sugar Added Juice Drink - Cloudy AppleC
Taylors of Harrogate Organic Chamomile Tea 20’SA
Brooke Bond 3 Roses Tea MindsharpA
Basilur Tea Tea Book Volume IV English TeaA
F&N Magnolia Higher Calcium Low Fat MilkA
Basilur Tea English Afternoon Loose Leaf TeaA
100 Plus Isotonic DrinkB
Robert Timms Premium Full-Bodied Granulated CoffeeA
Meiji Coffee Flavour MilkE
Basilur Tea Darjeeling Loose Leaf TeaA
Lipton Packet TeaA
Super Low Fat Less Sugar 3-in-1 Instant CoffeeE
Basilur Tea Bouquet Green Freshness Green TeaA
Magnolia Mixed Berry with Nata De Coco Yoghurt DrinkE
Basilur Tea Moroccan Mint Loose Leaf Green TeaA
Emmi Swiss Yogurt Drink BlueberryE
F&N Magnolia Chocolate Flavoured MilkA
Super 2-in-1 Charcoal Roasted White CoffeeE
Gold Kili Instant Ginger DrinkE
Nestle Nespray Fortified Full Cream Milk PowderE
NESCAFE Gold Blend Instant Soluble Coffee 50GE
Greenfields Chocomalt MilkE
Heaven and Earth Ayataka No Sugar Japanese Green TeaA
Pitti Caffe Pittissima CremosoA
Vitasoy Melon Flavored Soy DrinkB
Ceres Pineapple 100% JuiceE
Jia Jia Heritage Herbal TeaA
Yeo’s Grass Jelly DrinkE
Coca-Cola Diet Coke CherryA
Schweppes Slimline Indian Tonic 12 Per PackA
Minute Maid Pulpy TropicalE
Nutrisoy Almond SoymilkE
Horlicks Nutritious Malted Drink - RefillE
Super Cereal Oat 4-in-1 Cereal DrinkE
Basilur Tea English Breakfast Loose Leaf TeaA
Swiss Miss Milk Chocolate 3 in 1 Hot Chocolate Drink SachetsE
Robert Timms Gold Colombia Style Coffee BagsA
Pokka Honey LemonD
Gryphon Hanami TeaA
Teisseire Grenadine No Added Sugar Syrup with SteviaE
Nestle Everyday Instant Filled Milk Drink PowderE
Cowhead UHT Chocolate MilkC
Dutch Mill Yoghurt Drink with Mixed Fruits JuiceE
Dutch Mill Yoghurt Drink with Orange JuiceE
Clipper Organic Infusion Peppermint TeaA
F&N Fruit Tree Fresh Cranberry Pomegranate - No Added SugarC
H-TWO-O Sparkling Isotonic DrinkD
Horlicks Malt Chocolate 3-in-1E
Lipton Peach Mango Pyramid TeaB
Orangina Sparkling Citrus BeverageE
F&N NutriSoy Soya Milk with Calcium and Reduced SugarA
Teisseire Raspberry and Cranberry No Added Sugar Syrup with SteviaE
Schweppes Dry Ginger AleE
Vitagen Collagen Less Sugar Cultured Milk—AssortedE
Vitagen Less Sugar Cultured Milk—AssortedE
Gingen Ginger with Brown Sugar Natural BeverageE
Dutch Mill Yoghurt Drink with Blueberry JuiceE
Orangina Sparkling Citrus BeverageE
Dilmah Pure Peppermint LeavesA
Pureharvest Organic Aussie Dream Enriched with Calcium Rice MilkE
Ceres 100% Full Moon Harvest JuiceE
Super 3-in-1 Charcoal Roasted White Coffee with Brown SugarE
The Berry Company BlueberryE
Daisy Low Fat High Calcium Plain MilkB
Marigold 100% Fresh Milk—PlainD
Ceres Orange 100% JuiceE
Lipton Forest Fruit Pyramid TeaA
Origina Juice- Apple FlavourE
Lipton Citrus Pyramid TeaA
Coco Life Coconut WaterB
Dutch Lady UHT Strawberry MilkE
Monin Vanilla SyrupA
Monin Hazelnut SyrupA
Taylors of Harrogate English Breakfast Tea Leaf CaddyA
Tata Gold TeaA
Pureharvest Organic Oat Milk Non-DairyE
Dutch Lady UHT Low Fat MilkA
OSK 100% Japanese Green TeaA
Basilur Tea Oriental Masala ChaiA
Clipper Fairtrade Citrus Green Tea with EchinaceaA
Sunkist 100% Pure Orange and Pink Grapefruit Juice—No Added Sugar or FlavourE
Sunkist 100% Pure Orange Juice with lots of Pulp - No Added Sugar or FlavourE
Sunkist 100% Pure Orange Juice with Pulp—No Added Sugar or FlavourE
Ribena Blackcurrant and Strawberry Juice CordialD
Ribena Blackcurrant Fruit DrinkD
Ribena Blackcurrant and Strawberry Fruit DrinkD
Dutch Lady Full Cream MilkA
Pukka Organic Three Ginger TeaA
Les Vergers Du Mekong Coconut Water and Lime Fruit JuiceA
Greenfields Fresh Low Fat MilkE
Unisoy Instant Soya Milk PowderA
Unisoy Instant No Cane Sugar Added Soya Milk PowderA
Oishi Green Tea GenmaiA
Ceres Guava 100% JuiceE
Pokka No Sugar Jasmine Green TeaA
Gingen Ginger with Honey Natural BeverageE
Allswell Golden Pear with Aloe VeraD
Sunquick Lemon Squash ConcentrateA
Horlicks 3in1 Instant Original Nutritious Malted DrinkE
Nescafe Dolce Gusto ChococinoE
Gryphon Chamomile Dream TeaA
Nutrisoy Omega Soymilk—Less SugarE
Nutrisoy Omega Soymilk—No Added SugarE
Farmhouse Low Fat MilkE
Farmhouse Fresh MilkE
Devondale UHT Full Cream MilkE
Devondale UHT Skim MilkE
F&N Magnolia Super Slim Low Fat MilkA
Lipton Signature Classic Milk Tea LatteE
Nestle Bliss Low Fat Mango and Peach Yoghurt DrinkE
Nestle Bliss Low Fat Tropical Fruit Yoghurt DrinkE
Nestle Bliss Low Fat Mixed Berries Yoghurt DrinkE
Super Cereal Original 3-in-1 Cereal DrinkE
Gold Kili Kopi-O Kosong Premium Coffee Mixture BagB
Nestum 3 in 1 Original Cereal Drink with OatsE
NESCAFE Gold Blend Instant Soluble Coffee 200 gE
Old Town 3-In-1 Hazelnut White Coffee MixE
Old Town 2-In-1 Coffee and Creamer White Coffee MixE
Gryphon Lemon Ginger Mint TeaA
Gryphon British Breakfast TeaA
Gryphon White Gingerlily TeaA
Gryphon Earl Grey Lavender TeaA
Cowhead Milk PowderA
F&N Tonic WaterE
Oishi Green Tea OriginalA
Oishi Green Tea GenmaiA
Greenfields Fresh MilkB
Pauls Fresh MilkE
NESCAFE CLASSIC Jar Instant Soluble Coffee 50 gA
Owl Teh Tarik Instant Foamy TeaE
Just Juice Orange JuiceE
Just Juice Pineapple JuiceE
Nescafe Menu Brown Sugar Flavour Ipoh White CoffeeE
Nescafe Menu Hazelnut Flavour Ipoh White CoffeeE
Heaven and Earth Ice Passionfruit TeaE
Heaven and Earth Ice Lemon TeaE
Charlie’s Fresh Squeezed Orange JuiceE
Charlie’s Fruit Fix Acai and BerryE
Charlie’s Fruit Fix SpirulinaE
Boncafe All Day Gourmet Ground CoffeeA
Boncafe Morning Gourmet Ground CoffeeA
Ribena Cheerpack Blackcurrant Fruit DrinkD
Original Juice Co Orange Juice Squeezed (Not from Concentrate)E
Orangina Sparkling Citrus BeverageE
NESCAFE Blend 37 Instant Soluble Coffee 100 gA
MILO Can Calcium PlusB
Nescafe Collection EspressoA
Vitasoy Original Soy DrinkB
Marigold 100% Carrot Mixed Fruits JuiceD
Marigold 100% Orange JuiceC
Marigold 100% Apple Cranberry JuiceD
Tan Ngan Lo Herbal TeaD
Basilur Tea Four Seasons Winter TeaA
Nescafe Gold Decaffeinated Instant CoffeeA
Cowhead UHT Chocolate MilkC
Clipper Organic Infusion Chamomile TeaA
Heaven and Earth Mango Tea with ChamomileC
Red Bull Energy DrinkB
Charlie’s Lemonade QuencherE
Charlie’s Mango and Orange QuencherE
CocoMax 100% Coconut WaterB
Ceres Red Grape 100% JuiceE
Cowhead UHT Lactose Free MilkE
Ceres Whispers of Summer 100% JuiceE
Dilmah Earl Grey TeaA
The Berry Company Acai BerryE
Cowhead UHT Slim MilkE
Wong Coco All Natural Coconut Juice with PulpE
NESCAFE Milk Coffee Mocha CanE
Taylors of Harrogate Yorkshire Tea 80 Tea BagsA
Magnolia Oats Plus Low Fat Hi Cal MilkA
Magnolia Omega Plus Low Fat Hi Cal MilkA
Magnolia Omega Plus Low Fat Hi Cal Chocolate MilkA
NESCAFE Milk Coffee Latte CanE
Yeo’s Chrysanthemum and Luo Han Guo TeaB
Gingen 100% Ginger Natural BeverageA
F&N Magnolia Fresh UHT MilkA
F&N Farmhouse Low Fat UHT MilkE
Justin Metcalf Signature Blend Coffee CapsulesA
Kickapoo Joy JuiceA
Pokka Honey LemonD
Dutch Mill Yoghurt Drink with Strawberry JuiceE
Coca-Cola LifeE
Marigold UHT Strawberry MilkA
Marigold UHT Chocolate MilkB
Pauls Strawberry MilkE
Coca-Cola Cherry Coca-ColaB
Coca-Cola Diet Coke Caffeine FreeA
Marigold 100% Tropical JuiceD
Hsiang Yuan Black Sesame and Oats PowderA
Ovaltine Jar Malted MilkA
Pauls UHT Pure MilkE
Pauls UHT Low Fat MilkE
Ceres Ruby Grapefruit 100% JuiceE
Marigold 100% Pear Mixed Berries JuiceD
Pauls UHT Skimmed MilkE
Coca-Cola LifeE
Dutch Lady UHT Strawberry MilkE
Dutch Lady UHT Chocolate MilkE
Pauls UHT Skimmed MilkE
Just Juice Apple JuiceE
The Berry Company Goji BerryE
UFC Refresh 100% Natural Coconut WaterB
Pauls UHT High Cal Low Fat MilkE
Pauls UHT Pure MilkE
Schweppes Slimline Indian Tonic WaterA
Tipco 100% Broccoli and Mixed Fruit JuiceE
Suntory Boss Coffee Zeitaku No BitohE
Accelerade Orange (2.06 Lb.)E
Effect Energy Drink—CartonE
Gatorade Drink Mix Sport Drink Fruit PunchE
Gatorade Drink Mix Sport Drink Lemon-LimeE
Gatorade G2 Sport Drink Blueberry PomegranateE
Lotte Chilsung Hot 6 Energy Energy DrinkA
Lotte Chilsung Hot6 Grapefruit Energy DrinkA
Lucozade Energy OriginalE
Monster Absolute ZeroA
Monster Energy Ultra Sugar Free Energy DrinkA
100 Plus Lemon Lime Isotonic DrinkE
Boost JarE
YOUC1000 Vitamin Lemon Health DrinkE
YOUC1000 Vitamin Orange Health DrinkE
Pinnacle Isotonic Drink—ZestE
Pinnacle Isotonic Drink—Zest 330mL × 24 PacksE
Naughty G Energy DrinkE
Lucozade Energy OrangeE
Lucozade Sport Isotonic Drink—LemonE
Monster Khaos Energy and Juice DrinkE
Monster Energy DrinkE
100 Plus Isotonic DrinkB
YOUC1000 Orange WaterE
YOUC1000 Lemon WaterE
Pocari Sweat ION Supply DrinkE
100 Plus Edge Isotonic DrinkE
Pocari Sweat ION Supply Drink (similar to 4891392000589)E
Noble Natural Elite Drink (only sell in carton)A
H-TWO-O Original Isotonic DrinkE
Fentimans Rose LemonadeE
Asahi Mitsuya Cider BottleA
Bickford & Sons Mixer Bitter LemonE
Bickford & Sons Mixer Ginger AleE
Bickford & Sons Mixer Soda WaterA
Bickford Premium Sparkling Apple Davidson PlumE
Bickford Premium Sparkling Red Grape with HibiscusE
Bickford Traditional Soda SarsaparillaE
Bickford Traditional Soda Creamy SodaE
Green Spot California Orange Carbonated DrinkE
Fanta StrawberryE
San Pellegrino Pompelmo Sparkling BeverageE
San Pellegrino Aranciata Rossa Sparkling BeverageE
A&W Sarsaparilla Root BeerE
A&W Cream Soda Carbonated Soft DrinkE
Bundaberg Blood OrangeE
Bundaberg Ginger BeerE
Bundaberg Root BeerE
Bundaberg Pink GrapefruitE
Dr PepperE
Dr Pepper RegE
Dr Pepper ZeroA
Virgils Flying Cauldron—Butterscotch BeerE
Lotte Chilsung Cider Soda Lemon-Lime Soda WaterE
Sprite Sparkling Lemon-Lime Less SugarE
Ribena Blackcurrant No Added SugarE
Ribena Blackcurrant and Apple Juice Cordial (Ribena Less Sweet Blackcurrant Juice Cordial)D
Robinsons Apple and Blackcurrant No Added SugarE
Robinsons Orange No Added SugarE
Rose Lime Juice CordialE
Belvoir Organic Elderflower CordialE
Belvoir Lime and Lemongrass CordialE
Belvoir Organic Ginger CordialE
Belvoir Raspberry and Rose CordialE
Nestea Lemon Blend Iced TeaE
Crystal Light Pink Lemonade Drink MixA
Crystal Light Lemonade Drink MixA
Crystal Light Decaf Iced Lemon Tea Drink MixA
Pai Chia Chen Mulberry Fruit VinegarA
O Health Organic Black Fungus Collagen DrinkE
Dragon Brand Bird’s Nest Beverage Reduced SugarA
Dragon Brand Bird’s Nest Beverage RegularA
TTL Anka Malz Drink Health DrinkA
Provitamil Oat DrinkE
MILO NUTRI G Chocolate Malt DrinkA
Pokka Premium Milk CoffeeE
Pokka Nanyang CoffeeE
NESCAFE Milk Coffee Mocha CanE
NESCAFE Milk Coffee Latte CanE
Mr. Brown Premium Iced CoffeeE
Pokka No Sugar Oolong TeaA
Pokka Premium Afternoon Red TeaE
Pokka Ice Peach TeaB
Marigold Less Sweet Chrysanthemum TeaB
Arizona Green Tea with Ginseng and HoneyC
Arizona Sweet TeaD
Arizona Raspberry TeaE
NutriWell Water Chestnut and Sugar CaneE
NutriWell Chrysanthemum with WolfberryE
Marigold Winter Melon TeaE
Marigold Longan Red Dates DrinkE
Oishi Honey LemonE
F&N Seasons Ice Lemon TeaA
F&N Seasons Ice Peach TeaA
Yeo’s Wintermelon TeaE
Snapple All Natural Peach TeaD
Sosro TehbotolE
Sosro Apple Fruit TeaE
MineShine Milk Tea DrinkA
Marigold Uji Cha Momo Green TeaA
First Brew Ginseng Chrysanthemum TeaB
First Brew Luo Han Chrysanthemum TeaB
T.Grand Assam Milk Tea GreenE
T.Grand Assam Milk Tea—OriginalE
Alain Milliat Carrot JuiceE
Alain Milliat Red Tomato JuiceE
Allswell Longan and Red Date DrinkE
Allswell Plum Juice DrinkE
Allswell Water Chestnut and Sugar Cane DrinkB
Aquacoco Coconut Water 330 mLE
Belle France LemonadeE
Beutelsbacher Beetroot JuiceE
Beutelsbacher Elderberry JuiceE
Beutelsbacher Lemon JuiceE
Beutelsbacher Mt. Cranberry JuiceE
Biotta Organic Beetroot JuiceE
Ocean Spray Cranberry LightE
Coca-Cola LightB
East Imperial Mombasa Ginger BeerE
Gatorade G2 Sport Drink Fruit PunchE
Gatorade G2 Sport Drink Lemon-LimeE
Gatorade G2 Sport Drink OrangeE
John Crabbie’s Cloudy Ginger BeerE
Leezen Organic Veggie Fruit Enzyme ConcentrateA
Pinnacle Isotonic Drink—TangerineE
Glaceau XXX Acai-Blueberry-Pomegranate Vitamin WaterA
Glaceau Essential Orange-Orange Vitamin WaterA
Glaceau Power-C Dragonfruit Vitamin WaterA
Glaceau Restore Fruit Punch Vitamin WaterA
Pinnacle Science Laboratories Muscle Builder High Protein Drink—Ice VanillaE
Pinnacle Science Laboratories Muscle Builder High Protein Drink—Ice Belgium ChocolateE
Pinnacle Science Laboratories Muscle Builder High Protein Drink—Ice CappuccinoE
Suntory Iyemon Special Green TeaA
Suntory Oolong TeaA
Arizona Arnold Palmer Lemonade and Iced TeaE
Reed’s Extra Ginger Brew BottleE
First Brew Prunella TeaE
First Brew Cane BarleyC
First Brew Water ChestnutB
Jia Jia Less Sugar Herbal TeaE
F&N Seasons Reduced Sugar Grass Jelly DrinkE
Reed’s Spiced Apple Brew BottleE
Schweppes Dry Ginger AleE
MILO Peng Nutri Up Chocolate Malt DrinkE
Yakult Assorted Cultured Milk E
Marigold 0% Fat Yoghurt Drink—StrawberryB
Meiji Bulgaria Low Fat Yoghurt DrinkE
Cowhead Full Cream Fresh MilkE
Meiji Strawberry Flavour MilkE
Lipton Yellow Label TeaA
Twinings Lemon and Ginger TeaA
Basilur Tea Earl Grey Loose Leaf TeaA
Twinings Lady Grey TeaA
MILO ACTIV-GO 3 In 1 PowderE
NESCAFE Gold Blend Decaf Instant Soluble Coffee 100 gA
NESCAFE Ipoh White Coffee Gao Siew Dai 15SA
Old Town 3-In-1 Classic White Coffee MixE
Owl Kopitiam Roast and Ground—Kopi C Kosong CoffeeE
Ceres Apple 100% JuiceE
F&N Rose Syrup CordialE
Lotte Chilsung Let’s Be Mocha LatteA
Oishi Kabusecha Japanese No Sugar Green TeaA
Heaven and Earth Jasmine Green TeaA
Pocari Sweat ION Supply DrinkE
Red Bull Energy DrinkB
Nescafe Milk Coffee Original Can—Carton (5 + 1)E
Starbucks Frappuccino Mocha Chilled Coffee DrinkE
Starbucks Frappuccino Chilled Coffee DrinkE
Georgia Cafe Au Lait Cold BrewA
Heaven and Earth Ayataka No Sugar Japanese Green TeaA
Pokka Jasmine Green TeaA
Pokka No Sugar Japanese Green TeaA
Pokka Premium Milk TeaE
Asian Story Chrysanthemum Tea (Less Sugar)B
Pokka Lemon TeaA
Yeo’s Chrysanthemum TeaB
Pokka Chrysanthemum White TeaB
Marigold Uji Cha—Yuzu Green TeaB
Yeo’s Chrysanthemum TeaB
NutriWell BarleyE
NutriWell Lemongrass with GingerE
Marigold 100% Apple JuiceD
CoCoWater Pure Coconut Water—CaseE
Coco Life Coconut Water—CaseB
UFC Refresh 100% Natural Coconut Water—CaseE
UFC Refresh 100% Natural Coconut Water—CaseE
Ceres Apple 100% JuiceE
Marigold Peel Fresh Juice Drink—Tropical MangoB
Sunkist Apple JuiceE
CoCoWater Pure Coconut WaterE
Sunkist Orange JuiceC
Marigold Peel Fresh Juice Drink—OrangeB
Florida’s Natural Ruby Red Grapefruit JuiceE
Marigold 100% Orange JuiceC
COCOLOCO Organic Coconut Water —ChilledB
Marigold Peel Fresh Juice Drink—Apple Aloe VeraB
Vita Coco Natural Coconut WaterB
Marigold Peel Fresh No Sugar Added Juice Drink—AppleB
Marigold Peel Fresh Select Juice Drink–YuzuB
Florida’s Natural LemonadeE
F&N Fruit Tree Fresh Apple—No Added SugarE
Ceres Cranberry and Kiwi 100% JuiceE
CoCoWater Pure Coconut WaterE
Wong Coco All Natural Coconut Juice with Pulp—CaseC
Marigold Peel Fresh Juice Drink—Pink GuavaB
CocoMax 100% Coconut Water—CaseB
Pepsi A
Schweppes Dry Ginger Ale Pet BottleE
Coca-Cola Regular Twin PackE
Coca-Cola Zero SugarA
Schweppes Tonic WaterE
Schweppes Soda WaterA
Pokka Sparklin Fuji Apple Juice—CaseE
Fanta OrangeE
Orangina Zero 6 PackE
F&N Club Soda Water—325 mLA
F&N Club Soda WaterA
F&N Cool Ice Cream Soda Sparkling Flavoured DrinkD
F&N Sarsi Sparkling Flavoured DrinkB
Yeo’s JusCool Sparkling Apple Juice DrinkC
Yeo’s JusCool Sparkling Peach Juice DrinkC
F&N Outrageous Orange Sparkling Flavoured DrinkD
F&N Cheeky Cherryade Sparkling Flavoured DrinkD
Yeo’s JusCool Sparkling Grape Juice DrinkC
Delamere UHT Whole Goats Milk—SampleE
Farmhouse Fresh UHT Milk—CaseA
Cowhead UHT Pure Milk—CaseE
Lactel UHT Semi-Skimmed MilkA
Marigold Full Cream UHT MilkB
NESTLE Just Milk—Full Cream MilkA
Pauls UHT Pure Milk—CaseE
Marigold Full Cream UHT Milk—CaseA
Dutch Lady UHT Full Cream MilkA
Marigold Low Fat UHT MilkB
F&N Farmhouse Low Fat UHT Milk—CaseE
Living Planet Low Fat Organic Dairy MilkE
Blue Diamond Almond Breeze UnsweetenedA
Marigold Full Cream UHT Milk—CaseA
Marigold Low Fat UHT Milk—CaseA
Pauls Zymil Lactose Free Full Cream MilkE
Pauls UHT Skimmed Milk—CaseE
Marigold UHT Australian MilkB
Anlene Movemax Gold Milk PowderE
Meadow Fresh Full Cream New Zealand Pure MilkE
Meiji Fresh MilkA
Farmhouse Fresh MilkE
Pura Fresh MilkE
Australia’s Own Organic Almond Milk Gluten Free UHTE
Australia’s Own Organic Unsweetened Almond MilkE
Pacific Natural Foods Organic Unsweetened Low-Fat Almond Non-Dairy BeverageA
Blue Diamond Original Unsweetened Almond BreezeA
Australia’s Own Almond and Coconut Milk UHTE
Oatly Organic Oat DrinkB
Pacific Natural Foods Original All Natural Hazelnut Non-Dairy BeverageE
Oatly Chocolate Oat DrinkB
Blue Diamond Barista Almond BreezeE
Rude Health Organic Gluten Free Almond DrinkE
Rude Health Ultimate Organic Almond DrinkA
Freedom Foods Rice Milk Regular—Gluten Free Lactose Free Soy Free UHTE
Blue Diamond Chocolate Almond BreezeE
Blue Diamond Chocolate Unsweetened Almond BreezeA
Blue Diamond Almond Breeze Vanilla FlavorA
Vitasoy Original Soya Bean DrinkB
Australia’s Own Unsweetened Soy MilkE
Pacific Natural Foods Soy Barista SeriesE
Pacific Organic Soy Unsweetened Original Non-Dairy BeverageA
Vitasoy Chocolate Flavored Soy DrinkB
Marigold Soya Bean DrinkB
Vitasoy HK Style Milk TeaE
Vitamilk Soy MilkA
V-Soy Multi Grain Soy MilkE
Marigold Soya Bean Drink—CaseB
Vitasoy Original Soya Bean DrinkB
Nutrisoy with Calcium and Reduced Sugar Soya MilkE
Yeo’s Soya Bean DrinkB
Freedom Foods Extra Milky Soy Milk Gluten Free UHTE
Asian Story Soya Bean MilkA
Soy Dream Organic Enriched Soy DrinkE
Unisoy Black Soy Milk PowderA
Health Paradise Instant Soya Milk Powder NSAE
Health Paradise Instant Black Soya Milk Powder NSAE
Marigold Chocolate UHT MilkB
Marigold Strawberry UHT MilkA
Anlene Concentrate—Vanilla Hi-Calcium MilkA
Dutch Lady UHT Chocolate MilkE
Pacific Natural Foods Chocolate All Natural Hazelnut Non-Dairy BeverageE
F&N Magnolia Smoo Chocolate Flavoured MilkA
Rude Health Organic Gluten Free Coconut DrinkE
Marigold Strawberry UHT Milk—CaseA
Ensure Vanilla Milk Powder FREE Sports BagA
F&N Magnolia Smoo Vanilla Flavoured MilkA
F&N Magnolia Smoo Strawberry Flavoured MilkA
Greenfields Chocomalt MilkE
Marigold HL Milk—ChocolateA
Meiji Melon Flavored MilkE
Marigold HL Milk—StrawberryA
Meiji Chocolate Flavour MilkE
Marigold HL Milk—BananaA
Marigold HL Milk—ChocolateA
Meiji Strawberry Flavour MilkE
Meiji Coffee Flavour MilkE
Elle & Vire Yaggo Milk Drink—StrawberryE
MILO Can Original (5 + 1)—CaseE
MILO Peng Nutri Up Chocolate Malt Drink BottleE
MILO UHT Chocolate Malt Packet Drink CaseE
MILO UHT Chocolate Malt Packet DrinkE
MILO UHT Chocolate Malt Packet Drink (5 + 1) CaseE
MILO Nutri G Chocolate Malt DrinkA
Yakult Probiotic Cultured Milk Drink—Light Made In UKE
VITAGEN Less Sugar Cultured Milk Banded Twin Pack (Assorted)E
Meiji Paigen Culture Milk Original FlavourE
Meiji Paigen Low Sugar Cultured MilkE
Meiji Paigen Culture Milk Blueberry FlavourE
Meiji Paigen Culture Milk Orange FlavourE
Meiji Paigen Strawberry Cultured MilkE
Nomadic Mango Lassi Exotic Yoghurt DrinkA
Nomadic Apple and Banana Oats and Yoghurt DrinkA
Emmi Swiss Yogurt Drink StrawberryE
Marigold 0% Fat Yoghurt Drink—Mixed BerriesB
Magnolia Strawberry Yoghurt DrinkE
Marigold 0% Fat Yoghurt Drink—MangoB
Magnolia Mango Yoghurt DrinkE
Marigold 0% Fat Yoghurt Drink - Fruit and Vegetables with WheatgrassE
Nestle Bliss Plus Apple Cranberry Pomegranate Yoghurt DrinkE
Nestle Bliss Plus Apple Passion Fruit Lemon Yoghurt DrinkE
Sunquick Orange Squash ConcentrateA
CJ Vinegar Drink PomegranateE
Monin Grenadine SyrupA
Teisseire Grenadine SyrupA
CJ Vinegar Drink BlueberryE
Teisseire Green Mint SyrupA
Teisseire Grenadine Syrup Value SizeE
Monin Lychee SyrupA
Teisseire Lemon No Added Sugar Syrup with SteviaE
Teisseire Green Mint Syrup Value SizeE
Gold Kili Instant Honey Chrysanthemum DrinkE
Ribena BlackcurrantE
Bottlegreen Elderflower CordialE
Rose Brand Rose Flavour SyrupA
Ocean Spray Cranberry Cocktail JuiceE
Bickford Diet Lime CordialE
Bottlegreen Ginger and LemongrassE
V8 Original Bloody Mary MixE
Bickford Lemon Barley CordialE
Bickford Lime Juice CordialE
Bickford Diet Lemon CordialE
CJ Vinegar Drink Lemon and CitronE
Bickford Ginger Beer CordialE
PULCO Citron-Lemon No Sugar Added Concentrates CordialE
Pulco Orange CordialE
Bickford Lemon Lime CordialE
Manna Health MixE
Red Bull Energy Drink Sugar FreeB
Red Bull Energy Tropical EditionA
Sultan Power Drink 250 mLE
Sultan Cola Classic 250 mLA
Aquarius Isotonic DrinkB
Barr-Irn Bru Sugar FreeA
Barr-Irn Bru E
Lucozade Energy Pink LemonadeE
Barr Irn-BruE
Twinings Finest Ceylon Tea 25’sA
Twinings Lemon and Ginger Gift Pack with Lotus BiscuitA
Super 3-in-1 Original Milk TeaE
Twinings Pure Peppermint TeaA
PG Tips 40S Pyramid TeabagsE
OSK Japanese Green Tea with Brown RiceA
Lipton Teh Tarik Milk Tea LatteE
Dilmah Camomile TeaA
Twinings English Breakfast TeaA
Teapigs Chamomile Flowers 50 Per PackA
Twinings Camomile TeaA
Premium Matcha Green TeaA
Twinings Earl Grey TeaA
Dilmah English Breakfast TeaA
Twinings Camomile and Honey TeaA
Traditional Medicinals Organic Mother’s Milk TeaA
Clipper Fairtrade Organic English Breakfast TeaA
Dilmah Earl Grey TeaA
Lipton English Breakfast Black TeaA
NESCAFE Gold BLEND 3 in 1 15S Instant CoffeeA
Gold Roast Kopi-O Ground Coffee with SugarB
Cafe21 Low Fat 2 In1 Instant CoffeemixA
NESCAFE Original 3 In 1 Instant CoffeeA
Super Essenso MicroGround Coffee—2 In 1 Coffee and CreamerE
Super Essenso MicroGround Black (Columbian) CoffeeA
NESCAFE 25%-Percent Less Sugar Instant CoffeeE
NESCAFE Dolce Gusto Cafe Au Lait Capsules 16SA
Moccona Continental Gold CoffeeA
NESCAFE Dolce Gusto Grande Intenso Capsules 16SA
NESCAFE Dolce Gusto Cappuccino Capsules 8S/8SD
NESCAFE Zero Sugar Added 2 In 1 Instant Coffee 35SA
NESCAFE CLASSIC Jar Instant Soluble Coffee 200 gA
NESCAFE Dolce Gusto Lungo Capsules 16SA
Cafedirect Americano Nespresso Compatible CapsulesA
Old Town 3-In-1 Less SugarE
NESCAFE Gold BLEND 3 in 1 15S Instant CoffeeA
Illy Espresso Medium Roast Ground CoffeeA
Cafe21 2 in 1 Instant CoffeemixA
NESCAFE Singapore White Coffee Gao Siew Dai Hazelnut 15SA
NESCAFE Kopi-O Instant CoffeeA
Cafedirect Fairtrade Sao Tome 3-in-1 Drinking ChocolateE
Cafedirect Fairtrade San Cristobal 2-in-1 Drinking ChocolateE
MILO ACTIV-GO Regular Powder Refill PackE
MILO Australian Recipe Powder RefillE
MILO ACTIV-GO Regular Powder TinE
MILO Australian Recipe Powder TinE
MILO ACTIV-GO Regular Powder Refill PackE
Hershey’s Natural Unsweetened Cocoa PowderA
MILO 2 In 1 ACTIV-GO Calcium Plus PowderE
NESTUM All Family Cereal OriginalE
MILO Ice Energy Refill PackE
Horlicks OriginalE
Green and Black’S Organic Fairtrade Cocoa PowderA
Cadbury Fairtrade Drinking Hot ChocolateE
NESTLE OMEGA Plus ActiCol Milk with OatsE
Van Houten Cocoa PowderA
Ovaltine Power 10 Chocolate Flavour Malt DrinkE
Swiss Miss Dark Chocolate Sensation Hot Cocoa MixE
Caotina Original Chocolate DrinkE
Swiss Miss Cocoa Mix Marshmallow MadnessE
Schweppes Soda Water—CaseA
F&N Club Soda Water—CaseA
A&W Cream Soda—CaseE
Lotte Chilsung Milkis Yogurt Soda Carbonated Soft DrinksE
Red Bull Energy DrinkB
Ice Cool Booster Energy Drink (Non-Carbonated) E
100 Plus Isotonic Drink—CaseB
100 Plus Isotonic DrinkB
Pocari Sweat ION Supply Drink—CaseE
H-TWO-O Original Isotonic Drink—CaseA
H-TWO-O Original Isotonic DrinkA
Pai Chia Chen RTD Apple VinegarE
Pai Chia Chen RTD Plum VinegarE
Nescafe Milk Coffee Mocha Can—Carton (5 + 1)E
Lotte Chilsung Let’s Be CoffeeE
Kiriman Blend No Sugar Ice CoffeeA
Suntory Boss Black CoffeeE
Nescafe Milk Coffee Latte Can—Carton (5 + 1)E
Pokka Jasmine Green Tea Case (6000 mL)A
Marigold Less Sweet Chrysanthemum Tea—CaseB
F&N Seasons Ice Lemon Tea—CaseE
Pokka Jasmine Green Tea Case (7920 mL)A
Yeo’s Chrysanthemum Tea—CaseB
Heaven and Earth Ayataka No Sugar Japanese Green Tea—CaseA
Pokka Lemon Tea CaseE
Lotte Chilsung Corn Silk TeaA
Marigold Less Sweet Lemon BarleyB
NESTUM 3 In 1 Cereal Drink OriginalE
MILO ACTIV-GO Regular Powder Refill Pack (900 G + 100 G)E
Twinings Jasmine Green TeaA
Green Pot Tea Matcha Green Tea PowderA
Twinings English Breakfast Tea 25’SA
Clipper Organic Infusion Sleep Easy TeaA
Bickford Lemon Juice CordialE
Bickford Blackcurrant CordialE
Teisseire Lemon SyrupE
Belle France Grenadine CordialE
Pulco Lemon CordialE
Florida’s Natural Apple JuiceE
Marigold Apple Juice Drink (1500 mL)C
Marigold 100% Apple Grape JuiceD
Cawston Press Cloudy Apple JuiceB
Marigold Apple 100% JuiceD
F&N Fruit Tree Fresh Apple and Aloe Vera JuiceE
Knudsen Organic Apple JuiceE
Marigold Peel Fresh No Sugar Added Juice Drink—Cranberry and AppleB
Marigold 100% Apple Juice—CaseD
Ceres Apple 100% Juice—CaseE
Marigold Apple Juice Drink (6000mL)C
Zico Coconut WaterB
Ice Cool Pure Coconut WaterB
Nectar PeachA
Sapporo Nectar Sour (1400 mL)A
Sapporo Nectar Sour (8400 mL)A
Gina Mango NectarE
7D Mango Nectar DrinkE
HiPP Organic Plum Nectar JuiceE
Alain Milliat Apricot NectarE
Agrilife Coconut Flower Nectar (270 g)E
Agrilife Coconut Flower Nectar (470 g)E
Alain Milliat White Peach NectarE
The Coconut Company Organic Coconut Nectar SugarA
Alain Milliat Strawberry NectarE
Meiji Bulgaria Royal Fuji Apple Yoghurt DrinkE
Meiji Bulgaria Wild Berry Yoghurt DrinkE
Marigold 0% Fat Yoghurt Drink—NaturalB
Danone Actimel Multifruit Yoghurt DrinkE
Chobani Strawberry Banana Low-Fat Greek Yoghurt DrinkE
Chobani Mixed Berries Low-Fat Greek Yoghurt DrinkE
Danone Actimel Citrus and Coconut Yoghurt DrinkE
Chobani Mango Low-Fat Greek Yoghurt DrinkE
Meiji Bulgaria Golden Honey Yoghurt DrinkE
J3 Cold Pressed Juice No Sugar Homemade YogurtA
Nestle Bliss Plus Apple Prune Red Beet Yoghurt DrinkE
J3 Cold Pressed Juice Y4 Honeydew Yogurt DrinkA
Danone Actimel Blueberry Yoghurt DrinkE
J3 Cold Pressed Juice Y2 Red Dragon Fruit Yogurt DrinkA
J3 Cold Pressed Juice Y1 Beetroot Yogurt DrinkA
J3 Cold Pressed Juice Y3 Banana Yogurt DrinkA
Chobani Pina Colada Low-Fat Greek Yoghurt DrinkE
Magnolia Fresh Chocolate MilkB
Vitasoy Soy Milky LiteB
Vitasoy Soy Milky ChocolateB
Marigold Powerbeans Fresh Soya Milk—AlmondB
Marusan Soybean Milk with MatchaA
Marusan Soybean Milk OriginalA
Marusan Soybean Milk Sesame Flavoured 50-Percentage Reduced CaloriesA
Marusan Soybean Milk 45-Percentage Reduced CaloriesA
Organic Valley Pasteurised Milk Whole Homo Milk QuartB
Pauls Organic Full Cream Milk (Unhomogenised)E
Wild Harvest Organic Whole MilkE
Stremicks Heritage Organic Milk Vitamin DE
A2 Whole Fresh MilkE
Delamere Goats Milk Whole Fresh PasteurizedE
Marigold HL Milk—PlainA
Meiji Skimmed MilkE
Meiji 4.3 Deluxe MilkC
Pauls Low Fat MilkE
Cowhead Low Fat Fresh MilkE
Hsiang Yuan Black Sesame PowderA
Hsiang Yuan Lotus Root and Sesame MixE
Manna Health Mix (200 g)E
True Citrus True Lemon 100 Packets Vitamin DrinksA
True Citrus True Orange 100 Packets Vitamin DrinksA
Hsiang Yuan Oats and Brown Rice Soybean PowderE
Hsiang Yuan Sweet Potato and Brown Rice MixE
Xongdur Sesame Cereal Drink (Sugar Free)—Pack of 10E
GRB Badam Drink MixA
Honsei Instant Ice Limeade JuiceE
Honsei Insant Ice Pineapple JuiceE
Honsei Instant Ice Apple JuiceE
Honsei Instant Ice Mango JuiceE
Honsei Instant Ice Orange JuiceE
Viberi Blackcurrant PowderE
Table A10. Comparison between lowest (least healthy) and highest (healthiest) quartile of shopping baskets by weighted average Nutri-Score value.
Table A10. Comparison between lowest (least healthy) and highest (healthiest) quartile of shopping baskets by weighted average Nutri-Score value.
NutrientQuartileMeanCIMean Diff p-Value
Weighted Average NS Lowest-2.17 2.1–2.24 2.420 *
Highest-4.59 4.54–4.64
AHEI Lowest-41.97 40.76–43.19 2.040.01 *
Highest-44.01 42.91–45.11
Sugar(g) Lowest-528.88 460.96–596.80 −275.380 *
Highest-253.50 200.59–306.42
kcal Lowest-14828.57 13089.05–16568.1 −5260.420 *
Highest-9568.15 7716.52–11419.78
Totalfat(g) Lowest-867.11 720.85–1013.38 −612.700 *
Highest-254.41 217.7–291.12
Saturatedfat(g) Lowest-242.60 206.94–278.26 −160.070 *
Highest-82.53 69.45–95.60
Sodium(mg)Lowest-13969.45 10729.47–17209.44 −8472.910 *
Highest-5496.54 4667.57–6325.51
Dietaryfiber(g) Lowest-76.98 66.10–87.87 22.300.04 *
Highest-99.28 81.13–117.42
Protein(g)Lowest-386.22 28–491.44 20.280.73
Highest-406.50 357.74–455.26
* p < 0.05.


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Figure 1. Front-of-pack labels under consideration in Singapore.
Figure 1. Front-of-pack labels under consideration in Singapore.
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Figure 2. Example of the storefront with a sample of the Multiple Traffic Light and Nutri-Score labels on the same product as it appears in each condition.
Figure 2. Example of the storefront with a sample of the Multiple Traffic Light and Nutri-Score labels on the same product as it appears in each condition.
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Figure 3. CONSORT flow diagram for participant recruitment and randomization.
Figure 3. CONSORT flow diagram for participant recruitment and randomization.
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Table 1. Descriptive statistics.
Table 1. Descriptive statistics.
VariableAnalysis Sample
(n = 147)
Drop-Out Sample
(n = 21)
Age (years)34.69
Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2)23.31
Female (%)68.71
Ethnicity (% Chinese)93.20
University education and above (%)67.01
Household income $10,000/month and above (%)32.65
Table 2. Dietary characteristics of food purchases in the Control condition (N = 147).
Table 2. Dietary characteristics of food purchases in the Control condition (N = 147).
OutcomeUnadjusted Mean95% CI
Modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) Score41.81(40.71, 42.92)
Average Nutri-Score 3.41(3.33. 3.50)
Total energy (kcals) (in 1000s) 9.72(8.40, 11.04)
Total sugar (g) (in 1000s)2.68(2.25, 3.10)
Total fat (g) (in 1000s) 4.41(3.38, 5.43)
Total saturated fat (g) (in 1000s) 1.57(1.02, 2.12)
Total sodium (mg) (in 1000s)108.74(80.94, 136.53)
Total fiber (g) (in 1000s)0.92(0.73, 1.11)
Total protein (g) (in 1000s)3.16(2.59, 3.73)
Mean calories per serving (kcal/serving)127.74(117.60, 137.87)
Mean sugar per serving (g/serving)4.57(3.80, 5.35)
Mean fat per serving (g/serving)5.21(4.59, 5.83)
Mean saturated fat per serving (g/serving)1.83(1.58, 2.08)
Mean sodium per serving (mg/serving)144.49(116.95, 172.03)
Mean fiber per serving (g/serving)1.19(1.01, 1.37)
Mean protein per serving (g/serving)4.66(4.03, 5.28)
Total spend ($)53.86(52.41, 55.31)
Calorie per dollar (kcal/$)249.63(231.20, 268.05)
Table 3. Estimated effects of Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL) and Nutri-Score labels (n = 147, N = 292).
Table 3. Estimated effects of Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL) and Nutri-Score labels (n = 147, N = 292).
OutcomeAHEI-2010Average Nutri-Score
α (MTL vs Control)1.16 *0.02
β N S   (incremental effect of NS over MTL)−0.070.31 **
( α +   β A ) (NS vs Control)1.09*0.33 **
* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.

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Finkelstein, E.A.; Ang, F.J.L.; Doble, B.; Wong, W.H.M.; van Dam, R.M. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Relative Effectiveness of the Multiple Traffic Light and Nutri-Score Front of Package Nutrition Labels. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2236.

AMA Style

Finkelstein EA, Ang FJL, Doble B, Wong WHM, van Dam RM. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Relative Effectiveness of the Multiple Traffic Light and Nutri-Score Front of Package Nutrition Labels. Nutrients. 2019; 11(9):2236.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Finkelstein, Eric A., Felicia Jia Ler Ang, Brett Doble, Wei Han Melvin Wong, and Rob M. van Dam. 2019. "A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Relative Effectiveness of the Multiple Traffic Light and Nutri-Score Front of Package Nutrition Labels" Nutrients 11, no. 9: 2236.

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